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  • 51.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Emma
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Workplace factors predict good health but not good quality of life: a population-based Swedish questionnaire study2006In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 16, no Suppl. 1, p. 173-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Folkhälsa: några begreppsdefinitioner2009In: Andersson, Ingemar & Ejlertsson, Göran (red.). Folkhälsa som tvärvetenskap: möten mellan ämnen, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, p. 17-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Ejlertsson, Lina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap. Lund University.
    Heijbel, Bodil
    Lund University.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Recovery, work-life balance and work experiences important to self-rated health: a questionnaire study on salutogenic work factors among Swedish primary health care employees2018In: Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 155-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of information on positive work factors among health care workers.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore salutogenic work-related factors among primary health care employees.

    METHOD: Questionnaire to all employees (n = 599) from different professions in public and private primary health care centers in one health care district in Sweden. The questionnaire, which had a salutogenic perspective, included information on self-rated health from the previously validated SHIS (Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale), psychosocial work environment and experiences, recovery, leadership, social climate, reflection and work-life balance.

    RESULTS: The response rate was 84%. A multivariable linear regression model, with SHIS as the dependent variable, showed three significant predictors. Recovery had the highest relationship to SHIS (1 = 0.34), followed by experience of work-life balance (1 = 0.25) and work experiences (1 = 0.20). Increased experience of recovery during working hours related to higher self-rated health independent of recovery outside work.

    CONCLUSION: Individual experiences of work, work-life balance and, most importantly, recovery seem to be essential areas for health promotion. Recovery outside the workplace has been studied previously, but since recovery during work was shown to be of great importance in relation to higher self-rated health, more research is needed to explore different recoverystrategies in the workplace.

  • 54.
    Gunnarsson, Jennie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Egna krav i arbetet betydelsefulla för symtomförekomst: resultatet från en enkätstudie till vårdanställda2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsplatsen är en viktig arena för att påverka människors hälsa. Hälsofrämjande insatser på arbetsplatsen kan förbättra arbetsmiljön och främja människors hälsa i relation till arbetet. Syftet med rapporten var att studera vilka arbets- och individrelaterade faktorer som har betydelse för en bra hälsa mätt som en låg rapportering av symtom. Studien genomfördes genom enkät till vårdanställda vid en vårdenhet i södra Sverige (n =511). Resultatet visade att individens egna krav hade anmärkningsvärt högt samband med symtomförekomst. Låga egna krav relaterade till låg symtomförekomst. Den allmänna trivseln och en positiv syn på den närmaste chefen relaterade också till låg symtomförekomst. Sambandet mellan egna krav och symtomförekomst kan vara en effekt av den utveckling som har skett i samhället och på arbetsplatserna, där det många gånger är individen själv som sätter gränser och värderar den egna insatsen. Följden av de upplösta strukturerna kan bli att individen ökar kraven på sig själv, och i förlängningen kan det leda till minskad återhämtning, ökad stress och därmed symtomförekomst. Att en stor andel av respondenterna upplevde att de hade höga krav på sig själva kan därmed vara en varningssignal. Vår studie visar dessutom att de egna kraven är högre bland yngre anställda. Hälsofrämjande insatser för att minska individens egna krav är av vikt då insatserna möjligen kan leda till lägre grad av symtomförekomst. Dessutom var sjuknärvaron påtagligt hög bland respondenterna. Konsekvenserna av sjuknärvaron är inte tillräckligt utforskad för att påvisa vilka följderna kan bli. Att inte få möjlighet till återhämtning kan dock leda till symtom och stressrelaterade besvär. Frågan som måste ställas är hur de ökade kraven på individen ska bemötas?

  • 55.
    Larsson, Brita
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Hässleholm Hospital.
    Johannesson, Anton
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Ortopedteknik AB, Kristianstad Hospital.
    Andersson, Ingemar H.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Atroshi, Isam
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Department of Orthopedics, Hässleholm and Kristianstad Hospitals.
    The Locomotor Capabilities Index: validity and reliability of the Swedish version in adults with lower limb amputation2009In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 7, no 44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Locomotor Capabilities Index (LCI) is a validated measure of lower-limb amputees' ability to perform activities with prosthesis. We have developed the LCI Swedish version and evaluated its validity and reliability. Methods: Cross-cultural adaptation to Swedish included forward/backward translations and field testing. The Swedish LCI was then administered to 144 amputees (55 women), mean age 74 (4093) years, attending post-rehabilitation prosthetic training. Construct validity was assessed by examining the relationship between the LCI and Timed "Up-and-Go" (TUG) test and between the LCI and EQ-5D health utility index in 2 subgroups of 40 and 20 amputees, respectively. Discriminative validity was assessed by comparing scores in different age groups and in unilateral and bilateral amputees. Test-retest reliability (1-2 weeks) was evaluated in 20 amputees (14 unilateral). Results: The Swedish LCI showed good construct convergent validity, with high correlation with the TUG (r = -0.75) and the EQ-5D (r = 0.84), and discriminative validity, with significantly worse mean scores for older than younger and for bilateral than unilateral amputees (p < 0.01), and high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha 0.95). In test-retest reliability the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.91 (95% CI 0.79-0.96) but for the unilateral amputees was 0.83 (95% CI 0.56-0.94). Ceiling effect occurred in 23%. Conclusion: The Swedish version of the LCI demonstrated good validity and internal consistency in adult amputees. Test-retest reliability in a small subsample appears to be acceptable. The high ceiling effect of the LCI may imply that it would be most useful in assessing amputees with low to moderate functional abilities.

  • 56.
    Lindström, Petra Nilsson
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Bringsén, Åsa
    Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Evaluating the usability of two salutogenic instruments on health and work experience, using cognitive interviewing2018In: Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, ISSN 1555-5240, E-ISSN 1555-5259, Vol. 33, no 3-4, p. 241-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workplace surveys are used in workplace health promotion as a basis for improvements at the workplace. But there is lack of psychometrically and qualitatively validated work-health related instruments with a salutogenic approach. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the two instruments, the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale and the Work Experience Measurement Scale, among staff of different professions in a healthcare setting. These instruments were evaluated with cognitive interviews conducted at a hospital in Sweden. The respondents were purposefully selected from various criteria such as profession, age, and sex (N = 14). The respondents read the items aloud and then spoke about how they experienced the items. A deductive (partly inductive) content analysis was done from Tourangeau's four concepts of respondent actions: comprehension, retrieval, judgment, and response. Two main categories emerged: (1) interpreting and (2) responding, and an additional six subcategories: difficulty, essence, direction, keywords, strategy, and alternatives. The results showed strengths and weaknesses of the instruments. The results were discussed from various validity aspects: face validity, content validity, and user validity. The validity aspects were connected to concepts of respondent actions as well as to questionnaire and respondent factors for motivation.

  • 57.
    Molin, Anna
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Attityder till arbete och socialförsäkring: en kunskapsgenomgång2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med kunskapsgenomgången är att ge en överblick över litteratur kring attityder till arbete och socialförsäkring. Undersökningen är gjort som en litteraturstudie. Den första delen i kunskapsgenomgången belyser individers inställning till arbete. Resultatet visar att den vanligaste attityden till arbete i Sverige är den individualistiska, där individen ser till hur tillfredsställande arbetet är i förhållande till individens egna mål och ambitioner. Den belöning som kan fås genom arbete och som har den starkaste förankringen är det instrumentella förhållningssättet, vilket fokuserar på den ekonomiska belöning arbetet ger.

     

    Faktorer som har betydande inverkan på individers attityder till arbete är uppdelade i strukturella faktorer och individuella faktorer. De strukturella faktorerna innefattar hur uppbyggnaden av samhällets myndigheter påverkar individers attityder, beteenden och förtroende. Det visar sig att individer lättare får förtroende för myndigheter när de varit i kontakt med dem. Vidare påverkar även utformningen av socialförsäkringssystemet individers attityder till arbete. Generösa ersättningssystem leder till ökad arbetsmotivation och pliktkänsla. Tryggheten i ett samhälle ger starkare arbetsorientering. De individuella faktorerna innefattar vikten av socialisationen, kön, ålder, utbildning och social klass. Föräldrar för över sin inställning till arbete till sina barn. Skillnader mellan män och kvinnor och deras inställning till arbete formas även den av föräldrarna. Ju äldre individer blir desto starkare blir pliktkänslan. Vidare visar resultatet att högre utbildning och högre social klass ger starkare arbetsmotivation.

     

    Den andra delen som redovisas i kunskapsgenomgången är individers inställning till socialförsäkringen. Avsnittet visar att frånvaro från arbete kan ta sig i uttryck genom sjukskrivning eller arbetslöshet och att det inte finns någon klar gräns mellan dessa områden. Arbetslöshet kan leda till sjukskrivning och vice versa. Avsnittet belyser att svenskarna ibland "tjänar på" att vara sjukskrivna istället för arbetslösa och vilket problem moral hazard-beteendet utgör för socialförsäkringen. Genomgången visar att nya meningsfulla aktiviteter under en period som arbetslös kan öka livskvaliteten och minska individers engagemang i att hitta nytt arbete. Studien visar vidare att många sjukskrivna anser sig att kunna arbeta en del av sin arbetstid om de kunnat påverka sin arbetssituation.

     

    De faktorer som har betydande inverkan på individers attityder till socialförsäkringen är, liksom var fallet för inställning till arbete, uppdelade i strukturella faktorer och individuella faktorer. De strukturella faktorerna innefattar hur samhällets regler, däribland antalet karensdagar, kan påverka individers attityder och beteenden vad gäller sjukskrivning. Införandet av karensdagen har i Sverige t.ex. minskat utnyttjandet av sjukförsäkringen. Socialförsäkringens utformning visar skiftande resultat vad gäller hur det påverkar sjukskrivningar och arbetslöshet. Hög ersättning kan visa sig både ge högre frånvaro från arbete men även ökade chanser till att hitta arbete. Vidare har individers tro om huruvida andra är sjukskrivna inverkan på benägenheten att sjukskriva sig eller inte. Bland individuella faktorer har individens ideologiska uppfattning betydelse för utnyttjandet av socialförsäkringen.

  • 58.
    Molin, Anna
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Individers levnadsvanor och frånvaro från arbete: en kunskapsgenomgång2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med kunskapsgenomgången är att ge en överblick över litteratur om relationen mellan individers levnadsvanor och frånvaro från arbete i form av arbetslöshet, sjukskrivning och förtidspensionering. De livsstilsfaktorer som tagits med är alkohol, droger, fysisk aktivitet, kroppsvikt, rökning och spelberoende. Undersökningen är gjord som en litteraturstudie.

     

    Första delen belyser arbetslöshet i förhållande till de olika livsstilsfaktorerna. Majoriteten av litteraturen visar att arbetslöshet ökar alkoholkonsumtionen och att den stora riskgruppen är unga män. Vidare verkar det som att längre perioder av arbetslöshet leder till högre konsumtion av alkohol. Det finns dock studier som menar att ett en minskande alkoholkonsumtion vid arbetslöshet skulle kunna orsakas av en försämrad ekonomi. Samtidigt pekar andra studier på att alkoholkonsumtionen vid arbetslöshet varierar mellan individer. Vad gäller droger relaterar arbetslöshet till användning av olagliga droger, framförallt cannabis. Angående fysisk aktivitet visades det både på aktivitet och på inaktivitet bland arbetslösa samt att det inte fanns någon skillnad mellan arbetslösa och arbetande. Skilda resultat visades även vid kroppsvikt. Både högt och lågt BMI för kvinnor och män visade sig påverka arbetslöshet. Litteraturen var dock enhetlig gällande att rökning förkommer i högre grad bland arbetslösa än bland arbetande. När det gäller spelberoende ansågs arbetslöshet både vara en riskfaktor och inte vara en riskfaktor.

     

    Andra delen tar upp sjukskrivningar och livsstilsfaktorer. Största delen av litteraturen visar ett samband mellan alkoholkonsumtion och sjukskrivning. Det mesta pekar på att sjukskrivning beror på alkoholkonsumtionen och inte tvärtom. Flertalet studier visar även att fysisk aktivitet minskar sjukfrånvaron. Vad gällde kroppsvikt ansågs fetma bidra till ökad sjukfrånvaro och även vara en riskfaktor för längre perioden av sjukfrånvaro. Vidare visas det att rökning bidrar till ökad sjukfrånvaro och att det är viktigt att skilja mellan rökare, f.d. rökare och icke-rökare.

     

    Tredje och sista delen behandlar förtidspensionering i relation till livsstilsfaktorer. Skilda resultat visas gällande alkoholkonsumtion och förtidspensionering. Både högkonsumenter och nykterister visade sig ha ökad risk för förtidspension. Även måttligt intag av alkohol visade sig både kunna vara välgörande för individens hälsa och även förhöja risken för förtidspension. Fysisk aktivitet visade sig vara mindre förekommande bland förtidspensionärer, men skulle kunna leda till färre förtidspensioner om det förkom. Både undervikt, övervikt och fetma kan kopplas till förtidspensionering. Flera studier visar att rökning är en riskfaktor för förtidspensionering. Det är vanligare att rökare beviljas förtidspension i jämförelse med icke-rökare.

  • 59.
    Nilsson, Marie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna.
    Coexisting needs: paradoxes in collegial reflection—the development of a pragmatic method for reflection2017In: Education Research International, ISSN 2090-4002, E-ISSN 2090-4010, Vol. 2017, article id 4851067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses a feasibility study of a method for recurrent collegial reflection. A qualitative approach, using a participatory research design, was adopted. The collegial reflection was implemented in a school, in a middle-sized municipality in southern Sweden, with 21 teachers participating in the intervention. Data collection included digital recordings of collegial reflection, open questions by mail, and individual interviews. Findings indicated one major theme, paradoxes in the design of the collegial reflection, and three categories: wanting to decide and wanting to be guided; meeting each other as teachers and/or as persons; and looking for the safe and/or looking for the new. Before implementing the method in another context, management needs to appreciate these contradictory experiences, allow for voluntary participation, address participants’ expectations, and allocate time and tasks. This study implicates that collegial reflection may contribute to teachers’ professional development, and it is thereby relevant to teachers’ classroom practice and pupils’ learning. We conclude that, by creating a structure which supports teachers’ collegial reflection, the school may function as a supportive environment, which may contribute to teacher retention.

  • 60.
    Nilsson, Marie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Salutogenic resources in relation to teachers' work-life balance2017In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 591-602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Experiencing work-life balance is considered a health promoting resource. To counter-balance the negative development of teachers' work situation, salutogenic resources need to be examined among teachers.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine resources related to teachers' experience of their work-life balance.

    METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, a questionnaire was distributed to 455 teachers in compulsory schools in a Swedish community. A total of 338 teachers participated (74%). A multiple linear regression method was used for the analysis.

    RESULTS: Four variables in the regression model significantly explained work-life balance and were thereby possible resources: time experience at work; satisfaction with everyday life; self-rated health; and recovery. The strongest association with work-life balance was time experience at work. Except time experience at work, all were individual-related.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the importance of school management's support in reducing teachers' time pressure. It also emphasizes the need to address teachers' individual resources in relation to work-life balance. In order to support teachers' work-life balance, promote their well-being, and preventing teachers' attrition, we suggest that the school management would benefit from creating a work environment with strengthened resources.

  • 61.
    Nilsson, Marie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Caring as a salutogenic aspect in teachers' lives2015In: Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, ISSN 0742-051X, E-ISSN 1879-2480, Vol. 46, p. 51-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This inquiry explored how a group of teachers experienced resources for their well-being, both at work and in their private lives. The findings indicate that caring, for others and for oneself, is central for teachers' well-being. Caring is manifested in being present in the moment, and in actions which promote the well-being of oneself and others. Implications from the findings suggest that both school administration and teacher education should pay special attention to the caring aspects of teaching, as they influence teachers' well-being and retention, as well as the pupils' learning. Health promotion interventions could benefit from these findings.

  • 62.
    Nilsson, Peter M.
    et al.
    Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Lund, Sweden.
    Kandell-Collén, Anna
    Bromölla Health Centre.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    Bromölla Health Centre.
    Blood pressure and metabolic factors in relation to chronic pain1997In: Blood Pressure, ISSN 0803-7051, E-ISSN 1651-1999, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 294-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical pain is a major trigger for changes in many homeostatic systems of the body physiology. Our aim was to study the relationship between blood pressure, metabolism and pain perception in subjects with chronic pain symptoms. This was undertaken in a population-based study in primary health care, including subjects with widespread pain (n = 16), or localized pain (n = 15), and pain-free controls (n = 14). The main outcome measures were office and ambulatory blood pressure, glucose, insulin, lipids, and beta-endorphin. Subjects with widespread pain were more obese and showed higher levels than controls (p < 0.05) of fasting glucose (4.9 vs 4.5 mmol/l), cholesterol (6.9 vs 5.8 mmol/l) and office systolic blood pressure (133 vs 120 mmHg), while the subjects reporting localized pain had values in-between. Ambulatory blood pressure, insulin and beta-endorphin levels did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, subjects with widespread and/or intense chronic pain have higher BMI, more pronounced metabolic disturbances and higher (office) systolic blood pressure, but not ambulatory blood pressure, than subjects without chronic pain. Future epidemiological studies are needed to test whether this is compatible with increased cardiovascular risk.

  • 63.
    Nilsson, Petra
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society. Kristianstad University, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    How to make a workplace health promotion questionnaire process applicable, meaningful, and sustainable2011In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 906-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background  In workplace health promotion, a questionnaire could be of great use. Unfortunately, fatigue regarding answering questionnaires has recently become greater than before. An action research approach could be a possible way of increasing employee participation.

    Aim  This study reports an attempt to explore key aspects for participation in, and commitment to, a workplace health promotion questionnaire process.

    Method  The study was conducted at two wards in a Swedish hospital. Data was collected during an action research process. Data were analysed with regard to a framework of questions.

    Findings  The three key aspects for participation in, and commitment to, a workplace health promotion questionnaire process were: an applicable questionnaire, a meaningful questionnaire process and a continuous and sustainable questionnaire process. A structure is presented as practical advice to managers, describing how such a process could be established to be applicable, meaningful and sustainable.

    Conclusion  This study has identified key aspects and prerequisites for questionnaire processes. The prerequisites – share decision-making, involve a core group and follow a structure – are discussed and proposed for managers and workgroups to consider in further workplace health promotion questionnaire processes.

    Implications for nursing management  The key aspects and prerequisites presented could provide a stimulating standpoint or advice, useful for planning and accomplishing workplace questionnaire processes.

  • 64.
    Nilsson, Petra
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Shift of focus from role to task: a health promoting model of organizing work2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Work organization in hospital settings has a long tradition of being confined to each respective professional category. Work tasks concerning the care of the patients have been tied to the respective roles of nurses or assistant nurses. Neither the nurses nor the assistant nurses have had a comprehensive picture of the patient’s status due to the fact that different professions did not collaborate.

     

    Aim

    The aim was to explore health care staff’s opinions about the work organization model called Patient Closer Care (PCC) that is related to perceptions of workplace health.

     

    Method

    Interviews with thirteen mixed focus groups, which included nurses, assistant nurses and medical secretaries (n=70), were conducted at five medical units in a Swedish medium sized hospital. The main question during the unstructured interviews was how the employees experienced health in relation to the work organization. The analysis was made by qualitative content analysis.

     

    Results

    PCC implicated that time was set aside for the staff to be more with the patients, and it changed the focus of their caring for the patients. Today the care proceeds from the patients’ needs. There’s been a shift from nurses and assistant nurses working alone to working together in care pairs, diminishing the focus on the different professional roles and limitations. Instead reflection and learning increased through the extended collaboration. A more comprehensive picture of the patients’ situation was attained, which resulted in increased comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness.

     

    Conclusion

    The Swedish model of PCC offers an example of health promoting as to organizing work that is significant to both employees and patients. The model shifts its focus from fixed work roles implicit in specific professions, to task orientation, which puts the patient at the centre. The experience of the model was primarily positive in several ways. The increased sense of coherence is a health promoting factor, which decreases stress at the workplace. The employees’ perception of health in relation to PCC has a positive impact on their work performance, which then becomes more effective.

  • 65.
    Nilsson, Petra
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    The significance of Sense of Coherence in health care staff's experiences of reorganisations2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Nilsson, Petra
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Andersson, Ingemar H.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    The work experience measurement scale (WEMS): a useful tool in workplace health promotion2013In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 379-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To present validity data for the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS), an instrument measuring multifaceted work experience from a salutogenic health resource perspective as a contrast to the more common pathogenic risk perspective, by exploring WEMS relationship to established measurements that are positively related to health and work. A salutogenic perspective focuses on finding conditions and resources in life, for example at work, that can enhance the individual's health and strength, instead of those causing illness and weakness.

    METHOD: This study was carried out in 2009 at a Swedish hospital with a web-based survey (WEMS) to 770 employees. Different occupational groups at the hospital participated. Additional questionnaires used at the same time were the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS), the General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE), and three questions about self-rated health, general well-being, and quality of life.

    RESULTS: Cronbach's Alpha of WEMS sub-indices were in the interval of 0.85—0.96. Convergent validity and discriminant validity of WEMS and its sub-indices were shown to be satisfying by correlations. In addition, WEMS demonstrated the ability to discriminate between groups. WEMS sub-indices discriminated even better between groups than the total index.

    CONCLUSION: The WEMS proved to be a workplace health promotion questionnaire that was able to measure experiences of work from a salutogenic perspective. The WEMS has a potential of being a useful tool in workplace health promotion to enhance positive human capabilities and resources to improve work performance.

  • 67.
    Nilsson, Petra
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II.
    Andersson, Ingemar H.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna.
    Optimizing employee health in lean healthcare processes: continuous survey processes as a tool2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Nilsson, Petra
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Andersson, Ingemar H.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Troein, Margareta
    Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University.
    Workplace health resources based on sense of coherence theory2012In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 156-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – In workplace health promotion, enhancing resources are less explored than risk factors. The aim of this paper is to explore the usability of the sense of coherence (SOC) theory to identify considerable and positively perceived work-related factors and processes.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study had a salutogenic approach to workplace health promotion. A total of 13 focus group interviews were conducted with hospital employees in Sweden. A deductive analysis was made with the SOC theory as a framework.

    Findings – Work-related specific enhancing resources (SER) were identified and analysed into the three components of SOC: comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness. SER's implication in daily performance is explained by employee expressions. Through increased understanding and awareness, SER could contribute to savoring positive experiences, and enhance SOC among employees. Antonovsky's concept Generalized Resistance Resources is suggested to be enlarged based on the expressed significance of concrete daily positive work occurrences to increase one's SOC.

    Research limitations/implications – Not all hospital professions were represented in the study. Further studies are required to involve physicians, paramedics, managers, as well as other settings, to compare and complement with additional experiences of workplace resources.

    Practical implications – The study presents an opportunity to explore, understand, and foster workplace resources through assistance from the SOC theory. The SER presented in this study may serve as initial examples in workplace discussions about work-related resources contributing to a sense of coherence.

    Originality/value – This study contributes to public health research and workplace health promotion with a salutogenic focus on how to explore enhancing work-related resources with the assistance of the practical SOC theory.

  • 69.
    Nilsson, Petra
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Bringsén, Åsa
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Development and quality analysis of the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS)2010In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 153-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Instruments related to work are commonly illuminated from an ill-health perspective. The need for a concise and useable instrument in workplace health promotion governed the aim of this paper which is to present the development process and quality assessment of the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS). A survey, using a questionnaire based on established theories regarding work and health, and a focus group study were performed in hospital settings in 2005 and 2006 respectively. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to statistically develop a model, and focus group interviews were made to compare quantitative and qualitative results for convergence and corroboration. The PCA resulted in a six factor model of dimensions containing items regarding management, reorganization, internal work experience, pressure of time, autonomy and supportive working conditions. In the analysis of the focus group study three themes appeared and their underlying content was compared to, and matched, with the dimensions of the PCA. The reliability, shown by weighted kappa values, ranged from 0.36 to 0.71, and adequate Cronbach's Alpha values of the dimensions were all above 0.7. The study validity, indicated by discriminant validity, with correlation values that ranged from 0.10 to 0.39, in relation to the content validity appeared to be good when the theoretical content of the WEMS was compared to the content of similar instruments. The WEMS presents a multidimensional picture of work experience. Its theoretical base and the psychometric properties give support for applicability and offer a possibility to measure trends in the work experience over time in health care settings. One intention of the WEMS is to stimulate the ability of organizations and the employees themselves to take action on improving their work experience. The conciseness of the instrument is intended to increase its usability.

  • 70.
    Nilsson, Petra
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Ericsson, Ulf
    Kristianstad University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    ”Jag är alltid glad när jag går till jobbet!”: rapport från fokusgruppsintervjuer på vårdenheten: Ängelholms sjukhus: våren 20062006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet hälsa kan beskrivas utifrån skiftande perspektiv. Studien fokuserar på det salutogena tänkesättet kring hälsa, och faktorer som kan generera hälsa sätts i centrum. Intresset inriktas på friskfaktorer i vardagen som gör att människor kan möta påfrestningar med bibehållen hälsa. Arbete bör i det sammanhanget ses som en av de viktigaste hälsofrämjande resurserna för människans personliga utveckling och livskvalitet.

     

    Studien hade flera syften, varav ett var att lära känna och beskriva verksamheterna på vårdenheten, medan ett annat var att undersöka hur medarbetarna upplevde sin hälsa i relation till sitt arbete. Ytterligare syften var att identifiera vilka behov som fanns av att förändra organisationen för att förbättra hälsan för de anställda samt att slutligen att ta reda på hur pågående förändringsarbete inom organisationen uppfattades av medarbetarna.

     

    Studien genomfördes genom 14 fokusgruppsintervjuer. Urvalet av respondenter skedde slumpmässigt på varje avdelning och antalet medlemmar i varje fokusgrupp var fem till sex personer. De olika yrkeskategorierna som deltog i studien var undersköterskor, sjuksköterskor, avdelningschefer och sekreterare.

     

    Resultatet visade på att respondenterna på olika sätt upplever sitt arbete på vårdenheten som lustfyllt och hälsobringande. Framträdande var upplevelser kring införandet av Patientnärmre vård, som innebär ett annorlunda arbetssätt än tidigare parvård eller gruppvård. Utmärkande i resultatet var även den goda stämningen på vårdenheten, men samtidigt sågs inte förhållningssättet mot varandra på arbetet som en direkt hälsoskapande faktor. Förhållningssätt i relation till materiella belöningar är en viktig faktor som behöver belysas ytterligare, i strävan mot en mer hälsoskapande arbetsplats. Ett annat tänkesätt som bör genomsyra och främjas är känslan av sammanhang i arbetssituationen. På så sätt kan till exempel förändringsarbeten bli mer förståeliga och genomförbara. Ur resultatet utkristalliserades fyra begrepp: begriplighet, kommunikation, tydliga mål och reflektionstid. Begreppen är övergripande, och skulle kunna appliceras och diskuteras i relation till studiens resultat av arbetsrelaterade friskfaktorer. Respondenterna önskade en mer gemensam och helhetsskapande bild av verksamheterna de arbetar inom. Kontinuerlig reflektionstid föreslogs som ett sätt att byta bilder med varandra och öka förståelsen för situationer och händelser medarbetarna kan ställas inför. I dialog är kommunikation en förutsättning, och begriplighet för förändringar kan skapas genom reflek­tion, vilket även kan komma att underlätta förändringsprocesserna på avdelningarna.

     

    Som en följd av fokusgruppsintervjuerna framkom önskemål att diskutera begreppen ytterli­gare inom varje avdelning. Därför initierades avdelningsforum, med syfte att diskutera,

    re­flektera och skapa en stor gemensam bild av medarbetarnas och avdelningschefens uppfatt­ningar kring verksamheten i termer av hälsoskapande arbetsplats.

  • 71.
    Persson, Dennis
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Eklund, Mona
    Lund University.
    Defying aches and revaluating daily doing: occupational perspectives on adjusting to chronic pain2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 188-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how people with chronic pain experience their daily doing, with a special focus on possible adjustment to pain and altered life conditions in order to cope with pain and maintain well-being. In-depth interviews were guided by themes concerning daily occupation, ways to maintain well-being, and future expectations. Using qualitative content analysis a core concept "Reappraising daily doing" was arrived at, containing the categories of altering doing processes and altering values, each in turn containing four subcategories. The findings showed that along with the grief of having to abandon jobs and former social networks, the participants coped with their everyday lives in ways that opened up the use of imagination and improvisation and the valuing of non-material and altruistic behaviour. An occupation was generally given up when aches (participants' term) became worse, except for when the occupations were so enjoyed that the pain was put out of focus. Using the concept of Occupational Value to enhance coping ability seems a reasonable strategy for occupational therapists when assisting clients in finding or maintaining meaningful daily doing and effective coping strategies for experiencing well-being. This could in turn limit the use of health care resources, which is extensive.

  • 72.
    Persson, Sophie Schön
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science.
    Lindström, Petra Nilsson
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Pettersson, Pär
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Avdelningen för arbetsliv.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University.
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Kristianstad Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Kristianstad, Sweden..
    Relationships between healthcare employees and managers as a resource for well-being at work2018In: Society, health and vulnerability, E-ISSN 2002-1518, Vol. 9, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relationships at work are important to the psychosocial work environment and may be resources for the employees' well-being. There is a need for a better understanding of what generate positive relationships at work. The aim of the study was to gain a better understanding of the relationship between employees and managers in municipal healthcare. A qualitative study with twenty-seven individual interviews was conducted with healthcare employees and managers in municipal healthcare. The relationship between manager and employees and its possible contribution to well-being was a key focus. A comparison and tentative analysis, inspired by hermeneutics, was used in order to analyse similarities and differences in employee and manager experiences. The findings revealed similarities as well as considerable differences between employees and managers in their experiences. Two themes emerged from the interpretation of the text: (i) Health-promoting relationships are characterized by asymmetry and by a manager that stands outside the group; and (ii) Health-promoting relationships are characterized by mutuality and symmetry and by a manager that is part of the group. The relationship between the employees and the managers are both a resource for doing a good job and a means for achieving belongingness at work. To highlight well-working aspects of relationships at work, may contribute to a better psychosocial work environment and, ultimately, the well-being among healthcare recipients.

  • 73.
    Schön Persson, Sophie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Nilsson, Petra
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna.
    How can workplace relationships improve health and create sustainable workplaces?2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Schön Persson, Sophie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Lund University.
    Lindström, Petra Nilsson
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Pettersson, Pär
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Avdelningen för arbetsliv.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Workplace relationships impact self-rated health: a survey of Swedish municipal health care employees2018In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 85-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The impact of positive social relationships on the health of municipal employees in the elder care sector in Sweden needs further examination.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between health and relationships among elderly care employees using a salutogenic perspective.

    METHOD: Survey of all employees (n = 997) in special housing, home care and Disabled Support and Services in a Swedish municipality. The questionnaire, which had a salutogenic perspective, included information on self-rated health from the previously validated SHIS (Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale), psychosocial work environment and experiences, social climate, and health-promoting workplace relationships.

    RESULTS: The response rate was 69% . Results of a multivariable linear regression model showed four significant predictors of health: general work experiences, colleague belongingness and positive relationships with managers and care recipients. In another model, colleague belongingness was significantly related to satisfaction with care recipients, work, length of employment as well as general work experiences and relationships with managers.

    CONCLUSION: Strengthening of positive work relationships, not only between workmates but also with managers and care recipients, seems to be an essential area for employee health promotion. Colleague belongingness may be deepened by development of a positive work climate, including satisfactory work experiences, positive manager relationships and a stable work force.

  • 75.
    Sollerhed, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO).
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Recurrent pain and discomfort in relation to fitness and physical activity among young school children2013In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 591-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As an increase in pain symptoms among children has been shown in the last decades, the aim of this study was to describe perceptions of recurrent pain, measured physical fitness and levels of reported physical activity (PA) in children, and to investigate if any associations between PA, fitness and recurrent pain could be identified. A school-based study comprised 206 Swedish children 8?12 years old, 114 boys, 92 girls. A questionnaire with questions about perceived pain, self-reported PA and lifestyle factors was used. Health-related fitness was assessed by 11 physical tests. A physical index was calculated from these tests as a z score. High physical index indicated high fitness and low physical index indicated low fitness. ANOVA test, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to compare active and inactive children. The prevalence of one pain location (head, abdomen or back) was 26%, two 11% and three 4% (n=206). Female gender, living in single-parent families, low PA and low subjective health were associated with reported recurrent pain. Children reporting high levels of PA had high physical index and reported low prevalence of pain symptoms. The physical index and level of self-reported PA decreased gradually the more pain locations. Physically active children had higher fitness levels and reported less pain symptoms than inactive peers. Coping with pain is an integral part of PA, and active children learn to cope with unpleasant body sensations which together with high fitness may reduce the perception of pain. As an increase in pain symptoms among children has been shown in the last decades, the aim of this study was to describe perceptions of recurrent pain, measured physical fitness and levels of reported physical activity (PA) in children, and to investigate if any associations between PA, fitness and recurrent pain could be identified. A school-based study comprised 206 Swedish children 8?12 years old, 114 boys, 92 girls. A questionnaire with questions about perceived pain, self-reported PA and lifestyle factors was used. Health-related fitness was assessed by 11 physical tests. A physical index was calculated from these tests as a z score. High physical index indicated high fitness and low physical index indicated low fitness. ANOVA test, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to compare active and inactive children. The prevalence of one pain location (head, abdomen or back) was 26%, two 11% and three 4% (n=206). Female gender, living in single-parent families, low PA and low subjective health were associated with reported recurrent pain. Children reporting high levels of PA had high physical index and reported low prevalence of pain symptoms. The physical index and level of self-reported PA decreased gradually the more pain locations. Physically active children had higher fitness levels and reported less pain symptoms than inactive peers. Coping with pain is an integral part of PA, and active children learn to cope with unpleasant body sensations which together with high fitness may reduce the perception of pain.

  • 76.
    Törnquist Agosti, Madelaine
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Bringsén, Åsa
    Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Janlöv, Ann-Christin
    Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    "The importance of awareness, support and inner strength to balance everyday life": a qualitative study about women's experiences of a workplace health promotion program in human service organizations in Sweden2019In: BMC Women's Health, ISSN 1472-6874, E-ISSN 1472-6874, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In many European countries, women have a higher sickness absence rate than men. Women also report higher levels of work-life conflict, which has a negative impact on women's self-perceived health. Interventions studies on work-life balance literature are scarce. This research adds knowledge about work-life balance by examining female employees' experiences of a newly developed intervention program, the BELE program (Balance in Everyday Life Empowerment program), aiming to enhance the work-life balance and wellbeing of female employees.

    METHODS: All participants in the BELE program were included in the sample (n = 55) of the study. The methods used for gathering data were focus group interviews (n = 8) and semi-structured individual interviews (n = 8). A qualitative content analysis was used for the analyses.

    RESULTS: The results showed that a majority of the participants experienced a process of change for enhancement of wellbeing and balance in their everyday life when taking part in the BELE program. In the analyses, three main themes emerged. Reflecting and strengthening inner resource, Trying to change everyday patterns and habits and Experiencing more balance and well-being.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results point out the importance of awareness and reflection on everyday life to promote work-life balance and wellbeing. The BELE program was described as a wakeup call to one's own life and as an enhancer of empowerment processes and equality in the homes. Moreover, the results showed the need for health education in the workplace focusing on both work and private life to enhance balance and wellbeing among female employees'. The findings indicate that it is important to work at individual and group levels in work-life balance interventions and not merely at the organizational level or in the workplace setting.

  • 77.
    Törnquist Agosti, Madelaine
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Janlöv, Ann-Christin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Shift work to balance everyday life: a salutogenic nursing perspective in home help service in Sweden2015In: BMC Nursing, ISSN 1472-6955, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 2-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nurses in Sweden have a high absence due to illness and many retire before the age of sixty. Factors at work as well as in private life may contribute to health problems. To maintain a healthy work–force there is a need for actions on work-life balance in a salutogenic perspective. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of resources in everyday life to balance work and private life among nurses in home help service.

    Methods: Thirteen semi-structured individual interviews and two focus group interviews were conducted with home help service nurses in Sweden. A qualitative content analysis was used for the analyses.

    Result: In the analyses, six themes of perceptions of recourses in everyday life emerged; (i) Reflecting on life. (ii) Being healthy and taking care of yourself. (iii) Having a meaningful job and a supportive work climate. (iv) Working shifts and part time. (v) Having a family and a supporting network. (vi) Making your home your castle.

    Conclusions: The result points out the complexity of work-life balance and support that the need for nurses to balance everyday life differs during different phases and transitions in life. In this salutogenic study, the result differs from studies with a pathogenic approach. Shift work and part time work were seen as two resources that contributed to flexibility and a prerequisite to work-life balance. To have time and energy for both private life and work was seen as essential. To reflect on and discuss life gave inner strength to set boundaries and to prioritize both in private life and in work life. Managers in nursing contexts have a great challenge to maintain and strengthen resources which enhance the work-life balance and health of nurses. Salutogenic research is needed to gain an understanding of resources that enhance work-life balance and health in nursing contexts.

  • 78.
    Törnquist Agosti, Madelaine
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Bringsén, Åsa
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    The complexity of resources related to work-life balance and well-being: a survey among municipality employees in Sweden2017In: International Journal of Human Resource Management, ISSN 0958-5192, E-ISSN 1466-4399, Vol. 28, no 16, p. 2351-2374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing sickness absence rates among care and service employees in Sweden motivate health-promoting activities. It is crucial to employers and key stakeholders, like HRM departments, to have knowledge of resources related to employees' work life balance (WLB) to increase well-being at work. The aim of the study was to explore resources associated with WLB, with focus on work and private lives among care and service employees. A questionnaire survey to a total population of two municipality departments (n = 631, response rate 76%) was conducted. A linear regression model showed five significant main resources related to WLB: a positive life situation, recovery, a positive time experience at work, a positive time experience in private life and wellbeing. Logistics regression models further exploring the main resources showed essential sub-resources such as health-promoting leadership, supportive home environment and reflection on everyday life. This two-step analysis with a salutogenic perspective points out a holistic and complex picture of possibilities to promote employees' WLB and wellbeing. These findings can be used as a supportive framework for HR departments in charge of competence development for managers. Moreover, the results are important in both policy-making and as a foundation for workplace health promotion (WHP) interventions.

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