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  • 1.
    Abdel–Khalik, Jonas
    et al.
    Storbritannien.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment MoLab.
    Hansen, Martin
    USA.
    Development of a solid phase extraction method for the simultaneous determination of steroid hormones in H295R cell line using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry2013In: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 935, no September, p. 61-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The H295R in vitro cell line produces the majority of the steroidogenesis, for which reason it is commonly used as a screening tool for endocrine disrupting chemicals. Simultaneous determination of the precursor cholesterol and key steroid hormones could give a broad insight into the mechanistic disruption of the steroidogenesis. Steroid hormones have primarily been extracted from H295R incubation medium by means of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and the obtained recoveries and matrix effects have typically not been stated or assessed. In the present study a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous extraction of cholesterol and five key steroid hormones pregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, cortisol and aldosterone from H295R incubation medium, and finally detected by LC-MS/MS. Cholesterol was recovered at a level of 55.7%, while steroid hormone recoveries ranged from 98.2 to 109.4%. Matrix effects varied between -0.6% and 62.8%. Intra-day precision was deemed acceptable, but the inter-day precision for pregnenolone and aldosterone exceeded the precision limit of 15% RSD. Although LLE has been the most frequently used extraction method in H295R studies, however, our investigation has shown that SPE may relatively easily extract and recover steroid hormones, potentially replacing LLE.

  • 2.
    Abdel–Khalik, Jonas
    et al.
    Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment MoLab.
    Hansen, Martin
    Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Stanford University.
    Simultaneous determination of endogenous steroid hormones in human and animal plasma and serum by liquid or gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry2013In: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 928, no June, p. 59-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analytical methodologies based on liquid or gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of two or more endogenous steroid hormones in human and animal plasma and serum has received increased attention the last few years. Especially in the clinical setting steroid profiling is of major importance in disease diagnostics. This paper discusses recent findings in such multi-steroid hormone procedures published from 2001 to 2012. The aim was to elucidate possible relationships between chosen analytical technique and the obtained analyte sensitivity for endogenous steroid hormones. By evaluating the success, at which the currently applied techniques have been utilized, more general knowledge on the field is provided. Furthermore the evaluation provides directions in which future studies may be interesting to conduct.

  • 3.
    Abdel-Khalik, Jonas
    et al.
    England.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment MoLab.
    Nielsen, Frederik Knud
    Danmark.
    Hansen, Martin
    Danmark.
    Incorporation of (14)C-cholesterol in human adrenal corticocarcinoma H295R cell line and online-radiodetection of produced (14)C-steroid hormone metabolites2017In: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 145, p. 569-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study demonstrates the addition of (14)C-cholesterol to the human cell line H295R will in-situ form radiolabeled steroid hormones allowing for new mechanistic and metabolic insights. The aim of the present study was to in-situ radiolabel steroid hormones from cell line-incorporated (14)C-cholesterol using the OECD guideline 456, H295R steroidogenesis in-vitro assay. Radiodetection of the steroid metabolites of the steroidogenic pathway allows for an improved understanding of the various enzymatic mechanisms involved without necessarily being dependent on quantification. Generated radiolabeled steroids were analyzed using HPLC hyphenated with a Flow Scintillation Analyzer (FSA). H295R cells were incubated with radiolabeled cholesterol and cell media were collected and prepared by solid phase extraction and analyzed with HPLC-FSA. For successful radiolabeling of the steroids in the steroidogenesis of H295R cells, radioactive cholesterol may potentially only need to be added just before the cells are incubated for 72h in well plates. Based on the obtained HPLC-FSA chromatograms, and confirmation of the observations by studies in the literature, a qualitative time profile for the production of steroid hormones was estimated. Multiple radiolabeled steroid hormones were identified by means of analytical standards and UV (ultraviolet) co-chromatography, though the elucidation of multiple metabolites remains unresolved. Although online radiodetection proved to suffer from suboptimal sensitivity, the concept of radiolabeling the steroidogenesis in H295R cells with (14)C-cholesterol and detecting the radiolabeled steroid hormones online was proved and may assist in further toxicological studies.

  • 4.
    Ahlerup, Amanda
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Naturen, kulturen och helheten: En studie i hur kulturreservatens informationstexter skildrar samspelet mellan natur och kultur i landskapet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den europeiska landskapskonventionen belyser att landskapet skapas genom påverkan av och i samspel mellan naturliga processer och mänsklig kultur. Konventionen har bidragit till en medvetenhet kring vikten av att uppmärksamma detta samspel och behovet av en integrerad natur- och kulturmiljövård. Kulturreservaten knyter genom sin intention att förmedla natur- och kulturhistoriska helheter an till landskapskonventionen. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka i vilken utsträckning kulturreservatens informationstexter skildrar samspelet mellan naturelement och kulturelement i landskapet. Informationstexter i nio kulturreservat har analyserats genom en innehållsanalys där förekomsten av fristående naturelement och kulturelement samt samspel mellan naturelement och kulturelement har kvantifierats. Resultatet visar att skildringar av samspel förekommer i 60% av reservatens informationstexter. Detta indikerar att uppdelningen av skyddsvärda områden i natur- och kulturreservat möjligen är obefogad då landskapet inte låter sig indelas i natur och kultur. 

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  • 5.
    Ahnfelt, Nils-Otto
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Assessing sensory properties of the early modern medicine “Elixir amarum Hiaernei”2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    We are reworking the early modern medicine with focus on products, today known as Swedish Bitters or similar names, and historically as “Elixir amarum Hiaernei”. The history of the recipe dates back at least to mid-18th century. It was probably one of the Hiaerne-brothers, Ulrik Leonhard (1712-1758) or Christian Henric (1709-1794), who invented this universal medication. From a number of Linnaeus sources from later 18th century it is well known that odor, flavor and taste were used to assess pharmacological potential of medicinal herbals.

    The purpose of this study was to assess ingredients of “Elixir amarum Hiaernei” from a sensory perspective.      

    Methods

    The ingredients in “Elixir amarum Hiaernei” according to the 18th century recipes: agarikon, aloe, gentian, myrrh, rhubarb, saffron, Theriac Andromachalis, zedoary together with alcohol and sugar.

    These ingredients were assessed by a trained sensory panel using a slightly modified version of the Flavor Profile Method®. Each ingredient was evaluated with respect to odor, taste and flavor.

    Results

    All ingredients were intense in taste, flavor and odor. The ingredients could be described due to its sensory characteristics, in which they differed largely. However, they had in common that they were high in bitterness.

    Discussion

    The ingredients of this historic medication had intense tastes, flavors and odors in line with historical sources. It points for example out that the senses, especially olfaction, was of high importance for the apothecary during the 18th century. In order to find the right blend of ingredients the sensory profiles were of highest importance, both ingredients and blended medication were valuated due to this by physicians as well as patients. Sensory evaluation was also of major importance in the quality assessment of medical herbals by the early modern apothecary.

     

    Sensory profiles of the medical ingredients will be presented at the Eurosense symposium.

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  • 6.
    Alassadi, Abdulrahman
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Ivanauskas, Tadas
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Classification Performance Between Machine Learning and Traditional Programming in Java2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study proposes a performance comparison between two Java applications with two different programming approaches, machine learning, and traditional programming. A case where both machine learning and traditional programming can be applied is a classification problem with numeric values. The data is heart disease dataset since heart disease is the leading cause of death in the USA. Performance analysis of both applications is carried to state the differences in four main points; the development time for each application, code complexity, and time complexity of the implemented algorithms, the classification accuracy results, and the resource consumption of each application. The machine learning Java application is built with the help of WEKA library and using its NaiveBayes class to build the model and evaluate its accuracy. While the traditional programming Java application is built with the help of a cardiologist as an expert in the field of the problem to identify the injury indications values. The findings of this study are that the traditional programming application scored better performance results in development time, code complexity, and resource consumption. It scored a classification accuracy of 80.2% while the Naive Bayes algorithms in the machine learning application scored an accuracy of 85.51% but on the expense of high resource consumption and execution time.

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  • 7.
    Alerstam, Thomas
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Bäckman, Johan
    Lund University.
    Johanna, Grönroos
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Olofsson, Patrik
    Heberg, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Roine
    Lund University.
    Hypotheses and tracking results about the longest migration: the case of the arctic tern2019In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The arctic tern Sterna paradisaea completes the longest known annual return migration on Earth, traveling between breeding sites in the northern arctic and temperate regions and survival/molt areas in the Antarctic pack‐ice zone. Salomonsen (1967, Biologiske Meddelelser, Copenhagen Danske Videnskabernes Selskab24, 1) put forward a hypothetical comprehensive interpretation of this global migration pattern, suggesting food distribution, wind patterns, sea ice distribution, and molt habits as key ecological and evolutionary determinants. We used light‐level geolocators to record 12 annual journeys by eight individuals of arctic terns breeding in the Baltic Sea. Migration cycles were evaluated in light of Salomonsen's hypotheses and compared with results from geolocator studies of arctic tern populations from Greenland, Netherlands, and Alaska. The Baltic terns completed a 50,000 km annual migration circuit, exploiting ocean regions of high productivity in the North Atlantic, Benguela Current, and the Indian Ocean between southern Africa and Australia (sometimes including the Tasman Sea). They arrived about 1 November in the Antarctic zone at far easterly longitudes (in one case even at the Ross Sea) subsequently moving westward across 120–220 degrees of longitude toward the Weddell Sea region. They departed from here in mid‐March on a fast spring migration up the Atlantic Ocean. The geolocator data revealed unexpected segregation in time and space between tern populations in the same flyway. Terns from the Baltic and Netherlands traveled earlier and to significantly more easterly longitudes in the Indian Ocean and Antarctic zone than terns from Greenland. We suggest an adaptive explanation for this pattern. The global migration system of the arctic tern offers an extraordinary possibility to understand adaptive values and constraints in complex pelagic life cycles, as determined by environmental conditions (marine productivity, wind patterns, low‐pressure trajectories, pack‐ice distribution), inherent factors (flight performance, molt, flocking), and effects of predation/piracy and competition.

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  • 8.
    Al-Galby, Mohamed
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Arezou, Madani
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Hardware Root of Trust for Linux Based Edge Gateway2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Linux-based Edge Gateways that connects hundreds or maybe thousands of IoT devices, are exposed to various threats and cyber-attacks from the internet. These attacks form a considerable risk targeting the privacy and confidentiality of IoT devices throughout their gateways. Many researches and studies have been conducted to alleviate such a problem. One of the solutions can be achieved by building a root of trust based on a hardware module such as Trusted Platform Module (TPM) or software like Trusted Execution Environment (TEE). In this work, we provide a solution to the problem by enabling Hardware Root of Trust (HRoT) using TPM on a product from HMS Industrial Network AB known as GWen board, a Linux-based embedded system, used as gateway to connect IoT devices. We describe a method that uses the processor of the GWen (i.e. Zynq-7020 FPGA SoC) to enable secure boot. Besides, we provide a method to enable the TPM chip mounted on the GWen (i.e. SLB 9670 TPM 2.0) using TPM Software Stack TSS 2.0. We demonstrated, in detail, various use-cases using the TPM on GWen including cryptographic keys generation, secure key storage and key usage for different cryptographic operations. Furthermore, we conducted an analysis to the adopted solution by inspecting the latency of TPM commands on the GWen gateway. According to the high restrictions of TPM 2.0 specifications and based on our results, adding the TPM 2.0 to the IoT gateway GWen will enhance the security of its Linux distribution and will makes it possible to securely identify and authenticate the gateway on the network based on its secret keys that are stored securely inside its TPM.

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  • 9.
    Alhuttaitawi, Saif
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Storage System for Harvested Energy in IoT Sensors2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents an energy system design for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) after applying our design the WSN should theoretically have an infinite lifetime. Energy harvesting sources can provide suitable energy for WSN nodes and reduce their dependence on battery. In this project, an efficient energy harvesting and storage system is proposed. By using (two supercapacitors and four DC/DC converters with step up /step down capabilities) all of them controlled by Microcontroller via switches to consider the best way to save energy to keep the WSN alive as long as possible. The usage of supercapacitors as an energy buffer to supply the sensor components (microcontroller and radio) with energy it needs to work. We could control the energy flow according to a specific voltage levels in supercapacitors to guaranty the full functionality for WSN with minimizing the loss of energy, and that’s leads to long time life for the wireless sensor node WSN. Another important thing we find in our experiment that is the inner leakage of the supercapacitor and how it has a critical effect on how long it can serve our system with energy. This paper contains on two theoretical sections (Part one and part two) which are based on literature reviews, and one experimental section (Part three) based on experimental building the prototype, coding and testing.

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  • 10.
    Alwan, Dawid
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Texturskillnad i kyckling: påverkar ett tillskott av morötter och grönkål i fodret de sensoriska egenskaperna hos kyckling?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Being able to influence the sensory properties of chicken by affecting the feed during breeding, is an interesting concept that can lead to many possibilities. At Bosarp's farm just outside of Blentarp in Skåne they have tried to execute this concept by adding carrots and kale as a complement to the chicken’s basic diet.Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate whether carrot and kale, as a complement to the basal diet, affect the sensory characteristics of the chicken meat.Material and method: To achieve the aim of this study two different sensory differences tests have been applied, first a duo trio test and then a two paired sample test.Results: There were no differences regarding the appearance and taste characteristics between the samples of meat from chickens bred with or without the addition of carrots and kale in the feed, but there was a significant difference regarding the texture.Conclusion: There was a difference in texture, which was either due to the feeding, the cooking, the age of the chicken or handling of the chicken meat after slaughter.

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  • 11.
    Andersson, Amanda
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Sidibé, Linnéa
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Stigande havsnivåers påverkan på kulturmiljöer och naturtyper: En studie längs Skånes kust och i Vellinge kommun2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stora klimatförändringar sker just nu globalt, en konsekvens av dessa förändringar är stigande havsnivåer längs kusterna. En förhöjd havsnivå kan utgöra ett hot mot lågt liggande miljöer och andra värden i anslutning till kusten. I Sverige har ingen tidigare studie gjorts på hur kulturmiljöer och naturtyper påverkas av klimatförändringar så som stigande havsnivåer. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka i vilken utsträckning kulturmiljöer och naturtyper längs Skånes kust kommer att påverkas av stigande havsnivåer på 1 m, 2 m och 3 m. Resultatet av den extensiva studien längs Skånes kust visar att det är flest kulturmiljöer som påverkas vid en förändrad havsnivå på 1 m i Vellinge och Lomma kommun, då 41 st respektive 15 st lämningar kommer att påverkas. De naturtyper som påverkas i störst omfattning längs Skånes kust är glasörtstränder, salta strandängar och strandängar vid Östersjön. Detaljstudien i Vellinge kommun visar att Riksantikvarieämbetets värderingsplattform är svår att applicera på kulturmiljöer utan lämpar sig bättre att applicera på enskilda objekt eftersom plattformens värderingsmall är för abstrakt för att identifiera och täcka in alla värden som en kulturmiljö omfattar. Länsstyrelsen i Västra Götalands åtgärdsförslag går att tillämpa olika bra beroende på kulturmiljön och vilka objekt den utgör. Även här är det lättare att tillämpa åtgärdsförslagen beroende på enskilda objekt, snarare än en hel kulturmiljö. Åtgärdsförslagen är svåra att applicera på naturtyper eftersom de flesta åtgärderna skulle skapa en barriär för växt- och djurlivet.

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  • 12.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Andersson, Sanna
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Aluntillverkningens betydelse för skogen: med ett exempel från Andrarums alunbruk i Skåne 1637–19122020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Andrarums alummill left a great impression in the surrounding forest. The mill required large resources of wood to be able to process alum slate to alum, which meant that the need for wood resources was big. The area around the alummill was given a mark in the terrain in 1730, with 21 large stones placed along the circular periphery, which is called Verkalinjen. The purpose of the study is to investigate the importance of alum production for the forest inside the Verkalinjen. The focus of the thesis was to study the importance of wood consumption during the years when the mill was active. In addition to a general study for the entire area within the Verkalinjen, the study was delimited to the properties Breabäck, Snärpe, Rugeröd and Nybygget. The method and materials used in the essay are studies of historical map material and analysis of documents belonging to the archive at Christinehof. Maps were rectified and digitized in GIS-ArcMap, inside the Verkalinjen and in the selected research area. The result shows that the forest in the study area has decreased greatly between 1684 and 1704, from having been a forest area, to been transformed into a sparse and thin beech forest. The use of the forest has changed over time and the results show that there was a forest shortage in the study area during the 18th century. In the middle of the 17th century, it is believed that the forest in the Andrarums alummill district will never meet the needs of the mill in the long term and it will be difficult for the forest to recover. Replanting, housekeeping and grazing ban take effect, but despite this, an open and woodless landscape emerges during the 18th century, with elements of small islands of forest. The result also shows that the forest has recovered in the early 1900s and there is then a great variety of trees in the area, with both deciduous and coniferous forests.

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  • 13.
    Andersson, Annie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Habainy, Rana
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Friluftsliv i Östra Göinge: en undersökning om attityd och natur i Östra Göinge kommun2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the attitude between nature and the residents of Östra Göinge municipality. The purpose of this research and thesis is to provide a clearer picture of the resident’s outdoor life and relationship to nature within the municipality. In addition, this research considered possible development opportunities in the outdoor life category within the community while also addressing the question of accessibility to green areas. This research used an online survey, distributed on Facebook, to groups linked to Östra Göinge. The results from the survey show that even though the residents of the community are satisfied with the access to green areas in the municipality, they still see development opportunities which will help promote outdoor life in Östra Göinge.

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  • 14.
    Andersson, Eva
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Toxikologisk tillväxtstudie av sötvattenalgen Raphidocelis subcapitata: En jämförelse mellan flödescytometer NovoCyte och automatisk cellräknare TC202018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biological toxicity tests are performed by exposing a test organism to different concentrations of chemicals over a certain period of time. Results from acute studies are presented as EC50 (Effect Concentration, affecting 50% of the population). Tests used as a basis for risk assessments shall be performed in a quality acceptable way based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). The aim of this study was to study the toxic effect of potassium dichromate on unicellular green algae R. subcapitata, by counting cells with two different apparatus: flow cytometer and automatic cell counter. Additionally, to compare the EC50 mean values against the ISO 8692 value for control of test precision and to compare accuracy and analytical time of two methods. Potassium dichromate was used for growth inhibition in toxicity tests. The EC50 results showed no statistically significant difference between the two instruments (p = 0.47). The accuracy of acute toxicity analysis was confirmed as valid as both EC50 average measurement values compared to ISO 8692 value were found within the 95% confidence interval. When comparing the two methods of the study, greater spread was observed around the mean value in the cell count's results, where three EC50 values were outside 95% CI. The result of the flow cytometer had less spread and higher accuracy compared to the cell count. The study showed that flow cytometers could be used in future toxicological tests with algae, but several repeated tests are required to confirm the benefits of analysis with the flow cytometer.

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  • 15.
    Andersson, Johanna
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Heteronormativa blommor och könsrollsbundna bin, är naturen verkligen så normativ?: en analys av hur läroböcker i biologi och naturkunskap rekonstruerar normer om kön och sexualitet vid beskriviningar av djurs beteende2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete handlar om hur normer om kön och sexualitet (re)konstrueras i biologiundervisningen, och fokuserar på innehåll om hur djurs beteende beskrivs. Tidigare forskning pekar på att undervisningen och läroböcker inom biologi och naturkunskap är mycket heteronormativ och förklarar kvinnor och män i dikotomiska termer. En del av forskningsrapporterna uppmärksammade också att det finns en svårighet att sammanföra det biologiska innehållet och innehåll som behandlar sexualitet, genus och relationer i undervisningen. Endast två studier är gjorda på hur normer om kön och sexualitet konstrueras då djurs beteende beskrivs. Då forskning visar att biologin och dess förklaringar på djurs beteende har betydelse för vad vi människor ser som naturliga beteenden för oss, kan innehåll om djurs beteende i undervisnngen ge normativa föreställningar om kön och sexualitet. Undersökningen gjordes utifrån frågeställningarna: 

    Vilka förklaringar om djurs beteende utifrån kön och sexuella strategier framställs i läroböcker för kurserna biologi 1 och naturkunskap 2 för gymnasieskolan?

    Vilka följemeningar om kön och sexualitet kan dessa beskrivningar ge elever? 

    Tre läroböcker i biologi och tre läroböcker i naturkunskap analyserades med diskursanalys som analysmetod. Resultatet visade bland annat att det fanns betydligt mer innehåll i biologiböckerna än naturkunskapsböckerna, att antalet normativa beskrivnngar skiljde sig mycket åt mellan böckerna, och att en del böcker riskerar att ge eleverna normativa föreställningar om kön och sexualitet. Följemeningar som identifierades för några av böckerna var bland annat att beteendemässiga könsskillnader är biologiskt bestämt och att heterosexualiteten är naturlig. Perspektiv som är viktiga för arbetet och som är utgångspunkter är teorin om diskurser, normer, queerteori, samt queer- och genusperspektiv på biologi.

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  • 16.
    Andersson, Max
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Öhman, Eric
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Konsumtionsval, uppfattningar och inställningar: vad utgör studenters attityder till fermenterade drycker?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fermentation is a process that mankind has used since the first civilizations. These ancient methods are still being used today and fermented beverages has since the last few decades gained an acceptance over the world and is considered a trend. The aim of this study was to study students’ attitudes toward fermented beverages with low or no alcoholic contents, with a focus on the knowledge about these beverages, why and when they are consumed and also in what context. The study consisted of an initial shorter questionnaire which was distributed to students at the Kristianstad University, Sweden followed by an individual semi-structured interview. The results showed great variations regarding the students’ knowledge of fermented beverages and if they had tried any of these. The students’ attitudes were characterized by values and norms and the results from the questionnaire showed that many individuals consumed fermented beverages for its health-promoting effects. Instead of drinking alcoholic beverages and also to try something new. This also emerged from the interviews where health and environmental awareness were important reasons as to why fermented beverages were consumed, but also curiosity over trying something new. The results from both the questionnaire and the interviews showed that these beverages were consumed at dinner, parties or other social gatherings. All informants agreed that fermented beverages derive complex attributes and that maybe it might be these attributes that makes it possible for these beverages to take on a large audience as they do today. From this study a conclus

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    Konsumtionsval, uppfattningar och inställningar - vad utgör studenters attityder till fermenterade drycker?
  • 17.
    Andersson, Sebastian
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Lipemi-interferens vid mätning av Hb på Sysmex XN-10 och HemoCue Hb 201+2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Anemia can arise from either loss of erythrocytes or impaired production of new erythrocytes. In order to discover and evaluate the treatment of anemic patients, correct Hb measurements are important. A common method to measure Hb concentration is photometry in combination with chemical conversion of the Hb. Like all light-dependent methods this suffers from a vulnerability to turbidity that scatters light. Lipemia is a common cause of turbidity caused by e.g. recent intake of high fat foods, diabetes mellitus, liver or kidney disease, alcoholism and some drugs. Manufacturers of Hb analyzers use different methods to counter the influence of interference from lipemia on measurements. Sysmex XN-10 analyzers use a fat dissolving sheath fluid in its photometric channel (HGB) and HemoCue measures absorbance at a second wavelength to compensate for turbidity. Sysmex XN-10 also has an optic channel (HGB-O) for counting reticulocytes by measuring their nucleic acid and Hb content. At the same time this channel measures Hb equivalents of erythrocytes and gives a calculated value of Hb content in the entire sample. The aim of this study was to compare the photometric and the optical channels for measuring Hb concentration in whole blood. Both the Sysmex XN-10 channels were compared with HemoCue Hb 201+ when measuring Hb concentrations in lipemic samples. Plasma Hb concentration was determined for the corresponding samples in order to investigate correlation between elevation in Hb concentration with and without simulated lipemia and in the plasma after centrifugation. Samples analyzed at Skånes University Hospital in Lund during the month of November 2018 (n = 392) using both HGB and HGB-O on XN-10 were compared using Spearman's signed correlations coefficient. Lipemia was simulated by using the fat emulsion Intralipid in a total of 32 samples. Samples collected and analyzed on the previous day was used for the study. Each sample was split into one part with added Intralipid to form a lipemic sample and one part with NaCl-solution of the same volume as Intralipid in the lipemic sample. The differences between lipemic and non lipemic samples was tested for significance by the non-parametric Wilcoxons signed ranks test for each of the methods. Significance between the three methods was tested by using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. Level of significance was set to p < 0.05. The results showed good correlation between earlier test run on both HGB and HGB-O with a Spearman correlation score of 0,982.  A significant difference was found between lipemic and non lipemic samples with the photometric method (p < 0,001) but not the optical method (p = 0,11) on XN10. HemoCue Hb 201+ also showed a significant difference (p < 0,001) between lipemic and non lipemic samples but a lower median than HGB and less deviation than HGB-O. The median of HGB-O indicated that it was influenced the least by lipemia of the three methods but had the greatest deviation of the differences. The greater deviation of HGB-O values may have been caused by hemolysis since the method measures intra cellular Hb. HemoCue shows according to this study the slightest deviation of the three methods and a less heightened median value compared to HGB which confirms the methods suitability as complement to HGB when dealing with lipemic samples.

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  • 18.
    Arponen, Omar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Realtids-PCR för påvisande av plasmidburen ampicillinresistens: Kartläggning av förekomst i vattenisolat från Helge Å, Kristianstad2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The antibiotic class β-lactams include drugs such as penicillins, cephalosporines, carbapenems and monobactams which mechanism of action is to inhibit cell-wall synthesis. Bacteria have developed several mechanisms to counter β-lactams. Bacteria can defend themselves from antibiotics by releasing enzymes that attack the antibiotic compound itself by hydrolysis, target alteration or redox reactions. Presence of antibiotics can also trigger a downregulation of genes coding for antibiotic binding proteins, as well as upregulation of proteins that serves as channel and pump proteins that ensure no accumulation of antibiotics occurs in the cytosol. The aim with the study was to investigate the presence of three plasmid-mediated genes (blaFOX, blaCIT(CMY-2) and blaMOX) coding for ampicillin resistance (pAmpC) in water isolates sampled from Helge River, Kristianstad. The detection of genes was done according to a previous optimized protocol for Real-Time PCR with SYBR™Green chemistry (duplex blaCIT(CMY-2)/blaMOX and singleplex blaFOX). The method proved not to be robust for multiplex PCR, only the singelplex for the gene blaFOX could produce valid results. 30 of 96 isolates were deemed as positive for the gene, whereas 27 of 79 were considered clinical relevant. Among the 27 isolates, 16 also harbored other genes for resistance (13 blaCTX-M, 2 blaOXA, 1 blaTEM and 1 blaSHV). One isolate carried on three resistancegenes (blaFOX, blaCTX-M och blaTEM). A majority of the positive isolates, 20 out of 27, were sampled near the pumpstation. The findings indicate that Helge river might be a reservoir for dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes.

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  • 19.
    Arvidsson, Åke
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment of Computer science (RECS). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstads universitet.
    Chen, Eric Zhi
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment of Computer science (RECS).
    Wang, Qinghua
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment of Computer science (RECS). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstads universitet.
    Web metrics for the next generation performance enhancing proxies2019In: 2019 27TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE, TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER NETWORKS (SOFTCOM) / [ed] Begusic, D Rozic, N Radic, J Saric, M, IEEE , 2019, p. 171-176Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fast growth of Internet traffic, the growing importance of cellular accesses and the escalating competition between content providers and network operators result in a growing interest in improving network performance and user experience. In terms of network transport, different solutions ranging from tuning TCP to installing middleboxes are applied. It turns out, however, that the practical results sometimes are disappointing and we believe that poor testing is one of the reasons for this. Indeed, many cases in the literature limit testing to the simple and rare use case of a single file download, while common and complex use cases like web browsing often are ignored or modelled only by considering smaller files. To facilitate better testing, we present a broader view which includes domain counts, flow counts and different forms of concurrency to better characterise the complexity around web pages, and from which the potential for different optimisation techniques can be estimated. We also derive numerical values of these metrics for a small set of popular web pages and study similarities and differences between pages with the same kind of content (newspapers, e-commerce and video) and between pages designed for the same platform (computer and smartphone).

  • 20.
    Arvidsson, Åke
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Westberg, Lars
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Fast transport for edge computing in 5G networks2018In: Proceedings of 2018 26th International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks (SoftCOM) / [ed] Dinko Begušić, Nikola Rožić, Joško Radić, and Matko Šarić, New York: IEEE Communications Society, 2018, p. 41-45Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider TCP performance for cloud servicesin 5G cellular networks and show that edge clouds offer the highest throughput, but that further improvements still arepossible. To this end we devise a concept where edge clouds connected directly to the radio access network can increase their transmission rates by relying on the built in re-transmissions (through quality of service features) and on the built in userfairness (through per-user buffers and scheduler policies). We use numerical examples from measurements in real networks to demonstrate that the concept is efficient and significantly improves the effective throughput beyond what placement alone can do, and we also outline possible further improvements.

  • 21.
    Arvidsson, Åke
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Westberg, Lars
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Transport bottlenecks of edge computing in 5G networks2019In: Journal of Communication Software and Systems, ISSN 1845-6421, E-ISSN 1846-6079, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 59-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider bottlenecks of TCP throughput in scenarios with edge clouds and 5G cellular networks. By numerical examples from measurements in real networks, we show that edge clouds indeed improve throughput but that several, nonnegligible bottlenecks remain. We therefore devise a concept where edge clouds connected directly to the radio access networkcan increase their transmission rates by relying on built in retransmissions (through quality of service features) and on the built in user fairness (through per-user buffers and scheduler policies). We then return to the numerical examples and show that our solution provides substantial gains and we concludeby identifying and discussing the remaining bottlenecks and the potential of an improved protocol.

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  • 22.
    Augustsson, Johanna
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    De öppna fältens rationalisering i områden med olika ägarstruktur i nordöstra Helsingborg under perioden 1947–2017: Med fokus på trädrader och habitatöar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste 50 åren har intensifieringen av jordbruket ökat i takt med maskinernas framfart. Detta på bekostnad av att livsviktiga biotoper för djur och växter försvunnit, då åkerlandskapet blivit allt mer homogent. Skogen och jordbrukslandskapet är två av de artrikaste landskapstyperna och utgör idag störst hot för Sveriges rödlistade arter. Undersökningsområdet ligger i nordvästra Skånes åkerlandskap och uppsatsen behandlar jordbruksmarkens öppna fält och dess utveckling. Uppsatsen belyser även skillnader mellan små- och medelstora jordbruk jämfört med storjordbruk i ett område bestående av Fleninge, Kropp, Holk och Rosendal, belägna i nordöstra Helsingborgs kommun. Undersökningsområdet är intressant för att studera olika markägares förhållningssätt till jordbruksmarken. En GIS-analys över områdets landskapsutveckling av öppna fält, trädrader och habitatöar presenteras för åren 1947, 1965 och 2017. Analysen visar att medelstorleken på de öppna fälten, betesmarken och åkermarken i båda undersökningsområdena har mer än fördubblats på 70 år, med störst förändring på storjordbruket. Det syns även tydligt att antalet fält successivt minskat med åren då 197 fält har försvunnit på de små- och medelstora jordbruken samtidigt som 69 försvunnit i storjordbruksområdet. En genomsnittlig minskning av trädrader, med cirka 129 meter per år, sker på det små- och medelstora jordbruket, där minskningen är störst. Habitatöarna går från att ha varit vanligare inom storjordbruket till att merparten försvinner under undersökningsperiodens senare del. På det små- och medelstora jordbruket ökar antalet habitatöar även om en stor andel habitatöar avlägsnas, så tillkommer många. År 2017 finns totalt 99 habitatöar i undersökningsområdet, vilket innebär en minskning med cirka 0,4 habitatöar per år. Habitatöarna har dock varit svåra att analysera, detta ser dock ut att hänga samman med att glesa typer av trädrader tillkommer där, vilka enligt gängse kategoriseringskriterier inte räknas till trädrader utan blir individuella habitatöar. Denna utveckling har troligen en negativ inverkan på den biologiska mångfalden i området. Då minskning av habitat och biotoper är ett av de största hoten för biodiversiteten och arters utrotning är det grundläggande att jordbruket istället bidrar till bevarande av arter för en hållbar framtid.

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  • 23.
    Axelsson, Carolina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Lunds universitet.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Lunds universitet.
    Nilson, Bo
    Lunds universitet.
    Rapid detection of antibiotic resistance in positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF MS and an automated and optimized MBT-ASTRA protocol for Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae2019In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: For fast and effective antibiotic therapy of serious infections like sepsis, it is crucial with rapid information about antibiotic susceptibility, especially in a time when the number of infections caused by multi resistant bacteria has escalated in the world.Methods: Here, we have used a semi-quantitative MALDI-TOF-MS based method for antibiotic resistance detection, MBT-ASTRA™, which is based on the comparison of growth rate of the bacteria cultivated with and without antibiotics. We demonstrate a new protocol where several parameters have been optimized and automated leading to reduced hands-on time and improved capacity to simultaneously analyse multiple clinical samples and antibiotics.Results: Ninety minutes of incubation at 37 °C with agitation was sufficient to differentiate the susceptible and resistant strains of E. coli and K. pneumoniae, for the antibiotics cefotaxime, meropenem and ciprofloxacin. In total, 841 positive blood culture analyses of 14 reference strains were performed. The overall sensitivity was 99%, specificity 99% and the accuracy 97%. The assay gave no errors for cefotaxime (n = 263) or meropenem (n = 289) for sensitive and resistant strains, whilst ciprofloxacin (n = 289) gave six (0.7%) major errors (false resistance) and four (0.5%) very major errors (false susceptibility). The intermediate strains showed a larger variety compared to the E-test MIC values.Conclusions: The hands-on time and the analysis time to detect antibiotic resistance of clinical blood samples can be substantially reduced and the sample capacity can be increased by using automation and this improved protocol.

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  • 24.
    Bagewitz, Cornelia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Gustavsson, Emelie
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Metoder för minskat matsvinn: ett fokuserat fältarbete på gymnasieskolor2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    About one-third of all food produced for human consumption in the world is either wasted or lost. This means that large amounts of resources, which are used in the production of food, are used in vain. If the food waste would decrease it would reduce the carbon dioxide emissions, lower the energy- and raw material consumption and reduce the environmental impact. Food waste is not a new area of research, however, there is a need for more studies that address methods for reducing it. A big part of the food waste in Sweden comes from large-scale catering establishments, especially from schools, which leads to the aim of this study.

     

    Aim

    The aim is to study which methods a couple of upper secondary schools are using for reducing their food waste, the employees experience of the methods and their thoughts on measures of improvement.  

     

    Method

    Interviews and observations were carried out using focused ethnography in four upper secondary schools in Helsingborg. The collected data was reviewed using thematic analysis. The literature in the study was used as an analytical tool.

     

    Results

    The methods used by the schools consisted of different ways of serving, re-using food, smaller garbage cans, communication, competition, and measuring and keeping track of the food waste. 

     

    Conclusion

    The methods perceived as most efficient were smaller sized serving tools, utilizing and re-using food, smaller garbage cans and measuring the food waste, while spoons used to taste the food before serving yourself was not considered as useful. The communication between the school and the kitchen staff needs to improve to facilitate the task of reducing food waste. Lectures about food waste could be a way to involve the students in the task.

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  • 25.
    Bak, Søren Alex
    et al.
    Analytical Bioscience, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment MoLab.
    Occurrence of ionophores in the Danish environment2014In: Antibiotics, ISSN 2079-6382, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 564-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotics in the environment are a potential threat to environmental ecosystems as well as human health and safety. Antibiotics are designed to have a biological effect at low doses, and the low levels detected in the environment have turned focus on the need for more research on environmental occurrence and fate, to assess the risk and requirement for future regulation. This article describes the first occurrence study of the antibiotic polyether ionophores (lasalocid, monensin, narasin, and salinomycin) in the Danish environment. Various environmental matrices (river water, sediment, and soil) have been evaluated during two different sampling campaigns carried out in July 2011 and October 2012 in an agricultural area of Zealand, Denmark. Lasalocid was not detected in any of the samples. Monensin was measured at a concentration up to 20 ng·L−1 in river water and 13 µg·kg−1 dry weight in the sediment as well as being the most frequently detected ionophore in the soil samples with concentrations up to 8 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Narasin was measured in sediment samples at 2 µg·kg−1 dry weight and in soil between 1 and 18 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Salinomycin was detected in a single soil sample at a concentration of 30 µg·kg−1 dry weight.

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  • 26.
    Bak, Søren Alex
    et al.
    Eurofins Denmark A/S, Environment, Vejen.
    Hansen, Martin
    Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Stanford University.
    Pedersen, Kenneth Munk
    Halling-Sørensen, Bent
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment MoLab.
    Quantification of four ionophores in soil, sediment and manure using pressurised liquid extraction2013In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1307, no September, p. 27-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-residue pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) methodology has been established for the determination of the four ionophores: lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin and narasin in solid environmental matrices. The PLE methodology is combined with solid phase extraction as clean-up using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry applying electrospray ionisation for detection. The samples were freeze-dried prior to extraction. The absolute recoveries for soil and sediment ranged from 71 to 123% (relative standard deviation (RSDs) below 16%) and in the range 94–133% (RSDs 9–35%) for poultry manure. The final method allowed for the detection of four ionophores down to a few hundred ng kg−1 in natural solid matrices with limit of quantifications (LOQs) being 0.96, 0.87, 0.98, and 0.64 μg kg−1 in soil for lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, respectively. Corresponding LOQs in sediment were 1.28, 1.34, 1.39, and 0.78 μg kg−1 for the respective ionophores, while in manure the LOQs were 0.98, 1.01, 1.45, and 1.01 μg kg−1.

  • 27.
    Bechshoft, Thea
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Wright, Andrew J.
    Danmark.
    Weisser, Johan J.
    Danmark.
    Teilmann, Jonas
    Danmark.
    Dietz, Rune
    Danmark.
    Hansen, Martin
    Danmark.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment MoLab. Danmark.
    Styrishave, Bjarne
    Danmark.
    Developing a new research tool for use in free-ranging cetaceans: recovering cortisol from harbour porpoise skin2015In: Conservation Physiology, E-ISSN 2051-1434, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed a chemical analytical procedure for sampling, extracting and determining epidermal skin cortisol concentrations (SCCs) in the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) using gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. In brief, this involved a pressurized liquid extraction with a two-step solid-phase clean-up. A derivatization step was conducted prior to detection. To evaluate the new assay, cortisol was analysed in three different sample types obtained from four harbour porpoises: skin plates, dorsal fin skin plugs (with and without lidocaine) and epidermal scrapes. Skin cortisol concentrations could be measured using the new assay in the majority of the tested skin samples down to a minimal sample size of 49 mg dry weight (dw). Water content ranged from 10 to 46% in the plug samples, which had SCCs from 2.1 to 77.7 ng/g dw. Epidermal scrape samples had the highest water content (83–87%) and lower SCCs (0.6–15 ng/g dw), while the skin plates had intermediate water contents (60–66%) and SCCs of 2.6–13.0 ng/g dw. SCC was slightly higher in plugs with lidocaine than without (average values of 41 and 33 ng/g dw, respectively). Substantial within-individual variations in cortisol concentrations are also common in other matrices such as blood and hair. Some important factors behind this variation could be e.g. the animal's sex, age, body condition, reproductive stage, and the body region sampled, as well as season, moulting cycles and water temperature. Clearly, more research into SCCs is required. The findings described here represent the first critical steps towards using epidermal skin cell samples to assess chronic stress levels in cetaceans and the development of a widely applicable health-assessment tool in these species.

  • 28.
    Beery, Thomas H.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    Exploring the role of outdoor recreation to contribute to urban climate resilience2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate resilience is an important mix of climate mitigation and climate adaptation designed to minimize current and future disruption while promoting opportunity. Given the importance of the regional and local arena for consideration of impacts of climate change trends and needs for climate action, climate resilience in one community, Duluth, Minnesota, is considered. At the core of this project is the climate resilience question: what can we currently be doing in our communities to prepare for projected climate change while simultaneously improving life for current residents and visitors? Given the growing importance of outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism in Duluth, the role this sector may be able to play in climate resilience is considered. Using action research methodology, the research process of adjusting, presenting, and conducting follow-up from a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Adaptation for Coastal Communities workshop is presented. The study takes a unique look at one workshop outcome, a Duluth Parks and Recreation planning tool. Specifically, a resilience checklist is presented as a useful sample outcome of the overall process. Beyond the study community, the role of outdoor recreation to serve climate resilience is explored and affirmed.

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  • 29.
    Beery, Thomas H.
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik. USA.
    Lekies, Kristi S.
    USA.
    Childhood collecting in nature: quality experience in important places2019In: Children's Geographies, ISSN 1473-3285, E-ISSN 1473-3277, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 118-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A need for a more specific understanding of childhood geographies has motivated an investigation of one activity, childhood collecting in nature. This study examined collecting behavior, places of collecting, and the relationship of these places to environmental connectedness in adulthood. Topophilia is presented as a guide to help consider why children collect in nature and to expand upon a limited understanding of collecting behavior. These ideas are explored with a mixed-method design strategy involving surveys and semi-structured interviews with a sample of Swedish university students. Results show collecting in nature to be a widespread, meaningful, and memorable experience in the formative years of participants. Results also demonstrate potential support for topophilia as a way to understand the childhood collecting nature phenomenon. Implications include recognition of the importance of family to support children’s engagement in the natural world and proximate access to nature as a critical aspect of childhood experience.

  • 30.
    Berg, Johan
    et al.
    RISE.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Äta insekter: finns det några hälsorisker?2019In: Nutritionsfakta, Vol. decemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En tidigare publicerad artikel i Nutritionsfakta har visat på hälso- och hållbarhetsfördelar med att äta insekter. Finns det då några hälsorisker med att äta insekter? När det gäller kemiska risker är dessa små, förutsatt att producenten har kontroll på fodrets tungmetallinnehåll. Bakterier och andra mikroorganismer behöver kontrolleras noga, men inga tydliga risker finns här heller. Personer med skaldjursallergier bör dock vara försiktiga med insekter. Generellt motsvarar riskerna de som gäller för andra animaliska livsmedel, och samma typ av kontrollprogram bör finnas. Dock behövs mer forskning inom området. Kött från nöt, svin och fjäderfä har studerats under lång tid; det är dags att låta forskningen kring insekter som mat börja ta igen det försprånget.

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  • 31.
    Betts, Bruce H
    et al.
    USA.
    Warmflash, David
    USA.
    Fraze, Raymond E
    USA.
    Friedman, Louis
    USA.
    Vorobyova, Elena
    Russia.
    Lilburn, Timothy G
    USA.
    Smith, Amy
    USA.
    Rettberg, Petra
    USA.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Ciftcioglu, Neva
    USA.
    Fox, George E
    USA.
    Svitek, Tomas
    USA.
    Kirschvinck, Joseph L
    USA & Japan.
    Moeller, Ralf
    Germany.
    Wassmann, Marko
    Germany.
    Berger, Thomas
    Germany.
    Phobos LIFE (Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment).2019In: Astrobiology, ISSN 1531-1074, E-ISSN 1557-8070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Planetary Society's Phobos Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment (Phobos LIFE) flew in the sample return capsule of the Russian Federal Space Agency's Phobos Grunt mission and was to have been a test of one aspect of the hypothesis that life can move between nearby planets within ejected rocks. Although the Phobos Grunt mission failed, we present here the scientific and engineering design and motivation of the Phobos LIFE experiment to assist with the scientific and engineering design of similar future experiments. Phobos LIFE flew selected organisms in a simulated meteoroid. The 34-month voyage would have been the first such test to occur in the high-radiation environment outside the protection of Earth's magnetosphere for more than a few days. The patented Phobos LIFE "biomodule" is an 88 g cylinder consisting of a titanium outer shell, several types of redundant seals, and 31 individual Delrin sample containers. Phobos LIFE contained 10 different organisms, representing all three domains of life, and one soil sample. The organisms are all very well characterized, most with sequenced genomes. Most are extremophiles, and most have flown in low Earth orbit. Upon return from space, the health and characteristics of organisms were to have been compared with controls that remained on Earth and have not yet been opened.

  • 32.
    Biörklund Helgesson, Maria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Gerberich, Johanna
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Höijer, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Mat, måltid, hälsa i 24-timmarsperspektivet.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Verksamhetsberättelse Mat- och Måltidsvetenskap 20182019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Året inleddes med en ny organisation för Högskolan Kristianstad och bildandetav fyra nya fakulteter. Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskapingår numera i Fakulteten för Naturvetenskap tillsammans med avdelningenför Datavetenskap och avdelningen för Miljö och biologi. Det varinte bara för HKR som det gångna året innebar organisatoriska förändringarutan även för vår avdelning.Bitte Müller Hansen gick i pension efter nästan tio år som programansvarigför Gastronomiprogrammet och avdelningschef. Bitte har betytt oerhörtmycket för utveckling av programmet och har lagt ner stort engagemangi såväl utbildningen, som i sina kontakter med studenter och medarbetsmarknaden.

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  • 33.
    Biörklund Helgesson, Maria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Höijer, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Mat, måltid, hälsa i 24-timmarsperspektivet.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Verksamhetsberättelse Mat- och Måltidsvetenskap 20192020Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under året som gått har mycket hänt och vi utvecklas vidare! Denna upplaga av Mat- och måltidsvetenskaps verksamhetsberättelse sammanfattar händelser och utveckling av ämnesområdet vid Högskolan Kristianstad under 2019. Ett år där alla medarbetare på avdelningen bidragit till att arbeta för visionen att vi ska ha en ledande position för framtidens mat och måltider genom attraktiva utbildningar, framgångsrik forskning och aktiv samverkan.

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  • 34.
    Björklund, Erland
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment MoLab.
    Svahn, Ola
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment MoLab.
    Bak, Søren
    Danmark.
    Bekoe, Samuel Oppong
    Ghana.
    Hansen, Martin
    USA.
    Pharmaceutical residues affecting the UNESCO biosphere reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike wetlands: sources and sinks2016In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 423-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is the first to investigate the pharmaceutical burden from point sources affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden. The investigated Biosphere Reserve is a >1000 km(2) wetland system with inflows from lakes, rivers, leachate from landfill, and wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). We analysed influent and treated wastewater, leachate water, lake, river, and wetland water alongside sediment for six model pharmaceuticals. The two WWTPs investigated released pharmaceutical residues at levels close to those previously observed in Swedish monitoring exercises. Compound-dependent WWTP removal efficiencies ranging from 12 to 100 % for bendroflumethiazide, oxazepam, atenolol, carbamazepine, and diclofenac were observed. Surface-water concentrations in the most affected lake were ≥100 ng/L for the various pharmaceuticals with atenolol showing the highest levels (>300 ng/L). A small risk assessment showed that adverse single-substance toxicity on aquatic organisms within the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve is unlikely. However, the effects of combinations of a large number of known and unknown pharmaceuticals, metals, and nutrients are still unknown.

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  • 35.
    Blücher, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Borgenstierna, Catharina
    Camanio Care AB.
    Lindborg, Ann-Louise
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Mat och måltidsteknik för ett hälsosamt och oberoende åldrande2018Book (Other academic)
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  • 36.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University.
    Attenuation of pharmaceutical substances: phytoremediation using constructed wetlands2018In: 13th Society of wetland scientists (SWS) Europe chapter meeting: management of wetland ecosystem services: issues, challenges and solutions, 2018, p. 19-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Currently, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) do not efficiently remove pharmaceutical substances (PS). Thus, such substances are now frequently found in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Also, concentrations of some PS in treated effluents exceed Environmental Quality Standards proposed by EU legislation. One resource-efficient option for increasing PS removal in WWTP effluents is to use constructed wetlands (CWs) as an attenuation step (Breitholtz et al. 2012; Li et al. 2014). However, very little research has been done on how to maximize the PS attenuation capacity of CWs. Therefore, a project with the aim to investigate reduction of different pharmaceutical substances in CWs with different vegetation compositions and water depths, was performed at the Experimental Wetland Area (EVA) located 20 km north of Halmstad, Sweden. 

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  • 37.
    Bohlin, Madeleine
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Faktorer som kan inverka på effektiviteten i dryckesbranschens produktutvecklingsarbete2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Product development and innovation is a systematic endeavor to generate new products. This is  a costly process and the small companies are extra vulnerable which makes the right work in product development of great importance. In terms of production, product development work is crucial for competitiveness. In line with increased globalisation, companies need to consider the dynamic and often changing market in order to survive. Having control of the product throughout the product development work creates opportunities for development and improvement, and thereby better utilisation of resources. Product development generates costs and resources for the companies, which means that it is becoming increasingly important to manage correctly from the outset, and onwards throughout the entire product development work. By making more efficient use of resources, a more sustainable production and product is created.

    Purpose

    The aim is to highlight some of the critical factors in smaller companies that may affect the efficiency of product development work within the beverage industry.

    Method

    A qualitative study made up of semi-structured interviews at five smaller beverage companies. The interviews lasted approximately 20 minutes. Information from the informers was recorded and transcribed, and later underwent thematic analysis. The companies were chosen on the basis of a target-driven selection. As the interviews were carried out in the form of a physical meeting, companies were chosen within a 6,2 miles radius of Malmö.

    Results

    The thematic analysis resulted in three themes, which were experiences, intelligence gathering and governability/control. These themes represent critical aspects where everyone can play a crucial role in product development work. Small businesses often influence their product development work through decisions based on previously acquired experience and knowledge and make informal decisions as problems and questions arise.

    Conclusion

    Governability/control, experiences and intelligence gathering are three critical factors that all influence the product development work. Small businesses often act on the basis of previous professional knowledge and experience when making decisions. This has caused increased costs, prolonged  product development work and given difficulties that required new decisions, which had a negative impact on the companies' product development work. Combining theoretical tools and practical experience are the most effective product development work. Intelligence gathering with an increased market and consumer orientation contributes to better product development work, together with decisions made with a increased degree of governability/control and with contributions from previous professional expertise.

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  • 38.
    Bohn, Pernille
    et al.
    Toxicology Laboratory, Analytical Biosciences, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen.
    Bak, Søren A.
    Eurofins Denmark A/S, Environment, Vejen.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment MoLab.
    Krogh, Kristine A.
    Toxicology Laboratory, Analytical Biosciences, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen.
    Hansen, Martin
    Toxicology Laboratory, Analytical Biosciences, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen.
    Abiotic degradation of antibiotic ionophores2013In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 182, p. 177-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrolytic and photolytic degradation were investigated for the ionophore antibiotics lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, and narasin. The hydrolysis study was carried out by dissolving the ionophores in solutions of pH 4, 7, and 9, followed by incubation at three temperatures of 6, 22, and 28 °C for maximum 34 days. Using LC–MS/MS for chemical analysis, lasalocid was not found to hydrolyse in any of the tested environments. Monensin, salinomycin, and narasin were all stable in neutral or alkaline solution but hydrolysed in the solution with a pH of 4. Half-lives at 25 °C were calculated to be 13, 0.6, and 0.7 days for monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, respectively. Absorbance spectra from each compound indicated that only lasalocid is degraded by photolysis (half-life below 1 h) due to an absorbance maximum around 303 nm, and monensin, salinomycin, and narasin are resistant to direct photolysis because they absorb light of environmentally irrelevant wavelengths.

  • 39.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE.
    Enger, Johanna
    Lunds Universitet.
    Hiller, Carolina
    RISE.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Bright Communication: Belysningskommunikation med fokus på perception och energi2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to promote an efficient use of energy for lighting, while putting the user'sperception and light comfort in focus, this project has developed methods and tools tocommunicate light and lighting. To ensure that light environments are designed from auser perspective, existing definitions of light quality, which are mainly based ontechnical terms, have been supplemented with concepts and definitions of visual andemotional character of light. The lighting industry and professional purchasers havebeen involved in all phases of the project in order to develop methods and tools that arewell-grounded and applicable by different actors involved in the process from lightplanning to the implementation of lighting environments.Lighting accounts for a significant part of the total energy use in buildings, about 20per cent for households and 40 per cent for premises. The energy saving potential isthus high. Moreover, Europe is facing a shift towards more energy efficient lighting as aresult of both regulations and technology development. Still, Swedish consumers tendto prefer incandescent light, as it is perceived to provide better comfort compared tomodern light sources. Therefore, in order to motivate property owners and consumersto convert to more energy-efficient products, it is necessary to focus more on the visualand emotional qualities of light. Today, however, knowledge, concepts and tools tocommunicate and measure visual light quality are lacking. This challenge has been themotivation and starting point for the development of methods for assessing objectiveand subjective light qualities for light sources, luminaires and light environmentswithin this project and to translate the results into tools targeting the industry.The project has developed a draft communication tool based on the human perceptionof light quality. The tool aims to constitute a neutral communication point and tosupports both the lighting industry and professional purchaser, and thus also the enduser. By reducing misunderstandings and increasing the consensus between actors indifferent parts of the process from light planning to implementation, the tool isexpected to promote light environments that are both energy-efficient and provideattractive perception and comfort.

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  • 40.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE.
    Enger, Johanna
    LTH/LU.
    Hiller, Carolina
    RISE.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    User-centric measuers of perceived light quality: development of tools to promote energy efficient lighting2018In: BEHAVE 2018: 5th European Conference on Behaviour and Energy Efficiency, / [ed] Hackenfort M, Carabias-Hütter V, Hartmann C, Janser M, Schwarz N and Stücheli-Herlach P, 2018, p. 59-60Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the research presented is to support the implementation of light environments that cater both energy efficiency and well-being by providing tools that support communication about perceived lighting quality between professionals in lighting design and procurement.

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  • 41.
    Bozorgi, Catherina
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Holleufer, Celina
    Danmark.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Saliva secretion and swallowing: impact of different types of food and drink on subsequent intake2020In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oral processing of food is important for eating and digestion in order to gain energy and nutrients. Due to disease, injury, or aging, individuals may experience difficulties in this process. These difficulties often lead to dysphagia, which is associated with malnutrition. Thus, it is of importance to find solutions and strategies to enable food intake. It is well known that sour and/or carbonated foods and drinks increase saliva secretion and trigger the swallowing reflex. However, knowledge regarding how subsequent food intake is impacted is lacking. The aim of this study was to clarify whether sour and/or carbonated foods and drinks had subsequent impacts on swallowing function. Twelve healthy participants evaluated eleven foods and drinks in terms of their ability to increase saliva production and ease the swallowing of subsequent food. Results showed that sourness and carbonation had positive impacts on saliva secretion and swallowing. No correlation was found between the pH/sourness of the foods and the ease of swallowing them. It was concluded that the ingestion of cherry tomatoes, natural yoghurt, and, in particular, citrus juice made swallowing of a neutral cracker easier. These results may be used to increase food intake among dysphagia patients.

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  • 42.
    Brink, Ebba
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Wamsler, Christine
    Lund University.
    Adolfsson, Maria
    Trelleborg Municipal.
    Axelsson, Monica
    Kristianstad Municipal.
    Beery, Thomas H.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    Bjorn, Helena
    Lomma Municipal.
    Bramryd, Torleif
    Lund University.
    Ekelund, Nils
    Malmö University.
    Jephson, Therese
    SALA.
    Narvelo, Widar
    Helsingborg Municipal.
    Ness, Barry
    lund University.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Palo, Thomas
    SLU Umeå.
    Sjeldrup, Magnus
    Bjuv Municipal.
    Stalhammar, Sanna
    Lund University.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Lomma Municipal.
    On the road to 'research municipalities': analysing transdisciplinarity in municipal ecosystem services and adaptation planning2018In: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 765-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transdisciplinary research and collaboration is widely acknowledged as a critical success factor for solution-oriented approaches that can tackle complex sustainability challenges, such as biodiversity loss, pollution, and climate-related hazards. In this context, city governments' engagement in transdisciplinarity is generally seen as a key condition for societal transformation towards sustainability. However, empirical evidence is rare. This paper presents a self-assessment of a joint research project on ecosystem services and climate adaptation planning (ECOSIMP) undertaken by four universities and seven Swedish municipalities. We apply a set of design principles and guiding questions for transdisciplinary sustainability projects and, on this basis, identify key aspects for supporting university-municipality collaboration. We show that: (1) selecting the number and type of project stakeholders requires more explicit consideration of the purpose of societal actors' participation; (2) concrete, interim benefits for participating practitioners and organisations need to be continuously discussed; (3) promoting the 'inter', i.e., interdisciplinary and inter-city learning, can support transdisciplinarity and, ultimately, urban sustainability and long-term change. In this context, we found that design principles for transdisciplinarity have the potential to (4) mitigate project shortcomings, even when transdisciplinarity is not an explicit aim, and (5) address differences and allow new voices to be heard. We propose additional guiding questions to address shortcomings and inspire reflexivity in transdisciplinary projects.

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  • 43.
    Bustos, Atma-Sol
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Lund University.
    Linares-Pasten, Javier A.
    Lund University.
    Penarrieta, Jose M.
    Bolivia.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Lund University.
    Interaction between phenolic compounds and lipase: the influence of solubility and presence of particles in the IC50 value2018In: Journal of Food Science, ISSN 0022-1147, E-ISSN 1750-3841, Vol. 83, no 8, p. 2071-2076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is one of the principal human health problems and one of the main treatments against it is the inhibition of pancreatic lipase, the main responsible enzyme of lipid digestion. For that purpose, previous studies have tested several phenolic compounds against lipase, without considering their aggregation behavior in aqueous solutions. Because of this, the present study focuses on understanding how the solubility and the presence of particles affect the IC50 value of the interaction between lipase and phenolic compounds present in beverages like fruit juices and teas. Therefore, the inhibitory capacity against pancreatic lipase and the aggregate formation of 9 phenolic compounds (quercetin, rutin, myricetin, catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, cyanidin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and vanillic acid) were analyzed. The results obtained together with the solubility data from literature were treated by principal component analysis and indicate that the IC50 value does not correlate with the solubility or aggregate formation of the phenolic compounds. However, the IC50 values of phenolic compounds which aggregate during the assay conditions have low reproducibility. This study shows that the aggregate formation of phenolic compounds plays an important role during in vitro assays for pancreatic lipase inhibition and should be considered in future experiments as it can lead to false positive results. In terms of particle formation, the flavonoids investigated in this study are more prone to aggregation compared to the phenolic acids.

  • 44.
    Cardegård, Fanny
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Alléer i Östergötlands län: alléers utbredning och förändring mellan 1868-1877 och idag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Avenues are a landscape element that consist of both nature and culture and that’s been planted by man for various reason. The Swedish avenues reduces because of that the Trafikverket and the Riksantikvarieämbetet wishes to develop a national basis for avenues. In Östergötland there is no compilation of avenues in historical time because of that the purpose of the study is to examine avenues spread and continuity in Östergötland from 1868 until today. Avenues has the greatest occurence in the flat country. Avenues belonging to manor or factory had changed least from the period 1868-1877 until today which is probably due to avenues belonging to manor or factory already was common under the period 1868-1877. Approach avenues leading to farms has increased in the districts since 1868-1877 which can be linked to the agriculture shiftreform that changed the landscape in the late 19th century and gave rise to avenue plantings in the county. Today’sk avenues are avenues witch mixed tree species uppermost occurring.

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  • 45.
    Casas, Monica Escolà
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Hansen, Martin
    Danmark.
    Krogh, Kristine A.
    Danmark.
    Styrishave, Bjarne
    Danmark.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment MoLab.
    Analytical sample preparation strategies for the determination of antimalarial drugs in human whole blood, plasma and urine2014In: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 962, p. 109-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antimalarial drugs commonly referred to as antimalarials, include a variety of compounds with different physicochemical properties. There is a lack of information on antimalarial distribution in the body over time after administration, e.g. the drug concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and urine, which must be improved in order to advance curing the parasitic disease malaria. A key problem also lies in that pharmacokinetic studies not always are performed in patient groups that may benefit most of the treatment such as children, pregnancy and lower-weight ethnic populations. Here we review the available sample preparation strategies combined with liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis to determine antimalarials in whole blood, plasma and urine published over the last decade. Sample preparation can be done by protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction or dilution. After LC separation, the preferred detection tool is tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) but other detection methods have been used e.g. UV, fluorescence and electrochemical detection. Major trends for sample preparation of the different groups of antimalarials for each matrix and its detection have been summarized. Finally, the main problems that the researchers have dealt with are highlighted. This information will aid analytical chemists in the development of novel methods for determining existing antimalarials and upcoming new drugs

  • 46.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Mat, måltid, hälsa i 24-timmarsperspektivet. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Krypskytte mot vetenskapen äventyrar folkhälsosatsningar2016In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 113Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47.
    Chen, Eric Zhi
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Some new binary codes with improved minimum distances2018In: Journal of Algebra Combinatorics Discrete Structures and Applications, ISSN 2148-838X, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 65-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been well-known that the class of quasi-cyclic (QC) codes contain many good codes. In thispaper, a method to conduct a computer search for binary 2-generator QC codes is presented, anda large number of good 2-generator QC codes have been obtained. 5 new binary QC codes thatimprove the lower bounds on minimum distance are presented. Furthermore, with new 2-generatorQC codes and Construction X, 2 new improved binary linear codes are obtained. With the standardconstruction techniques, another 16 new binary linear codes that improve the lower bound on theminimum distance have also been obtained.

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  • 48.
    Chen, Qinqing
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Su, Xiao
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Improve Improper Load Distribution with Backpack2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the distribution of backpack pressure on human body. We have noticed two interesting situations: whether the length of different backpack shoulder straps will change the pressure distribution of the backpack on the human body and whether different positions of the backpack load will change the pressure distribution of the backpack on the human body. To find the answer, we designed a backpack pressure detection system to collect data and use engineering software to analyse the data.We got the range that best fits the human body and the healthiest backpack: when the distance from the top of the backpack to the shoulder is about 1/5 of the length of the shoulder and the weight of the backpack is at the bottom of the backpack. At this time, the force of the three parts of the human body (shoulders, back) is the most uniform and relatively minimal. If the user wants to minimize the pressure on the shoulder, the shoulder strap of the backpack should be as short as possible. If the user only wants the pressure on the back to be minimal, the weight in the backpack is closer to the back, which is better for the back.

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    Improve Improper Load Distribution with Backpack
  • 49.
    Chong, Irene
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Grönsaker som har beretts på olika sätt: en studie av grönsaksgillande hos barn2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The intake of vegetables is low in children in Sweden, which means that they do not reach the recommended intake of 500 grams per day. From a sustainability and health perspective, it is important to find out how the intake of vegetables could be increased. Vegetable preparation and texture are important factors that can affect the intake of vegetables in children.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate if the method of preparation affects children's liking of vegetables. With the goal of sustainable eating habits, three different vegetables are examined that have been prepared in four different ways.

    Materials and methods: Vegetables that were used in this study were cucumber, kohlrabi and Chinese radish. In order to find out the children's liking for the vegetables that were prepared in four different ways, a sensory acceptance test was used. The test was performed by 120 students aged 10 to 15 years old.

    Results: Vegetables that were prepared raw were the vegetables that the respondents generally liked the most. In particular, the crispiness of raw vegetables was well-liked, and many children expressed a desire to eat them again. The children liked raw cucumber the most. There was a significant difference between boys and girls regarding the vegetable products which meant that girls had a higher degree of liking regarding the crispness of the vegetables and more frequently stated that they wanted to eat them again. The majority of the children had never heard of kohlrabi or Chinese radish.

    Conclusion: In this study, it has shown that children like raw and crispy vegetables. Non-familiar vegetables such as kohlrabi and radish are more liked when they are raw, but not if they are prepared with non-familiar methods. Preparing vegetables raw, in comparison with the other preparation methods studied, increased children’s liking, which can lead to an increased consumption of vegetables and increase sustainable eating habits and consumption.

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  • 50.
    Collin, Betty
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Experimental evaluation of survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in fertilized cold-water sediment2020In: Journal of Applied Microbiology, ISSN 1364-5072, E-ISSN 1365-2672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: This experimental study focuses on survival and consistence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in cold water sediments and how increasing temperature and nutritional availability can affect growth.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: A pathogenic strain of V. parahaemolyticus was inoculated in seawater microcosms containing bottom sediment. Gradually, during 14 days, the temperature was upregulated from 8 to 21°C. Culturable V. parahaemolyticus were only found in the sediment but declined over time and did not recover even after another two days at 37°C. Numbers of culturable bacteria matched the amount found by q-PCR indicating that they did not enter a dormant state, contrary to those in the water layer. After adding decaying phytoplankton as fertilizer to the microcosms of 8 and 21°C for 7 and 14 days, the culturability of the bacteria increased significantly in the sediments at both temperatures and durations of exposure.

    CONCLUSION: The study showed that V. parahaemolyticus can stay viable in cold water sediment and growth was stimulated by fertilizers rather than by temperature.

    SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: V. parahaemolyticus is a common cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis and is today recognized in connection to increasing ocean temperature. The results indicate that this pathogen should be considered a risk in well-fertilized environments, such as aquacultures, even during cold periods.

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