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  • 1.
    Anderson, Rachele
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Sandsten, Maria
    Lund University.
    Effects of age, BMI, anxiety and stress on the parameters of a stochastic model for heart rate variability including respiratory information2018In: Proceedings of the 11th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, SCITEPRESS , 2018, Vol. 4, p. 17-25Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have focused on investigating different factors that may affect heart rate variability (HRV),pointing especially to the effects of age, gender and stress level. Other findings raise the importance of consid- ering the respiratory frequency in the analysis of HRV signals. In this study, we evaluate the effect of several covariates on the parameters of a stochastic model for HRV. The data was recorded from 47 test participants, whose breathing was controlled by following a metronome with increasing frequency. This setup allows for a controlled acquisition of respiratory related HRV data covering the frequency range in which adults breathe in different everyday situations. A stochastic model, known as Locally Stationary Chirp Process, accounts for the respiratory signal information and models the HRV data. The model parameters are estimated with a novel inference method based on the separability features possessed by the process covariance function. Least square regression analysis using several available covariates is used to investigate the correlation with the stochastic model parameters. The results show statistically significant correlation of the model parameterswith age, BMI, State and Trait Anxiety as well as stress level.

  • 2.
    Bertills, Karin
    et al.
    Jönkoping University.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönkoping University.
    Dahlstrom, Orjan
    Linköping University.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Relationships between physical education (PE) teaching and student self-efficacy, aptitude to participate in PE and functional skills: with a special focus on students with disabilities2018In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 387-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Students with disability show an increasing incidence of school failure. Quality teaching and appropriate support may foster high self-efficacy, a predictive factor for successful school outcomes. Physical Education (PE) can provide students with a context in which self-efficacy and participation are promoted leading to improved academic achievement. The transition into secondary school can be challenging for many students with increased educational demands, developmental changes and individual social identification coinciding. A disability may add to the challenge of success.Methods: Three groups of students, aged 13 years and enrolled in Swedish mainstream schools were targeted (n=439). Groups included students with 1.A diagnosed disability, 2.Low grades in PE (D-F) and 3.High grades (A-C) in PE. Questionnaires were collected and analyzed from 30/439 students with a diagnosed disability (physical, neuro-developmental and intellectual) from 26 classes, their classmates and their PE-teachers (n=25). Relationships between student self-reports and PE-teachers' self-ratings were investigated. Also examined was the potential to which students' functional skills could predict elevated general school self-efficacy, PE specific self-efficacy and aptitude to participate in PE. Results were compared with the total sample and between the three target groups (n=121).Results: For students with disabilities, better self-rated teaching skills were related to lower student perceived general school self-efficacy, PE specific self-efficacy and aptitude to participate in PE. The impact of classroom climate in PE was more obvious among students with disabilities. Perceived functional skills were associated with elevated general school self-efficacy, PE specific self-efficacy and aptitude to participate in PE. Better socio-cognitive functional skills had an overall positive effect on all outcomes. Students with disabilities reported results similar to the total sample, the D-F group scored lower and the A-C group higher than the total sample and the disability group. Elevated self-efficacy in PE is six times less probable in students with disabilities, compared to the A-C group.Conclusions: Our findings that better teacher planning and grading skills, are detrimental to students disadvantaged by disability is contradictive. Improving the establishment and communication of adapted learning standards at the transition to secondary school is a crucial and a predictive factor for promoting positive school experiences for students with disability. Students with disabilities need to be assured that the intended learning outcomes can be reached by doing activities differently than their typically functioning peers. Consideration of class composition is suggested as a means of promoting a positive learning climate, which would particularly benefit students with disabilities. Allocation of resources to support student socio-cognitive skills would improve experiences for the D-F group and likely promote a positive learning environment.

  • 3.
    Davidson, Per
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Ingegerd
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Johansson, Mikael
    Lund University.
    A more generalized fear response after a daytime nap2018In: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, ISSN 1074-7427, E-ISSN 1095-9564, Vol. 151, p. 18-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine how a daytime nap affected the consolidation of fear learning. Participants first underwent fear conditioning during which they were exposed to a large and a small circle. One of these was repeatedly paired with an electric shock (making it the CS+), whereas the other circle was never paired with the shock (the CS-). After a delay interval containing either a nap or wake, participants again viewed the CS+ and the CS- intermixed with eight novel circles that varied in size between the two stimuli seen before, as well as a blue triangle that served as a novel stimulus without prior fear relevance. We examined both fear retention (the difference between the CS+ and the CS-) as well as fear generalization (responses to the novel stimuli based on their similarity to the original CS+). Contrary to previous studies, results from the participants who acquired a differentiated fear response during the acquisition phase revealed that the wake group showed significantly larger skin conductance responses to the CS+ compared to the CS-, whereas no such difference was present in the sleep group. These results were not driven by differences in explicit memory or by differences in general reactivity. Analyzing responses to the novel stimuli revealed a tendency towards a more generalized response in the sleep group, with no differences between the CS+ and any other stimulus, whereas the wake group showed increased responses to the stimuli depending on their similarity to the original CS+. This effect was however only present when controlling for baseline differences in worry.

  • 4.
    Emig, Yvonne
    et al.
    Tyskland.
    Jørgensen, Øyvind
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Studying gay and straight males' implicit gender attitudes to understand previously found gender differences in implicit in-group bias2017In: Current Research in Social Psychology, ISSN 1088-7423, E-ISSN 1088-7423, Vol. 25, p. 45-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that men overall, in contrast to women, do not show a typical implicit in-group preference. One proposed explanation is greater interest in sex among males. If so, then gay males should show an implicit preference for males whereas straight males should prefer females. We tested this hypothesis using a modified version of the Brief Implicit Association Test on 38 gay and 65 straight males. The hypothesis was supported. As the majority of participants in previous studies on implicit gender attitudes are expected to be straight, this could contribute to the low implicit in-group bias among males.

  • 5.
    Karlsson, Kristoffer
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Sambandet mellan tre dimensioner av meningsfullt liv och vissa psykologiska utfall2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Meningsfullt liv är idag ett etablerat forskningsämne inom psykologin. Nyligen har det uppstått viss konsensus om att begreppet meningsfullt liv är multidimensionellt och främst består av dimensionerna förståelse (en slags känsla av sammanhang), syfte (innehav av viktiga livsmål) och betydelse (upplevelsen att ens existens är av värde). Den aktuella studien hade som syfte att undersöka vilka samband som finns mellan dessa dimensioner och variablerna tacksamhet, självbildsklarhet, optimism, ensamhet och livstillfredsställelse. Tidigare forskning har funnit signifikanta samband, men då har främst endimensionella meningstest använts. En hypotes i den aktuella studien var att det skulle uppstå signifikanta samband även med användande av ett multidimensionellt mätinstrument bestående av nyss nämnda tre dimensioner. En annan hypotes var att studien vid multipla regressionsanalyser skulle upptäcka minst något fall där en meningsdimension är särskilt framträdande när det gäller att predicera ett visst utfall. Hypoteserna testades genom en enkätundersökning som främst hade universitetsstudenter som deltagare. Sammanlagt deltog 191 personer i studien. Den första hypotesen fick entydigt stöd. Angående den andra hypotesen uppstod fall där inte alla tre meningsdimensioner samtidigt unikt kunde predicera ett visst utfall. När utfallet var ensamhet visade det sig att alla tre meningsdimensioner kunde predicera detta utfall ungefär likvärdigt. Men när utfallet var exempelvis självbildsklarhet visade det sig att det främst var förståelse som kunde predicera detta utfall och i viss mån betydelse, men däremot inte syfte. Uppsatsens slutsats är därmed att det verkar finnas åtminstone vissa fall då det kan vara relevant att göra åtskillnad mellan olika meningsdimensioner och inte mäta begreppet meningsfullt liv enbart endimensionellt.

  • 6.
    Lygnegård, Frida
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University.
    Factors associated with participation and change over time in domestic life, peer relations and school for adolescents with and without self-reported neurodevelopmental disorders: a follow-up prospective study2018In: Frontiers in Education Conference, Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1539-4565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though participation in everyday events is a vital part in the fulfilment of human rights, adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders often face participation restrictions in every-day activities. Few studies have investigated the predictors for participation in different contexts, over time and in relation to the same outcome variables. The objective of the current study was therefore to investigate predictors of change in participation operationalized as frequency of attendance and perceived importance in domestic life activities, peer related activities, and school activities as experienced by adolescents with and without self-reported neurodevelopmental disorders. Method: Associations with participation, both in terms of frequency and perceived importance, in domestic life, peer relations, and the school setting were investigated using six independent variables measuring experience of time and self, sex, age, stress, support from siblings, and atmosphere in family at two-time (with approximately 2 years in between). The sample consisted of adolescents with and without self-reported neurodevelopmental disorders (n= 916). Adolescents with self-reported neurodevelopmental disorders were n=154 and adolescents without self-reported neurodevelopmental disorders was n= 762. Data was collected via self-reported questionnaires administered in schools. Results: Three key findings are presented. 1) more factors were associated with participation outcomes at time1 for adolescents without NDD than for adolescents with NDD, but this difference in the number of factors decreases with time; 2) few associations were related to time for both adolescents with and without NDD; and 3) patterns of predicting variables were different for adolescents with and without NDD. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the factors related to participation in and outside school differs between groups, when the impairment or disability is not considered as a predictor for participation. This study supports the need for using a multidimensional developmental and contextual perspective in addressing enhanced participation for adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  • 7.
    Madsen, Kent
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi. Åbo Akademi University.
    Santtila, Pekka
    Finland.
    Interview styles, adult's recall and personality in investigative interview settings: mediation and moderation effects2018In: Congent Psychology, ISSN 2331-1908, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have investigated the effects of a humanitarian rapport-orientated and a dominant non-rapport-orientated interview style on the memory performance of adults in two interviews separated by a 6-month interval. Also, the impact of interviewees’ personality on recall was investigated. In the present exploratory study, the data that formed the basis of previous findings were re-analysed for potential indirect effects of interview approach on interviewees’ recall, and for any potential relation between the interview approach and interviewees’ recall as moderated by their personality. Results showed three full mediation effects in the second interview: the rapport index (interviewers’ demeanour) mediated the relation between the interview approach and increased recall; the non-rapport index mediated the relations between the interview approach and decreased recall. Follow-up analyses showed a full mediation effect for the individual items friendliness and cooperation in the rapport index, and for negative attitude, nonchalance, impatience and brusqueness and obstinacy in the non-rapport index. Moreover, the results showed a significant moderation effect; the relationship between the interview approach and confabulated memories being moderated by openness to experience; and a high level of openness was associated with an increase in confabulated memories.

  • 8.
    Maxwell, Gregor
    et al.
    Jönköping University & Norge.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University & Norge.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi. Jönköping University.
    Inclusion through participation: understanding participation in the international classification of functioning, disability, and health as a methodological research tool for investigating inclusion2018In: Frontiers in Education, ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 3, no 41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the use and validity of the International Classification of Functioning disability and health (ICF) as a common language for describing inclusive educational settings. There is a specific focus on investigating participation through the ICF as one aspect of inclusion as an improved understanding of participation as a measure of inclusion will greatly benefit children with additional support needs. In addition there will be a better understanding of the operationalization of participation, in terms of both policy and practice, and improved applications of the ICF. The study uses a narrative summary to review to analyse the findings from a selection of studies where the ICF has been used as a methodological tool in the field of education. In the 16 included studies the ICF is either used to present a new theoretical position, synthesize a new research approach or tool, or is integrated into the framework of an existing research method. Findings also show that the ICF is used in a number of different ways and that when it is used directly, variation is found in the type of information that was linked to ICF codes or categories. In conclusion further clarity on defining and measuring participation with the ICF framework is required in order to create a more consistent tool for investigating inclusive education. One way to improve the construct of participation is to take a bi-dimensional approach. It is the authors’ belief that this newer approach to modelling participation will be considered in any future revisions of the ICF/ICF-CY – a so-called ‘ICF-2’. This would thus create a more accountable classification framework that succeeds in capturing the involvement experience of the individual and in doing so achieves a more effective and useful classification framework for the field of inclusive education.

  • 9.
    Ottová-Jordan, Veronika
    et al.
    Tyskland.
    Smith, Otto R. F.
    Norge.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi. Jönköping University, HLK.
    Gobina, Inese
    Lettland.
    Rathmann, Katharina
    Tyskland.
    Torsheim, Torbjørn
    Norge.
    Mazur, Joanna
    Polen.
    Välimaa, Raili
    Finland.
    Cavallo, Franco
    Italien.
    Jericek Klanscek, Helena
    Slovenien.
    Vollebergh, Wilma
    Nederländerna.
    Meilstrup, Charlotte
    Danmark.
    Richter, Matthias
    Tyskland.
    Moor, Irene
    Tyskland.
    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
    Tyskland.
    Trends in health complaints from 2002 to 2010 in 34 countries and their association with health behaviours and social context factors at individual and macro-level2015In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 83-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This article describes trends and stability over time in health complaints in adolescents from 2002 to 2010 and investigates associations between health complaints, behavioural and social contextual factors at individual level and economic factors at macro-level.

    METHODS: Comprising N = 510 876 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children and adolescents in Europe, North America and Israel, data came from three survey cycles of the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Age- and gender-adjusted trends in health complaints were examined in each country by means of linear regression. By using the country as the random effects variable, we tested to what extent individual and contextual variables were associated with health complaints.

    RESULTS: Significant associations are stronger for individual level determinants (e.g. being bullied, smoking) than for determinants at macro-level (e.g. GDP, Gini), as can be seen by the small effect sizes (less than 5% for different trends). Health complaints are fairly stable over time in most countries, and no clear international trend in health complaints can be observed between 2002 and 2010. The most prominent stable determinants were being female, being bullied, school pressure and smoking.

    CONCLUSION: Factors associated with health complaints are more related to the proximal environment than to distal macro-level factors. This points towards intensifying targeted interventions, (e.g. for bullying) and also targeting specific risk groups. The comparably small effect size at country-level indicates that country-level factors have an impact on health and should not be ignored.

  • 10.
    Schmidt, Manuela
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap. Lund University.
    Hansson, Erika
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Doctoral students' well-being: a literature review2018In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 13, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Doctoral student well-being is an important matter that shapes the well-being of academics throughout their careers. Given that well-being has been found to be closely related to employee productivity and efficiency, strategies associated with maintaining well-being during PhD studies might be crucial for higher education, its outcomes and-just as importantly-for a balanced life of PhD students.  Method: Based on 17 studies, this literature review critically assesses the literature on doctoral student well-being.  Results: Theoretical models, concepts of well-being, and methods applied are discussed, as are the results of the articles. The reviewed studies are then discussed based on a SWOT analysis addressing the strengths and weaknesses of the reviewed research as well as the identified opportunities and threats, which can be used as a basis for future research. Based on the review findings and the SWOT analysis, a multidimensional view of the well-being of doctoral students is proposed.  Conclusions: The study proposes a more student-centred approach to meeting doctoral students' needs, and the enhancement of doctoral student well-being in order, as a long-term goal, to improve academics' well-being and productivity.Doctoral student well-being is an important matter that shapes the well-being of academics throughout their careers. Given that well-being has been found to be closely related to employee productivity and efficiency, strategies associated with maintaining well-being during PhD studies might be crucial for higher education, its outcomes and-just as importantly-for a balanced life of PhD students. Based on 17 studies, this literature review critically assesses the literature on doctoral student well-being. Theoretical models, concepts of well-being, and methods applied are discussed, as are the results of the articles. The reviewed studies are then discussed based on a SWOT analysis addressing the strengths and weaknesses of the reviewed research as well as the identified opportunities and threats, which can be used as a basis for future research. Based on the review findings and the SWOT analysis, a multidimensional view of the well-being of doctoral students is proposed. The study proposes a more student-centred approach to meeting doctoral students' needs, and the enhancement of doctoral student well-being in order, as a long-term goal, to improve academics' well-being and productivity.

  • 11.
    Sikström, Sverker
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hellman, Johan
    Lund University.
    Dahl, Mats
    Lund University.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Johansson, Marcus
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    The role of sparsely distributed representations in familiarity recognition of verbal and olfactory materials2018In: Cognitive Processing, ISSN 1612-4782, E-ISSN 1612-4790, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 481-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the generalized signal detection theory (GSDT), where familiarity is described by a sparse binomial distribution of binary node activity rather than by normal distribution of familiarity. Items are presented in a distributed representation, where each node receives either noise only, or signal and noise. An old response (i.e., a "yes" response) is made if at least one node receives signal plus noise that is larger than the activation threshold, and item variability is determined by the distribution of activated nodes as the threshold is varied. A distinct representation leads to better performance and a lower ratio of new to old item variability, than a more distributed and less distinct representations. Here we apply the GSDT to empirical data on verbal and olfactory memory and suggest that verbal memory relies on a distinct neural item representation, whereas olfactory memory has a fuzzy neural representation leading to poorer memory and inducing a larger ratio of new to old item variability.

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