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  • 1.
    Ahnfelt, Nils-Otto
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Assessing sensory properties of the early modern medicine “Elixir amarum Hiaernei”2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    We are reworking the early modern medicine with focus on products, today known as Swedish Bitters or similar names, and historically as “Elixir amarum Hiaernei”. The history of the recipe dates back at least to mid-18th century. It was probably one of the Hiaerne-brothers, Ulrik Leonhard (1712-1758) or Christian Henric (1709-1794), who invented this universal medication. From a number of Linnaeus sources from later 18th century it is well known that odor, flavor and taste were used to assess pharmacological potential of medicinal herbals.

    The purpose of this study was to assess ingredients of “Elixir amarum Hiaernei” from a sensory perspective.      

    Methods

    The ingredients in “Elixir amarum Hiaernei” according to the 18th century recipes: agarikon, aloe, gentian, myrrh, rhubarb, saffron, Theriac Andromachalis, zedoary together with alcohol and sugar.

    These ingredients were assessed by a trained sensory panel using a slightly modified version of the Flavor Profile Method®. Each ingredient was evaluated with respect to odor, taste and flavor.

    Results

    All ingredients were intense in taste, flavor and odor. The ingredients could be described due to its sensory characteristics, in which they differed largely. However, they had in common that they were high in bitterness.

    Discussion

    The ingredients of this historic medication had intense tastes, flavors and odors in line with historical sources. It points for example out that the senses, especially olfaction, was of high importance for the apothecary during the 18th century. In order to find the right blend of ingredients the sensory profiles were of highest importance, both ingredients and blended medication were valuated due to this by physicians as well as patients. Sensory evaluation was also of major importance in the quality assessment of medical herbals by the early modern apothecary.

     

    Sensory profiles of the medical ingredients will be presented at the Eurosense symposium.

  • 2.
    Al-Galby, Mohamed
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Arezou, Madani
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Hardware Root of Trust for Linux Based Edge Gateway2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Linux-based Edge Gateways that connects hundreds or maybe thousands of IoT devices, are exposed to various threats and cyber-attacks from the internet. These attacks form a considerable risk targeting the privacy and confidentiality of IoT devices throughout their gateways. Many researches and studies have been conducted to alleviate such a problem. One of the solutions can be achieved by building a root of trust based on a hardware module such as Trusted Platform Module (TPM) or software like Trusted Execution Environment (TEE). In this work, we provide a solution to the problem by enabling Hardware Root of Trust (HRoT) using TPM on a product from HMS Industrial Network AB known as GWen board, a Linux-based embedded system, used as gateway to connect IoT devices. We describe a method that uses the processor of the GWen (i.e. Zynq-7020 FPGA SoC) to enable secure boot. Besides, we provide a method to enable the TPM chip mounted on the GWen (i.e. SLB 9670 TPM 2.0) using TPM Software Stack TSS 2.0. We demonstrated, in detail, various use-cases using the TPM on GWen including cryptographic keys generation, secure key storage and key usage for different cryptographic operations. Furthermore, we conducted an analysis to the adopted solution by inspecting the latency of TPM commands on the GWen gateway. According to the high restrictions of TPM 2.0 specifications and based on our results, adding the TPM 2.0 to the IoT gateway GWen will enhance the security of its Linux distribution and will makes it possible to securely identify and authenticate the gateway on the network based on its secret keys that are stored securely inside its TPM.

  • 3.
    Alhuttaitawi, Saif
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Storage System for Harvested Energy in IoT Sensors2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents an energy system design for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) after applying our design the WSN should theoretically have an infinite lifetime. Energy harvesting sources can provide suitable energy for WSN nodes and reduce their dependence on battery. In this project, an efficient energy harvesting and storage system is proposed. By using (two supercapacitors and four DC/DC converters with step up /step down capabilities) all of them controlled by Microcontroller via switches to consider the best way to save energy to keep the WSN alive as long as possible. The usage of supercapacitors as an energy buffer to supply the sensor components (microcontroller and radio) with energy it needs to work. We could control the energy flow according to a specific voltage levels in supercapacitors to guaranty the full functionality for WSN with minimizing the loss of energy, and that’s leads to long time life for the wireless sensor node WSN. Another important thing we find in our experiment that is the inner leakage of the supercapacitor and how it has a critical effect on how long it can serve our system with energy. This paper contains on two theoretical sections (Part one and part two) which are based on literature reviews, and one experimental section (Part three) based on experimental building the prototype, coding and testing.

  • 4.
    Alwan, Dawid
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Texturskillnad i kyckling: påverkar ett tillskott av morötter och grönkål i fodret de sensoriska egenskaperna hos kyckling?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Being able to influence the sensory properties of chicken by affecting the feed during breeding, is an interesting concept that can lead to many possibilities. At Bosarp's farm just outside of Blentarp in Skåne they have tried to execute this concept by adding carrots and kale as a complement to the chicken’s basic diet.Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate whether carrot and kale, as a complement to the basal diet, affect the sensory characteristics of the chicken meat.Material and method: To achieve the aim of this study two different sensory differences tests have been applied, first a duo trio test and then a two paired sample test.Results: There were no differences regarding the appearance and taste characteristics between the samples of meat from chickens bred with or without the addition of carrots and kale in the feed, but there was a significant difference regarding the texture.Conclusion: There was a difference in texture, which was either due to the feeding, the cooking, the age of the chicken or handling of the chicken meat after slaughter.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Amanda
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Sidibé, Linnéa
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Stigande havsnivåers påverkan på kulturmiljöer och naturtyper: En studie längs Skånes kust och i Vellinge kommun2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stora klimatförändringar sker just nu globalt, en konsekvens av dessa förändringar är stigande havsnivåer längs kusterna. En förhöjd havsnivå kan utgöra ett hot mot lågt liggande miljöer och andra värden i anslutning till kusten. I Sverige har ingen tidigare studie gjorts på hur kulturmiljöer och naturtyper påverkas av klimatförändringar så som stigande havsnivåer. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka i vilken utsträckning kulturmiljöer och naturtyper längs Skånes kust kommer att påverkas av stigande havsnivåer på 1 m, 2 m och 3 m. Resultatet av den extensiva studien längs Skånes kust visar att det är flest kulturmiljöer som påverkas vid en förändrad havsnivå på 1 m i Vellinge och Lomma kommun, då 41 st respektive 15 st lämningar kommer att påverkas. De naturtyper som påverkas i störst omfattning längs Skånes kust är glasörtstränder, salta strandängar och strandängar vid Östersjön. Detaljstudien i Vellinge kommun visar att Riksantikvarieämbetets värderingsplattform är svår att applicera på kulturmiljöer utan lämpar sig bättre att applicera på enskilda objekt eftersom plattformens värderingsmall är för abstrakt för att identifiera och täcka in alla värden som en kulturmiljö omfattar. Länsstyrelsen i Västra Götalands åtgärdsförslag går att tillämpa olika bra beroende på kulturmiljön och vilka objekt den utgör. Även här är det lättare att tillämpa åtgärdsförslagen beroende på enskilda objekt, snarare än en hel kulturmiljö. Åtgärdsförslagen är svåra att applicera på naturtyper eftersom de flesta åtgärderna skulle skapa en barriär för växt- och djurlivet.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Eva
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Toxikologisk tillväxtstudie av sötvattenalgen Raphidocelis subcapitata: En jämförelse mellan flödescytometer NovoCyte och automatisk cellräknare TC202018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biological toxicity tests are performed by exposing a test organism to different concentrations of chemicals over a certain period of time. Results from acute studies are presented as EC50 (Effect Concentration, affecting 50% of the population). Tests used as a basis for risk assessments shall be performed in a quality acceptable way based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). The aim of this study was to study the toxic effect of potassium dichromate on unicellular green algae R. subcapitata, by counting cells with two different apparatus: flow cytometer and automatic cell counter. Additionally, to compare the EC50 mean values against the ISO 8692 value for control of test precision and to compare accuracy and analytical time of two methods. Potassium dichromate was used for growth inhibition in toxicity tests. The EC50 results showed no statistically significant difference between the two instruments (p = 0.47). The accuracy of acute toxicity analysis was confirmed as valid as both EC50 average measurement values compared to ISO 8692 value were found within the 95% confidence interval. When comparing the two methods of the study, greater spread was observed around the mean value in the cell count's results, where three EC50 values were outside 95% CI. The result of the flow cytometer had less spread and higher accuracy compared to the cell count. The study showed that flow cytometers could be used in future toxicological tests with algae, but several repeated tests are required to confirm the benefits of analysis with the flow cytometer.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Sebastian
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Lipemi-interferens vid mätning av Hb på Sysmex XN-10 och HemoCue Hb 201+2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Anemia can arise from either loss of erythrocytes or impaired production of new erythrocytes. In order to discover and evaluate the treatment of anemic patients, correct Hb measurements are important. A common method to measure Hb concentration is photometry in combination with chemical conversion of the Hb. Like all light-dependent methods this suffers from a vulnerability to turbidity that scatters light. Lipemia is a common cause of turbidity caused by e.g. recent intake of high fat foods, diabetes mellitus, liver or kidney disease, alcoholism and some drugs. Manufacturers of Hb analyzers use different methods to counter the influence of interference from lipemia on measurements. Sysmex XN-10 analyzers use a fat dissolving sheath fluid in its photometric channel (HGB) and HemoCue measures absorbance at a second wavelength to compensate for turbidity. Sysmex XN-10 also has an optic channel (HGB-O) for counting reticulocytes by measuring their nucleic acid and Hb content. At the same time this channel measures Hb equivalents of erythrocytes and gives a calculated value of Hb content in the entire sample. The aim of this study was to compare the photometric and the optical channels for measuring Hb concentration in whole blood. Both the Sysmex XN-10 channels were compared with HemoCue Hb 201+ when measuring Hb concentrations in lipemic samples. Plasma Hb concentration was determined for the corresponding samples in order to investigate correlation between elevation in Hb concentration with and without simulated lipemia and in the plasma after centrifugation. Samples analyzed at Skånes University Hospital in Lund during the month of November 2018 (n = 392) using both HGB and HGB-O on XN-10 were compared using Spearman's signed correlations coefficient. Lipemia was simulated by using the fat emulsion Intralipid in a total of 32 samples. Samples collected and analyzed on the previous day was used for the study. Each sample was split into one part with added Intralipid to form a lipemic sample and one part with NaCl-solution of the same volume as Intralipid in the lipemic sample. The differences between lipemic and non lipemic samples was tested for significance by the non-parametric Wilcoxons signed ranks test for each of the methods. Significance between the three methods was tested by using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. Level of significance was set to p < 0.05. The results showed good correlation between earlier test run on both HGB and HGB-O with a Spearman correlation score of 0,982.  A significant difference was found between lipemic and non lipemic samples with the photometric method (p < 0,001) but not the optical method (p = 0,11) on XN10. HemoCue Hb 201+ also showed a significant difference (p < 0,001) between lipemic and non lipemic samples but a lower median than HGB and less deviation than HGB-O. The median of HGB-O indicated that it was influenced the least by lipemia of the three methods but had the greatest deviation of the differences. The greater deviation of HGB-O values may have been caused by hemolysis since the method measures intra cellular Hb. HemoCue shows according to this study the slightest deviation of the three methods and a less heightened median value compared to HGB which confirms the methods suitability as complement to HGB when dealing with lipemic samples.

  • 8.
    Arponen, Omar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Realtids-PCR för påvisande av plasmidburen ampicillinresistens: Kartläggning av förekomst i vattenisolat från Helge Å, Kristianstad2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The antibiotic class β-lactams include drugs such as penicillins, cephalosporines, carbapenems and monobactams which mechanism of action is to inhibit cell-wall synthesis. Bacteria have developed several mechanisms to counter β-lactams. Bacteria can defend themselves from antibiotics by releasing enzymes that attack the antibiotic compound itself by hydrolysis, target alteration or redox reactions. Presence of antibiotics can also trigger a downregulation of genes coding for antibiotic binding proteins, as well as upregulation of proteins that serves as channel and pump proteins that ensure no accumulation of antibiotics occurs in the cytosol. The aim with the study was to investigate the presence of three plasmid-mediated genes (blaFOX, blaCIT(CMY-2) and blaMOX) coding for ampicillin resistance (pAmpC) in water isolates sampled from Helge River, Kristianstad. The detection of genes was done according to a previous optimized protocol for Real-Time PCR with SYBR™Green chemistry (duplex blaCIT(CMY-2)/blaMOX and singleplex blaFOX). The method proved not to be robust for multiplex PCR, only the singelplex for the gene blaFOX could produce valid results. 30 of 96 isolates were deemed as positive for the gene, whereas 27 of 79 were considered clinical relevant. Among the 27 isolates, 16 also harbored other genes for resistance (13 blaCTX-M, 2 blaOXA, 1 blaTEM and 1 blaSHV). One isolate carried on three resistancegenes (blaFOX, blaCTX-M och blaTEM). A majority of the positive isolates, 20 out of 27, were sampled near the pumpstation. The findings indicate that Helge river might be a reservoir for dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes.

  • 9.
    Arvidsson, Åke
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Westberg, Lars
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Fast transport for edge computing in 5G networks2018In: Proceedings of 2018 26th International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks (SoftCOM) / [ed] Dinko Begušić, Nikola Rožić, Joško Radić, and Matko Šarić, New York: IEEE Communications Society, 2018, p. 41-45Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider TCP performance for cloud servicesin 5G cellular networks and show that edge clouds offer the highest throughput, but that further improvements still arepossible. To this end we devise a concept where edge clouds connected directly to the radio access network can increase their transmission rates by relying on the built in re-transmissions (through quality of service features) and on the built in userfairness (through per-user buffers and scheduler policies). We use numerical examples from measurements in real networks to demonstrate that the concept is efficient and significantly improves the effective throughput beyond what placement alone can do, and we also outline possible further improvements.

  • 10.
    Arvidsson, Åke
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Westberg, Lars
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Transport bottlenecks of edge computing in 5G networks2019In: Journal of Communication Software and Systems, ISSN 1845-6421, E-ISSN 1846-6079, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 59-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider bottlenecks of TCP throughput in scenarios with edge clouds and 5G cellular networks. By numerical examples from measurements in real networks, we show that edge clouds indeed improve throughput but that several, nonnegligible bottlenecks remain. We therefore devise a concept where edge clouds connected directly to the radio access networkcan increase their transmission rates by relying on built in retransmissions (through quality of service features) and on the built in user fairness (through per-user buffers and scheduler policies). We then return to the numerical examples and show that our solution provides substantial gains and we concludeby identifying and discussing the remaining bottlenecks and the potential of an improved protocol.

  • 11.
    Augustsson, Johanna
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    De öppna fältens rationalisering i områden med olika ägarstruktur i nordöstra Helsingborg under perioden 1947–2017: Med fokus på trädrader och habitatöar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste 50 åren har intensifieringen av jordbruket ökat i takt med maskinernas framfart. Detta på bekostnad av att livsviktiga biotoper för djur och växter försvunnit, då åkerlandskapet blivit allt mer homogent. Skogen och jordbrukslandskapet är två av de artrikaste landskapstyperna och utgör idag störst hot för Sveriges rödlistade arter. Undersökningsområdet ligger i nordvästra Skånes åkerlandskap och uppsatsen behandlar jordbruksmarkens öppna fält och dess utveckling. Uppsatsen belyser även skillnader mellan små- och medelstora jordbruk jämfört med storjordbruk i ett område bestående av Fleninge, Kropp, Holk och Rosendal, belägna i nordöstra Helsingborgs kommun. Undersökningsområdet är intressant för att studera olika markägares förhållningssätt till jordbruksmarken. En GIS-analys över områdets landskapsutveckling av öppna fält, trädrader och habitatöar presenteras för åren 1947, 1965 och 2017. Analysen visar att medelstorleken på de öppna fälten, betesmarken och åkermarken i båda undersökningsområdena har mer än fördubblats på 70 år, med störst förändring på storjordbruket. Det syns även tydligt att antalet fält successivt minskat med åren då 197 fält har försvunnit på de små- och medelstora jordbruken samtidigt som 69 försvunnit i storjordbruksområdet. En genomsnittlig minskning av trädrader, med cirka 129 meter per år, sker på det små- och medelstora jordbruket, där minskningen är störst. Habitatöarna går från att ha varit vanligare inom storjordbruket till att merparten försvinner under undersökningsperiodens senare del. På det små- och medelstora jordbruket ökar antalet habitatöar även om en stor andel habitatöar avlägsnas, så tillkommer många. År 2017 finns totalt 99 habitatöar i undersökningsområdet, vilket innebär en minskning med cirka 0,4 habitatöar per år. Habitatöarna har dock varit svåra att analysera, detta ser dock ut att hänga samman med att glesa typer av trädrader tillkommer där, vilka enligt gängse kategoriseringskriterier inte räknas till trädrader utan blir individuella habitatöar. Denna utveckling har troligen en negativ inverkan på den biologiska mångfalden i området. Då minskning av habitat och biotoper är ett av de största hoten för biodiversiteten och arters utrotning är det grundläggande att jordbruket istället bidrar till bevarande av arter för en hållbar framtid.

  • 12.
    Beery, Thomas H.
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik. USA.
    Lekies, Kristi S.
    USA.
    Childhood collecting in nature: quality experience in important places2019In: Children's Geographies, ISSN 1473-3285, E-ISSN 1473-3277, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 118-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A need for a more specific understanding of childhood geographies has motivated an investigation of one activity, childhood collecting in nature. This study examined collecting behavior, places of collecting, and the relationship of these places to environmental connectedness in adulthood. Topophilia is presented as a guide to help consider why children collect in nature and to expand upon a limited understanding of collecting behavior. These ideas are explored with a mixed-method design strategy involving surveys and semi-structured interviews with a sample of Swedish university students. Results show collecting in nature to be a widespread, meaningful, and memorable experience in the formative years of participants. Results also demonstrate potential support for topophilia as a way to understand the childhood collecting nature phenomenon. Implications include recognition of the importance of family to support children’s engagement in the natural world and proximate access to nature as a critical aspect of childhood experience.

  • 13.
    Biörklund Helgesson, Maria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Gerberich, Johanna
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Höijer, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Mat, måltid, hälsa i 24-timmarsperspektivet.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Verksamhetsberättelse Mat- och Måltidsvetenskap 20182019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Året inleddes med en ny organisation för Högskolan Kristianstad och bildandetav fyra nya fakulteter. Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskapingår numera i Fakulteten för Naturvetenskap tillsammans med avdelningenför Datavetenskap och avdelningen för Miljö och biologi. Det varinte bara för HKR som det gångna året innebar organisatoriska förändringarutan även för vår avdelning.Bitte Müller Hansen gick i pension efter nästan tio år som programansvarigför Gastronomiprogrammet och avdelningschef. Bitte har betytt oerhörtmycket för utveckling av programmet och har lagt ner stort engagemangi såväl utbildningen, som i sina kontakter med studenter och medarbetsmarknaden.

  • 14.
    Blücher, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Borgenstierna, Catharina
    Camanio Care AB.
    Lindborg, Ann-Louise
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Mat och måltidsteknik för ett hälsosamt och oberoende åldrande2018Book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University.
    Attenuation of pharmaceutical substances: phytoremediation using constructed wetlands2018In: 13th Society of wetland scientists (SWS) Europe chapter meeting: management of wetland ecosystem services: issues, challenges and solutions, 2018, p. 19-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Currently, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) do not efficiently remove pharmaceutical substances (PS). Thus, such substances are now frequently found in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Also, concentrations of some PS in treated effluents exceed Environmental Quality Standards proposed by EU legislation. One resource-efficient option for increasing PS removal in WWTP effluents is to use constructed wetlands (CWs) as an attenuation step (Breitholtz et al. 2012; Li et al. 2014). However, very little research has been done on how to maximize the PS attenuation capacity of CWs. Therefore, a project with the aim to investigate reduction of different pharmaceutical substances in CWs with different vegetation compositions and water depths, was performed at the Experimental Wetland Area (EVA) located 20 km north of Halmstad, Sweden. 

  • 16.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE.
    Enger, Johanna
    LTH/LU.
    Hiller, Carolina
    RISE.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    User-centric measuers of perceived light quality: development of tools to promote energy efficient lighting2018In: BEHAVE 2018: 5th European Conference on Behaviour and Energy Efficiency, / [ed] Hackenfort M, Carabias-Hütter V, Hartmann C, Janser M, Schwarz N and Stücheli-Herlach P, 2018, p. 59-60Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the research presented is to support the implementation of light environments that cater both energy efficiency and well-being by providing tools that support communication about perceived lighting quality between professionals in lighting design and procurement.

  • 17.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE.
    Enger, Johanna
    Lunds Universitet.
    Hiller, Carolina
    RISE.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Bright Communication: Belysningskommunikation med fokus på perception och energi2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to promote an efficient use of energy for lighting, while putting the user'sperception and light comfort in focus, this project has developed methods and tools tocommunicate light and lighting. To ensure that light environments are designed from auser perspective, existing definitions of light quality, which are mainly based ontechnical terms, have been supplemented with concepts and definitions of visual andemotional character of light. The lighting industry and professional purchasers havebeen involved in all phases of the project in order to develop methods and tools that arewell-grounded and applicable by different actors involved in the process from lightplanning to the implementation of lighting environments.Lighting accounts for a significant part of the total energy use in buildings, about 20per cent for households and 40 per cent for premises. The energy saving potential isthus high. Moreover, Europe is facing a shift towards more energy efficient lighting as aresult of both regulations and technology development. Still, Swedish consumers tendto prefer incandescent light, as it is perceived to provide better comfort compared tomodern light sources. Therefore, in order to motivate property owners and consumersto convert to more energy-efficient products, it is necessary to focus more on the visualand emotional qualities of light. Today, however, knowledge, concepts and tools tocommunicate and measure visual light quality are lacking. This challenge has been themotivation and starting point for the development of methods for assessing objectiveand subjective light qualities for light sources, luminaires and light environmentswithin this project and to translate the results into tools targeting the industry.The project has developed a draft communication tool based on the human perceptionof light quality. The tool aims to constitute a neutral communication point and tosupports both the lighting industry and professional purchaser, and thus also the enduser. By reducing misunderstandings and increasing the consensus between actors indifferent parts of the process from light planning to implementation, the tool isexpected to promote light environments that are both energy-efficient and provideattractive perception and comfort.

  • 18.
    Brink, Ebba
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Wamsler, Christine
    Lund University.
    Adolfsson, Maria
    Trelleborg Municipal.
    Axelsson, Monica
    Kristianstad Municipal.
    Beery, Thomas H.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    Bjorn, Helena
    Lomma Municipal.
    Bramryd, Torleif
    Lund University.
    Ekelund, Nils
    Malmö University.
    Jephson, Therese
    SALA.
    Narvelo, Widar
    Helsingborg Municipal.
    Ness, Barry
    lund University.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Palo, Thomas
    SLU Umeå.
    Sjeldrup, Magnus
    Bjuv Municipal.
    Stalhammar, Sanna
    Lund University.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Lomma Municipal.
    On the road to 'research municipalities': analysing transdisciplinarity in municipal ecosystem services and adaptation planning2018In: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 765-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transdisciplinary research and collaboration is widely acknowledged as a critical success factor for solution-oriented approaches that can tackle complex sustainability challenges, such as biodiversity loss, pollution, and climate-related hazards. In this context, city governments' engagement in transdisciplinarity is generally seen as a key condition for societal transformation towards sustainability. However, empirical evidence is rare. This paper presents a self-assessment of a joint research project on ecosystem services and climate adaptation planning (ECOSIMP) undertaken by four universities and seven Swedish municipalities. We apply a set of design principles and guiding questions for transdisciplinary sustainability projects and, on this basis, identify key aspects for supporting university-municipality collaboration. We show that: (1) selecting the number and type of project stakeholders requires more explicit consideration of the purpose of societal actors' participation; (2) concrete, interim benefits for participating practitioners and organisations need to be continuously discussed; (3) promoting the 'inter', i.e., interdisciplinary and inter-city learning, can support transdisciplinarity and, ultimately, urban sustainability and long-term change. In this context, we found that design principles for transdisciplinarity have the potential to (4) mitigate project shortcomings, even when transdisciplinarity is not an explicit aim, and (5) address differences and allow new voices to be heard. We propose additional guiding questions to address shortcomings and inspire reflexivity in transdisciplinary projects.

  • 19.
    Bustos, Atma-Sol
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Lund University.
    Linares-Pasten, Javier A.
    Lund University.
    Penarrieta, Jose M.
    Bolivia.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Lund University.
    Interaction between phenolic compounds and lipase: the influence of solubility and presence of particles in the IC50 value2018In: Journal of Food Science, ISSN 0022-1147, E-ISSN 1750-3841, Vol. 83, no 8, p. 2071-2076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is one of the principal human health problems and one of the main treatments against it is the inhibition of pancreatic lipase, the main responsible enzyme of lipid digestion. For that purpose, previous studies have tested several phenolic compounds against lipase, without considering their aggregation behavior in aqueous solutions. Because of this, the present study focuses on understanding how the solubility and the presence of particles affect the IC50 value of the interaction between lipase and phenolic compounds present in beverages like fruit juices and teas. Therefore, the inhibitory capacity against pancreatic lipase and the aggregate formation of 9 phenolic compounds (quercetin, rutin, myricetin, catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, cyanidin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and vanillic acid) were analyzed. The results obtained together with the solubility data from literature were treated by principal component analysis and indicate that the IC50 value does not correlate with the solubility or aggregate formation of the phenolic compounds. However, the IC50 values of phenolic compounds which aggregate during the assay conditions have low reproducibility. This study shows that the aggregate formation of phenolic compounds plays an important role during in vitro assays for pancreatic lipase inhibition and should be considered in future experiments as it can lead to false positive results. In terms of particle formation, the flavonoids investigated in this study are more prone to aggregation compared to the phenolic acids.

  • 20.
    Cardegård, Fanny
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Alléer i Östergötlands län: alléers utbredning och förändring mellan 1868-1877 och idag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Avenues are a landscape element that consist of both nature and culture and that’s been planted by man for various reason. The Swedish avenues reduces because of that the Trafikverket and the Riksantikvarieämbetet wishes to develop a national basis for avenues. In Östergötland there is no compilation of avenues in historical time because of that the purpose of the study is to examine avenues spread and continuity in Östergötland from 1868 until today. Avenues has the greatest occurence in the flat country. Avenues belonging to manor or factory had changed least from the period 1868-1877 until today which is probably due to avenues belonging to manor or factory already was common under the period 1868-1877. Approach avenues leading to farms has increased in the districts since 1868-1877 which can be linked to the agriculture shiftreform that changed the landscape in the late 19th century and gave rise to avenue plantings in the county. Today’sk avenues are avenues witch mixed tree species uppermost occurring.

  • 21.
    Chen, Eric Zhi
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Some new binary codes with improved minimum distances2018In: Journal of Algebra Combinatorics Discrete Structures and Applications, ISSN 2148-838X, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 65-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been well-known that the class of quasi-cyclic (QC) codes contain many good codes. In thispaper, a method to conduct a computer search for binary 2-generator QC codes is presented, anda large number of good 2-generator QC codes have been obtained. 5 new binary QC codes thatimprove the lower bounds on minimum distance are presented. Furthermore, with new 2-generatorQC codes and Construction X, 2 new improved binary linear codes are obtained. With the standardconstruction techniques, another 16 new binary linear codes that improve the lower bound on theminimum distance have also been obtained.

  • 22.
    Chen, Qinqing
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Su, Xiao
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Improve Improper Load Distribution with Backpack2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the distribution of backpack pressure on human body. We have noticed two interesting situations: whether the length of different backpack shoulder straps will change the pressure distribution of the backpack on the human body and whether different positions of the backpack load will change the pressure distribution of the backpack on the human body. To find the answer, we designed a backpack pressure detection system to collect data and use engineering software to analyse the data.We got the range that best fits the human body and the healthiest backpack: when the distance from the top of the backpack to the shoulder is about 1/5 of the length of the shoulder and the weight of the backpack is at the bottom of the backpack. At this time, the force of the three parts of the human body (shoulders, back) is the most uniform and relatively minimal. If the user wants to minimize the pressure on the shoulder, the shoulder strap of the backpack should be as short as possible. If the user only wants the pressure on the back to be minimal, the weight in the backpack is closer to the back, which is better for the back.

  • 23.
    Czarnezki, Jason J.
    et al.
    USA.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Kuh, Katrina
    USA.
    Crafting next generation eco-label policy2018In: Environmental Law, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 409-452Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-labels present a promising policy tool in the effort to achieve sustainable consumption. Many questions remain, however, about the extent to which eco-labels can contribute to sustainability efforts and how to maximize their effectiveness. This Article deploys research from evolutionary psychology, behavioral law and economics, and norm theory to offer specific insights for the design and implementation of eco-labels to enhance their influence on sustainable consumer choice. Notably, this research suggests possibilities for ecolabels to shape or expand consumer preferences for green goods, and thereby enhance eco-label influence on consumer behavior by extending it beyond eco-minded consumers. We suggest that public exposure of the label (so that people see it) and the exposure of the purchasing behavior (so that other people can see that you have bought the product) are key elements to the success of eco-labels—the social context around product purchasing may be as important as the ecolabel itself. We recommend that behavioral insights be used to improve eco-labeling as traditionally understood by incorporating knowledge about behavioral tendencies into label design so as to allow for more accurate matching of consumers’ preexisting environmental preferences to eco-labeled goods, and develop next-generation ecolabeling policy with the potential to significantly expand the market for eco-labeled goods. Specifically, 1) Eco-labels could be purposefully designed and implemented to attract consumers motivated by social norms; 2) Eco-labels could appeal to a wider range of abstract norm alternate more broadly or locally accepted and strong abstract that are stronger and/or more broadly accepted or locally-salient; and 3) Ecolabels could highlight private, near and near-term benefits.

  • 24.
    Czernekova, Michaela
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Charles University, Prague.
    Janelt, Kamil
    Poland.
    Student, Sebastian
    Poland.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Poprawa, Izabela
    Poland.
    A comparative ultrastructure study of storage cells in the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer in the hydrated state and after desiccation and heating stress2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades represent an invertebrate phylum with no circulatory or respiratory system.Their body cavity is filled with free storage cells of the coelomocyte-type, which are responsible for important physiological functions. We report a study comparing the ultrastructure of storage cells in anhydrobiotic and hydrated specimens of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer. We also analysed the effect of temperature stress on storage cell structure. Firstly, we verified two types of ultrastructurally different storage cells, which differ in cellular organelle complexity, amount and content of reserve material and connection to oogenetic stage. Type I cells were found to differ ultrastructurally depending on the oogenetic stage of the animal. The main function of these cells is energy storage. Storage cells of Type I were also observed in the single male that was found among the analysed specimens. The second cell type, Type II, found only in females, represents young undifferentiated cells, possibly stem cells. The two types of cells also differ with respect to the presence of nucleolar vacuoles,which are related to oogenetic stages and to changes in nucleolic activity during oogenesis. Secondly, this study revealed that storage cells are not ultrastructurally affected by six months of desiccation or by heating following this desiccation period. However, heating of the desiccated animals (tuns) tended to reduce animal survival, indicating that longterm desiccation makes these animals more vulnerable to heat stress. We confirmed the degradative pathways during the rehydration process after desiccation and heat stress. Our study is the first to document two ultrastructurally different types of storage cells in tardigrades and reveals new perspectives for further studies of tardigrade storage cells.

  • 25.
    Czernekova, Michaela
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Czech republic.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Hajer, Jaromir
    Czech republic.
    Devetter, Miroslav
    Czech Republic..
    Evaluation of extraction methods for quantitative analysis of tardigrade populations in soil and leaf litter2018In: Pedobiologia, ISSN 0031-4056, E-ISSN 1873-1511, Vol. 70, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate quantitative analysis of soil tardigrades depends on a relevant extraction method. Over the years, a number of different methods have been used, but the efficiency of these methods has rarely been evaluated for soil and leaf litter tardigrades. Four methods of extraction were compared in this study: the light-cooling (L-C) extractor, the high-gradient (H-G), Baermann extractor, the non-gradient (N-G) Baermann extractor and sieves.The results indicate that light and temperature are significant factors influencing tardigrade extraction. The L-C and H-G extractors were more effective than sieves for all substrate categories. These extraction methods (L-C and H-G) therefore seem to be appropriate for quantitative studies of soil and leaf litter tardigrades.

  • 26.
    Dalby, Lars
    et al.
    Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University.
    Söderquist, Pär
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Christensen, Thomas K.
    Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University.
    Clausen, Preben
    Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University.
    Einarsson, Árni
    Myvatn Research Station, Iceland.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Fox, Anthony D.
    Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University.
    Holmqvist, Niklas
    Swedish Association for Hunting and Wildlife Management, Öster Malma, Nyköping.
    Langendoen, Tom
    Wetlands International, Wageningen.
    Lehikoinen, Aleksi
    Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki.
    Lindström, Åke
    Department of Biology,Biodiversity, Lund University.
    Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim.
    Nilsson, Leif
    Department of Biology, Biodiversity, Lund University.
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Joensuu Game and Fisheries Research.
    Sigfússon, Arnór Þ.
    Verkís, Reykjavik.
    Svenning, Jens-Christian
    Ecoinformatics & Biodiversity Group, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University.
    The status of the Nordic populations of the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in a changing world2013In: Ornis Fennica, ISSN 0030-5685, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 2-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) are importantmigratory quarry species, protected as a shared resource under international legislation. However, there is a lack of sufficient high-quality data on vital demographic rates and long-term trends in numbers to judge the conservation status of many duck populations at the flyway level. In response to reported declines in the North-West European flyway population of theMallard, we compiled available data on this species in the Nordic countries up to 2010. Generally, national breeding numbers showed increasing trends, wintering abundance showed variable trends, and productivitymeasures indicated stable or increasing trends.Major knowledge gaps were identified, namely the size of hunting bags, the influence of the released Mallards and the role of short-stopping in explaining changing patterns of wintering abundance across the North-West European flyway. Numerically the Nordic breeding population appears in “good condition”, and the wintering numbers have been either stable or increasing in the last two decades. The annual number of releases needs to be determined in order to judge the sustainability of the current levels of exploitation. Overall, none of the indicators showed alarming signs for the Mallard population in the Nordic countries when considered in isolation. However, the widespread decline in wintering numbers elsewhere across North-western Europe requires urgent pan-European action.

  • 27.
    Dessborn, Lisa
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Bidrar gäss och svanar  till övergödning av våtmarker?2018In: Fakta för förvaltare: gäss och svanar: kunskapssammanställning om bete, övergödning, smittspridning och skyddsjakt / [ed] Johan Elmberg & Johan Månsson, Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket , 2018, p. 33-47Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    • Swans and geese occur in larger numbers near more people than ever before, in Sweden as well as in Western Europe.

    • Increasing populations sometimes lead to problems and conflicts. On agricultural land geese and swans can cause costly damage to growing crops. Intense grazing by these birds may also affect natural vegetation, sometimes leading to conflict with conservation and biodiversity goals.

    • Geese and swans are obligate herbivores, consuming leaves, stems, seeds and root parts of terrestrial and aquatic plants.

    • Grazing on growing crops may cause conflicts of interest also when geese and swans congregate in large numbers in wetlands adjacent to cropland.

    • Geese and swans provide a multitude of ecosystem services, for example viewing, hunting, meat, and eco-tourism revenues. GEESE AND SWANS AS VECTORS OF NUTRIENTS

    • Geese and swans eat large amounts of plant material, have a relatively inefficient digestive system, and produce a lot of droppings.

    • These birds find most of their food on land, but spend a large part of the day  resting on wetlands, where they also defecate.

    • In autumn, winter and spring most geese and swans make daily flights between feeding and roost sites, thereby becoming vectors of nutrients to wetlands and lakes

  • 28.
    Devlin, Yuka
    et al.
    England.
    Nicholl, G
    England.
    McRoberts, C
    England.
    Johnston, C
    England.
    Rosenqvist, Dahn
    Laqua Treatment AB, Sweden,.
    Svensson, Britt-Marie
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    Mårtensson, Lennart
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    On site landfill leachate treatment: investigations into economical and environmental sustainable systmes for Northern Ireland2017In: Ebook: Proceedings of 11th European Waste Water Management Conference, 2017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the potential for the Swedish Laqua system to be used as a sustainable method for on-site landfill leachate management in Northern Ireland, specifically the potential to use locally sourced filter materials from Northern Ireland as part of the filter system. Four carbon containing ashes and four types of peat were tested over a 24 hours period by a shaking test with untreated landfill leachate. Considering the results of this screening test, and the economical and sustainable supply of filter materials, one combination of ash and peat was selected to be column tested. Column testing with artificial leachate containing 7 organic pollutants (3 PAHs and 4 PCBs) and 9 inorganic pollutants showed that locally sourced filter materials effectively removed both organic and inorganic pollutants. A subsequent column test with landfill leachate for 13 weeks demonstrated it was feasible to apply the Laqua system with economical locally sourced filter materials.

  • 29.
    Djerf, Henric
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Lacoursière, Jean O
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Mårtensson, Lennart
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Can wetlands reduce humic substances in forested streams: combining two approaches to characterize efficiency2018In: Book of abstracts: Linnaeus ECO-TECH '18, 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Establishing statistical significance in assessing wetland performance can be quite challenging when reduction in the monitored substance is very small and temporarily variable. Assessing colour changes associated with humic substances is such a situation. One of the most important parameters of any evaluation of wetland treatment performances is the retention time of the water before it exit the wetland. This can be theoretically estimated, but even better measured directly with the help of a tracing agent. In this research, the approach is based on the simultaneously assessment of hydraulic retention time using conservative tracing (Rhodamine WT) and a mass balance based removal efficiency assessment (regression slope of the summation mass-in vs. summation mass-out).

  • 30.
    Elhassan, Mohammed
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap. University of Copenhagen.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Langton, Maud
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Quality aspects of insects as food: nutritional, sensory, and related concepts2019In: Foods, E-ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 8, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n the search for another appealing source of future food to cover the increasing need for nutrients of a growing global population, this study reviewed the potential of insects as human food. Most previous reviews have dealt with insects as a group, making it difficult to evaluate each individual insect species as food because of the generalized data. This study assessed some common edible insects, but concentrated on mealworms. Insects, especially mealworms, have a similar or higher nutritional value than many conventional food sources. For example, the protein content of mealworm larvae is reported to be almost 50% of dry weight, while the fat content is about 30% of larval dry weight. Mealworms can be cooked by different methods, such as hot air drying, oven broiling, roasting, pan frying, deep frying, boiling, steaming, and microwaving. Oven broiling in particular gives a desirable aroma of steamed corn for consumers. Changes in the flavor, taste, and texture of mealworm products during storage have not been studied, but must be determined before mealworms can be used as a commercial food source. Factors controlling the shelf-life of mealworms, such as their packaging and storage, should be identified and considered with respect to the feasibility of using mealworms on a commercial scale.

  • 31.
    Elhassan, Mohammed
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Langton, Maud
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Review paper: the appeal of insects as human food -with emphasis on mealworm texture, taste, and flavor2019In: International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, ISSN 1878-450X, E-ISSN 1878-4518, Vol. 8, no 95, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the search for another appealing source of future food to cover the increasing need fornutrients of a growing global population, this study reviewed the potential of insects as humanfood. Most previous reviews have dealt with insects as a group, making it difficult to evaluate eachindividual insect species as food because of the generalized data. This study assessed some commonedible insects, but concentrated on mealworms. Insects, especially mealworms, have a similar orhigher nutritional value than many conventional food sources. For example, the protein content ofmealworm larvae is reported to be almost 50% of dry weight, while the fat content is about 30% oflarval dry weight. Mealworms can be cooked by different methods, such as hot air drying, ovenbroiling, roasting, pan frying, deep frying, boiling, steaming, and microwaving. Oven broiling inparticular gives a desirable aroma of steamed corn for consumers. Changes in the flavor, taste, andtexture of mealworm products during storage have not been studied, but must be determined beforemealworms can be used as a commercial food source. Factors controlling the shelf-life of mealworms,such as their packaging and storage, should be identified and considered with respect to the feasibilityof using mealworms on a commercial scale.

  • 32.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Goose poop in the park2018In: Bottom Line Health, ISSN 1092-0129, Vol. 32, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Rekordmånga lyckade häckningar av vitrygg2018In: Vår fågelvärld, ISSN 0042-2649, Vol. 77, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Berg, Charlotte
    Lerner, Henrik
    Sprider gäss och svanar smittsamma sjukdomar?2018In: Fakta för förvaltare: gäss och svanar: kunskapssammanställning om bete, övergödning, smittspridning och skyddsjak / [ed] Johan Elmberg & Johan Månsson, Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket , 2018, p. 49-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    • Swans and geese occur in larger numbers near more people than ever before, in Sweden as well as in Western Europe.

    • Increasing populations sometimes lead to problems and conflicts. On agricultural land geese and swans can cause costly damage to growing crops. Intense grazing by these birds may also affect natural vegetation, sometimes leading to conflict with conservation and biodiversity goals.

    • Geese and swans are obligate herbivores, consuming leaves, stems, seeds and  root parts of terrestrial and aquatic plants. • Grazing on growing crops may cause conflicts of interest also when geese and swans congregate in large numbers in wetlands adjacent to cropland.

    • Geese and swans provide a multitude of ecosystem services, for example viewing, hunting, meat, and eco-tourism revenues. GEESE AND SWANS AS VECTORS OF DISEASE

    • A large number of disease agents has been recorded in geese and swans, viz. viruses, bacteria and unicellular parasites. • Some of these have the capacity to infect other bird species and mammals.

    • Geese and swans are highly mobile and often occur close to humans and in our agricultural landscape. As a consequence, they are sometimes suspected of  transmitting disease to livestock and humans

  • 35.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Månsson, JohanSveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Fakta för förvaltare: gäss och svanar: kunskapssammanställning om bete, övergödning, smittspridning och skyddsjakt2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    GÄSSEN I SVERIGE blir allt fler. De flesta gåsarter ökar i antal och med växande populationer ökar också konflikterna mellan samhällsintressen och människor som berörs av gässen. Ändrade flyttningsmönster är ett annat exempel på hur  förutsättningarna för förvaltningen av gäss och svanar påverkas. I den strategi för svensk viltförvaltning som Naturvårdsverket har tagit fram betonas en förvaltning byggd på kvalitetssäkrad kunskap och förvaltningen av gäss är ett bra exempel på vikten av aktuell kunskap när omständigheterna förändras. Viltstrategin beskriver de vägval som Naturvårdsverket avser att genomföra för att utveckla och stärka Sveriges viltförvaltning fram till år 2020. Bland annat ska arbetet med att förebygga skador och andra problem som vilt orsakar utvecklas, tillsammans med övriga berörda organisationer. Strategin betonar också att svensk viltförvaltning ska bygga på den bästa tillgängliga kunskapen och att Naturvårdsverket har ett stort ansvar för att se till att aktuell kunskap kommer till användning. Forskarna Johan Elmberg och Johan Månsson har på uppdrag av Naturvårdsverkets vetenskapliga kommitté för viltforskning gjort en litteraturöversikt om befintlig kunskap om gäss och om framtida kunskapsbehov. Kunskapssammanställningen ligger också till grund för ett större gåsforskningsprojekt under ledning av Johan Elmberg och Johan Månsson, med start 2017. I Naturvårdsverkets arbete med att ta fram vetenskapligt underlag till stöd för viltförvaltningen är gåsprojektet en viktig pusselbit som är tänkt att under de kommande åren kunna ge ytterligare kunskap till en gåsförvaltning i förändring. Författarna svarar ensamma för rapportens innehåll, slutsatser och rekommendationer

  • 36.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Olsson, Camilla
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Månsson, Johan
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Gäss i jordbrukslandskapet: utmaningar och möjligheter2018In: Man and biosphere health: en komplett akademisk miljö / [ed] A-S Rehnstam-Holm, Kristianstad: Högskolan Kristianstad , 2018, p. 34-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Söderquist, Pär
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Utsatta änder inte som vilda2018In: Svensk Jakt, no 10, p. 51-51Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Tombre, Ingunn
    Påverkar betande gäss och svanar jordbruket2018In: Fakta för förvaltare: gäss och svanar: kunskapssammanställning om bete,övergödning, smittspridning och skyddsjakt / [ed] Johan Elmberg & Johan Månsson, Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket , 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swans and geese occur in larger numbers near more people than ever before,  in Sweden as well as in Western Europe.

    • Increasing populations sometimes lead to problems and conflicts. On agricultural land geese and swans can cause costly damage to growing crops. Intense grazing by these birds may also affect natural vegetation, sometimes leading to conflict with conservation and biodiversity goals.

    • Geese and swans are obligate herbivores, consuming leaves, stems, seeds and root parts of terrestrial and aquatic  plants.

    • Grazing on growing crops may cause conflicts of interest also when geese and swans congregate in large numbers in wetlands adjacent to  cropland.

    • Geese and swans provide a multitude of ecosystem services, for example viewing, hunting, meat, and eco-tourism revenues.

    GEESE AND SWANS AS   HERBIVORES

    • As their diet is very rich in fibres and water, geese and swans must consume large amounts of plant material in order to obtain enough nutrients (mainly proteins and carbohydrates).

    • Geese and swans have a highly developed capability to assess the nutrient compo- sition of different species and parts of plants. This is true for proteins and easily digestible carbohydrates, and also for components that are hard to digest or unpala- table. As a consequence, these birds are very selective feeders, if given a   choice.

    • Nutrient needs vary over the year; in autumn and spring relatively more proteins are consumed, whilst plants rich in energy are favoured in winter.

    • In general, agricultural crops contain more nutrients than the natural food plants of geese and swans. As a result, feeding on agricultural land is almost always marter choice’ for them.

  • 39.
    Enehall, Josefine
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    ”Jag tänker mycket på min hälsa, men inte så mycket på vad som är nyttigt.”: Unga kvinnors syn på relationen mellan kost och hälsa2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interest around healthy food seems to be larger than ever. Daily we receive different advice from experts, bloggers, authority and friends who tell us what we should eat to achieve good health. The advice is often different depending who the sender is. This could lead to a confused image of health and what dietary advice you as a consumer should follow.

    The aim of this study is to examine young women’s view of what characterizes a healthy diet. The purpose is to obtain a deeper understanding around different perceptions regarding the relation between food and health.

    This study includes a qualitative method and focus groups. The data has been analyzed through Belasco’s theory about the culinary triangle of contradictions.

    The results show that healthy food is a balance between for example the enjoyable and the forbidden. The women have a subjective perception of what they consider healthy and the concept is therefore characterized by an individual interpretation. Furthermore healthy food is seen as something that is homemade. The results also show that healthy food is a pressure. For example the informants are experiencing demands to perform and anxiety regarding eating in a particular way. The women receive their information from different sources, but depend mostly on their own assessments. Factors that have an impact on the choice of food for the young women are mainly linked to identity and responsibility for the environment and their own health.

    Based on this study conclusions can be drawn that healthy food is perceived individually different. What is seen as healthy varies between individuals. To achieve balance and well being young women create their own picture of health. Based on public advice and advice from family and friends, women form a personal view of healthy food, which is seen as most reliable. It can thus be seen as a challenge for authorities to reach out to the public with evidence based advices regarding health and food. 

  • 40.
    Ersgård, Henrik
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Naturens vandringshinder är kulturens dammar: Kulturmiljöernas betydelse vid restaurering av vattendrag med exempel från Hallstahammars kommun, Västmanlands län2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is focusing on Kolbäcksåns lower part in Hallstahammar municipality, Västmanlands county in Sweden, aiming on how cultural heritage and it’s importance is treated when changes in the landscape is about to be done. Many of the historic free rivers has due to dams been divided, and the water has gone from rapid to still. If changes is about to be done to acchive approved ecological status, the risk on damaging the cultural heritage sites is palpable. Data, that’s been analyzed, has been collected through interviews with respondents from five instances in Västmanlands county. The Majority of the answers analysed reveals that a cultural heritage site is definied by the affect made by humans, that there is a historical connection and that the site is seen as a unit in the landscape. A cultural heritage site is affected whilst a natural environment site can be both affected and non-affected. When landscape changes that affects cultural heritage sites is performed, it reveals that different interests are colliding and the importance of an early collaboration between interests is performed. The thematic analyze of the answers from the interviews revealed several potential indications on conflicts and potential solutions.  

  • 41.
    Filipsen, Nadja
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Tidfält Braun, Rebecka
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Ekens historiska utbredning och kvalitet i Lösen socken, Blekinge län: en studie utifrån ekinventeringsprotokoll från år 1819 och 18322018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljöer med äldre ekar hyser höga naturvärden och är viktiga för den biologiska mångfalden. Under århundraden var ekar i Sverige reglerade av kronan i syfte att kontrollera tillgången på skeppsvirke, det var således förbjudet att avverka ek på krono- och skattejord. Sedan 1800-talet har Sveriges ekbestånd fragmenterats som följd av en rad faktorer. Dessa förändringar har haft en negativ inverkan på ekberoende arter, vars livsmiljöer idag endast är spillror av vad de en gång har varit. Med syfte att ge en ökad förståelse för dagens eklandskap i samband med naturvårdens arbete har ekens historiska utbredning och kvalitet kartlagts i Lösen socken i östra Blekinge. Undersökningen grundar sig på ekinventeringsprotokoll från år 1819 och 1832, men även historiskt kartmaterial. Genom att gå ner på by- och hemmansnivå har platser med hög ektäthet under 1800-talet lokaliserats i landskapet. En studie på denna detaljnivå har aldrig tidigare utförts för Blekinge län. Resultatet visar att ektätheten för tvåhundra år sedan var högst i Lösen sockens södra och mellersta delar, närmast kusten. Dagens skyddade ekmiljöer återfinns främst i socknens sydvästra delar, vilket visar på en kontinuitet. De mellersta och sydöstra delarna omfattas däremot inte av några områdesskydd idag. En stor del av ekarna i socknen benämns i protokollen som skadade samt som ”knut- och risekar”. Böndernas åverkan på träden och socknens naturgivna förhållanden ses som möjliga faktorer till detta. Dessa ekar dög inte till skeppsvirke, men kunde å andra sidan ha utgjort viktiga livsmiljöer för vedlevande arter.

  • 42.
    Filling, Julia
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Human Urine: can it be applied as fertilizer in agricultural systems?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In cities today, vast amounts of nutrients are being wasted. Improvement in nutrient management within agriculture can contribute to a more sustainable society. Reusing nutrients in agriculture could aid in creating a more circular system, where organic fertilizers can be used instead of chemical fertilizers. Urine is a liquid which has a high nutrient content. According to the Swedish environmental protection agency, human urine can replace mineral fertilizers, by using methods such as source separation, where urine is divided from faeces. This is a cheap, effective and sustainable fertilizer management system that can be easily achieved. In this study, urine fertilizers were compared with ecological and conventional fertilizers (NPK and cow manure). The study examined the effect of different urine fertilizers compared with organic and inorganic ones on plant growth, nutrient content, pH value and microbial growth. The plant growth experiment was carried out in the greenhouse facilities in Alnarp, Sweden. The results from the experiment show that cow manure has a better outcome when it comes to plant growth, but Aurin, one of the urine fertilizers, had the highest uptake of nitrate. Non-diluted urine had a stable result in all analyses. According to this study human urine is a fertilizer which can be used in crop cultivation systems, and can deliver good agricultural results.

  • 43.
    Frohm, Hanna
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Titerbestämning av anti-A och anti-B i trombocytenheter för transfusion över ABO gränsen: utvärdering av rutinanalys och utveckling av en screeningmetod2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Platelets are suspended in plasma containing antibodies to the blood group antigen missing on the erythrocytes. To minimize the risk of hemolytic reaction, the titrers of anti-A and anti-B are determined. The gel test is used to detect antibody-and antigen responses and is based on agglutinations in gel. The purpose was to investigate the titers of anti-A and/or anti-B in platelets. A routine analysis was evaluated and a screening method was implemented. In the study, units of blood group O and A were analyzed. They were checked against anti-A and anti-B for both IgG and IgM antibodies. A screening method was developed to screen the O-units and a limit of 1:100 and 1:250 was used. The results showed great difference in titers between O and A units. The titers differ significantly depending on whether the titers are determined in plasma or from the finished (diluted) unit. A screening method at 1:100 showed that 86 % of the units was rated as high titer while a screening method of 1:250 showed that this was reduced to 31 %. Gel technology is a sensitive method and is dependent on competent staff when reading the agglutinations. Some studies show similar results, but the proportion of high titer units, methods and critical titers varies. It proves the difficulty in determining a critical titer and predicting risks for the patient. Other factors are also believed to influence the risks. Implementation of a 1:250 screening method is believed to increase the number of units that can be transfused over the ABO barrier.

  • 44.
    Gashi Krasniqi, Lauresha
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Jämförelse av två enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays: mätning av diabetesspecifika autoantikroppar i en adult population2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Type- 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease with insulin deficiency caused by degradation of insulin- producing betacells in pancreas. Four different autoantibodies that target beta- cell specific antigenes have been identified: insulinautoantibodies (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA), islet antigen2-antibodies (IA-2A) and antibodies against zinktransporter 8 (ZnT8A). In this study, a comparison between 2screen islet cell autoantibody ELISA-kit (RSR, Cardiff, UK) coated with GAD65/IA-2 and 3screen islet cell autoantibody ELISA- kit (RSR, Cardiff, UK) coated with GAD65/IA-2/ZnT8, was performed to investigate whether results from these two kits provide comparable sensitivity and specificity in an adult population of new onset patients with T1D and healthy adults. RSR 2screen obtained 1 % higher specificity (98 %) in comparison to RSR 3screen (97 %) on the same sensitivity (92 %) and is recommended primarily for screening of autoantibodies in a population of adult patients at increased risk for T1D and healthy adults blood donors.

  • 45.
    Granberg, Albina
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Koka sjuda steka: ett sociokulturellt perspektiv på matlagning i hem- och konsumentkunskap på grundsärskolan2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish schools, the subject Home Economics (HE) is the formal setting for teaching and learning about food and how to cook. All students are obliged to learn HE, but in schools for students with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) students are offered four times as much teaching in the subject than students in regular schools. However, this learning context is underexplored. This thesis aims to create an understanding of what cooking in HE is by studying the teaching content in regard to HE cooking practices for students with mild ID through a sociocultural standpoint. Accompanying observations and qualitative semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. The observations included 16 lessons in HE in schools for students with mild ID. The interviews were conducted with 22 qualified and experienced HE teachers. Field notes from the observations and transcripts from the interviews were analyzed using a thematic analysis. A sociocultural perspective, along with the concept of cuisine, constituted the theoretical framework. The findings reveal that the teaching of cooking in HE is focused on one particular artifact, the recipe. This causes difficulties for the students concerning skills related to the design, purport and arithmetic of the recipe. The prominent role of the recipe in cooking in HE was hence captured in a novel concept, recipe literacy. The teachers also reported using a task-centered approach to teaching certain techniques and methods, such as frying, kneading and simmering. The cuisine that is represented in the data from the observations and interviews is framed within baking, primarily sweet baking. The focus on sweet baking and the students’ various difficulties when using recipes limited the possibilities for students to learn how to cook proper meals for everyday life. Thereby, a conscious choice of dishes and attention to didactics is necessary to improve the validity of the subject. By overcoming such obstacles, opportunities can therefore be created for students with mild ID to learn how to cook.

  • 46.
    Granberg, Albina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Brante, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment. University of Gothenburg.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Mattsson Sydner, Ylva
    Uppsala universitet.
    Knowing how to use and understand recipes: what arithmetical understanding is needed when students with mild intellectual disabilities use recipes in practical cooking lessons in Home Economics?2017In: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 494-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore what arithmetical understanding is needed when students with mild intellectual disabilities use recipes during practical cooking lessons in Home Economics. The settings were compulsory schools in Sweden attended by students with intellectual disabilities. Sixteen lessons in Home Economics during which cooking took place were observed. In total, 37 students and three teachers participated. All students had a mild intellectual disability. Their ages varied, but most were between 13 and 14 years old. The sociocultural perspective on learning, combined with a literacy framework, was used as a theoretical foundation for the study. Main findings are that students need an arithmetical understanding of (i) how to interpret numbers, (ii) how to interpret and use units, and (iii) how to compute when using recipes. The knowledge and skills needed to be able to use a recipe are featured in the concept recipe literacy, capturing both theoretical, declarative knowledge and the more practical, procedural knowledge. Recipe literacy can be used to theorize the use of recipes when learning to cook, as in Home Economics.

  • 47.
    Granberg, Albina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Uppsala University.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Mattsson Sydner, Ylva
    Uppsala University.
    Teaching and learning cooking skills in Home Economics: what do teachers for students with mild intellectual disabilities consider important to learn?2017In: British Food Journal, ISSN 0007-070X, E-ISSN 1758-4108, Vol. 119, no 5, p. 1067-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore which elements of cooking skills Home Economics (HE) teachers in schools for students withmild intellectual disability (ID) consider important for their students to learn. Design/methodology/approach - In total, 22 qualitative interviews with HE teachers of students with mild ID were conducted. The transcripts were analyzed thematically using the sociocultural approach on learning and knowledge as a theoretical framework. Findings - The elements of cooking skills that were emphasized included mastering the language of cooking, measuring, following recipes, representing an instrumental and task-centered - knowledge on cooking. Practical implications - The results of this study provide an insight into cooking lessons in HE in schools, not only regarding the focus that teachers give to cooking skills, but also to how cooking skills can be understood on a theoretical level. This has implications for both regular schools and schools for students with mild IDs since the elements that teachers consider important then guide what the students are given to learn. Teachers should be conscious that the planning of lessons should also be based on the students' specific circumstances and context. Originality/value - To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that provides knowledge about how HE teachers reason regarding which cooking skills they consider important for students to learn. HE is taught to both children and adolescents, and it is important to investigate teachers' perceptions about the subject and how the teaching is organized, including cooking skills.

  • 48.
    Gulsrud, Natalie M.
    et al.
    Denmark.
    Raymond, Christopher M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Rutt, Rebecca L.
    Denmark.
    Stahl Olafson, Anton
    Denmark.
    Plieninger, Tobias
    Denmark.
    Sandberg, Mattias
    University of Gothenburg.
    Beery, Thomas H.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    ‘Rage against the machine’?: the opportunities and risks concerning the automation of urban green infrastructure2018In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 180, p. 85-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary society is increasingly impacted by automation; however, few studies have considered the potential consequences of automation on ecosystems and their management (hereafter the automation of urbangreen infrastructure or UGI). This Perspective Essay takes up this discussion by asking how a digital approach to UGI planning and management mediates the configuration and development of UGI and to whose benefit? This is done through a review of key issues and trends in digital approaches to UGI planning and management. We first conceptualize automation from a social, ecological, and technological interactions perspective and use this lens to present an overview of the risks and opportunities of UGI automation with respect to selected case studies. Results of this analysis are used to develop a conceptual framework for the assessment of the material and governance implications of automated UGIs. We find that, within any given perspective, the automation of UGI entails a complex dialectic between efficiency, human agency and empowerment. Further, risks and opportunities associated with UGI automation are not fixed but are dynamic properties of changing contextual tensions concerning power, actors, rules of the game and discourse at multiple scales. We conclude the paper by outlining a research agenda on how to consider different digital advances within a social-ecological-technological approach.

  • 49.
    Gustafsson, Matilda
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Mikkelsen, Florina
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    "Kanske för mycket vetebröd": Attityder till och vanor kring mellanmål bland personer över 65 år2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Food and meals are of great importance for preventing age-related health problems. Older adults need more dietary protein to support good health and a snack is a great way for them to get more protein. Studying attitudes and habits among people over the age of 65 can provide a deeper understanding of what kind of food and snacks choices they make. This can also be used as a basis for health promotion intended for elderly people. Aim: To study attitudes and habits towards snacks among people over 65 years. The questions asked in the study focused on what factors influencing the choices of snacks, if high-protein dairy products are eaten as a snack and how these products are regarded. Material and method: A quantitative study was conducted using a survey, where a convenience sampling was made. Results: A majority ate one-two snacks per day and these mostly consisted of fruit/vegetables, sandwiches or cookies/pastries. The main motive for snacking was to drink forenoon/afternoon coffee. There was some difference between men and women when it came to attitudes to snacks. The factors that affected the choices of snacks the most were that they should be tasty, simple and healthy. That the snack should be high in protein was of least importance. Conclusion: Snacking was associated with drinking forenoon/afternoon coffee and consequently future efforts to promote and develop protein-enriched cakes, cookies and pastries can help people over 65 years to easier acquire their protein need. Awareness about the importance of high-protein snacks appears to be lacking in the targeted population, however the generalisation of the results from this study is limited because of the convenience sampling.

  • 50.
    Gårdefalk, Louise
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Förändringar i jordbrukslandskapet och fältviltspopulationens utveckling på Högestads gods, Skåne 1923-19752019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersöker om landskapsförändringar som skett i jordbrukslandskapet under 1900-talet kan ha ett samband med fältviltspopulationens minskning under 1900-talet. Fältvilt är ett begrepp för arter som lever i det öppna jordbrukslandskapet, rapphöna, fasan och fälthare är arter som ingår i gruppen fältvilt. I studien undersöks också populationerna för rådjur och gräsand, då det är arter som förekommer i det öppna odlingslandskapet. Studieperioden är åren 1923-1975. Flygfoto över Högestads gods från åren 1938,1957 och 1975 används i arbetet. Flygfotona har använts till att utläsa vilka landskapsförändringar som skett i området under studieperioden. Studien baseras också på avskjutningsstatistik för godset från åren 1923-1969, sammanställd av Skånska Jägarsällskapet. Under denna period har det skett landskapsförändringar i hela Sverige och så även i skånska Högestad. Undersökningsområdet har genomgått en stor förändring i jordbrukslandskapet under studieperioden; åkermarken har gått från mindre naturanpassade fält till större rektangulära sammanhängande ytor. I och med detta bör andelen och mängden kantzoner minskat. Kantzonerna är på många sätt en viktig faktor i landskapet för fältviltet. Studien undersöker också om predatorer som rödräv och grävling har någon påverkan på arterna som nämns ovan. Denna undersökning tyder på att rapphönan har påverkats mer av landskapsförändringar än av predation från räv och grävling. Fältharen tycks å andra sidan ha blivit påverkad av predation från räv. Möjligtvis har tillgången på fälthare varit bättre och de kan därför ha blivit ett relativt enkelt byte för räven. Den minskande andelen kantzoner kan vara en av faktorerna till rapphönsstammens minskning. Minskar kantzonerna minskar också växtdelar och insekter som rapphönan livnär sig på. Kantzonerna är också ett bra skydd mot predatorer och rovfåglar för viltet som lever i det öppna jordbrukslandskapet. Om dessa arter ska finnas kvar i landskapet i framtiden bör mer fokus riktas på att förbättra deras livsmiljöer.

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