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  • 51.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    An experimental investigation of the probability distribution of turbulent fragmenting stresses in a high-pressure homogenizer2018Ingår i: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 177, s. 139-150Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The high-pressure homogenizer (HPH) is, together with the rotor–stator mixer (RSM), the standard equipment for emulsification in many fields of chemical processing. Both give rise to intense turbulence which, in turn, gives rise to drop breakup. Previous investigations focus on average turbulent disruptive stress. However, turbulence is a stochastic phenomenon and drop breakup will be characterized by instantaneous stresses, or more specifically by the probability distribution of instantaneous turbulent stresses.

    This study uses high-resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) data to measure the probability distribution of turbulent stresses in the HPH. It is concluded that stress distributions approximately follow a lognormal model and that the skewness of the distributions decreases with increasing distance from the gap exit until a constant distribution shape is obtained at the position where the turbulence is fully developed. This converged stress distribution is similar to that obtained for RSMs in previous studies, suggesting that stress distribution shape is a general property. Moreover, large differences are observed when comparing these experimental stress distributions to the most widely used expression for describing this stochastic effect in fragmentation rate models. This indicates that the traditionally used fragmentation rate models can be fundamentally flawed, at least in relation to RSM and HPH emulsification.

  • 52.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Are food advertisements promoting more unhealthy foods and beverages over time?: evidence from three Swedish food magazines, 1995-20142017Ingår i: Ecology of Food and Nutrition, ISSN 0367-0244, E-ISSN 1543-5237, Vol. 56, nr 1, s. 45-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Unhealthy food in advertising has been suggested as a mediator for the increase in diet-related illness. This study quantitatively investigates changes in food advertising between 1995 and 2014 in terms of food categories promoted, macronutrient content, and percentage of foods classified as heathy or unhealthy from a sample of 7,199 ads from three Swedish food magazines. With the exception of increased alcoholic beverage and decreased carbohydrate-rich-food promotion, no monotonic trends of increasingly unhealthy food advertisement are found. From these findings, it is argued that food magazine advertising is not a mediator of the adverse dietary trend.

  • 53.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Can high-pressure homogenization cause thermal degradation to nutrients?2019Ingår i: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 240, s. 133-144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although originally developed for fat globule disruption in dairy applications, high-pressure homogenizers are extensively used in other food processing applications. Two newer applications are in forming nanoemulsion for delivering supplemented nutrients and as a preservation technique, both using higher pressures than traditional applications. This has raised concern that friction heat created in the homogenizer causes thermal degradation to temperature sensitive molecules such as nutrients. This contribution uses a numerical model to give insight into temperature profiles for drops in a homogenizer valve and investigates when homogenization at elevated pressures is expected to cause thermal degradation. A fast method for estimating the extent of degradation for a given application is also proposed. It is concluded that no thermal degradation is expected inside the valve, almost regardless of operating conditions, due to the short residence time. Provided that cooling is applied after the homogenizer, degradation downstream of the valve can also be avoided.

  • 54.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Det ängsliga matsamhället2018Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt mer av det vi stoppar i oss har vid något tillfälle befunnit sig i fabrikernas rostfria ståltankar, transporterats på löpande band, behandlats med kemiskt framtagna tillsatser och förpackats i färgglada förpackningar. Istället för gladlynta kockar eller känsliga mathantverkare är det idag kemister, ingenjörer och industriarbetare som designar, tillverkar och monterar vår mat.

    Men många som köper den industriellt producerade maten är samtidigt oroliga och känner dåligt samvete. Och många högröstade kritiker menar att industrimaten är näringsfattig, miljöfarlig, bedräglig – eller rentav giftig. Finns det fog för denna kritik?

    Det ängsliga matsamhället tittar närmare på den industriella matproduktionen och drar slutsatsen att industrimat inte alls är så farlig som många tror. Kritiken bygger snarare på att den storskaliga industriella matproduktionen har hamnat på kollisionskurs med en samling vanliga värderingar, som exempelvis uppfattningen att det som producerats utan mänsklig inblandning alltid är bättre (biofili) eller att den traditionella maten automatiskt är bättre bara i egenskap av sin historia (mat-konservatism). Att kritisera färdigmat och pulversås har dessutom blivit ett sätt att markera sin egen moraliska förträfflighet och klasstillhörighet. Vi ser också att motståndet har blivit en kraftfull och samlande symbol för sådant många debattörer vänder sig emot – d­et är egentligen inte ett motstånd mot en viss sorts mat så mycket som mot teknokrati, liberalism, marknadsekonomi och rationalism.

  • 55.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Emulsion formation by homogenization: current understanding and future perspectives2019Ingår i: Annual review of food science and technology, ISSN 1941-1421, Vol. 10, s. 239-258Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Emulsion formation by homogenization is commonly used in food production and research to increase product stability and to design colloidal structures. High-energy methods such as high-pressure homogenizers and rotor-stator mixers are the two most common techniques. However, to what extent does the research community understand the emulsion formation taking place in these devices? This contribution attempts to answer this question through critically reviewing the scientific literature, starting with the hydrodynamics of homogenizers and continuing by reviewing drop breakup and coalescence. It is concluded that although research in this field has been ongoing for a century and has provided a substantial amount of empirical correlations and scaling laws, the fundamental understanding is still limited, especially in the case of emulsions with a high-volume fraction of the disperse phase, as seen in many food applications. These limitations in the current understanding are also used to provide future perspectives and suggest directions for further investigation.

  • 56.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Error estimation, validity and best practice guidelines for quantifying coalescence frequency during emulsification using the step-down technique2017Ingår i: HELIYON, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 3, nr 7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Coalescence during emulsification has a significant effect on the outcome of the process, especially for the high volume fractions of disperse phase common in food and pharmaceutical processing. Controlling emulsification requires that the extent of coalescence during different conditions can be quantified. The step-down technique is the most commonly used method for measuring coalescence frequency during emulsification. However, the validity of the method has been questioned. No in-depth theoretical validation or best practice guidelines have been provided for the step-down technique, or for any of the suggested alternative methods. This contribution derives error estimates for three non-idealities present in every step-down experiment: i) limited sampling rate, ii) non-instantaneous step-down and iii) residual fragmentation after the step. It is concluded that all three factors give rise to systematic errors in estimating coalescence rate. However, by carefully choosing experimental settings, the errors can be kept small. The method, thus, remains suitable for many conditions. Best practice guidelines for applying the method are given, both generally, and more specifically for stirred tank oil-in-water emulsification.

  • 57.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Experimental methods for measuring coalescence during emulsification: a critical review2016Ingår i: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 178, s. 47-59Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Emulsification is a common process in the production in many non-solid foods. These food-emulsions often have high disperse phase volume fractions and slow emulsifier dynamics, giving rise to substantial coalescence during emulsification. Optimal design and operation of food-emulsification requires experimental methods to study how emulsification in general and coalescence in particular progresses under different conditions. Methods for coalescence quantification during emulsification has been suggested in literature but they are rarely used in food-emulsification research. This contribution offers a critical review of the different methods that have been suggested with special emphasis on their applicability to technical food-emulsification. The methods are critically compared in terms of design limitations, degree of quantification and applicability. A state-of-the-art in the form of two methods is identified and guidelines for their application are suggested. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 58.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Fabrication of nanoemulsions by high-pressure valve homogenization2018Ingår i: Nanoemulsions: formulation, applications, and characterization / [ed] Seid Mahdi Jafari and David Julian McClements, Elsevier, 2018, s. 175-206Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    High-pressure valve homogenization is a standard technique for nanoemulsion formation in low-viscosity formulations. It is applied extensively in industrial applications and in academic research. This chapter summarizes the scientific-based knowledge in terms of principal mechanisms of operation and practical applicability of the methodology. It is concluded that high-pressure valve homogenization has many advantages in producing nanoemulsions; the technique is mature and allows for continuous production and for production in various scales. However, the technique also has limitations. The thermodynamic efficiency is low, giving rise to high energy cost, and a substantial temperature rises in the product. The high pressures required for nanoemulsion formation have also been reported to cause overprocessing, which results in an additional limitation.

  • 59.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Flow pulsation plays an important role for high-pressure homogenization in laboratory-scale2018Ingår i: Chemical engineering research & design, ISSN 0263-8762, E-ISSN 1744-3563, Vol. 138, s. 472-481Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most experimental and numerical investigations of high-pressure homogenizers assume that the valve is fed with a constant flowrate. However, technical homogenizers use piston pumps with either 3 or 5 pistons (production- and pilot-scale machines) or a single piston (laboratory-scale machines). This results in flow pulsation. It is still unknown to what extent this influences valve hydrodynamics. Moreover, it is unknown if the difference in the number of pistons has implications for scale-up. This study uses a piston pump model and CFD simulations to elaborate on these questions. It is concluded that the constant flow assumption is justifiable for homogenizers using piston pumps with 3 or 5 pistons (pilot-and production-scale), but that homogenizers run with a single piston (i.e. laboratory-scale machines) will obtain a substantially different flow field. Most notably, the jet extending from the single-piston homogenizer gap will become highly unsteady and smaller drop sizes are expected (when keeping all other settings constant). This adds to previous findings suggesting substantial fundamental differences between laboratory- and production-scale homogenizers. (C) 2018 Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 60.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Indoctrination or education?: intention of unqualified teachers to transfer consumption norms in home economics teaching2015Ingår i: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 39, nr 6, s. 682-691Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost two thirds of home economics teachers in Sweden are formally unqualified. Historically, home economics has focused more on fostering and prescribing the “right” choices whereas the modern (2011-) curriculum focuses on teaching consequences of choices and giving students tools for assessing alternatives. Restraining from prescribing norms requires a high degree of professionalism. The objective of this study was to empirically investigate the prevalence of intentions of formally unqualified teachers to prescribe consumption norms not supported by the curriculum. Furthermore, to investigate to what extent these intentions are correlated with years of experience as a teacher, personal preferences, or personal consumption. The intention to transfer norms were measured using the concept of intentional misalignment applied to a survey distributed to a sample of formally unqualified teachers attending complementary teacher education. A two part survey was used. The first part consisted of multiple choice questions asking the teachers how important they saw it to transfer different consumption norms to their students (e.g. to consume local or organic food). These responses were evaluated quantitatively (Spearman rank correlation, Wilcoxon rank sum test and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance). The second part consisted of an open-ended question asking teachers to describe what they saw as the most important take-home message for students in home economics. The answers were compared to the national curriculum to identify intentions to transfer unsupported norms. The study indicates that more than a third of the formally unqualified home economics teachers in Sweden express the intention to prescribe specific types of consumption or to transfer consumption norms that are not supported by the curriculum. The prevalence is correlated to personal preferences and thus indicates difficulties with keeping a professional perspective. These teachers must be given collegial support and opportunities for continued education – to ensure high-quality home economics education for future generations.

  • 61.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Intentions of formally qualified and unqualified teachers to transfer norms and values in home economics teaching2016Ingår i: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 268-275Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, home economics in general, and the consumer education sections in particular, have been criticized for transferring norms and values of conservative elites to the masses. This is in stark contrast to contemporary theoretical views of a modern home economics aimed at educating emancipated and critical citizens, and also to modern curricula that emphasize the consequences of consumption rather than dogma. A previous study has indicated that formally unqualified teachers see the transfer of consumption norms and values without support in the curriculum as an important objective of home economics teaching, a practice that is questionable from a democratic perspective. This follow-up study investigates to what extent formally qualified home economics teachers show intentions to transfer consumption norms and values without support in the curriculum to students, by using content analysis of 201 survey responses from Swedish qualified home economics teachers and comparing to data from a previously published study on formally unqualified teachers. It is concluded that the qualified teachers demonstrate intentions to transfer unsupported norms and values, though, to a lower degree than unqualified teachers. The results are interpreted by adopting a values education perspective on home economics. This indicates that the observed emphasis on norms and values could be seen partly as a lack of a proficient professional metalanguage among the teachers, and partly as a consequence of the focus on developing a pre-defined moral of consumption in home economics literature. The implications on how to develop home economics teacher education to reduce norm and value transfer intentions are discussed based on the empirical findings and the theoretical framework. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 62.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Professor: därför är skatt på socker fel väg2017Ingår i: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, nr 31 januariArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 63.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Lund University.
    Rotor-stator mixers: from batch to continuous Mode of Operation—a review2018Ingår i: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 6, nr 32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although continuous production processes are often desired, many processing industriesstill work in batch mode due to technical limitations. Transitioning to continuous production requires an in-depth understanding of how each unit operation is affected by the shift. This contribution reviews the scientific understanding of similarities and differences between emulsification in turbulent rotor-stator mixers (also known as high-speed mixers) operated in batch and continuous mode. Rotor-stator mixers are found in many chemical processing industries, and are considered the standard tool for mixing and emulsification of high viscosity products. Since the same rotor-stator heads are often used in both modes of operation, it is sometimes assumed that transitioning from batch to continuous rotor-stator mixers is straight-forward. However, this is not always the case, as has been shown in comparative experimental studies. This review summarizes and critically compares the current understanding of differences between these two operating modes, focusing on shaft power draw, pumping power, efficiency in producing a narrow region of high intensity turbulence, and implications for product quality differences when transitioning from batch to continuousrotor-stator mixers.

  • 64.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Scale-down failed: dissimilarities between high-pressure-homogenizers of different scales due to failed mechanistic matching2017Ingår i: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 195, s. 31-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The high-pressure homogenizer (HPH) is used extensively in the processing of non-solid foods. Food researchers and producers use HPHs of different scales, from laboratory-scale (∼10 L/h) to the largest production-scale machines (∼50 000 L/h). Hence, the process design and interpretation of academic findings regarding industrial condition requires an understanding of differences between scales. This contribution uses theoretical calculations to compare the hydrodynamics of the different scales and interpret differences in the mechanism of drop-breakup.

    Results indicate substantial differences between HPHs of different scales. The laboratory-scale HPH operates in the laminar regime whereas the production-scale is in the fully turbulent regime. The smaller scale machines are also less prone to cavitation and differ in their pressure profiles. This suggest that the HPHs of different scales should be seen as principally different emulsification processes. Conclusions on the effect or functionality of a HPH can therefore not readily be translate between scales.

  • 65.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Utgör livsmedelspriser en barriär mot en hälsosam kost?2015Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, Vol. 43, nr 7, s. 22-33Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 66.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Vad ska vi med föreläsningar till?2017Ingår i: Högre Utbildning, ISSN 2000-7558, E-ISSN 2000-7558, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 40-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreläsningen är en märklig undervisningsform. Samtidigt som den är den vanligast förekom-mande metoden, är den också den mest föraktade. Det finns gott om högskolepedagogisk litteratur som förklarar varför föreläsningen är olämplig för att stimulera lärande. Ändå fortsätter vi föreläsa. Det kan tyckas motsägelsefullt. Denna reflektion vänder på frågan och letar efter föreläsningens fördelar. Utifrån tre öppet tillgängliga föreläsningsserier föreslås tre fördelar med föreläsningen som undervisningsform, fördelar som ofta hamnat i skymundan. De föreslagna fördelarna är: föreläsningar kan genom goda nytolkningar och omformuleringar underlätta inlärningen, den kan ge grund och struktur till nya ämnesområden, och den kan introducera studenter till vad som avses med reflektion på en akademisk nivå. Slutsatsen är inte att alla föreläsningar nödvändigtvis alltid är motiverade, utan att vi med rätt kunskap och inställning kan föreläsa bättre. Uppenbarligen är det mycket lätt att föreläsa på ett sådant sätt att lärande inte främjas. Men det innebär inte att undervisningsmetoden som sådan är alltigenom oanvändbar. I ljuset av reflektionens tre exempel diskuteras också vad vi kan göra för att föreläsa bättre och vilka implikationer detta har för lärare involverade i högreutbildning.

  • 67.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    What is overconsumption?: a step towards a common understanding2014Ingår i: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 38, nr 6, s. 692-700Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Overconsumption is a widely used term in science, media and among concerned consumers. What do we mean by this term? This study is based on the assumption that both the public debate on consumption and consumer research could benefit from better understanding how this term is used and from clarifying the definition. The primary aim of this study was to describe how the term ‘overconsumption’ is being used in the contemporary scientific debate in fields related to consumer studies. This was done by studying the use of the term in scientific journal papers between 2010 and 2012 using qualitative content analysis. It is concluded that overconsumption is often described as consumption of hedonic goods by individuals with undesirable personality traits, low moral or belonging to minority groups. Furthermore, overconsumption is described as having detrimental effects both on the individual consumer, the society and the environment; however, direct individual effects are more frequently mentioned in the studies. The term is seldom defined explicitly. This might lead to confusion and misunderstanding between research fields and between different stakeholders. A structured framework for generating clear and useful definitions is suggested in this study, based on the reviewed papers and a theoretical framework from moral philosophy.

  • 68.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Linnaeus University.
    Granfeldt, Yvonne
    Lund University.
    Diet inequality prevails among consumers interested andknowledgeable in nutrition2015Ingår i: Food & Nutrition Research, artikel-id 27601Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between diet cost and adherence to nutritional recommendations among consumers in general. This has adverse effects on diet and health inequality. It could be hypothesized that consumers knowledgeable in nutrition escape this correlation.

    OBJECTIVE:

    Investigate whether the previously observed relationship between diet cost and nutritional quality prevails among consumers with an above-average interest in and knowledge of nutrition.

    DESIGN:

    Full open diet registrations of 330 students taking a basic university-level course in nutrition over a total of 780 days.

    RESULTS:

    The consumers with the highest daily average diet cost differ from the lowest cost quartile: The diets had higher micronutrient density, more fruits and vegetables, and lower energy density. The highest cost daily diet quartile had a significantly higher energy adjusted intake of the micronutrients that were on average consumed below the recommendation (vitamin D, folate, and iron for women). On the other hand, alcohol intake was significantly higher among the high diet cost group. The highest diet cost respondents consumed more fish, meat, coffee, and spreads, whereas the lowest diet cost respondents had a higher consumption of cereals, bread, jam, sausage, and milk.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Dietary differences prevail even in the above-average interested and knowledgeable group. The respondents did not use their higher level of knowledge to break this commonly observed relationship. This suggests that an increased minimum level of knowledge in nutrition may not by itself eliminate dietary inequality.

  • 69.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Andersson, Ronnie
    Chalmers University.
    Mortensen, Hans-Henrik
    Tetra Pak .
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak .
    Experimental investigations of turbulent fragmenting stresses in a rotor-stator mixer. Part 2: probability distributions of instantaneous stresses2017Ingår i: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 171, s. 638-649Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Drop fragmentation in high intensity turbulent emulsification processing equipment-such as rotor-stator mixers (RSMs)-has traditionally been described in terms of a stress balance; between the stabilizing stress of the drop and the time-averaged turbulent stress at the most intense position of the flow. As shown in part 1 of this series, this approach is often a fruitful first approximation. However, the instantaneous local stress experienced by drops differs,from the time-averaged local stress due to hydrodynamics in general and the stochastic nature of a turbulent flow in particular. This study estimates the probability distribution of instantaneous turbulent stresses in an RSM from velocity fields obtained using particle image velocimetry. Results show that regions with low average stress still have a substantial probability of having instantaneously high stresses. This explains why low probability breakup is observed at these positions in visualization experiments. Results also show that the probability distribution of instantaneous stresses is approximately lognormal. The results are compared to two commonly used models for how to take the stochastic variations into account: the exponential decay model, and the multifractal emulsification model. It is concluded that both models predict reasonable distributions shapes but underestimate the width of the stress distribution.

  • 70.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Arlov, Dragana
    Tetra Pak Proc Syst AB.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    FS Dynam AB.
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak Proc Syst AB & Lund University .
    Hydrodynamic difference between inline and batch operation of a rotor-stator mixer head: a CFD approach2017Ingår i: Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, ISSN 0008-4034, E-ISSN 1939-019X, Vol. 95, nr 4, s. 806-816Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rotor-stator mixers (RSMs) can be operated in either batch or inline mode. When operating a rotor-stator geometry in batch mode, it typically experiences an order of magnitude higher volumetric flow through the stator than in inline mode. This is expected to cause differences in the flow and turbulence in the rotor-stator region. This study uses computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to study the hydrodynamic differences in and near the stator hole as a function of volumetric flow rates between those experienced in inline and batch modes of operation. It is concluded that both radial flow profiles and turbulent kinetic energy across a range of rotor speeds and flow rates can be described by a velocity ratio: average tangential fluid velocity in the stator hole divided by the rotor tip speed. Moreover, the position where dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy takes place-and hence the effective region of dispersion or mixing-differs between the two modes of operation. The relative importance of the two regions can be described in terms of the velocity ratio and the transition can be predicted based on the relative power input due to rotational and pumping power of the mixer. This study provides a starting point for understanding differences between emulsification efficiency between inline and batch modes of operation with relevance for both equipment design and process scale-up.

  • 71.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak AB & Lund University.
    The dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy and its relation to pumping power in inline rotor-stator mixers2017Ingår i: Chemical Engineering and Processing, ISSN 0255-2701, E-ISSN 1873-3204, Vol. 115, s. 46-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The theoretical understanding of inline rotor-stator mixer (RSM) efficiency, described in terms of the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy as a function of mixer design and operation, is still poor. As opposed to the correlations for shaft power draw, where a substantial amount of experimental support for the suggested correlations exists, the previously suggested correlations for the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy have not been experimentally validated based on primary hydrodynamic measurements. This study uses energy conservation to reformulate the previously suggested dissipation rate correlations in terms of pumping power which allows for empirical testing. The dimensionless pumping power of three investigated geometrically dissimilar inline RSMs were found to be qualitatively similar to that of centrifugal pumps and decrease linearly with the inline RSM flow number. The previously suggested models for turbulent dissipation in inline RSMs are inconsistent with this observation. Using this reformulation approach, the previously suggested correlation for power-draw is extended to a correlation for dissipation. A new model is suggested based on conservation of energy and angular momentum, and the empiric pumping power relationship. The new model compares well to CFD simulations of total dissiaption and show reasonable agreement to emulsification drop size scaling.

  • 72.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Mortensen, Hans Henrik
    Tetra Pak.
    Andersson, Ronnie
    Chalmers University.
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak & Lund University.
    Experimental investigations of turbulent fragmenting stresses in a rotor stator mixer. Part 1.: estimation of turbulent stresses and comparison to breakup visualizations2017Ingår i: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 171, s. 625-637Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite large industrial relevance, the relation between rotor-stator geometry, hydrodynamics and drop breakup is poorly understood, partly since no methods for measuring the fragmenting stresses acting on drops have been established. This study attempts to bridge this gap by developing, applying and evaluating two approaches for estimating local turbulent stresses based on particle image velocimetry data: namely one traditional but indirect approach based on the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, and another more direct approach based on the spatial turbulent spectrum that has proven useful in other high-intensity emulsification processing. The approaches are evaluated in terms of validity of underlying assumptions, how they compare to breakup visualizations in the same geometry and with regard to the reliability of primary measurables. Results show three consistent regions of high stress in the rotor-stator region: in a plume extending into the stator-hole from the trailing edge, in the shear layers of the jet exiting the hole and in the macroscopic flow structure formed after the rotor blocks a stator hole. Following, a drop travelling along an average velocity flow field, the measurement predict disrupting stresses exceeding the stabilizing stress at the stator hole exit, at approximately the same position where drop breakup is observed in breakup visualizations. Both methods are therefore able to predict the most likely breakup positions. It is also concluded that both methods have limitations, and that average stress alone cannot describe all aspects of the fragmentation process in rotor-stator mixers. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 73.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Rayner, Marilyn
    Lunds universitet.
    General principles of nanoemulsion formation by high-energy mechanical methods2018Ingår i: Nanoemulsions: formulation, applications, and characterization / [ed] Seid Mahdi Jafari and David Julian McClements, Elsevier, 2018, s. 103-139Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Emulsion formation is a challenging task. Breaking a large drop into smaller fragments gives rise to an increase in the total interfacial area and, consequently, in the interfacial energy. External energy must, therefore, be supplied to form an emulsion. Nanoemulsion formation is even more challenging since small drops require even higher interfacial energy.

    The high-energy methods are designed to supply the energy required for emulsification by subjecting it to a disruptive hydrodynamic stress, that is, laminar or turbulent shear or cavitation. This chapter provides an overview of the current understanding of the mechanical principles of the high-energy methods. It discusses how they give rise to emulsification, both in terms of the traditional stress-balance description and of dynamic theories of emulsification. Special emphasis is placed on the difference between forming micrometer range emulsions and nanoemulsions.

  • 74.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Zishan, Chaudhry
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems AB.
    Fredrik, Innings
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems AB.
    Model emulsions to study the mechanism of industrial mayonnaise emulsification2016Ingår i: Food and Bioproducts Processing, ISSN 0960-3085, E-ISSN 1744-3571, Vol. 98, s. 189-195Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanistic understanding of industrial food-emulsification is necessary for optimal operation and design. Industrial mayonnaise production is yet poorly understood, partly due to a lack of experimental data and partly due to the complexity of the product.

    This study suggests a systematic method for building mechanistic insight, by investigating successively more complex model emulsions in industrial rotor–stator mixers, comparing to idealized theories identifying points of departure. As a first step, a high volume fraction (>50%) and high viscosity (>100 mPa s) model emulsion with a non-ionic surfactant acting as emulsifier is investigated in two industrial-scale mixers (one batch and one continuous inline mixer) at varying rotor tip-speeds.

    The resulting drop diameter to rotor tip-speed scaling suggest turbulent viscous fragmentation of the model emulsion in both mixers despite the high volume fraction of disperse phase which could be expected to lead to significant non-idealities such as extensive coalescence and concentration effect-dominated fragmentation. If the other non-idealities (e.g. egg yolk emulsifying system and non-Newtonian rheology) would not influence the emulsification, this suggests the same mechanism for mayonnaise emulsification. An outline for continued work on successively more complex model-emulsions is discussed in order to further enhance understanding.

  • 75.
    Höglund, Evelina
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Albinsson, Berit
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Wendin, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Appetizing muffins designed for nutritional needs of older adults2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Due to good living conditions, the population of older adults is growing. Increased age increases prevalence of diseases and thereby also the risk of disease related malnutrition (DRM) increases. Appetizing and nutritious food products are needed to counteract DRM. One possible way to enable increased nutritional intake for older people with poor appetite is to offer energy/protein rich snacks between meals. In Sweden, afternoon coffee is an appreciated part of the day. It has also been shown that different varieties of muffins are a popular choice to eat with the coffee among older adults. Developing muffins to suit older adults’ nutritional needs along with their sensory cravings may contribute to decreased DRM. The aim of this study was to investigate added nutritional content along with the sensorial effects of increased fat/protein content in muffins.

    Methods: Design of four different muffins were developed and produced according to a processing scheme where fat and proteins were added. Sensory evaluation and nutritional calculations were performed. Further moisture content, water activity, weight loss and size of the muffins were measured.

    Results: The fat and protein additions affected the sensory properties and nutritional value of the muffins:

    Muffin type

    Content (g/100g   muffin)

    Sensory properties

    fat

    protein

    Reference

    27

    4,9

    soft, smooth

    With added fat

    42

    3,8

    flat, moist, fatty mouth

    With added protein (whey)

    23

    12,4

    feel hard, compact, pointy, low

    flavors

    With added fat and protein

    37

    10,2

    a bit hard, compact, fatty mouth feel   effects of protein are dominant

    Discussion: It can be concluded that muffins with added nutrients and sensorialy designed for older adults’ is promising.  However, further recipe/process development in order to increase appetizing sensory properties may be achieved.

  • 76.
    Höglund, Evelina
    et al.
    RISE.
    Ekman, Susanne
    Swedish Match.
    Stuhr-Olsson, Gunnel
    Findus Special Foods.
    Lundgren, Christina
    Findus Special Foods.
    Albinsson, Berit
    RISE.
    Signäs, Michael
    Medirest.
    Karlsson, Christina
    ICA.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Wendin, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    A meal concept designed for older adults: small enriched meals including dessert2018Ingår i: Food and Nutrition Research, nr 62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The population of older adults is growing and many are at risk of disease-related malnutrition.This is a serious condition which increases the risk for other diseases and distress, human suffering and puts ahigh load on health care costs. Meal concepts tailored to suit the needs of older adults are required to decreasethe incidence of disease-related malnutrition.

    Objective: To evaluate sensory perception regarding a concept of small, protein and energy-enriched multicomponentmeals designed according to the nutritional needs of older adults.

    Design: A meal concept of small main courses with complementary desserts and protein and energy-enrichedproducts was evaluated using triangle tests, hedonic evaluation and focus group discussion. Enriched saucesand meals were compared to corresponding commercial products regarding appearance, taste, consistency andoverall acceptance.

    Results: The concept of a small main course with a complementary dessert was generally perceived as positiveby the target group. The acceptance scores for the enriched meals were generally lower than for the commercialmeals, mainly owing to the packaging of the enriched meals which required covering the food in sauce.Enriched sauces contained approximately 90% more protein than the commercial sauces. However, proteinenrichment affected the sensory properties of the sauces and they were perceived as thicker, creamier and lessflavour-intensive.

    Conclusions: A concept based on small, protein and energy-enriched meals supplemented with a dessert wasconsidered suitable for increasing the energy and protein intakes of older adults provided that the method ofenrichment ensures attractive sensorial properties.

  • 77.
    Höglund, Evevlina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Albinsson, Berit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Stuhr-Olsson, Gunnel
    Findus Special Foods.
    Signäs, Michael
    Medirest Compass AB.
    Karlsson, Christina
    ICA Sverige.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Wendin, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Protein and energy enriched muffins designed for nutritional needs of older adults2017Ingår i: Nutrition & Food Sceince, ISSN 2474-767X, Vol. 2, nr 4, artikel-id 555592Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Disease related malnutrition is a common problem among older adults which results in human suffering and high health care costs. One way to counteract this condition is to offer appetizing and nutritious food products adapted to the needs of older adults. However, macronutrient enrichment of food products is not straight forward as it affects flavour and texture properties. In this study, muffins were fortified with rape seed oil and whey powder to reach increased fat and/or protein content and the nutritional value, sensory properties and physical parameters were investigated. The results showed that ingredients could be added to significantly increase the energy and protein density, but enrichment affected on appearance and other sensory properties. Extra fat made the muffins flat and moist with a smooth and fatty mouth feel, while whey powder addition resulted in high/pointy muffins with shiny appearance, hard texture and altered flavours. For co-addition of fat and protein the effects of added protein dominated. The specific role of muffin/cake batter compounds, and their transformation during the baking process, needs to be further investigated. Hence, more research is needed in order to offer older adult appealing foods with high energy and nutrient density.

  • 78.
    Höijer, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Expanding the home economics classroom: new opportunities with outdoor cooking?2018Ingår i: “What is happening in home economics?”: a spotlight on European activities / [ed] EAHE, 2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 79.
    Höijer, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Förnyad undervisning om mattraditioner: en lesson study2019Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 80.
    Höijer, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Kulinarisk kultur2017Ingår i: Förskoletidningen, ISSN 0348-0364, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 6-8Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 81.
    Höijer, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Köttet som norm2017Ingår i: Nordisk Nutrition, ISSN 1654-8337, Vol. 2017, nr 3, s. 6-9Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 82.
    Höijer, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Redefining education about food traditions in Swedish home economics education: report from a lesson study2018Ingår i: “What is happening in home economics?”: a spotlight on European activities / [ed] EAHE, 2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The syllabus for Home Economics in Sweden has a concrete culture perspective tied to cultural variations and food traditions (Skolverket 2011, 2016). Culture has been described as pivotal to how we socially understand the world around us (Burr 2003, Gerger 2009), which means that the world isn’t neutral to us but rather understood from one cultural perspective or another (Hastrup 2004). Research (Bohm 2016, Höijer 2013) has illustrated how food selected to be included in Home Economics education primarily is chosen by the teacher, and also that the teacher is embedded in the cultural and structural traditions that are (re)constructed in society and school. Education about food in Home Economics is contested in the sense that students and teachers’ cultural perspective are misaligned and students’ experiences rarely are taken as a starting point (Höijer 2013). So far there has been no research investigating how education about food traditions is realized, but experience suggests that it often entails baking traditional saffron buns in December or to speak about geographical regions rather than to investigate food as codes, images, values, experiences and ways of thinking that groups of people share. The main aim of the project was to develop Home Economic teachers competence in a Swedish municipality, the specific aim was to develop education about food traditions.

    Between August of 2017 and January 2018 a competence development project was carried out in a large municipality near Stockholm. The project was planned as a combination between lectures and research in the form of a lesson study (Lewis 2002; Lewis, Perry & Murata 2006; Murata 2011). In the lesson study a specific lesson was planned by the whole group and carried out by one teacher, and observed by other teachers. Analysis and revision of the lesson was done by the whole group.

  • 83.
    Höijer, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Fransson, Sofia
    Forssman, Linda
    Neidestam, Katarina
    Förnyad undervisning om mattraditioner i hem- och konsumentkunskap: en lesson study2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 84.
    Höijer, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Karlsson, Johanna
    Lunds universitet.
    Gerberich, Johanna
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Språk- och kunskapsutvecklande ämnesundervisning för nyanlända elever den första tiden: Del 5. Att lyfta språket och ämneskunskaperna med hjälp av stöttning Del 7. Läsförståelse i alla ämnen2018Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 85.
    Johannesson, J.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. University of Gothenburg.
    Dahlin Ivanoff, S.
    Slinde, F.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Gender differences in practice: knowledge and attitudes regarding food habits and meal patterns among community dwelling older adults2016Ingår i: Journal of Aging Research & Clinical Practice, ISSN 2273-421X, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 220-228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study gender differences in older adults according to practice, knowledge and attitudes regarding food habits and meal patterns. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Two urban districts of Gothenburg, Sweden. Participants: A total of 297 individuals were included, 102 men and 195 women. They were 80 years or older and living in ordinary housing without being dependent upon the municipal home help services or help from another person in Activities of Daily Life, and cognitively intact, defined as having a score of 25 or higher in the Mini Mental State Examination. Measurements: Telephone interviews regarding food habits and meal patterns were conducted. Results: Almost all participants (99%) ate their main meal at home and men preferred company at meals more often (p<0.001). Women had the sole responsibility to shop for food more often (p<0.000), and generally regarded cooking as a routine or something they just had to do. Among men, few (13%) took a great interest in cooking and 36 % of the men stated that cooking was something they were not capable of performing (p<0.000). Men had company at meals every day more often (71% vs 40%). Respondents stated that loneliness took away the enjoyment of cooking and changed their habits when becoming a widow or widower. Conclusion: Women take greater responsibility for the household than men, regardless of marital status. A large proportion of the men thought cooking was something they were not able to do. The findings in this study may indicate a possible gender difference in the need for societal support.

  • 86.
    Johannesson, Julie
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    University of Gothenburg.
    Slinde, Frode
    University of Gothenburg.
    Meal frequency and vegetable intake does not predict the development of frailty in older adults2019Ingår i: Nutrition and health, ISSN 0260-1060, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 21-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:: Frailty is considered highly prevalent among the aging population. Fruit and vegetable intake is associated with positive health outcomes across the life-span; however, the relationship with health benefits among older adults has received little attention.

    AIM:: The aim was to examine if a relationship exists between meal frequency or frequency of vegetable intake and the development of frailty in a population of older adults.

    METHODS:: A total of 371 individuals, 80 years or older, from the study 'Elderly Persons in the Risk Zone' were included. Data was collected in the participants' home by face-to-face interviews up to 24 months after the intervention. Baseline data were calculated using Chi2-test; statistical significance was accepted at the 5% level. Binary logistic regression was used for the relationship between meal frequency or vegetable intake and frailty.

    RESULTS:: Mean meal frequency was 4.2 ± 0.9 meals per day; women seem to have a somewhat higher meal frequency than men (p=0.02); 57% of the participants had vegetables with at least one meal per day. No significant relationship was found between meal frequency or vegetable intake and frailty at 12 or 24 months follow-ups.

    CONCLUSIONS:: Among this group of older adults (80+), meal frequency was slightly higher among women than men, and just over half of the participants had vegetables with at least one meal a day. The risk of developing frailty was not associated with meal frequency or vegetable intake. The questions in this study were meant as indicators for healthy food habits.

  • 87.
    Khalaf, Atika
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Karolinska Institute.
    Westergren, Albert
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsplattformen för Hälsa i samverkan.
    Berggren, Vanja
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Karolinska Institute.
    Hazzaa, A-H
    Saudi Arabia.
    Discrepancies between actual, perceived and ideal body image among young female university students in southwestern Saudi Arabia2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale: Body-shape preference is an important determinant of obesity and underweight, but studies on body image among females in the Arab region are, at most, scanty. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity among Saudi Arabian female university students, and to investigate discrepancies between their actual, perceived and ideal body shape.

    Methods: This cross sectional study included 663  female students in a university centre in Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, BMI and body image scale (9-figures silhouette) were used. A cross-tabulation was made between “warped self-image” against “subjective goal image”. Regression analysis was used to predict variables related to body image perception.

    Results: The participants had a mean age of 20.4 years (SD 1.5), 16% were underweight and 25% were over- weight/obese.Discrepancy in subjective goal image: 44% wished they were slimmer and 20% that they were heavier than what they perceived themselves. Thus, 36% were happy with their current body shape.Warped self-image: It was 16% that thought they were slimmer and 18% that they were heavier than what they actually were. Thus, in 61% of cases the perceived body image was in agreement with their actual body shape. Cross-tabulation showed that only 23% had an agreemen tbetween their actual, perceived and ideal body shape. Of all variables entered into the regression analysis, only BMI was able to predict how the subject perceives herself in the body image scale (R square = 0.676; p < 0.000). None of the variables entered was significant enough to predict how the subject wishes to look like.

    Conclusion: Discrepancies between actual, perceived and ideal body image is common among the Saudi Arabian female students and can possibly lead to eating disorders and increased  prevalence of underweight oroverweight/obesity.

  • 88.
    Lassen, Anne Dahl
    et al.
    Denmark.
    Fagt, Sisse
    Denmark.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    University of Gävle.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Haapalar, Irja
    Finland.
    Thorsen, Anne V
    Denmark.
    Møbjerg, Anna C M
    Denmark.
    Beck, Anne M
    Denmark.
    The impact of worksite interventions promoting healthier food and/or physical activity habits among employees working 'around the clock' hours: a systematic review2018Ingår i: Food & nutrition research, ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a systematic review of randomised studies on the impact of worksite interventions to promote healthier food and/or physical activity among people who work irregular hours 'around the clock', that is, outside of ordinary daytime working hours. The population-intervention-comparator-outcomes-study (PICOS) design format was used. Data sources were PubMed and CINAHL. An updated search was conducted on October 2017 using Google Scholar and the related articles function in PubMed on initially included studies to identify additional studies. Risk of bias was used to assess study quality. A total of seven studies (reports published in 14 papers) were included in the systematic review: Two interventions with a broader lifestyle approach, three focusing on physical exercise and two on providing healthier food or meal options. The studies had sample sizes from 30 to 1,000 and targeted a mixture of occupations, including both male- and female-dominated occupational groups. The interventions lasted from 2 to 12 months. Only one had an extended follow-up. In general, the studies showed small-to-moderate effect sizes on several measures, including dietary and/or physical activity measures, suggesting acceptable effectiveness for interventions involving community-level behaviour change. Our findings highlight a need to further develop and implement well-designed health promotion interventions with comparable outcome measures and effect size reports. A mixture of health promotion strategies is recommended for future practice in this target population, including individually tailored programmes, improving the food and physical activity environment and using broader lifestyle approaches including the use of participatory and empowerment strategies. While more research is needed in this field, the existing knowledge base on effective approaches awaits translation into practice.

  • 89.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Johansson, Michael
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Wetterstrand, Martin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Meals and shift work: food choice, time of day and meal environment - three important dimensions for rest and health2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 90.
    Lindberg, Siv
    et al.
    RISE.
    Edström, Karin
    RISE.
    Tholander, Hanna
    NINE.
    Grari, irjam
    RISE.
    Wendin, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    THEME ELDERLY- Attractive food for elderly: the role of inspiring and informative packaging2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Malnutrition is common among elderly due to low appetite. Appetite is highly connected to age, health and social activities. For home-living elderly, readymade meals are often served for both lunch and dinner. When appetite is reduced, apart from the food itself, the packaging should stimulate appetite by enhancing the attractiveness of the packaged food. The food itself has to fulfil the sensory expectations.

    Aim: To identify important packaging attributes that will increase attractiveness of readymade meals for elderly.

    Method: Iterative design in which consumer tests, focus group discussions and deep interviews for evaluation of prototypes were held with elderly (65-88 years) focussing on food and food packaging. Sensory factors were of specific interest.

    Results: The packaging and the meal inside must attract all senses in order to stimulate appetite, mainly visual and tactile senses were of importance. Although many claim they would like to be able to see the food, photographs of the packed meal are preferred over transparency. The photographs have to be truthful. Easy to read is the most important factor, information should be clearly visible (contrast and size) and not be too verbose. Furthermore, easy to open and handle and consequently, size and weight of the packaging, are also important factors.

    Discussion: The stepwise iterative design of the study included several user tests with different generations of developed prototypes as well as benchmarking against commercial products were useful in identifications of important packaging attributes. A high level of consumer interaction was reached and it became clear that the packaging had a profound impact on the appetite of readymade meals.

    Conclusion: Visual factors are of highest importance as well as tactile properties. Pictures clearly showing the meal in a true and attractive way as well as clearly visible and informative information, size and weight were deemed important.

  • 91.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    Högskolan Borås.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    Högskolan Borås.
    Sundström, Malin
    Högskolan Borås.
    Wendin, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Consumer perception and behaviour in the retail foodscape: a study of chilled groceries2018Ingår i: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, Vol. 40, s. 1-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to provide a functional foodscape in the grocery store, chilled products need to be stored in cabinets according to the regulations. Doors on display cabinets are energy-efficient but can also be perceived as a barrier by consumers.

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to an understanding of how consumers behave and what they perceive when shopping chilled groceries from cabinets with doors and without doors in the supermarket.

    Based on a qualitative research approach, combining in-store observations and focus group interviews, and focusing on three environmental variables in the servicescape: ambient conditions, space and functions, and signs, symbols and artifacts, the results indicate that consumers’ behavior and perceptions differ when there are doors or no doors on cabinets. The results further show how doors lead to different forms of approach or avoidance behavior in terms of accessibility and that consumers’ vision, olfaction and tactility all influence consumers’ perceptions of freshness and cleanliness in relation to doors or no doors. Our results also have practical implications for retailers who are designing new stores or considering changes in existing store layouts.

  • 92. Lindblad, A.
    et al.
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, S.
    Bosaeus, I.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Mat, måltid, hälsa i 24-timmarsperspektivet. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Body Composition and Physical Function in Healthy Community-dwelling Older Adults in Sweden: A Cross-sectional Study2013Ingår i: Non-Communicable Diseases The Response to Health 2020 by Dietitians: Proceedings of the 7th DIETS/EFAD Conference Lake Garda, Italy, 8/9 November 2013, 2013, s. 89-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 93. Lindblad, A.
    et al.
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, S.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Mat, måltid, hälsa i 24-timmarsperspektivet. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Body Composition in Relation to Physical Function in Healthy Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Study2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The expression older adult refers to a person who is 65 years and older. This part of the population has increased over the past decades, and is expected to increase further, by almost 70 % over the next 90 years. Muscle mass decreases with increasing age which affects physical function and nutritional status. Age also result in increased risk of diseases that can affect the muscle mass negatively. Measurement of body composition provides information of nutritional status and indications of physical function. Reference values from healthy older adults are required as a comparison when assessing body composition, nutritional status & physical function in different groups of older adults. Objective: To study physical function in relation to body composition in an apparently healthy elderly Swedish population. Methods: One hundred community-dwelling men and women were visited. The study population was part of the project Elderly in the Risk Zone, conducted in Gothenburg with people 80 years and older within the city district Örgryte-Härlanda. Inclusion criteria in this study were those remaining after two years of follow-up, still living within the area in their own home. Exclusion criteria were pacemaker, fractures, amputation, paralysis, dementia and recent or ongoing influenza or calici. The participants answered a few questions and preformed a series of tests to determine physical function and autonomy. Height and weight were measured, as well as body composition using a bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS). The main study Elderly in the Risk Zone was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board in Gothenburg (Dnr 650-07). This study was approved as an addition to Elderly Persons in the Risk Zone (T176-12). Results: Mean age was 86.5 years. Men and women performed equally well at the Standing-up-test and there were no difference in BMI between sexes. Men were significantly heavier, taller, stronger, and had more TBW, ECW, ICW and FFM than women. Out of the whole population, nineteen percent had low FFMI, no one with concurrent low FMI, although three men had low FFMI with high FMI. Fifteen percent were underweight according to BMI. Conclusion: The older adults in Örgryte-Härlanda show adequate physical function indicated by FFM and better hand grip strength in comparison to previous studies. Physical function appears to be more associated with body composition than chronological age. Combined measurements of body composition and hand grip strength seem to be efficient methods for assessing physical function in community-dwelling older adults.

  • 94.
    Lindblad, Amanda
    et al.
    Gothenburg Univeristy.
    Johannesson, Julie
    Gothenburg Univeristy.
    Dahlin-Ivanhoff, Synnove
    Gothenburg Univeristy.
    Höglund, Evelina
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Ekman, Susanne
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Stuhr Olsson, Gunnel
    Findus.
    Karlsson, Christina
    ICA.
    Signäs, Michael
    Medirest, Compass Group.
    Wendin, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Preferences and attitudes regarding food choices and meal patterns among older adults: a cross-sectional study2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 95. Lindblad, Amanda
    et al.
    Johannesson, Julie
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
    Höglund, Evelina
    Ekman, Susanne
    Wendin, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Mat, måltid, hälsa i 24-timmarsperspektivet. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Preferences, needs and attitudes regarding food habits and meal patterns among community-dwelling older adults: a cross-sectional survey2017Ingår i: Exploring Future Foodscapes: 10th International Conference on Culinary Arts and Sciences / [ed] Bent Egberg Mikkelsen m.fl, AAU Captive Food Studies Group , 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore preferences, needs and attitudes regarding food habits and meal patterns among community-dwelling older adults. 164 community-dwelling, 87-100-years old, 73 % women. Cross-sectional questionnaires based survey distributed by postal service. Approved by the Regional Ethical Review board in Gothenburg T231-14, addition to Dnr ref nr: 650-07. Results were, meanage 90.6 ± 2.84 yrs, mean BMI 23.7 ± 3.70 kg/m2, ♀71, ♂31 had no medical difficulties. More women than men lived alone, ♀102 ♂21 (p<0.01). ♀75 ♂28 would not consider home delivered convenience meals and ♀101 ♂23 cooked alone. Top three important practicalities when buying or receiving convenience meals were easy-open package (♀64 ♂23), easy to get food out (♀34 ♂13) and easily read (♀31 ♂16). This very old population shows good health evident by nutritional status and meal patterns. Subject characteristics indicated better condition than average Swedish nonagenarian, a minority reporting medical difficulties. Very few would consider convenience meals home delivered and would never use the computer. The conclusion is that an majority of both sexes preferred and managed planning, acquiring and cooking food independently although gender differences were apparent with women taking a greater responsibility. A great proportion was interested in testing new flavors. An urgent need concerned accessible containers with readable labels showing the importance for industry to acknowledge needs of older adults and accordingly adapt packaging for this age group.

  • 96.
    Magnusson, Emma
    et al.
    HKR.
    Prim, Mia
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Wendin, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Identification of basic tastes in foods beforeand after training among 4-6 year old children: a pilot study2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The individual perception of taste differs to a great extent and is due to both ability to detect basic tastes and to taste concentrations. Taste preferences and identification, including verbalisation of the taste experience may be improved by learning, either via the socialisation process or strategical learning procedures.

    The aim of this study was to examine 4-6-year old children’s abilities to identify basic tastes in foods before and after training with basic taste solutions. Further, to study the children’s abilities to verbalise their taste experiences before and after the training.

    Methods: Eleven children aged 4-6 years participated in the study conducted at a Swedish preschool. The study consisted of four parts:

    1: Discussion about basic tastes.

    2: Taste session of ten different foods while discussing the tastes.

    3: Training session in which the children learned to recognise the basic tastes sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami by tasting basic taste solutions.

    4: Identification test: The children were asked to answer which of basic tastes they could identify in different foods. It was further studied how the children verbalised the tastes of the foods.

    Results: The children had a significantly higher ability to identify salty taste compared to other basic tastes, both before and after training. Training did improve the children’s abilities to detect and verbalise all basic tastes after basic taste training. Due to verbalisation the children went from naming the tastes as “tasty” or “disgusting” to being able to put words on, and to identify many of the basic tastes in each food.

    Discussion: A strategy to make children more curious and interested of foods and tastes is to conduct training sessions with basic taste solutions. This may benefit young children gaining a positive approach towards new tastes and flavours and also to foods in general.

  • 97.
    Magnusson, Emma
    et al.
    HKR.
    Wendin, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Identification of basic tastes in foods before and after training among 4-6 year old children – a pilot study2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Human beings have an innate preference for sweet taste and aversion towards bitter. However, the individual perception of taste differs to a great extent and is due to both the ability to detect basic tastes and to the taste concentrations. Taste preferences and identification as well as verbalisation of the taste experience may be improved by learning. Either more or less conscious via the socialisation process or via strategically learning procedures.

    The aim of this pilot study was to examine 4-6-year old children’s abilities to identify basic tastes in foods before and after training with basic taste solutions. Further, to note the children’s abilities to verbalise their taste experiences before and after the training.

    This study was conducted at a Swedish preschool, where eleven children aged 4-6 years participated in the four different parts of the study. The first part was a discussion about basic tastes and the second was to test ten different foods while further discussing the tastes. The third was a training part where the children learned to recognise the basic tastes sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami by tasting basic taste solutions. The last part were a basic taste test in which the children were asked to answer which basic tastes they could identify in each food. Further, it was noted how the children verbalised the tastes of the foods.

    From the results it could be concluded that the children had a significantly higher ability to identify salty taste compared to other basic tastes, both before and after training. Improved abilities both to detect and to verbalise all basic tastes after basic taste training was shown. Due to verbalisation the children went from naming the tastes as "tasty" or "disgusting" to being able to put words on, and to identify many of the basic tastes in each food.

    A simple strategy to make children more curious of foods and tastes is to perform training sessions with basic taste solutions. This may benefit young children by contribution of a more positive approach towards new flavours and foods in general.

  • 98. Martin, Lena
    et al.
    Laurenius, Anna
    Palm, Sara
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Mat, måltid, hälsa i 24-timmarsperspektivet. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Anderhov Eriksson, Christin
    Stark inför kirurgi – stark för livet2018Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hälsosamma matvanor och god nutrition har stor betydelse för patientens autonomi, vårdbehov och rehabilitering och är grundläggande för övrig behandling. Att säkerställa att patienten har bästa möjliga nutritionsstatus inför planerad kirurgi, i det akuta efterförloppet och under sin rehabilitering har stor betydelse i omvårdnads- och läkningsprocessen. Rätt mat och näring är en viktig patientsäkerhetsfråga.Undernäring leder till sämre resultat av medicinsk och kirurgisk behandling, förlängd vårdtid och ökad risk för komplikationer, lidande och död. Säker vård avseende nutrition baseras på̊ bedömning av undernäring eller risk för undernäring, utredning av orsak samt adekvat näringsbehandling.God och säker vård är personcentrerad och evidensbaserad. Den bedrivs i team och bygger på kommunikation mellan alla inblandade. Ett strukturerat arbete med ohälsosamma matvanor och nutritionsbehandling inför kirurgi bygger på att olika professioner arbetar tillsammans med patienten i centrum. Dietisten kan erbjuda nutritionsbehandling på̊ individnivå̊.Vi hoppas att denna broschyr kan bidra till ett strukturerat nutritionsarbete inför planerad kirurgi och göra vården kring mat och näring i samband med kirurgi bättre och säkrare för alla som den berör.

  • 99.
    Mikkelsen, B.E.
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Justesen, L.
    Danmark.
    Wendin, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Yngve, A.
    Örebro University.
    Scander, H.
    Örebro University.
    Tellström, R.
    Örebro University.
    Junttila, M.
    Finland.
    Mertanen, E.
    Finland.
    Research based educations for future foodscapes: the new NordicFood4Many experience2015Ingår i: Opportunities and challenges for food and eating in society: proceedings of the International Conference on Culinary Arts and Sciences, 2015, Vol. 9, s. 56-68Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 100.
    Mortensen, Hans Henrik
    et al.
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems.
    Arlöv, Dragana
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems.
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems & Lund University.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    A validation of commonly used CFD methods applied to rotor stator mixers using PIV measurements of fluid velocity and turbulence2018Ingår i: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 177, s. 340-353Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been applied extensively for studying rotor-stator mixers (RSM) in the past, both as a design-tool and in modelling mixing and emulsification. Modelling is always a balance between accuracy and computational cost. The theoretically soundest methods (i.e. fully resolved transient simulations) have often been deemed unfeasible, and the majority of previously published studies use severe simplifications (i.e. k-ε models for turbulence and multiple reference frame for rotation). High quality experimental validation is in great need, but are rare, due to the lack of local fluid velocity measurement.

    Experimental validations of CFD on RSMs have previously been provided using laser Doppler aneometry. This study provides the first validation using particle image velocimetry, allowing for substantially higher spatial resolution than with the previously used techniques. The objective of this study is to map the possibilities and limitations of these commonly used CFD modelling approaches for RSMs. Special emphasis is put on validating the dissiaption rate of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Despite being the parameter used for linking CFD to mixing or dispersion models, this has not been the subject of experimental validation in previous studies.

    Based on the validations, a list of best practice recommendations are given (in terms of turbulence model, mesh resolution and rotation formulation). When adhering to these, the CFD model accurately captures power draw, flow number, and the detailed velocity field inside the region where mixing and dispersion takes place. The dissipation rate of TKE is captured qualitatively but underestimate experimental values. Implications in terms of limitations are discussed in detail, including estimations of accuracy implications for emulsification and mixing modelling.

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