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  • 51.
    Nystrand, Jenny
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Borg, Jenny
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Arbetslunch - ett sätt att hinna mer, eller en risk för ökad stress?: en studie om arbetsluncher och dess inverkan på upplevd stressnivå hos kontorsanställda2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The level of job related stress is higher than ever. As a result, an increasing number of people choose to continue working during the lunch break or to skip it altogether. There are signs that the view of the lunch break as an opportunity for recovery and rest has changed. In some places, the lunch break has become a loaded topic, both for employers and employees, which can have negative consequences for both the individual and the workplace. The lunch break is usually one of the longest breaks during the working day and gives office workers a chance to disconnect thoughts on their work tasks and perhaps also the opportunity to leave the workplace for a change of environment and are thus a good opportunity for recovery. The purpose of the study was to investigate perceived stress levels in office workers after three different types of lunch situations (free lunch, work lunch in the office building and work lunch outside the office building) and with this contribute with knowledge and information that could be helpful to both employers and employees, in creating as favorable a lunch situation as possible, from a stress perspective. Stress was measured with Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales DASS-21. The result indicates that the type of lunch break you have had affects the perceived stress level after lunch.

  • 52.
    Olaison, Henrik
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Attityder till regler och regelefterlevnad på arbetsplats2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien syftar till att undersöka om medarbetares attityd till regler och regelefterlevnad på en arbetsplats varierar med faktorer som anställningstiden, kön och personalkategori. Undersökningen har genomförts som en enkätundersökning med frågeställningar som belyser olika delar av regler och regelefterlevnad, både ur ett generellt och ur ett individuellt perspektiv. Försöksdeltagarna är tjänstemän och verkstadsanställda på ett medelstort mellansvenskt företag inom tillverkningsindustrin. Undersökningen visar på att det finns en skillnad i attityden mellan grupperna och att personer med lång anställningstid har en negativare inställning till regler och regelefterlevnad är personer med kort anställningstid, men att skillnaden inte är statistiskt signifikant.

  • 53. Ottová-Jordan, Veronika
    et al.
    Smith, Otto R.F.
    Gobina, Inese
    Mazur, Joanna
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO).
    Cavallo, Franco
    Välimaa, Raili
    Moor, Irene
    Torsheim, Torbjörn
    Katreniakova, Zuzana
    Vollebergh, Wilma
    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
    Trends in Multiple Recurrent health complaitns in 15-year-olds in 35 countries in Europe, North America and Israel from 1994 to 20102015In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 25, no suppl 2, p. 24-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Health complaints are a good indicator of an individual's psychosocial health and well-being. Studies have shown that children and adolescents report health complaints which can cause significant individual burden.

    METHODS: Using data from the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study, this article describes trends in multiple recurrent health complaints (MHC) in 35 countries among N = 237 136 fifteen-year-olds from 1994 to 2010. MHC was defined as the presence of two or more health complaints at least once a week. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate trends across the five survey cycles for each country.

    RESULTS: Lowest prevalence throughout the period 1994-2010 was 16.9% in 1998 in Austria and highest in 2006 in Israel (54.7%). Overall, six different trend patterns could be identified: No linear or quadratic trend (9 countries), linear decrease (7 countries), linear increase (5 countries), U-shape (4 countries), inverted U-shape (6 countries) and unstable (4 countries).

    CONCLUSION: Trend analyses are valuable in providing hints about developments in populations as well as for benchmarking and evaluation purposes. The high variation in health complaints between the countries requires further investigation, but may also reflect the subjective nature of health complaints.

  • 54.
    Ousdal, Olga T.
    et al.
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Server, Andres
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Increased amygdala and visual cortex activity and functional connectivity towards stimulus novelty is associated with state anxiety2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 4, p. e96146-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel stimuli often require a rapid reallocation of sensory processing resources to determine the significance of the event, and the appropriate behavioral response. Both the amygdala and the visual cortex are central elements of the neural circuitry responding to novelty, demonstrating increased activity to new as compared to highly familiarized stimuli. Further, these brain areas are intimately connected, and thus the amygdala may be a key region for directing sensory processing resources to novel events. Although knowledge regarding the neurocircuit of novelty detection is gradually increasing, we still lack a basic understanding of the conditions that are necessary and sufficient for novelty-specific responses in human amygdala and the visual cortices, and if these brain areas interact during detection of novelty. In the present study, we investigated the response of amygdala and the visual cortex to novelty, by comparing functional MRI activity between 1st and 2nd time presentation of a series of emotional faces in an event-related task. We observed a significant decrease in amygdala and visual cortex activity already after a single stimulus exposure. Interestingly, this decrease in responsiveness was less for subjects with a high score on state anxiety. Further, novel faces stimuli were associated with a relative increase in the functional coupling between the amygdala and the inferior occipital gyrus (BA 18). Thus, we suggest that amygdala is involved in fast sensory boosting that may be important for attention reallocation to novel events, and that the strength of this response depends on individual state anxiety.

  • 55.
    Ousdal, Olga Therese
    et al.
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Specht, Karsten
    University of Bergen.
    Server, Andres
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Dolan, Ray J.
    University College London.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    The human amygdala encodes value and space during decision making2014In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 101, p. 712-719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Valuable stimuli are invariably localized in space. While our knowledge regarding the neural networks supporting value assignment and comparisons is considerable, we lack a basic understanding of how the human brain integrates motivational and spatial information. The amygdala is a key structure for learning and maintaining the value of sensory stimuli and a recent non-human primate study provided initial evidence that it also acts to integrate value with spatial location, a question we address here in a human setting. We measured hemodynamic responses (fMRI) in amygdala while manipulating the value and spatial configuration of stimuli in a simple stimulus-reward task. Subjects responded significantly faster and showed greater amygdala activation when a reward was dependent on a spatial specific response, compared to when a reward required less spatial specificity. Supplemental analysis supported this spatial specificity by demonstrating that the pattern of amygdala activity varied based on whether subjects responded to a motivational target presented in the ipsilateral or contralateral visual space. Our data show that the human amygdala integrates information about space and value, an integration of likely importance for assigning cognitive resources towards highly valuable stimuli in our environment.

  • 56.
    Persson, Matilda
    Kristianstad University. Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Ansiktsigenkänning: Holistisk och analytisk bearbetning vid ansiktsigenkänning av den egna etniska gruppen jämfört med andra etniska grupper2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract (English)

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the reason for Own Race Bias (ORB) – The fact that humans remember faces of their own ethnicity better than faces with another ethnic background/history – lies in the encoding mechanism. It also examined if celebrity faces were more holistically, and non-celebrity faces more analytically, encoded. Half of the stimulus material consisted of Caucasian Americans, and the other half of African Americans. One third of the faces belonged to celebrities. The task for the 51 participants was to recognize the faces. The results showed that celebrity faces were more often recognized than non-celebrity faces, and the difference was greater in holistic processing than in analytic. The difference between Caucasian and African faces showed the same tendency, but was not significant.

  • 57.
    Reckless, Greg E.
    et al.
    University of Oslo.
    Ousdal, Olga T.
    University of Oslo.
    Server, Andres
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Walter, Henrik
    Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin.
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    University of Oslo.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    The left inferior frontal gyrus is involved in adjusting response bias during a perceptual decision-making task2014In: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 398-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Changing the way we make decisions from one environment to another allows us to maintain optimal decision-making. One way decision-making may change is how biased one is toward one option or another. Identifying the regions of the brain that underlie the change in bias will allow for a better understanding of flexible decision-making.

    Methods

    An event-related, perceptual decision-making task where participants had to detect a picture of an animal amongst distractors was used during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Positive and negative financial motivation were used to affect a change in response bias, and changes in decision-making behavior were quantified using signal detection theory.

    Results

    Response bias became relatively more liberal during both positive and negative motivated trials compared to neutral trials. For both motivational conditions, the larger the liberal shift in bias, the greater the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activity. There was no relationship between individuals' belief that they used a different strategy and their actual change in response bias.

    Conclusions

    The present findings suggest that the left IFG plays a role in adjusting response bias across different decision environments. This suggests a potential role for the left IFG in flexible decision-making.

  • 58.
    Rosander, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    The importance of personality, IQ and learning approaches: predicting academic performance2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present doctoral thesis was to examine to what extent personality traits and approaches to learning contribute to academic performance in upper secondary school (high school), after controlling for the well-known fact that general intelligence accounts for a large part of the variance. The general proposition of the thesis is that personality traits are stable dispositions and therefore predispose an individual to behave or act in a specific manner (Costa & McCrae, 1976). Additionally, another important determinant of academic performance is students’ approaches to learning, the way someone studies and makes sense of a particular school subject (Biggs, 1999). Study I examined how personality traits, divided into facets, predict academic performance in different school subjects. The results from several SEM analyses showed that personality, specifically Conscientiousness, has a positive influence on academic performance. In addition, there was a negative relation between Extraversion and academic performance and a positive relation between Neuroticism and academic performance. There were also interesting findings on the facet levels for all traits. The major conclusion of this study is that personality traits, both on the factor level and on the facet level, are important to academic performance in general, but sometimes more specifically to different school subjects. In Study II, the aim was to investigate the unique contribution of learning approaches to academic performance. A second aim was to explore possible gender differences in learning approaches. It was found that learning approaches contributed uniquely to academic performance, over and above personality and general intelligence. Differences between girls and boys were found, both with respect to the use of learning approaches and the consequences of these learning approaches for performance results. Based on a longitudinal design, the aim of Study III was to explore to what extent personality traits predict academic performance. Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Neuroticism were found to predict overall academic performance. Results suggest that personality traits, as measured at the age of 16, can predict academic performance at the age of 19, and more specifically: the grades of conscientious students improved from age 16 to age 19. This study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period.

  • 59.
    Rosander, Pia
    et al.
    Institutionen för Psykologi, Lunds universitet.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Institutionen för Psykologi, Lunds Universitet.
    The unique contribution of learning approaches to academic performance, after controlling for IQ and personality: are there gender differences?2012In: Learning and individual differences, ISSN 1041-6080, E-ISSN 1873-3425, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 820-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the unique contribution of learning approaches to academic performance, also taking gender differences into account. The participant sample consisted of 476 school pupils (53% girls and 47% boys) from two upper secondary schools in Sweden who completed two self-reported measures related to personality and learning approaches and one cognitive ability test. A series of hierarchical regressions were performed with participants' school subject-specific grades as the criterion variable and learning approaches as the predictor variable, after controlling for all variance related to IQ and personality. The results showed that learning approaches accounted for 6% and 16% of the variance in academic performance for girls and boys, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of possible explanations for and implications of the gender differences found.

  • 60.
    Ryding, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund.
    Decety, Jean
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund.
    Sjöholm, Hans
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund.
    Ingvar, David H.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund.
    Motor imagery activates the cerebellum regionally: a SPECT rCBF study with 99mTc-HMPAO1993In: Cognitive Brain Research, ISSN 0926-6410, E-ISSN 1872-6348, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 94-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our earlier findings of a cerebellar activation during motor imagery (Brain Res., 535 (1990) 313-317) were made with a technique with low regional resolution. Therefore we could not elucidate the distribution of the cerebellar activation. In the present study the cerebellar regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes during motor imagery (MI) was measured with a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) rCBF method (99mTc-HMPAO) with higher regional resolution during (1) silent counting, and (2) MI (which included silent counting) in 17 normal subjects. Comparing the SPECT results from the two tasks revealed the regional activations during MI. We confirmed that the most pronounced regional activations during MI were found in the cerebellum, especially in its infero-lateral parts on both sides.

  • 61. Ryding, Erik
    et al.
    Stenberg, Georg
    University of Lund.
    An example of analysis of regional significance levels in a multiregional CBF measurement with the t-moment test1991In: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 11, Suppl. 2, 1991, Vol. 11, no Suppl. 2, p. S453-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Sonesson, Göran
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Lenninger, Sara M
    Lunds universitet.
    The psychological development of semiotic competence: from the window to the movie by way of the mirror2015In: Cognitive development, ISSN 0885-2014, E-ISSN 1879-226X, Vol. 36, no Oct/Dec, p. 191-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychologists have been interested in the mirror image chiefly as a device permitting the subject to discover his/her self-representation, and semioticians have denied that the mirror image could be a kind of sign. In the present paper, our intention is to develop a framework for realising a detailed comparison between perceptual reality, as seen in a peephole, and mirror images, as well a streaming video and pre-recorded video. In the first section, we introduce the semiotic notion of sign, using precise criteria to assure that the mirror image, as used by adults, functions as a sign. In the second section, experimental studies comparing some constellations of perceptual reality, mirror images, and video strips are scrutinized, and we report briefly the results of a study which we ourselves set up to investigate the capacities of 2 year old children to understand an object choice task conveyed by means in those four kinds of media. The result suggests that continuity, which is the opposite of differentiation defining the sign, is still important for enabling the understanding of the task in children at this age.

  • 63. Sonmark, Kristina
    et al.
    Godeau, Emmanuelle
    Augustine, Lilly
    Högskolan Jönköping, CHILD.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Modin, Bitte
    Individual and contextual expressions of school demands and their relation to psychosomatic health: a comparative study of students in France and Sweden2016In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 93-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the health-related implications of both individual students’ and class-level concentrations of perceived demands in terms of pressuring, difficult and tiring schoolwork in France and Sweden, two countries with substantial differences in their educational systems and recent notable differences in PISA-results. Data come from Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (2001/02, 2005/06 and 2009/10) and comprise a total of 33,243 students aged 11, 13 and 15. Findings show that feeling under pressure from schoolwork is less prevalent in Sweden than in France among 11 and 13-year olds, but almost twice as common among 15-year olds. Yet its correlation with 15-year olds’ psychosomatic complaints is stronger in France than in Sweden. Feeling tired by schoolwork is equally common for 11- and 13-year olds in the two countries, but more frequent among 15-year olds in Sweden. It is also a stronger predictor of psychosomatic complaints in Sweden than in France across all age-groups. While it is more common at all ages to perceive the schoolwork as difficult in France, its relationship with psychosomatic complaints is stronger among students in Sweden. The proportion of classmates reporting high school demands is also linked to poorer student health, but these effects were largely confined to girls in both countries.

  • 64.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Lunds universitet.
    Att veta utan att tänka1994In: Ingvar, D. H. (red), Att tänka sig: hjärnkunskap och vitterhet: ett Berzeliusseminarium, Stockholm: Svenska Dagbladet , 1994, p. 57-70Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Conceptual and perceptual factors in the picture superiority effect2006In: European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0954-1446, E-ISSN 1464-0635, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 813-847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The picture superiority effect, i.e. better memory for pictures than for corresponding words, has been variously ascribed to a conceptual or a perceptual processing advantage. The present study aimed to disentangle perceptual and conceptual contributions. Pictures and words were tested for recognition in both their original formats and translated into participants´ second language. Multinomial Processing Tree (Batchelder & Riefer, 1999) and MINERVA (Hintzman, 1984) models were fitted to the data, and parameters corresponding to perceptual and conceptual recognition were estimated. Over three experiments, orienting tasks were varied, with neutral (Exp 1), semantic (Exp. 2), and perceptual (Exp. 3) instructions, and the encoding manipulations were used to validate the parameters. Results indicate that there is picture superiority in both conceptual and perceptual memory, but conceptual processing makes a stronger contribution to the advantage of pictures over words in recognition.

  • 66.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, University of Lund.
    Extraversion and the P300 in a visual classification task1994In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 543-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amplitude differences between extraverts and introverts in the P300 component of visual event-related potentials were examined in a picture classification task. A set of pictorial stimuli was used with three types of instructions, requiring responses based on colour, semantic category, or a combination of both criteria. Forty university students (22 men, 18 women) served as subjects. Based on their scores on the Eysenck Personality Inventory, they were divided into 3 groups of Low, Medium or High Extraversion. The pictures evoked large late positivities, with higher amplitude in the right hemisphere. P300 amplitude increased with increasing degrees of extraversion. The effect of extraversion on amplitude (High > Medium > Low) was larger for target stimuli in posterior derivations. The extraversion effect was mainly attributable to the impulsivity subtrait. Whereas some earlier studies have found higher P300 amplitudes for introverts in tasks inducing habituation or attention decrement, the present tasks differed by using more varied stimuli and by requiring more processing. The results are discussed in relation to theories on the biological basis of extraversion.

  • 67.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Lunds universitet.
    Subliminal perception1995In: Åström, K., Engström, C., Marklund, K. (red), Nationalencyklopedin: ett uppslagsverk på vetenskaplig grund utarbetat på initiativ av Statens kulturråd. Bd 17, Höganäs: Bra böcker , 1995, p. 392-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Stenberg, Georg
    University of Lund.
    The EEG in emotional imagery: effects of emotion and personality1990In: Journal of Psychophysiology, vol. 4, no. 1, 1990, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 66-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Stenberg, Georg
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Lund.
    Rosén, Ingmar
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Lund.
    Risberg, Jarl
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Lund.
    Personality and augmenting/reducing in visual and auditory evoked potentials1988In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 571-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have indicated a relationship between evoked potential augmenting/reducing and extraversion or sensation seeking. However, the proposed mechanism of protective inhibition can account for this fact only if the relationship generalizes across different modalities and response definitions. The present study was designed to test this, using six intensities of visual and six intensities of auditory stimuli along with the EPI and SSS questionnaires.For the visual stimuli, the slope of the P90-N120 amplitude at the vertex correlated significantly with both the extraversion and the disinhibition scales in the way that augmenting/reducing theory predicts. However, over the primary visual area, no component showed the same personality relationship as the vertex wave, and one early component showed the opposite. This result suggests that personality differences in VEPs may reflect different ways of allocating processing resources between primary and association areas, rather than a generalized tendency to inhibit strong stimuli. In the auditory modality, personality differences were not apparent in the amplitude slopes, possibly due to the confluence from primary and association areas in AEPs in the vertex lead. There was a general tendency for latencies to correalte positively with extraversion and disinhibition, in congruence with Eysenck's theory on the biological basis of extraversion.

  • 70.
    Stenberg, Georg
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund.
    Sano, Motoki
    SHOWA GEN HOSP, DEPT NEUROL, KODAIRA, TOKYO.
    Rosén, Ingmar
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund.
    Ingvar, David H.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund.
    EEG topography of acute ethanol effects in resting and activated normals1994In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol, ISSN 0096-882X, E-ISSN 1934-2683, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 645-656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acute effects of ethanol on spectral characteristics of the EEG were studied using 18 recording sites and topographic mapping. The EEG was recorded both at rest and during a mental arithmetic task. Healthy young male volunteers were randomly assigned to an ethanol (n = 22) or a placebo (n = 15) group. The ethanol group received a total dose of 1.0 g/kg, divided into two equal doses given 75 minutes apart. and measurement sessions took place at baseline and after each dose. The placebo group underwent a similar schedule. Power in the theta, alpha and beta bands all increased in the ethanol group, but only the theta and beta bands clearly separated ethanol from placebo. Alpha increases were seen in the placebo group as well. The ethanol-induced changes were greater in the left hemisphere than in the right, having the effect of attenuating the right-over-left asymmetry seen at baseline. Differences between ethanol and placebo were more marked in the mentally activated condition, since the changes seen at rest were inhibited by the activation in the placebo group, but not in the ethanol group. The results indicate (1) that ethanol induces a less differentiated pattern of activity within the brain at rest, and (2) that it impairs the capacity to activate the brain under the challenge of a mental task.

  • 71.
    Svedberg Hallgren, Maria
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Karriärplanering och kompetensförsörjning i privat företag, kommun och region2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Talent Management och Performance Management är nya begrepp som baseras på att organisationer på ett strukturerat sätt planerar för att attrahera, behålla och utveckla rätt medarbetare samt definierar hur de ska skapa, styra och mäta en prestationskultur. Baserade på organisationens affärsmål ska strategierna framgångsrikt medföra att organisationen kan sörja för sitt behov av medarbetarkompetens som organisationens utveckling och överlevnad kräver. Jag valde att undersöka om organisationer aktivt arbetar med innehållet i begreppen. Inför studien där mitt huvudsyfte är att analysera hur stora organisationer hanterar karriärplanering och kompetensförsörjning valde jag att intervjua tre medarbetare som arbetar centralt med personalstrategiska frågor. De tre organisationer som ingår i studien, det vill säga en kommun, en region och ett privat företag hanterar organisationens behov av kompetens olika. Det privata företaget och regionen är de organisationer som centralt tagit fram strategier för att hantera organisationens behov av kompetens och båda arbetar aktivt med sitt varumärke där bland annat nöjda medarbetare ses som en framgångsfaktor. Kommunen konstaterar att de har stora pensionsavgångar men har inte arbetat fram strategier hur de ska hantera sin kompetensförsörjning och arbetar inte aktivt med marknadsföring av sitt varumärke. Regionen och det privata företaget har påbörjat en kartläggning av medarbetarnas kompetens men inte kommunen. De tre organisationerna är överens om att ansvaret för kompetensförsörjning och karriärplanering ska delas mellan organisationen och den enskilde medarbetaren.

  • 72.
    Syrén, Joachim
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Upplevd psykisk ohälsa och stress hos gymnasieelever: skillnader hos gymnasieelever med eller utan inriktning Nationellt Godkänd Idrottsutbildning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att se om det finns någon skillnad hos gymnasieelever med eller utan nationellt godkänd idrottsutbildnings (NIU) upplevda psykiska ohälsa och stress. Syftet var också att undersöka om det fanns ett samband mellan upplevd psykisk ohälsa och stress. En elektronisk enkät besvarades av 104 gymnasieelever i åldrarna 17-20 år ifrån fyra olika skolor i Mellansverige. 58 avgymnasieleverna hade ingen nationell idrottsinriktning i utbildningen och 46 elever hade således valt gymnasieutbildning med NIU. Upplevd psykisk ohälsa mättes med en svensk version av General Health Questionarie (GHQ-12) och upplevd stress mättes med en svensk version av Percieved Stress Scale(PSS-14). Studien fick inte stöd för sin hypotes att gymnasielever med idrottsinriktning (NIU) upplevde mer psykisk ohälsa och stress än de utan idrottsinriktning. Studien fann en positiv korrelation mellan stress och psykisk ohälsa. Kvinnor upplevde mer psykisk ohälsa och stress än män.

  • 73.
    Tholen, Lennart
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Har familjen betydelse för välbefinnandet när det gäller intagna2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie ville ta reda på om intagna med partner eller barn harett bättre välbefinnande, jämfört med intagna utan partner eller barn.Andra syftet var att ta reda på om god kvalité i familjerelationernager ett förbättrat välbefinnande. Tidigare studier visar att socialt stödi förhållanden kan motverka stress, det kan hjälpa människor ochförbättra personens hälsa och välbefinnande. Ett tredje syfte var att tareda på om det finns ett samband mellan välbefinnandet och de trecopingstrategierna, problemlösning, informationssökning ochflyktbeteende. Tidigare undersökningar visar att copingstrategier ären skyddande faktor mot ohälsa och är relaterat till välbefinnandet.Studien baseras på en enkätundersökning, där 58 män på en slutenanstalt deltog. Resultat visade att det inte fanns signifikanta effekterpå välbefinnandet av partnerskap och föräldraskap, i de fall det fannsen god kvalité i familjerelationen uppnåddes ett förbättratvälbefinnande. Studien visade på ett signifikant resultat mellanvälbefinnandet och familjerelationer. Resultaten visade också attintagna som använde sig av problemlösning mådde bättre.Informationssökning hade en negativ inverkan på välbefinnandet,vilket var oväntat. Flyktbeteende hängde ihop med ett dåligtvälbefinnande, intagna som flydde från verkligheten mådde sämre,vilket var enligt förväntan.

  • 74. Thoresen, Christian
    et al.
    Endestad, Tor
    Sigvartsen, Niels Petter B.
    Server, Andres
    Bolstad, Ingeborg
    Johansson, Mikael
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University.
    Frontotemporal hypoactivity during a reality monitoring paradigm is associated with delusions in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders2014In: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, ISSN 1354-6805, E-ISSN 1464-0619, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 97-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Impaired monitoring of internally generated information has been proposed to be one component in the development and maintenance of delusions. The present study investigated the neural correlates underlying the monitoring processes and whether they were associated with delusions. Methods Twenty healthy controls and 19 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were administrated a reality monitoring paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging. During encoding participants were instructed to associate a statement with either a presented (viewed condition) or an imagined picture (imagined condition). During the monitoring session in the scanner, participants were presented with old and new statements and their task was to identify whether a given statement was associated with the viewed condition, imagined condition, or if it was new. Results Patients showed significantly reduced accuracy in the imagined condition with performance negatively associated with degree of delusions. This was accompanied with reduced activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus in the patient group. The severity of delusions was negatively correlated with the blood-oxygenation-level dependent response in the left hippocampus. Conclusions The results suggest that weakened monitoring is associated with delusions in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, and that this may be mediated by a frontotemporal dysfunction.

  • 75.
    von Feilitzen, Joakim
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Medkänsleutmattning och neuroticism, hos behandlingspersonal2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There is a substantiated correlation between being under traumatic stress and mental ill-health andmay cause direct psychological impact on employees having empathetic tasks in their profession. The purposeof this study is to determine to what extent the correlation between neuroticism and perceived level of compassionfatigue exists. Method: In this quantitative study 132 geographically spread care workers working with noninstitutionalcare within municipal units were asked to respond to 2 surveys. The estimation of compassion fatigueconsisted of a total 10 questions various to 20 questions for the experience of neuroticism. Result: 52 (N=52)completed surveys (39%). The result indicates that more than half of the participants (57%) met the criteria basedon a high-risk group. A correlation analysis indicates a significant relationship between compassion fatigue andneuroticism (r=0.496, p=0.000). The correlation is positive and confirms the question formulation that individualswho have low emotional stability (Neuroticism) tend to estimate themselves highly in compassion fatigue.Discussion: The study's results confirm issue that the personal involved in home -based treatment, tend to exposethemselves to a high risk of being affected by the condition compassion fatigue. The majority of this studyparticipants (59%) had scores that according PROQL's risk level high (Stamm, 2010)

  • 76. Wendt, P. E.
    et al.
    Risberg, J.
    Ingvar, David H.
    Stenberg, Georg
    University of Lund.
    Rosén, Ingmar
    Ethanol makes occipital responses symmetrical1993In: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 13, Suppl. 1, 1993, Vol. 13, no Suppl. 1, p. 387-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 77. Wendt, Peter E.
    et al.
    Risberg, Jarl
    Stenberg, Georg
    Rosen, Ingmar
    Ingvar, David H.
    Ethanol reduces asymmetry of visual rCBF responses1994In: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, ISSN 0271-678X, E-ISSN 1559-7016, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 963-973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual regional CBF (rCBF) responses were measured in 10 healthy male subjects before and after an ethanol dose of 1 g/kg body weight. This dose induces well-established cerebral vasodilatation. However, significant bilateral occipital increases were found in both conditions. Apparently, the coupling between neuronal activity and rCBF is preserved following ethanol. The occipital and posterior parietal flow increases were, however, larger on the right than the left side in the sober state. During inebriation the asymmetry disappeared, possibly representing a more undifferentiated processing of visual information. We propose that ethanol causes a reduced inhibition of the left posterior cortex and a reduction of right-hemisphere information processing.

  • 78.
    Wenestam, Claes-Göran
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Horisontalisering: ett sätt att missuppfatta det man läser1978Report (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Wenestam, Claes-Göran
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Hur vi skapar mening i det vi erfar: en introduktion1984In: Att uppfatta sin omvärld: varför vi förstår verkligheten på olika sätt / [ed] Marton, Ference, Wenestam, Claes-Göran, Stockholm: AWE/Geber , 1984, p. 17-51Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Wenestam, Claes-Göran
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Qualitative differences in retention1980Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Wenestam, Claes-Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Swedish children's drawings of the outside and inside of their bodies2010In: Active citizenship: abstracts, Malmö: Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA) , 2010, p. 42-43Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Wenestam, Claes-Göran
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Uppfattningar av atemporal karaktär: det kollektiva tänkandet över tid i form av individuella uppfattningar vid en viss tidpunkt1988Report (Other academic)
  • 83.
    Wenestam, Claes-Göran
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Uppfattningar oberoende av tid och rum: kollektiv kognition1989In: Som vi uppfattar det: elva bidrag om inlärning och omvärldsuppfattning, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 1989, p. 77-101Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Wenestam, Claes-Göran
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Vad bestämmer valutors värde?1984In: Att uppfatta sin omvärld: varför vi förstår verkligheten på olika sätt / [ed] Marton, Ference, Wenestam, Claes-Göran, Stockholm: AWE/Geber , 1984, p. 92-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Westberg, Peter
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Lundh, Lars-Gunnar
    Lunds universitet.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Lunds universitet.
    Implicit associations and social anxiety2007In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 43-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to test whether an Implicit Association Test (IAT) with self- and social anxiety-words is sensitive to differences in trait social anxiety, and to an experimental induction of social anxiety. This was performed in the context of a partial replication of a previous study, in which Mauss et al. (2004) compared high and low trait socially anxious individuals before and after a social anxiety induction (an impromptu speech). Mauss et al.'s findings were replicated; that is, (i) the social anxiety induction produced increases in self-rated anxiety, self-rated physiological responses, and actual physiological arousal; and (ii) higher trait social anxiety was associated with stronger self-rated anxiety and stronger self-rated physiological responses, but not with stronger actual physiological responses. In addition, the results showed higher IAT social anxiety scores, both (i) as a result of the social anxiety induction, and (ii) as a function of self-reported trait social anxiety. It is suggested that the IAT may be a useful method for the experimental study of automatic evaluational thought patterns.

  • 86.
    Zlatev, Jordan
    Lund University.
    Lenninger, Sara M.
    Lund University.
    Persson, Tomas
    Lund University.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Lund University.
    Sonesson, Göran
    Lund University.
    van de Weijer, Joost
    Lund University.
    Understanding communicative intentions and semiotic vehicles by children and chimpanzees2013In: Cognitive development, ISSN 0885-2014, E-ISSN 1879-226X, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 312-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developmental and comparative studies of the ability to understand communicative intentions using object-choice tasks raise questions concerning the semiotic properties of the communicative signals, and the roles of rearing histories, language and familiarity. We adapted a study by Tomasello, Call, and Gluckman (1997), in which a “helper” indicated the location of a hidden reward to children of three ages (18, 24, and 30 months) and to four chimpanzees, by means of one of four cues: Pointing, Marker, Picture and Replica. For the chimpanzees, we controlled for familiarity by using two helpers, one unfamiliar and one highly familiar. Even 18-months performed well on Pointing and Marker, while only the oldest group clearly succeeded with Picture and Replica. Performance did not correlate with scores for the Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventory (SECDI). While there were no positive results for the chimpanzees on the group level, and no effect of familiarity, two chimpanzees succeeded on Pointing and Marker. Results support proposals of a species difference in understanding communicative intentions, but also highlight the need to distinguish these from the complexity of semiotic vehicles and to consider both factors.

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