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  • 1. Brånhult, Anna
    et al.
    Nord, Jenny
    Persson, Erik
    Emanuelsson, Urban
    Centrum för biologisk mångfald.
    Kartanalys för Sydsveriges agrara landskap: metodstudie om den genetiska mångfalden och det genetiska kulturarvet i dagens landskap / rapport från projektet Genetisk variation som kulturarv i Sydsveriges agrara landskap (GRAAL)2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    “Genetic variation as cultural heritage of the agricultural landscape in southern Sweden” (GRAAL) is a project which has recently been initiated and is carried out in cooperation by the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU); Swedish Biodiversity Centre (CBM) and Nordic Genetic Resource Center (NordGen). The project´s objective is to study the genetic diversity and propose conservation measures relating to the genetic heritage of trees and shrubs in the landscape. The project thus intends to identify and assess the genetic variety of coppiced threes in the Scanian cultural landscape. The project also intends, as part of this work, to develop an interdisciplinary and cross-sectorial approach where modern genetic analysis interact with new archaeological and historical methods and landscape analysis. This report presents a historical study of maps which aims to identify areas where the old coppiced trees with large sockets can be found.

  • 2. Callaghan, Terry V.
    et al.
    Tweedie, Craig E.
    Akerman, Jonas
    Andrews, Christopher
    Bergstedt, Johan
    Butler, Malcolm G.
    Christensen, Torben R.
    Cooley, Dorothy
    Dahlberg, Ulrika
    Danby, Ryan K.
    Daniels, Fred J. A.
    de Molenaar, Johannes G.
    Dick, Jan
    Mortensen, Christian Ebbe
    Ebert-May, Diane
    Emanuelsson, Urban
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Uppsala.
    Eriksson, Hakan
    Hedenas, Henrik
    Henry, Greg. H. R.
    Hik, David S.
    Hobbie, John E.
    Jantze, Elin J.
    Jaspers, Cornelia
    Johansson, Cecilia
    Johansson, Margareta
    Johnson, David R.
    Johnstone, Jill F.
    Jonasson, Christer
    Kennedy, Catherine
    Kenney, Alice J.
    Keuper, Frida
    Koh, Saewan
    Krebs, Charles J.
    Lantuit, Hugues
    Lara, Mark J.
    Lin, David
    Lougheed, Vanessa L.
    Madsen, Jesper
    Matveyeva, Nadya
    McEwen, Daniel C.
    Myers-Smith, Isla H.
    Narozhniy, Yuriy K.
    Olsson, Håkan
    Pohjola, Veijo A.
    Price, Larry W.
    Riget, Frank
    Rundqvist, Sara
    Sandstroem, Anneli
    Tamstorf, Mikkel
    Van Bogaert, Rik
    Villarreal, Sandra
    Webber, Patrick J.
    Zemtsov, Valeriy A.
    Multi-Decadal Changes in Tundra Environments and Ecosystems: Synthesis of the International Polar Year-Back to the Future Project (IPY-BTF)2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 705-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the responses of tundra systems to global change has global implications. Most tundra regions lack sustained environmental monitoring and one of the only ways to document multi-decadal change is to resample historic research sites. The International Polar Year (IPY) provided a unique opportunity for such research through the Back to the Future (BTF) project (IPY project #512). This article synthesizes the results from 13 papers within this Ambio Special Issue. Abiotic changes include glacial recession in the Altai Mountains, Russia; increased snow depth and hardness, permafrost warming, and increased growing season length in sub-arctic Sweden; drying of ponds in Greenland; increased nutrient availability in Alaskan tundra ponds, and warming at most locations studied. Biotic changes ranged from relatively minor plant community change at two sites in Greenland to moderate change in the Yukon, and to dramatic increases in shrub and tree density on Herschel Island, and in sub-arctic Sweden. The population of geese tripled at one site in northeast Greenland where biomass in non-grazed plots doubled. A model parameterized using results from a BTF study forecasts substantial declines in all snowbeds and increases in shrub tundra on Niwot Ridge, Colorado over the next century. In general, results support and provide improved capacities for validating experimental manipulation, remote sensing, and modeling studies.

  • 3. Carlsson, Georg
    et al.
    Svensson, Sven-Erik
    Emanuelsson, Urban
    Centrum för biologisk mångfald.
    Alternativa skötselmetoder för ängs- och betesmarker och användning av skördat växtmaterial2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Meadows and pastures – semi-natural grasslands – provide unique habitats and are extremely valuable for biological diversity. It is currently very challenging to maintain meadows and pastures of high quality in Sweden, mainly owing to the decreasing number of grazing animals and the decreasing demand of grasslands for animal feed production. This report summarises existing information on potential new management methods for Swedish meadow and pasture land and how harvested material can be used as a resource in society. The report is based on data obtained from scientific and popular literature, the authors’ experiences within the area and information originating from ongoing technological development work and practical applications. The challenges for conserving Swedish meadows and pastures consist mainly of identifying rational practices for managing grazing animals and for efficient collection and use of biomass. We identified the following management methods and areas of application as being particularly interesting for further analysis: 1. Flexible systems such as extensive grazing varied systems with different management methods in different years (rotation pattern), a combination of different methods such as machine cutting and burning, or mowing in combination with grazing. 2. Machine-friendly management of silvopasture and tree-meadow agroforestry systems – a combination of meadow vegetation and trees for biological diversity, carbon sequestration and production of biomass (both meadow and tree biomass). 3. Small-scale, case-specific technology – mowing and removal of biomass from small and irregular fields through a combination of motorised manual and rational solutions. This will require development of methods for cutting, collection and transport. 4. Coordination and development of systems for using meadow biomass for energy production. Use of meadow biomass as a biogas substrate provides particularly great environmental advantages and permits efficient use of resources by supplying energy and a nutrient-rich residue (biodigestate) while maintaining traditional meadows. A number of new studies show little or no differences when mowing is carried out with slicing or clipping implements (scythe and blade mowing machines) compared with rotating implements (rotary flail machines or strimmers). This finding opens up for mechanical management of meadows that would otherwise risk being abandoned.

  • 4.
    Danell, Kjell
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Umeå.
    Bergström, Roger
    Skogforsk, Uppsala.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Emanuelsson, Urban
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Alnarp.
    Christiernsson, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Viltet2010In: Vilt, människa, samhälle / [ed] Danell, Kjell, Bergström, Roger, Stockholm: Liber , 2010, p. 17-31Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Mårtensson, Lennart
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Emanuelsson, Urban
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Mattiasson, Bo
    Indienz AB.
    Biomass from wetlands and other valuable conservation areas as substrate for industrial biotechnology2016In: The Ninth International Conference on the Establishment of Cooperation between Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region, and the World, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass  from  wetlands  has  historically  been  an  important  resource,  but  today  it  is  difficult  to  take advantage  of  this  biomass,  besides  being  used  as  feed  on  the  farm.  A  very  important  goal  is  to  find rational  and  economical  viable  way  to  make  biogas  from  wetland  biomass,  including  biomass  from other   conservation   worthy   areas   of   high   biodiversity,   such   as   roadsides   harvested   frequently. Moreover,  the  residues  from  biogas  process  used  as  bio-fertilizer  to  the  fields,  so  that  nitrogen  and phosphorus is returned to the farm land. The biomass can be used for the production of biogas or for extracting valuable chemicals in bio refineries. These valuable chemicals may be potentially useful for making future plastic materials, i.e. bio plastics. Major focus will be on biogas technology, and above all, methods for the pretreatment of recalcitrant substrates such as biomass containing high levels of lignocelluloses, i.e., to make the material available to the biogas-producing bacteria. The work is based on  an  involvement  of  research  in  the  areas  of  environmental  engineering  and  landscape  science  and includes studies of biodiversity and water treatment function of the landscape.  Finally, it is important to stress that mowing of wet meadows mostly will result in a better capacity of such meadows to retain nutrients from water passing through them. Wetland with wet meadows and similar vegetation types will be more efficient in cleaning water and thereby fight eutrophication in the recipient. Summing up, the  main  advantages  using  harvest  hay  (mowing)  from  wet  meadows  and  roadside  meadows  as substrate for biotechnical industry are:

    •Raw material for bio plastics

    •Cheap and easy handled fertilizers to agriculture

    •Important for biodiversity

    •Better function of wetlands as nutrient traps fighting eutrophication of the sea

  • 6. Rundqvist, Sara
    et al.
    Hedenas, Henrik
    Sandstrom, Anneli
    Emanuelsson, Urban
    Swedish Biodiversity Center, Uppsala.
    Eriksson, Håkan
    Jonasson, Christer
    Callaghan, Terry V.
    Tree and Shrub Expansion Over the Past 34 Years at the Tree-Line Near Abisko, Sweden2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 683-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shrubs and trees are expected to expand in the sub-Arctic due to global warming. Our study was conducted in Abisko, sub-arctic Sweden. We recorded the change in coverage of shrub and tree species over a 32– to 34-year period, in three 50 × 50 m plots; in the alpine-tree-line ecotone. The cover of shrubs and trees (<3.5 cm diameter at breast height) were estimated during 2009–2010 and compared with historical documentation from 1976 to 1977. Similarly, all tree stems (≥3.5 cm) were noted and positions determined. There has been a substantial increase of cover of shrubs and trees, particularly dwarf birch (Betula nana), and mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), and an establishment of aspen (Populus tremula). The other species willows (Salix spp.), juniper (Juniperus communis), and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) revealed inconsistent changes among the plots. Although this study was unable to identify the causes for the change in shrubs and small trees, they are consistent with anticipated changes due to climate change and reduced herbivory.

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