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  • 9951.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Urinboyev, Rustam
    Lund University.
    Svensson, Måns
    Lund University.
    Svensson, Lupita
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Hanna
    Lund University.
    Literature review of social media in professional organisations 2000-2015: work, stress, power relations, leadership, librarians, teachers, and social workers2017Report (Other academic)
  • 9952.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Winter, Jeff
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Hellman, Mats
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Inside information 2 - usability and user research: eight years of research and method development cooperation2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a follow up to the Inside Information – Usability and User Research at UIQ Technology report that was made available in October 2006. The initial report was written from an industrial point of view aimed to market UIQ Technology through the demonstration of the UIQ usability and user research philosophy. UIQ Technology Usability Metrics (UTUM) was important result here. UTUM was considered an extremely cost-effective method for keeping in focus what is important for users and handset makers. It was a tool for guiding development decisions as well as for validating the worthiness of design concepts. The two parts in UTUM was perceived by the company as an innovation in their software development practice. The first part was the relationship to users and attitude to their participation in the design process. The second part was how the company immediately and directly incorporated this usability understanding into the software development process. UTUM, together with other usability methods and results presented in this report, have been produced in an action research manner. Due to the closure of the company, the main author of the 2006 report, and the same researchers who also supported the writing of the initial report, decided to produce a follow-up and closure version of the initial report; as a way to summarize the results from the academic and industrial cooperation. In this updated version, eight years of joint action research and cooperative method development surrounding usability and user research is concluded.

  • 9953.
    Rönn Emsfors, Åsa
    et al.
    Central Hospital Kristianstad.
    Elgán, Carina
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Patients´ experiences of a period of intravitreal injection treatment for wet macular degeneration2013In: International Journal of Ophtahalmic Practice, ISSN 2044-5504, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 4-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    To describe patients' experiences of intravitreal injections for wet macular degeneration.

    Method:

    16 informants, aged 62–89 years (11 women and _five men) were interviewed after a treatment period of intravitreal injections (IVI). The first question was open ended: ‘Can you please describe, in as much detail as possible, your experiences of the period when you received three IVI?’. Qualitative content analysis was employed to analyse the transcribed interviews.

    Results:

    The main theme demonstrated that the patients submitted themselves to and allowed the process to run its course. Four categories emerged: handing over responsibility — they placed their trust in the healthcare professionals; being given an opportunity — they appreciated that action was taken; enduring discomfort — they endured physical discomfort and mental unease; having nothing to lose — they accepted the treatment offered.

    Conclusions:

    It is necessary to strengthen patient participation during IVI treatment. The ophthalmic nurse can inform the patient about the effects of the treatment in a pedagogical manner. Patient participation can be strengthened by increased knowledge of the treatment effects.

  • 9954.
    Rönn Emsfors, Åsa
    et al.
    Central Hospital Kristianstad.
    Elgán, Carina
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Patients' experiences of nursing actions during intravitreal treatment for wet age-related macular degeneration2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim was to identify and describe nursing actions performed by nursing staff in which patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) experience good nursing care.

    Method: An explorative and descriptive qualitative design based on the Critical incident technique (CIT) was used. A strategic sample of 16 patients, aged 61-87 years (eleven women and five men) with wet AMD who received intravitreal treatment were interviewed.

    Results: Two main areas of good nursing care was identified during intravitreal treatment Being perceived as an individual and Creating confidence during visits, each area contained two categories. The two categories in the area Being perceived as an individual were; acting respectfully and being engaged. Acting respectfully was perceived when the nursing staff had a benevolent attitude and answered questions kindly and polite. The patients considered to be seen as an individual when the nursing staff were available for conversation and were present. The two categories in the area Creating confidence during visits were; encourage participation and inspiring confidence. Encouraging participation was perceived when the nursing staff continuously provided information. The nursing staff created confidence and trust by keeping promises and being honest.

    Conclusion: The interaction in the encounter between patient and caregiver is fundamental for patients' experience of good nursing care. It emphasise the importance of personal centred care even though the time for each patient is limited and the nursing staff have a demanding schedule. It would be desirable with specific guidelines for care of patient who gets intravitreal treatment. Without specific guidelines makes it difficult to implement person centred care and more quality time would benefit the patient.

                                                                                                   

  • 9955.
    Rönnbom, Marianne
    Kristianstad University College.
    Meningsfulla matematikuppgifter enligt eleverna: en utvärdering av ett verklighetsbaserat arbetssätt under skolår 4-72004In: Tsunami, ISSN 1651-5803, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Många forskare har visat på vikten av att verklighetsanknyta matematik-undervisningen. Att eleverna har förståelse för orden, kan visualisera matematiken och kan identifiera sig i de matematikuppgifter de ska lösa, har också stor betydelse för om de kan lösa dem. Däremot finns det lite forskning vad gäller meningsfullheten med olika typer av matematikuppgifter sett ur ett elevperspektiv. Jag har under många år undervisat i två parallellklasser och arbetat med ett undersökande arbetssätt i matematik utan någon speciell lärobok under skolår 4 – 6. Vi har i möjligaste mån utgått från vår gemensamma verklighet i våra matematikuppgifter. Rapporten visar en utvärdering av detta arbetssätt. Enkäter har besvarats av klasser jag har undervisat i, och som vid undersöknings-tillfället gick i skolår 7 och på gymnasiet. Några frågor har också besvarats av två klasser i skolår 4. Intervjuer med elever i åk 7 har förtydligat svaret på frågan om vilken typ av matematikuppgifter eleverna anser vara meningsfulla. Resultatet av utvärderingen visar att elever tycker det är viktigt att matematikuppgifter - är verklighetsanknutna (”Man ska förstå vad det handlar om.”) - är sådana att man kan skapa sig en bild - är av ett sådant slag, att man får rita eller bygga - gärna kan diskuteras i grupp - har rätt svårighetsgrad (”Man ska känna att man lyckas med en liten inte för svår utmaning. Då blir det också roligare.”) - är av varierande slag.

  • 9956.
    Rönström, Anna
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Sjöblom, Inga-Lill
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Barns språkutveckling Om samband mellan språklig medvetenhet och läs- och skrivutveckling 2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka vilka tankar och erfarenheter som finns hos fem yrkeskategorier kring sambandet mellan barns språkutveckling 0-6 år, språklig medvetenhet, kommande läs- och skrivutveckling, språkbefrämjande metoder samt synen på specialpedagogens roll. Undersökningen genomförs med hjälp av litteraturstudier och semistrukturerade intervjuer med åtta respondenter, som arbetar med eller kring barn i förskoleålder. Då barns språkutveckling ligger till grund för uppsatsens övriga avsnitt har vi valt att redogöra för densamma. Under studien framkom en samstämmighet mellan tidigare forskning och våra resultat vad det gäller den språkliga medvetenhetens betydelse för en god läs- och skrivutveckling. Dock råder oenighet om vad språklig medvetenhet är. Att samtala med barn beskrivs både i litteraturen och av respondenterna vara det som har störst betydelse för språkutvecklingen. Samtal är också en av de bästa metoderna att kartlägga var barn befinner sig i sin språkutveckling. Det framkommer att ett medvetet förhållningssätt är nödvändigt med tanke på genusperspektivet. Respondenterna menar att specialpedagogens roll i arbetet med barns språkutveckling kan vara att handleda barn och pedagoger, vara tillgängliga för föräldrar och samarbeta med andra yrkeskategorier.

  • 9957.
    Rösler, Sandra
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Erbjud ungdomarna trygghet och kunskap, de kommer att tacka ja!: en studie om hälsoinformation gällande den sexuella hälsan bland gymnasieungdomar2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children and youth are one of the most important main target groups in terms of public health work because of the habits that are established at an early age often affect the rest of their lives. Habits regarding sexual health may, with lack of knowledge, provide both physical and mental health consequences for the individual, but also for future public health in general. In Sweden, the number of chlamydia cases since 1995 has been tripled among young people, with a behavior change regarding sexuality as a possible cause. The purpose of this study is to describe how young people perceive information about sexual health and where they choose to seek information, to clarify the need of information for young people. A quantitative web-based survey was conducted on high school students (n = 98) and as a complement, a qualitative study in the form of interviews (n = 5) as well. The results showed that young people are looking for safe and informative sources for information regarding sexual health. The source that reaches most of all young people, i.e. school, was not experienced as sufficient by the young people that it should, for them to not be exposed to risks that could affect their sexual health. The conclusion reveals that youths need to be offered guidance in their search for information, which good knowledge of the subject and in various educational methods, could contribute with, and at the same time offer the youth safe and secure sources based on the needs of the individual's.

  • 9958.
    Rösler, Sandra
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Olsson , Maria
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Utomhusmiljöns betydelse för hälsa och lärande: en enkätundersökning om gymnasieungdomars upplevelser2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of our big public health problems in Sweden is that human beings are too inactive in outdoor settings. That is why stress related diseases increase and influence humans both mentally and physical. The physical activity is halved among many children when they start school and the older they become the less they enjoy school. It is also an increasing problem that children and youth in today's society have lack of worthwhile experiences in the nature. The aim of this study was therefore to examine how the experience of outdoor environment had importance for health and learning on upper secondary school pupils. The study is used a questionnaire survey where 192 upper secondary school pupils in nature and farm focused programs, respectively social programs participated. Of the result it emerged that the outside environment was a positive place in order to create health and learning. Although social- and farm focused pupils had different opinions about good outside environments and where they rather learned, the pupils at the social program were less pleased with their outside environment at school, although they already had what they wanted. The pupils at the social program also wanted more outdoor education and more practical education, as the farm focused pupils considered positive for health and learning. Our conclusion is that the pupils’ wishes should be noticed and a more varying education, that include the outdoor environment and experiences in nature, should be introduced in more schools, even in the cities, since the school also is an arena where young people spends a lot of their time. If the school creates an interest for nature it can last for the rest of life.

  • 9959.
    Saari, Amira
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Svensson, Thapanee
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Flerspråkighet i förskolan: En intervjustudie om hur förskollärare arbetar med flerspråkiga barns språkutveckling i förskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med vår undersökning är att ta reda på vilka strategier förskollärarna använder sig av för att stimulera och stödja flerspråkiga barns språkutveckling i förskolan. Metoden vi har valt för att ta reda på detta är intervjuer. Den teoretiska ansats vi har valt för vår studie är språkteorin och det sociokulturella perspektivet, där språk, kommunikation och samspel är i fokus. Huvudresultatet som framkommit i vår studie är att majoriteten av förskolorna främst fokuserar på att barnen ska lära sig svenska. Resultatet visar även att förskolorna använder sig av liknande hjälpmedel för att stödja de flerspråkiga barnens språkutveckling. Samtliga förskollärare nämner att de har en viktig roll i förskolan där de behöver lyssna, vara närvarande och tydliga i arbetet med barnen. De nämner även att konkret material, små grupper och att stötta samt utmana barnen är viktigt för att de ska utvecklas och lära sig. I arbetet utgår de alltid från barnens intresse, förståelse och behov.

  • 9960.
    Sabanovic, Adis
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Business Intelligence Software Customers’ Understanding, Expectations and Needs 2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modern companies operate in incredibly complex and dynamic environments. This is clearly characterized by constant changes in technology and in various market forces as well as by enormous amounts of data and information that need to be gathered and analyzed every day. Governmental regulations and ongoing competitor pressures, among other external and internal factors, are issues that managers and decision makers in a company must take into a consideration when making decisions. The need for BI systems is growing stronger and businesses in various industries demand such tools that will help them stay on the edge in order to be competitive. Hence the purpose of this paper is to find out what their companies desire when choosing a BI system to work with. What are their needs and what do they expect and understand from this technological system that will hopefully make them work easier and gain their knowledge about the business they operate in.

    A web questionnaire is aimed at 67 Swedish companies from various industries and the answers have been summarized and analyzed in different cross tables for comparison reasons. Respondents from the Manufacturing industry were those with the highest response rate. A model called The PET-model of BI implementation was created, as a result of the theoretical findings, and this model is used to finalize the results and the conclusions of this paper.

  • 9961.
    Sabanovic, Almerisa
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    Multiplikationstabellen, en del av pusslet: Vilka är bitarna?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilken eller vilka strategier gymnasieelever använder sig av vid multiplikation mellan två heltalsfaktorer. Genom både den kvalitativa och kvantitativa val av metod har jag tagit del av gymnasieelevernas tankar vid multiplikation och de samband som finns mellan multiplikationstabellen och faktorisering av ett tal. Slutsatsen av det är att eleverna har olika sätt att lära sig produkten av två heltal. Undersökningen visar att elever som har mindre kunskaper i multiplikationstabell har också svårigheterna med faktorisering av ett heltal. Eleverna har olika erfarenheter av multiplikationstabellen och har lärt sig den olika snabbt. Elevernas förståelse för multiplikation ökar då de får lära sig rätt termologi. Åttans tabell hade eleverna i undersökningen mest svårigheterna med.

  • 9962.
    Sablic, Gino
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Duggal, Monika
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    The road to India: the internationalization of Swedish SMEs2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing globalization and decreasing trade barriers have created opportunities for Swedish companies to establish their activities in India. The aim with this dissertation is to explore if Swedish SMEs in the service sector follow the process suggested by the Uppsala Internationalization Model when establishing their activities in India.

    In order to find out if Swedish SMEs in the service sector follow the process suggested by the Uppsala Internationalization Model, a multiple case study was conducted, adopting a qualitative approach. Three Swedish SMEs in the IT industry, that have successfully established their activities on the Indian market, were interviewed.

    The results indicate that none of the companies in this study followed the internationalization process suggested by the Establishment Chain and the Psychic Distance. However, the examined companies in this study internationalized as suggested by the Basic Mechanism of Internationalization.

    There is limited research on the internationalization processes of Swedish SMEs in the service sector when entering the Indian market. Subsequently, this study has contributed theoretically to exploring what factors are of importance for Swedish SMEs in the service sector when entering India. Furthermore, it has possibly contributed to the initial step of further research within the field of SMEs internationalization processes, should further research be conducted involving various internationalization models. In addition, this study has contributed by strengthening the existing research regarding the Uppsala Internationalization Model.

    A suggestion to future research is to explore various existing internationalization models and to investigate what aspects of each model is applicable to Swedish SMEs.

  • 9963.
    Sadiku, Bujar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University.
    Vu, Huy
    Kristianstad University.
    Att avancera i yrkeslivet: En kvalitativ studie om kvinnliga revisorers karriärutveckling i relation till mentorskap och sociala nätverk2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The problem for women to reach organizational top positions has been a topic of debate for a long time in Sweden. According to previous studies the Swedish auditing industry is seen as male-dominated where masculinity is a part of the structure. Nowadays statistics shows that there is an even gender distribution in the Swedish auditing profession. Although, previous studies show that women in the auditing industry tend to dominate positions at the bottom of the hierarchy and men tend to dominate positions at the top of the hierarchy. The purpose of this study is to understand the importance of mentoring and social network that female auditors have.

    This study has been conducted through a qualitative method with an abductive approach which contributes to a hermeneutic interpretation. This increases the understanding of the examined area. A set of theories and concepts lies as a basis for the analytical area of the empirical material that has been collected through semi structured interviews.

    The conclusion of this study is that mentoring, and a social network are two distinguished factors which have a positive effect on female career advancement. Mentoring is a knowledge source that transfers knowledge from one individual to another. A social network is a mutual source which transfers knowledge among different individuals. Mentoring and social networks are factors that contribute female auditors getting an increase in competence and experience which leads to career advancement.

  • 9964.
    Sadriu, Leonora
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Aliu, Aurora
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Stagova, Adelina
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Integrationsprocessen i Kristianstads kommun 2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige är ett mångkulturellt land som präglas av många etniciteter, kulturer, språk och religioner. Detta leder till att integration berör hela samhället och inte bara nyinflyttade invandrare och det innebär att även majoritetsbefolkningen måste integreras i det nya mångkulturella samhället. Vi ser att enda möjligheten att integreras i det nya samhället är att lära sig språket.

    Vårt syfte med uppsatsen är att försöka belysa invandrares möjligheter/svårigheter till att bli integrerade i det svenska samhället. För att kunna ge en bild av detta valde vi att utgå ifrån Giddens teori om tre olika modeller till integration och symbolisk interaktionism. Det empiriska underlaget för vår uppsats utgörs av semistrukturerade intervjuer med integrationskontoret, SFI-utbildningen, arbetsförmedlingen och enskilda personer.

    Syftet har vi försökt nå genom att besvara följande frågeställning:

    1. Vilka resurser har Kristianstads kommun att erbjuda invandrarna för att bli integrerade i det svenska samhället?

    2. Hur uppfattas integrationsprocessen i Kristianstad av invandrare och kommunala handläggare?

    Anledningen till att vi har valt att skriva om invandrare och integration är att vi själva är invandrare och har erfarenheter av integrationsprocessen. Av våra egna erfarenheter vet vi hur svårt det är att skapa ett värdigt liv i det nya landet och att bli en del av det svenska samhället.

  • 9965.
    Saed, Nadin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business.
    El Rehman, Yara Abed
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business.
    Revisorns upplevelse av hot mot oberoende: skillnader mellan byråstorlek2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The auditor’s independence has been widely discussed and questioned for many years, since it is very important that the auditor does not risk his independence for instance when he is providing consulting services. The auditors’ independence is more at risk in smaller companies according to many researchers as they consider that smaller companies are more dependent on their clients and that there is a higher riskto bond with their clients and develop a friendship because of their small size.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how auditors experience and reflect on independence threats and if there is a difference between smaller, medium and bigger auditor firms. The study is based on qualitative research and in order to interpret the auditor's experience, six interviews have been conducted with auditors working at small, medium and large auditing firms.

    The findings indicate that the size does not affect their independence. Instead the experience, age and the size of the city does. Therefor our proposals for future research could be to do a similar qualitative study but to focus on these factors too.

  • 9966.
    Safari Zonoozi, Nazanin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Gullberg, Olena
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Orala hälsoproblem och ätsvårigheter hos äldre2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this literature review was to investigate the oral health’s impact on eating among older people.Scientific articles were searched in PubMed, limited to articles published between 2000-2010,age 60 years and older. In total were 11 articles included in the study. The results showed that eating difficulties can be linked to impaired oral health, poormastication, partial tooth loss or edentulism, oral pain and discomfort, ill-fitting dentures anddry mouth. Elderly with impaired oral health change their eating habits and often refrain fromtough food items due to chewing and swallowing difficulties and fear of further damage tofragile teeth.  The conclusion of the study was that older people with poor oral status had a risk for eating difficulties. Replacement of missing teeth might play an important role in the maintenance ofan optimal chewing function.

  • 9967.
    Safeen, Karolina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Milkovic, Marija
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Synen på munhälsa och tandvård hos pensionärer som deltar i olika pensionärsföreningar - en enkätstudie: The opinion of oral health and dental care now and in the future among retirement individuals that participate in different retirement organization.2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of this study was to examine retiared individuals view of oral health and dental care. A questionnaire was sent to three different retirement organizations and answared by 106 participants. Our studie showed that irrespective of education or health status, the majority considered oral health and dental care was important and will become so in the future. Most elderly individuals can consider getting help with their oral health with oral health care in the future. This studie showed that the elderly are concerned about their appearance. Despite that the majority was satisfied with the dental care, stated that the price for dental care was too expensive.

  • 9968.
    Sahlin, Anneli
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Långsamfilter - faktorer som inverkar/påverkar drifttiden2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet belyser hydrauliska faktorer som hastighet/belastning, motstånd/tryck, flöde och filtersandens karakteristika; klimatfaktorer som nederbörd och lufttemperatur; vattenkvalitetsfaktorer som vattentemperatur, färgtal, turbiditet samt lukt och smak, faktorer vilka samtliga anses inverka/påverka driftiden för långsamfilter.

    Ringsjöverkets dokumentation och statistik för år 1999-2009 analyseras och utvärderas för att fastställa eventuella samband mellan rensningsfrekvens, drifttid och funktion med hydrauliska-, klimat- och vattenkvalitetsfaktorer.

    Resultatet av examensarbetet tenderar att påvisa viss inverkan/påverkan av de hydrauliska faktorerna på rensningsfrekvens och drifttid. För klimat- och vattenkvalitetsfaktorer är resultatet mer oklart. Undersökningen av Ringsjöverkets långsamfilter varken bekräftar, dementerar eller fastställer något samband, utan snarare indikerar att en mängd faktorer av varierande art är involverade i hur rensningsfrekvens och drifttid utvecklas samt att framtida mer omfattande studier beträffande exempelvis vattenkemiska och mikrobiologiska undersökningar erfordras.

  • 9969.
    Sahlin, Jon
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Royalty2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt syfte med uppsatsen är att beskriva kriterierna för begreppet royalty, och att beskriva hur royalty är reglerat i Sveriges dubbelbeskattningsavtal med olika länder. Detta realiseras med hjälp av frågeställningarna i min problemformulering.

    I dagligt tal förknippas royalty ofta med ersättning som utgår till artister och låtskrivare för att någon har nyttjat deras konstnärliga verk. Men i och med att royalty inte är definierad i lagtexten, finns det otydligheter kring vad som ger royalty. I rättsfallen som undersöktes fann jag att ett av kriterierna för royalty är att ersättningen i princip utgår med varierande belopp, t.ex. per såld enhet. Ett annat kriterier var att engångsersättningar inte kan betraktas som royalty om det är ett på förhand fastställt belopp.

    I min andra frågeställning, angående Sveriges beskattning av royalty i dubbelbeskattningsavtal fann jag att det varierar vilken metod man använder för att undanröja dubbelbeskattningen av royalty. Det två huvudsakliga metoderna som Sverige använder är exempt- och credit-avtal. Källskatten som utgår vid creditavtalen varierar mellan länderna. Men skattesatserna varierar i de undersökta länderna mellan 5 % och 20 %.

    I min uppsats har jag även kommit fram till det hade blivit en tydligare och enklare lagstiftning med en definition av royalty. Men anser samtidigt att det inte behövs just nu, då de flesta internationella betalningarna av royalty är hanterade i respektive skatteavtal. Det är precis skillnaden i definition av royalty mellan skatteavtalen som gör att de klassas olika, och dessa skillnader hade funnits kvar även om Sverige definierat royalty.

  • 9970.
    Sahlin, Jon
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Royalty2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt syfte med uppsatsen är att beskriva kriterierna för begreppet royalty, och att beskriva hur royalty är reglerat i Sveriges dubbelbeskattningsavtal med olika länder. Detta realiseras med hjälp av frågeställningarna i min problemformulering.

    I dagligt tal förknippas royalty ofta med ersättning som utgår till artister och låtskrivare för att någon har nyttjat deras konstnärliga verk. Men i och med att royalty inte är definierad i lagtexten, finns det otydligheter kring vad som ger royalty. I rättsfallen som undersöktes fann jag att ett av kriterierna för royalty är att ersättningen i princip utgår med varierande belopp, t.ex. per såld enhet. Ett annat kriterier var att engångsersättningar inte kan betraktas som royalty om det är ett på förhand fastställt belopp.

    I min andra frågeställning, angående Sveriges beskattning av royalty i dubbelbeskattningsavtal fann jag att det varierar vilken metod man använder för att undanröja dubbelbeskattningen av royalty. Det två huvudsakliga metoderna som Sverige använder är exempt- och credit-avtal. Källskatten som utgår vid creditavtalen varierar mellan länderna. Men skattesatserna varierar i de undersökta länderna mellan 5 % och 20 %.

    I min uppsats har jag även kommit fram till det hade blivit en tydligare och enklare lagstiftning med en definition av royalty. Men anser samtidigt att det inte behövs just nu, då de flesta internationella betalningarna av royalty är hanterade i respektive skatteavtal. Det är precis skillnaden i definition av royalty mellan skatteavtalen som gör att de klassas olika, och dessa skillnader hade funnits kvar även om Sverige definierat royalty.

  • 9971.
    Sahlin, Rebecca
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Jona och Isa stannar hemma idag...: - en kvalitativ studie om betydelsen av språk och kommunikation i samband med problematisk skolfrånvaro2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the causes of problematic school absence, how language and communication can be important for problematic school absence, as well as how the pattern can be broken and turn absence to attendance. In the investigation, the study is delimited to problematic school absence linked to students with neuropsychiatric disabilities (NPF). The survey wants to find out how some schools in a municipality are working on students with problematic school absence if there is a specific action plan for this and whether they act on the basis of it. Theoretical framework for the study consists of a relational special pedagogical perspective, as well as relational pedagogy. The study data was collected through three formal, semi-structured and in-depth interviews with custodians, as well as two surveys online, one to the rectors and one to special educators and teachers who work with problematic school absence. The study concludes the importance of early efforts, genuine relationships, as well as individualized measures. The results showed that many causes of problematic absence co-operate, that language and communication are key parts of this problem, that schools have good practices and action plans in case of problematic absence, and that the importance of personal relationships and special educational skills in meeting with these children needs to be developed.

  • 9972.
    Sahlström, Maria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Berghult, Emilie
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Matens roll i reseupplevelsen: En intervjustudie med sex nyckelaktörer i turismnäringen2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how key stakeholders see food as a part of the tourist industry and how they work with food experiences in practice. Data collection was collected by semi-structured interviews which were transcribed and analyzed within the model of processing a qualitative text. The stakeholders which participated were Landsbygdsdepartementet, Visit Sweden, Regional Matkultur Småland, Smaka på Skåne, Kristianstad Kommun and Idala gård. The interviewed stakeholders are working with food tourism at national, regional and local level. The results showed that all the participants thought food had a specific role within the tourist industry. In this study, it became clear that the respondents emphasized the importance for producers to see the potential food have to become a food experience and at the same time to make it more visible for tourists. A reason for this would be the view of Swedish food culture that the respondents think Swedish people have. It is important to see the unique assets which are available and to be proud of the culture.  It also shows that food experiences have a more obvious role in tourist industry, both as the main reason or as part of the travel. The advantage of the food experiences in relation to other experiences is the use of all the senses, thus providing a total tourism experience.

  • 9973.
    Said Yekta, Sareh
    et al.
    Department of Conservative Dentistry, Periodontology, and Preventive Dentistry, Aachen University.
    Lampert, Friedrich
    Department of Conservative Dentistry, Periodontology, and Preventive Dentistry, Aachen University.
    Kazemi, Saeid
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Kazemi, Reza
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Brand, Henk S.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Department of Periodontology and Oral Biochemistry, VU University Medical Centre and Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam.
    Baart, Jacques A.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, VU University Medical Centre and Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam.
    Mazandarani, Mina
    Department of Conservative Dentistry, Periodontology, and Preventive Dentistry, Aachen University.
    Evaluation of new injection and cavity preparation model in local anesthesia teaching2013In: Journal of Dental Education, ISSN 0022-0337, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 51-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a recently developed preclinical injection and cavity preparation model in local anesthesia. Thirty-three dental students administered an inferior alveolar nerve block injection in the model, followed by preparation on a tooth. The injection was evaluated by three observers, and the feedback from the model was registered. After completion of the practical session, the opinion of the dental students was explored with a ten-item questionnaire. Thirty dental students (91 percent) performed the injection correctly according to the feedback of the model, and twenty-eight students (85 percent) did so according to the expert opinion. The agreement between feedback from the training model and the expert opinion was high. The students were very satisfied with the opportunity to practice with the training model, as indicated by the high scores on each item of the questionnaire. These results suggest that use of this preclinical training model in anesthesia teaching may have beneficial effects on the administration of local anesthetics by dental students.

  • 9974.
    Saii, Kena
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Distriktssköterskans arbetssituation i en föränderlig organisation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Primary care has undergone major organizational changes over the years which also had repercussions on the district nurse's work situation and health. The purpose of this study was to describe district nurses´ experience of their work situation in primary care. The study is qualitative and the empirical material was collected through interviews with twenty district nurses in twenty different health care centers in Southern Sweden. The interviews have been processed inductively based on conventional content analysis. The analysis resulted in two  main categories: Not getting to be and act as district nurse and to do justice to oneself; an oscillation between frustration and satisfaction above all because of the district nurses´ perception of their work situation meant that they were torn between not to practice their profession in accordance with what is characteristic of this profession in accordance with their professional identity. The optimum work situation for district nurses were to be working delimited and special oriented because of extended space to display their skills and to use their knowledge from a salutogenic perspective.

  • 9975. Salami, F
    et al.
    Abels, M
    Hyöty, H
    Vaziri-Sani, Fariba
    Lunds universitet.
    Aronsson, Ca
    Vehik, K
    Delli, A
    Hagopian, Wa
    Rewers, M
    Ziegler, Ag
    Simell, O
    Akolkar, B
    Krischer, J
    She, J
    Lernmark, A
    Detection of Lactobacilli in monthly mail-in stool samples from 3-18 months old infants at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes2012In: International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics, ISSN 1555-1431, Vol. 7, no 3-4, p. 135-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The feasibility to detect lactobacilli in mail-in infant stools collected monthly from 3-18 months old children was investigated. The aim was to determine total lactobacilli and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) content (ng/g feces) in 50 infants each from Colorado (648 samples), Finland (624 samples) and Sweden (685 samples) who participated in the TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study. Total lactobacilli content varied markedly between 5 and 16,800 ng/g feces in the three clinical sites within and between individuals especially in infants. L.plantarum also varied markedly intra- and inter-individually from <0.5 - 736 ng/g feces. A higher variability of total lactobacilli was found before 10 months of age than after in the three different clinical sites. Sweden had the lowest total lactobacilli content compared to Colorado and Finland while the L.plantarum content was higher in Sweden. Mail-in stool samples from infants should prove useful in analyzing probiotics in childhood.

  • 9976.
    Salcin, Erna
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Selaci, Fllanza
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Hälsoutbildningens påverkan på psykologiska resurser hos chefer och anställda2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a quantitative study designed to examine whether training in health issues may have contributed to the increase in head managers' psychological capital (PsyCap). Construction consists of the following components: self confidence, hope, optimism and resilience. A high PsyCap considered beneficial in organizational change and steer towards the positive development and helps individuals in stressful situations. The results show an increase of characteristics such as hope and optimism among managers (N = 15) who have undergone training in health issues compared with managers who have not undergone training. However, the tests show no significant difference in head managers' attitudes to health breaks, not the severity of granting health breaks in the groups as a result of training. It was further examined the relationship between PsyCap and the propensity to grant health breaks. The test showed no significant difference between the groups. The psychological capital has been measured even among workers who use health breaks and those who do not, that to see if any spillover effects on other work. The results showed no significant difference. The psychological capital of the workforce as measured by t-test, does not differ between the investigated groups with employees who have managers with the training and the group who do not.

  • 9977.
    Sallerfors, Sven-Erik
    Lunds universitet.
    Gärds härad under dansk tid1974Book (Other academic)
  • 9978.
    Salman, Diala
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Kaitoly, Avesta
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Kvinnors upplevelse av bemötandet med sjukvården efter våld i nära relationer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: kvinnor som har blivit utsatta för våld i nära relationer vågar inte prata om vad de har blivit utsatta för. Det kan bero på att det är ett tabubelagt ämne men även andra orsaker så som att de blir dåligt bemötta av sjukvårdspersonalen. Kvinnorna väljer på så sätt att inte prata om problemet, och det leder till att våldet inte uppmärksammas. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva kvinnors upplevelse av bemötandet med sjukvården efter att ha blivit utsatta för våld i nära relationer. Metod: En kvalitativ litteraturstudie har tillämpats, egentlig informationssökning har gjorts i databaserna PubMed och Cinahl Complete för att få fram material till resultatet. Resultat: Kvinnor upplevde att de inte blev tagna på allvar samt att de inte fick tillräckligt med stöd av sjukvårdspersonalen. Majoriteten upplevde att de blev negligerade av sjukvårdspersonalen, samt att sjukvårdspersonalen inte hade förståelse för kvinnornas situation. De blev inte värdigt bemötta när de inte kunde vara privata. Det visade dock att ett fåtal kvinnorna upplevde att de är betydelsefulla genom att de får praktiskt stöd och att sjukvårdspersonalen var lyhörda. Det visade även att kvinnor upplevde mer trygghet när de blev bemötta av kunnig vårdpersonal. Diskussion: Kvinnor får inte emotionellt stöd, inte tillräckligt med tid samt att sjukvårdspersonalen inte har erfarenhet och kunskap om ämnet. Detta har lett till att kvinnorna inte väljer att prata om detta med sjukvårdspersonalen.

  • 9979.
    Salomonson, Annika
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Används utvecklingssamtal till att också utveckla ledarskapet?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med min studie är att försöka ta reda på hur några ledare tänker omkring möjligheterna att utveckla sitt eget ledarskap genom utvecklingssamtal. Oftast tycks det vara medarbetaren som står i centrum för utveckling och förbättring när utvecklingssamtal hålls. Kvalitativa intervjuer med fem ledare, som genomför utvecklingssamtal med sina medarbetare, har genomförts. Resultatet visade att ledarna inte använder utvecklingssamtalet till att fokusera sitt eget ledarskap. Ledarna poängterade vikten av att hålla en ömsesidig dialog, men betonade att man genom den ville ge medarbetarna utrymme att föra fram förslag på hur de ville förbättra sin arbetssituation till exempel. Ledarnas uppfattning om sin egen roll rimmar väl med den traditionella synen på ledarskapet. Tid för självreflektion, självkritik eller diskussioner om intersubjektivitet finner man inte lika viktigt. Även om man ser att möjligheterna kanske kunde finnas.

  • 9980.
    Salomonsson, Amelie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Persson, Therese
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Är matematik bara att räkna?: En studie om pedagogers förhållningssätt kring matematik i förskolan.2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie handlar om hur pedagoger tänker kring utformandet av en god matematisk verksamhet i förskolan. I studien framhålls pedagogers förhållningssätt i arbetet med fokus på matematik. Syftet med studien är att synliggöra pedagogernas synsätt kring matematik i förskolans verksamhet samt hur de lyfter matematiken. Syftet är även att synliggöra hur en möjlig implementering kan se ut.

    Studiens empiri utgår från intervjuer med fem pedagoger. Dessa pedagoger har ett medvetet förhållningssätt kring matematik i förskolans verksamhet. Samtliga pedagoger har deltagit i olika former av matematiska projekt.

    Studiens resultat synliggör hur pedagoger tänker kring arbetet med matematik i förskolans verksamhet. I resultat framkommer att pedagogerna lägger stor vikt vid sitt eget förhållningssätt och agerande och dess påverkan på barns möte med matematik.

  • 9981.
    Salvi, Giovanni E
    et al.
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Franco, Lea M
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Braun, Thomas M
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Lee, Angie
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Hong Kong.
    Giannobile, William V
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Pro-inflammatory biomarkers during experimental gingivitis in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a proof-of-concept study.2010In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 9-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To compare gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarker levels and microbial distribution in plaque biofilm (SP) samples for subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) versus healthy subjects without diabetes during experimental gingivitis (EG).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of nine T1DM patients and nine healthy controls of age and gender similar to the T1DM patients were monitored for 35 days during EG. Hygiene practices were stopped for 3 weeks, and GCF, SP, plaque index (PI) and gingival index were determined. IL-1beta, IL-8, MMP-8 and MMP-9 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and SP samples were assessed by DNA-DNA hybridization for a panel of 40 subgingival microbial species.

    RESULTS: IL-1beta levels in T1DM patients were elevated compared with healthy individuals, and showed differences between groups at 7-21 days while healthy patients showed IL-1beta increases from baseline to 14-21 days (p<0.05). Differences were observed in MMP-9 levels between patients with and without T1DM at 7-14 days (p<0.05). Orange complex species and PI measurements displayed a superior correlation with biomarker levels when compared with other complexes or clinical measurements during EG.

    CONCLUSIONS: The mean GCF biomarker levels for IL-1beta and MMP-8 were most significantly elevated in T1DM subjects compared with healthy individuals during EG, not resulting from differences in the mean PI or microbial composition.

  • 9982.
    Salvi, Giovanni E
    et al.
    University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Fürst, Mirjam M
    University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    One-year bacterial colonization patterns of Staphylococcus aureus and other bacteria at implants and adjacent teeth.2008In: Clinical Oral Implants Research, ISSN 0905-7161, E-ISSN 1600-0501, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 242-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: (i) To assess the pattern of early bacterial colonization on titanium oral implants after installation, at 12 weeks and at 12 months, (ii) to compare the microbiota at submucosal implant sites and adjacent subgingival tooth sites and (iii) to assess whether or not early colonization was predictive of 12-month colonization patterns.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Submucosal/subgingival plaque samples from 17 titanium oral implants and adjacent teeth were analyzed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization 30 min, 12 weeks and 12 months after implant installation.

    RESULTS: At 12 months, none of the inserted implants had been lost or presented with signs of peri-implantitis. The distribution of sites at implants and teeth with bleeding on probing varied between 2% and 11%. Probing pocket depths < or =3 mm were found at 75% of implant sites. At 12 months, the sum of the bacterial counts of 40 species was statistically significantly higher at tooth compared with implant sites (mean difference: 34.4 x 10(5), 95% confidence interval -0.4 to 69.4, P<0.05). At 12 months, higher individual bacterial counts at tooth sites were found for 7/40 species compared with implant sites. Detection or lack of detection of Staphylococcus aureus at implant sites at 12 weeks resulted in the highest positive (e.g. 80%) and negative (e.g. 90%) predictive values, respectively. Between 12 weeks and 12 months, the prevalence of Tannerella forsythia increased statistically significantly at implant sites (P<0.05). Lack of detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis at 12 weeks yielded a negative predictive value of 93.1% of this microorganism being undetectable at implant sites at 12 months.

    CONCLUSIONS: Within the limits of this study, the findings showed (i) a few differences in the prevalence of bacterial species between implant and adjacent tooth sites at 12 months and (ii) high positive and negative predictive values for selected bacterial species.

  • 9983. Salvi, Giovanni E
    et al.
    Kandylaki, Maria
    Troendle, Amineh
    Persson, G. Rutger
    School of Dental Medicine, University of Berne.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    Experimental gingivitis in type 1 diabetics: a controlled clinical and microbiological study.2005In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 310-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To monitor clinical and microbiological changes during experimental gingivitis in type 1 diabetics and non-diabetics.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine type 1 diabetics with good/moderate metabolic control and nine age-gender matched non-diabetics were recruited. Probing pocket depths in all subjects did not exceed 4 mm and none were affected by attachment loss. According to the original model, an experimental 3-week plaque accumulation resulting in experimental gingivitis development and a subsequent 2-week period of optimal plaque control were staged. Subgingival plaque samples were collected at days 0, 21 and 35 from one site per quadrant, pooled and analysed using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization.

    RESULTS: Diabetics (mean age 25.6+/-5.8 standard deviation (SD), range 16-35 years) had a mean HbA1c level of 8.1+/-0.7% (SD), while non-diabetics (mean age 24.8+/-5.7 (SD), range 15-36 years) were metabolically controlled (HbA1c< or =6.5%). Between Days 0, 21 and 35, no statistically significant differences in mean plaque and gingival index scores were observed between diabetics and non-diabetics. At days 7 and 21, however, diabetics showed statistically significantly higher percentages of sites with gingival index scores > or =2 compared with non-diabetics. Mean DNA probe counts of the red and orange complex species increased significantly (p<0.05) between days 0 and 21 and decreased significantly (p<0.05) between days 21 and 35 in both groups.

    CONCLUSION: Both diabetics and non-diabetics react to experimental plaque accumulation with gingival inflammation. Type 1 diabetics, however, develop an earlier and higher inflammatory response to a comparable bacterial challenge.

  • 9984.
    Salvi, Giovanni E
    et al.
    School of Dental Medicine, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    School of Dental Medicine, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Heitz-Mayfield, Lisa J A
    University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.
    Frei, Marc
    School of Dental Medicine, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    School of Dental Medicine, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Adjunctive local antibiotic therapy in the treatment of peri-implantitis II: clinical and radiographic outcomes.2007In: Clinical Oral Implants Research, ISSN 0905-7161, E-ISSN 1600-0501, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 281-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To monitor over 12 months clinical and radiographic changes occurring after adjunctive local delivery of minocycline microspheres for the treatment of peri-implantitis.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 25 partially edentulous subjects, 31 implants diagnosed with peri-implantitis were treated. Three weeks after oral hygiene instruction, mechanical debridement and local antiseptic cleansing using 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, baseline (Day 0) parameters were recorded. Minocycline microspheres (Arestin) were locally delivered to each implant site with bone loss and a probing pocket depth (PPD) >or=5 mm. Rescue therapy with Arestin was allowed at Days 180 and 270 at any site exhibiting an increase in PPD>or=2 mm from the previous visit. The following clinical parameters were recorded at four sites/implant at Day 0, 10, 30, 60, 90, 180, 270 and 360: PPD, clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP) and plaque index (PlI).

    RESULTS: Six implants in six subjects were either rescued or exited because of persisting active peri-implantitis. Successful implants showed a statistically significant reduction in both PPD and percentage of sites with BOP between baseline and Day 360 (P<0.05). At mesial implant sites, the mean PPD reduction amounted to 1.6 mm (95% CI: 0.9-2.2 mm, P<0.001) and was accompanied by a statistically significant reduction of the BOP value (P<0.001). Binary regression analysis showed that the clinical parameters and smoking history could not discriminate between successfully treated and rescued or exited implants at any observation time point.

    CONCLUSION: Non-surgical mechanical treatment of peri-implantitis lesions with adjunctive local delivery of microencapsulated minocycline led to positive effects on clinical parameters up to 12 months.

  • 9985.
    Salvigsen, Otto
    et al.
    Norge.
    Elgersma, Anne
    Norge.
    Hjort, Christian
    Lund University.
    Lagerlund, Erik
    Lund University.
    Liestol, Olav
    Norge.
    Svensson, Nils-Olof
    Lund University.
    Glacial history and shoreline displacement on Erdmannflya and Bohemanflya, Spitsbergen, Svalbard1990In: Polar Research, ISSN 0800-0395, E-ISSN 1751-8369, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 261-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traces of former glaciation were studied on Erdmannflya and Bohemanflya. Both peninsulas were probably completely covered by glaciers during the Late Weichselian and the final deglaciation took place around 10,000 C-14 years BP. Esmarkbreen readvanced shortly after 9,500 BP, probably a local and shortlasting event. Raised beaches occur to about 60 m above sea level, and date back to about 10,000 BP. Initial land emergence was rapid, about 3m/100 years. It seems to have been followed by a marine transgression between 8,500 and 7,500 BP, which resulted in a large and distinct beach bridge and marine abrasion cliffs about 10-12 m above present sea level. Mytilus edulis lived in the area between at least 9,000 and 5,000 BP. Five thousand years ago relative sea level probably stood 3-4 m higher than today. Relative sea level has remained close to present during the last centuries. Different positions of glacier fronts in this century have also been mapped.

  • 9986.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    A conceptual model facilitating the transition of involuntary migrant families2011In: ISRN Nursing, ISSN 2090-5483, p. 824209-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Refugee families face a complex transition due to the nature of involuntary migration and the process of acculturation. There are several risk factors to the family adaptation process during the transition period, which are sociocontextually environmental dependant. Facilitating a healthy transition for refugee families, therefore, requires the role of nursing to incorporate sociopolitics into the discipline. This paper introduces a sociopolitically oriented and community-driven assessment and intervention model which is based on a family systematic approach. Interventions that aid the families in their acculturation process as well as empowers them to a well-functioning daily life, as per the SARFI model, should be adopted. As such, the future of nursing may provide additional primary health care services for refugee families; this is through a team-led “family nurse” who provides quality care for the family unit in collaboration with other health care professionals and societal authorities.

  • 9987.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II.
    Att leva i kulturell transition: ofrivilligt invandrade familjers välbefinnande2012In: Att möta familjer inom vård och omsorg / [ed] Eva Benzein, Margaretha Hagberg, Britt-Inger Saveman, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, p. 115-127Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9988.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    En hälsosam anpassning: om ofrivilligt invandrade familjers hälsa under omställningen till Sverige och om hälsostödjande familjesamtal2010In: Omvårdnad i mångkulturella rum: frågor om kultur, etik och reflektion / [ed] Björngren Cuadra, Carin, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, p. 49-85Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9989.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Arbete i skolan (AiS).
    Facilitating a healthy transition for involuntary migrant families within primary health care2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The refugee families face a complex transition due to the nature of the migration. This exposes them to vulnerability in cohesion and family function. Primary Health Care Nurses (PHCN) and Interpreters in Primary Health Care (PHC) play a vital role in their promotion of health because migrant health care is mainly carried out within PHC. The overall aim of this thesis was to reach a comprehensive understanding of involuntary migrant family health in order to facilitate a healthy transition for the aforementioned families in Sweden from a systems perspective. These findings are based on interviews representing 16 members from ten families from the Balkans, Kurdistan and Africa (study I), 34 PHCNs (study II & III) and ten Interpreters working within PHC and originating from the same countries as the families (study IV). This study was carried out in two municipalities in Sweden. Contextual analysis with reference to phenomenography was used in interpreting the data in studies I-III. A qualitative method and contextual analysis was used in study IV. The Neuman Systems Model was used to unravel environmental influences in all the four studies. The findings of study I & II illustrate the families’ transition experience through four different family profiles respectively describing the families’ wellbeing: A distressed family living under prolonged tension; a contented family who leads a satisfactory life; a frustrated family who cannot lead a fully satisfactory life and a dejected family who feels deserted (study I). Further, a mentally distressed family within the asylum-seeking process; an insecure family with immigrant status; a family with internal instability and being segregated from society; and a stable and well functioning family integrated in society (study II). Stress factors such as living in uncertainty, having traumas, change in family roles, frequent negative attitudes of the host country and social segregation was detrimental to the wellbeing of the family. In promoting their health, PHCNs approached the families through: an ethnocentric approach, an empathic and culturally relative approach, and a holistic approach enabling families to function well in their everyday life (study III). From the Interpreters’ perspective, promoting health was to improve psychological wellbeing by: promoting positive thoughts of a future, promoting consideration of one’s worth and promoting stability of the family unit. Social interactions within the host country together with the recognition and appreciation of the families’ cultural values and beliefs, and competence and proper and elucidative information regarding the functioning of the host country, was considered necessary. Facilitating a healthy transition is possible within PHC. This can be done through cooperation of the family, with other health professionals, community and ethnic organisations. A model was developed in order to help the aforementioned. Competence in intercultural communication and family focused nursing is required. Adequate skills ought to be included in the education of nurses.

  • 9990.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    "Man måste anpassa sig": det är stressande att anpassa sig till en ny kultur och få sina värderingar dagligen ifrågasatta ; många drabbas av dålig hälsa och familjebanden hotas ; familjesamtal förordas som hälsofrämjande åtgärd för flyktingfamiljer2008In: Invandrare & Minoriteter, ISSN 1404-6857, no 1, p. 36-38Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9991.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    School of Social and Health Sciences, University of Halmstad.
    "It is a different war to fight here in Sweden": the impact of involuntary migration on the health of refugee families in transition2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 292-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Involuntary migration and adaptation to a new cultural environment is known to be a stress factor. The aim of the study was to explore the impact of involuntary migration on the family health in order to identify specific health care issues related to refugee families in transition living in Sweden. Data was collected through interviews with 16 members of 10 different refugee families from Balkan countries, Kurdistan and Africa for which permission was obtained from the chairman of the local ethnic organizations in a municipality in the southern part of Sweden. In interpreting the material, analysis was made using a contextual approach with reference to phenomenography. The analysis resulted in four qualitatively different descriptive categories characterizing the health of the families: a distressed family living under prolonged tension; a contented family who leads a satisfactory life; a frustrated family who cannot lead a fully satisfactory life and a dejected family who feels deserted. Stressors seeking asylum, facing unemployment and changed roles, interacted negatively within the family. A friendly and understanding attitude from the host country was the main factor in promoting the health of the refugee families. Nursing interventions should therefore assist the families accordingly in order to promote the stability of the family system.

  • 9992.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Arbete i skolan (AiS).
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    School of Social and Health Sciences, Halmstad University.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    FoUrum, Research and development unit in county of Jönköping.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University.
    The promotion of family wellness for refugee families in cultural transition: a phenomenographic study2012In: Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, ISSN 1925-4040, E-ISSN 1925-4059, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 92-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To illustrate how nurses can promote family wellness and facilitate acculturation for involuntary migrant families as conceptualized by bilingual interpreters and cultural mediators with own past refugee experience.  Due to the nature of involuntary migration and accompanying acculturation, refugee families face a complex transition, exposing them to vulnerability in cohesion and family function. Involuntary migrant health needs are largely managed within the Primary Health Care sector where Primary Health Care Nurses (PHCN) play an important role. Additionally, bilingual interpreters and cultural mediators with personal experience of being refugees and subsequent acculturation play a critical role in bridging the language and cultural gap between migrant families and PHCNs.

    Methods: The study is descriptive and explorative in design with a phenomenographic approach. Data was collected in Southern Sweden utilizing in-depth interviews with ten bilingual interpreters and cultural mediators originating from the Balkans, Kurdistan, Eritrea and Somalia. A contextual analysis with reference to phenomenography was used in interpreting the data material.

    Results: Three separate themes illustrated the meaning of family wellness: a sense of belonging to the new homeland, the maintenance of self-esteem and stable family interrelationships. The analysis demonstrated that the way ex-refugee bilingual interpreters and cultural mediators perceived of how to promote family wellness, fell into three qualitative different conceptions: (1) Promotion of family wellness is the responsibility of the family itself, manifested in its attitude in wanting to adjust to change, (2) Promotion of family wellness is the consideration of those outside the family and is marked by understanding and respectful attitudes, (3) Promotion of family wellness is a societal responsibility to which successful integration is a prerequisite.

    Conclusions: The promotion of health of involuntary migrant families in cultural transition is complex due to families, other members of the society and society at large all contributing to family wellness in the process of acculturation. For nurses to facilitate a healthy transition for involuntary migrant families, a holistic approach working with the entire family in a psychosocial way and cooperating with other health care professionals, community authorities and ethnic organizations maybe a future direction in encounters with involuntary migrant families with health problems. Adopting a family system approach will enable nurses to provide culturally and transition-competent quality care by enabling stabilizing interfamily relationships through supportive conversations about changes and its subsequent reactions and possible coping of the family as a unit. Further research in order to enhance health promotion would preferable take on a participatory approach.

  • 9993.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Fridlund, B.
    Lund university.
    Arvidsson, B.
    Halmstad university.
    Primary health care nurses' conceptions of involuntarily migrated families' health2006In: International Nursing Review, ISSN 0020-8132, E-ISSN 1466-7657, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 301-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Involuntary migration and adaptation to a new cultural environment is known to be a factor of psychological stress. Primary Health Care Nurses (PHCNs) frequently interact with refugee families as migrant health needs are mainly managed within Primary Health Care.

    Aim: To describe the health of the involuntary migrated family in transition as conceptualized by Swedish PHCNs.

     Method: Thirty-four PHCNs from two municipalities in Sweden were interviewed and phenomenographical contextual analysis was used in analysing the data.

     Findings: Four family profiles were created, each epitomizing the health characteristics of a migrated family in transition: (1) a mentally distressed family wedged in the asylum-seeking process, (2) an insecure family with immigrant status, (3) a family with internal instability and segregated from  society, and (4) a stable and wellfunctioning family integrated in society. Contextual socio-environmental stressors such as living in uncertainty awaiting asylum, having unprocessed traumas, change of family roles, attitudes of the host country and social segregation within society were found to be detrimental to the well-being of the family.

     Conclusion: Acceptance and a clear place in society as well as clearly defined family roles are crucial in facilitating a healthy transition for refugee families. Primary Health Care Nursing can facilitate this by adopting a family system perspective in strengthening the identity of the families and reducing the effects of socio-environmental stressors.

  • 9994.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Fridlund, B.
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University.
    Arvidsson, B.
    School of Social and Health Sciences, Halmstad University.
    Primary health care nurses' promotion of involuntary migrant families' health2010In: International Nursing Review, ISSN 0020-8132, E-ISSN 1466-7657, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 224-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Involuntary migrant families in cultural transition face a number of challenges to their health and to family cohesion. Primary health care nurses (PHCNs) therefore play a vital role in the assessment and promotion of their health.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the promotion of health in involuntary migrant families in cultural transition as conceptualized by Swedish PHCNs.

    Method: Interviews were conducted with 34 strategically chosen PHCNs covering the entire range of the primary health care sector in two municipalities of Southern Sweden. A contextual approach with reference to phenomenography was used in interpreting the data.

    Findings: There are three qualitatively different descriptive categories epitomizing the characteristics of the PHCNs' promotion of health: (1) an ethnocentric approach promoting physical health of the individual, (2) an empathic approach promoting mental health of the individual in a family context, and (3) a holistic approach empowering the family to function well in everyday life.

    Conclusions: For nurses to promote involuntary migrant families'health in cultural transition, they need to adopt a holistic approach. Such an approach demands that nurses cooperate with other health care professionals and community authorities, and practise family-focused nursing; it also demands skills in intercultural communication paired with cultural self-awareness in interacting with these families. Adequate knowledge regarding these skills should therefore be included in the education of nurses, both at under- and at post-graduate level.

  • 9995.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    Primary health care nurses' conceptions of involuntarily migrated families health2010In: Transitions Theory: middle-range and situation-specific theories in nursing research and practice / [ed] Meleis, Afaf Ibrahim, New York: Springer Pub. , 2010, p. 242-249Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9996.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II.
    Hedemalm, Azar
    Högskolan Väst.
    Vård av patient med utländsk härkomst som har hjärtsjukdom2012In: Kardiologisk omvårdnad / [ed] Bengt Fridlund, Dan Malm, Jan Mårtensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 2, p. 303-322Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9997.
    Samarasinghe Kerstin, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Promoting health in involuntarily migrated families in cultural transition from the perspective of interpreters working within Primary Health CareManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Refugee families face a complex transition due to involuntary migration exposing them to vulnerability in cohesion and family function. Since migrant health care is mainly managed by the Primary Health Care sector, interpreters play a critical role in bridging the gap amongst these families and the Primary Health Care system. Aim: To explore and describe interpreters’ experiences of promoting health in involuntarily migrated families in cultural transition living in Sweden. Method: Ten interpreters from five ethnic groups were interviewed and contextual analysis was used in analysing the data. Result: Promoting health in refugee families was conceived as improving family members psychological wellness despite past experiences by promoting a future, promoting consideration of one’s worth and promoting stability of the family unit. Social interactions within the host country, recognition and appreciation of the families’ cultural values and beliefs as well as competence and proper and elucidative information regarding the functioning of the host country was considered necessary in the promotion of health of these families. Conclusion:  Promoting health in involuntarily migrated families will have to facilitate a healthy transition. Primary Health Care Nurses can do this by proper cooperation with community and ethnic organisations and by adopting a family system perspective in communicating the family’s transition experiences in a sensitive manner.

  • 9998.
    Samuelsson, David
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Kullman, Johan
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Fysisk aktivitet i skolan, ur pedagogens synvinkel 2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet Fysisk aktivitet i skolan – Ur pedagogens synvinkel undersöker och redovisar pedagogers syn på den dagliga fysiska aktiviteten i skolan. Hur pedagoger arbetar med daglig fysisk aktivitet och hur de uppfattar effekterna av ett sådant arbete. Att inkludera fysisk aktivitet under skoldagen är ett av skolans uppdrag, det uppdraget skall alla pedagoger som arbetar under Lpo 94 följa. Syftet är att undersöka huruvida pedagogens roll och arbetssätt påverkar skoldagen, samt vilka resurser och verktyg pedagogerna använder sig av. Undersökningen grundar sig på tre intervjuer med pedagoger som arbetar medvetet med fysisk aktivitet under skoldagen. Resultaten från undersökningen visar på fördelar och nackdelar med ett sådant arbetssätt och ger en positiv infallsvinkel på hur man som pedagog kan arbeta med daglig fysisk aktivitet. Arbetet kan användas som en idébank åt pedagoger för att utveckla och förbättra dagens arbete med daglig fysisk aktivitet i skolan.

  • 9999.
    Samuelsson, Helena
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Svensson, Maria
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Försummade barn: ett åsidosatt problem En studie om hur verksamma pedagoger i förskolan förhåller sig vid misstanke om att ett barn försummas2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att belysa hur sju verksamma pedagoger i förskolan förhåller sig vid misstanke om att ett barn försummas. Litteraturgenomgången behandlar ett barns grundläggande behov och ett barns behov av anknytning utifrån Bowlby´s teori. Vidare behandlas förskolans roll, där vikten av tidig upptäckt tas upp samt förskolans anmälningsplikt. Kvalitativa intervjuer med sju verksamma pedagoger inom förskolan utgör data i studien. Resultatet visar att försummelse, omsorgssvikt och vanvård av ett barn kan vara: otillräckligt med kläder, bristande hygien och negligering av ett barns behov. Flertalet av pedagogerna framhåller att fysisk misshandel är värre än försummelse vilket leder till att de flesta av pedagogerna inte anmäler direkt vid misstanke om att ett barn försummas eller vanvårdas. I dessa fall anses det vara viktigt att ge barnets föräldrar en chans till förbättring innan en anmälan till socialförvaltningen görs.

  • 10000.
    Samuelsson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business.
    Olsson, Robin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business.
    What influence the buyers’ decision-making process?: a study on the Swedish tenant-owned apartment market2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is concerned with the decision-making process on the tenant-owned apartment marked in Sweden. It is argued that decision-making on the market is complex and the consumer protection is in need to be strengthened. The main issues on the market is argued to be the information asymmetry and agency problems. These phenomena influence the bounded rationality in the decision-making process.

    The purpose is to gain an understanding of the information asymmetry and agency problems on the tenant-owned apartment market in order to explain how it influence the decision-making process. The empirical context where this research is performed is the tenant-owned apartment market in Sweden. More specifically, the relationship between buyers and brokers are examined. The descriptive and exploratory purpose of this mixed methods research calls for abductive reasoning. The choice of performing this research through mixed methods lead to the application of triangulation which influenced the choice of data collection techniques, namely interviews and a questionnaire. The broker perspective was examined with four interviews of real-estate brokers from the Kristianstad area. The perspective of the buyers was examined through three interviews with buyers from the Kristianstad area. Additionally, the questionnaire gathered the opinions from 83 respondents.

    If buyers desire to make decisions that is made under as little bounded rationality as possibly, efforts needs to be made regarding the procedures on the market. Bounded rationality occurs when buyers perceive limitations during the examination of properties which influence the decision-making process.

    Lastly, this field of research was previously rather uncovered. However, this thesis contributes with an understanding of various aspects that influence the decision-making process in the field of the tenant-owned apartment market. We believe that a further understanding of the tenant-owned apartment market would facilitate attempts to strengthen the consumer protection.

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