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  • 51.
    Davidson, Per
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Ingegerd
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Johansson, Mikael
    Lund University.
    The effect of pattern separation on fear conditioning2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Davidson, Per
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hellerstedt, Robin
    England.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    No effect of sleep on the forgetting of unwanted memories2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Debby, George-Michael
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Olsson, Mikaela
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Upplevelser av bemötandet i vården för patienter med schizofreni2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Approximately 0,5-1 percent of the Swedish population are diagnosed with schizophrenia at some stage in their life. Living with schizophrenia involves mental illness such as hallucinations, delusions and apathy including passivity. Purpose: To examine the experiences that patients with schizophrenia encounter within the care system. Method: A literature review based on ten qualitative articles were conducted. Results: The need for communication was identified as the main theme throughout the results. As a result five sub-categories were derived:  Experience of frustration, denial, dignity & respect, comprehension and time & conversation. Discussion: The absence of communication was predominantly due to the staff’s lack of knowledge in dealing with patients with schizophrenia. The patients experienced disrespect and degradation. Not understanding the staff also resulted in uncertainty amongst the patients. Conclusion: The manner with which nurses encounter patients with schizophrenia is very important during care. This literature review highlights those areas the nurse must focus on during the care of patients with schizophrenia.

  • 54.
    Decety, Jean
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund.
    Sjöholm, Hans
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund.
    Ryding, Erik
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund.
    Ingvar, David H.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund.
    The cerebellum participates in mental activity: tomographic measurements of regional cerebral blood flow1990In: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 535, no 2, p. 313-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements in man of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) have demonstrated a number of cortical and subcortical events coupled to sensory stimulation or motor performance. It has also been shown that local activity changes take place in the cortex during 'pure' mental activity such as motor imagery (unaccompanied by sensory input or motor output). Thus, our group has previously shown that imagination of hand movements gives predominantly a frontal cortical rCBF activation while the corresponding hand movement activates the rolandic hand area mainly. In this paper we report tomographic rCBF measurements with a 133-Xenon SPECT technique during imagined tennis movements and silent counting. Both procedures gave rise to a significant cerebellar activation in addition to cortical rCBF changes. Apparently, the cerebellum may participate in pure mental activity. It possibly plays a role for the temporal organization of neuronal events related to cognition.

  • 55.
    Delfin, Carl
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    The neural basis of aberrant salience attribution in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to abnormal functioning of the brain’s reward and prediction system patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders are thought to assign salience to non-relevant objects and events and to form context-inappropriate associations. The brain’s ventral striatum is critical in the formation of associations, and aberrant associations are believed to create delusional content during psychosis. The study wanted to examine the neural response, particularly in the ventral striatum, combined with subjective reports as patients learn associations in an aversive Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. The stimuli were randomized and involved circles of different colors. The conditioned stimuli (CS+) was followed by an unconditioned stimuli (US), consisting of an unpleasant sound, in 50% of events. The unconditioned (CS-) stimuli was followed by a low, not unpleasant sound in 50% of events. The degree of striatal activation was thought to be associated with the severity of patient’s illness. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) responses were examined in eleven unmedicated non-institutionalized patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 15 matched healthy controls. No significant within group differences in neural or subjective response to the [CS+ > CS-] contrast were found. No significant associations between severity of illness and degree of striatal activation in response to CS+ or CS- were found. Significant differences in neural activation for the [CS+ > CS-] contrast were found in the ventral striatum, the right inferor frontal gyrus, and the right angular gyrus, with patients exhibiting stronger activation compared to controls. The results and implications are discussed along with suggestions for future research.

  • 56.
    Donnrin, Madea Malwina
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    The Relationship Between Stress Levels and Study Forms in University2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how two common ways of studying, mandatory Group study and Individual study, affects students’ mental health. 45 Swedish University students were scouted on the web and linked to an online questionnaire where they rated themselves during two conditions: working in group projects and working individually. A Student's t-test showed a strong significant difference between stress levels during Group study and Individual study, with Group study generating higher levels of distress among the participants. These findings are relevant to the discourse of stress and stressors in the educational environment as well as in work settings.

  • 57.
    Ebberline, Jessica
    Department of psychology, Lund University.
    Child molesters and children as witnesses: spatial behaviour, modus operandi and memory recall2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Offenders who target children are a negative phenomenon in our society. These offenders are often seen as the worst of the worst of criminals and are therefore a priority for investigators trying to solve these crimes as fast as possible. The purpose of this thesis is to see if there are common denominators among these offenders in their modus operandi (MO) and their spatial patterns. If similar patterns emerge amongst these offenders, that would be of investigative importance for those who work with crimes against children. In Study I, a group of child molesters and their MO were studied in order to see how they found their victims and where they committed their crimes. The results were consistent with previous studies on child molesters in that they all committed their crimes at home or close to their homes. In Study II, a geographical profiling tool was tested in order to see if such a program could be used to find an offender who made obscene phone calls (OPC) to children. The results showed that the geographical software based on spatial behaviour, was able to narrow down the search area in which the offender actually lived when he committed his crimes. In Study III, the focus was on the potential witnesses/victims and how much a child could remember correctly of a staged event simulating a potential child molester looking for new victims. The results showed that the children’s event memory were comparable with an adult control group. The combined results could be summarized as follows: offenders who target children usually commit their crimes at home or close to home (or base), they tend to lure children to go with them by using bribes or the recruitment of former victims. Girls seem to be the preferred sex over boys. Children could be used as accurate witnesses in these types of crimes.

  • 58.
    Ebberline, Jessica
    Psychology Department, Lund University.
    Geographical offender profiling obscene phone calls2008In: Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, ISSN 1544-4759, E-ISSN 1544-4767, Vol. 5, no 1-2, p. 93-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on geographical profiling have typically focused on crimes with physical crime sites. This study focused on crimes with no physical crimes sites (i.e. no physical contact occurred between the victim and the offender). A single offender made obscene phone calls to 86 children during the years 1999-2000 in the south of Sweden. The locations in which obscene phone calls were received were analysed in a geographical profiling system (Dragnet) to see whether it could provide a map that showed the most likely area the offender would reside in. The purpose of this study was to explore whether geographical software such as Dragnet can be used by investigators of crimes with no physical crime locations. The result showed that the offender in this case had his home close to the region assigned the highest probability of containing home or base, which indicates that Dragnet can provide maps that can narrow down the search areas for the police in cases without physical crime locations.

  • 59.
    Ebberline, Jessica
    et al.
    Department of psychology, Lund University.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Kristianstad University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Modus operandi and spatial behaviour of a random sample of non familial child molesters in SwedenArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Eckert, B.
    et al.
    University of Lund.
    Rosén, Ingmar
    University of Lund.
    Stenberg, Georg
    University of Lund.
    Agardh, C-D.
    University of Lund.
    The recovery of brain function after hypoglycaemia in normal man1992In: Diabetologia, 35, Suppl.1, 1992, Vol. 35, no Suppl. 1, p. A43-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the recovery of brain function after moderate hypoglycaemla in normal man. Hypoglycaemia was induced by an intravenous infusion of insulin (2.5 mU/kg) in seven healthy right-handed men aged 25.4+1.1 years (Mean • SD). The brain function was evaluated with P300-amplitude after auditory stimulus, reaction time measurements and EEG before, during (2.4+0.44 mmol/l for 70 min) and three times in the recovery period following hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia caused a reduction in the P300-amplitude, a prolongation in reaction time and minor changes in the EEG-activity. 15 min after normalisation of the blood glucose level, the P300-amplitude was lower than during hypoglycaemia and still 1,5 hrs after normalisation of the blood glucose level, there was a marked reduction in the P3OO-amplitude. 4 hrs after normalisation of the blood glucose, the P300-amplitude was restituted. The reaction time was shorter 15 min after normalisation of the blood glucose compared to hypoglycaemia, but was not nermalised until 1,5 hrs after of recovery following hypoglycaemia. The EEG-changes were normalised 15 min after hypoglycaemia.

    We conclude that moderate hypglycaemia causes marked effects in P300 and reaction time and that brain function measured as P300 is not restored after 1,5 hrs but at 4 hrs after normalisation of hypoglycaemia.

  • 61.
    Edblad, Patrik
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Sambandet mellan stress mindset och upplevd stress hos gymnasieungdomar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersökte sambandet mellan stress mindset (individens övertygelser om stress) och upplevd stress hos gymnasieungdomar. 122 deltagare i åldrarna 16-19 år deltog i studien genom att svara på ett elektroniskt formulär. Frågorna bestod av Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14), som undersökte upplevd stress, och Stress Mindset Measure (SMM), som undersökte deltagarnas mindset om stress. Resultatet visade en signifikant negativ korrelation mellan stress mindset och upplevd stress. Detta gav stöd till forskningshypotesen att övertygelsen att stress är skadligt har ett signifikant samband med hög upplevd stress hos gymnasieungdomar. Praktiska implikationer och framtida forskning diskuteras.

  • 62.
    Eriksson, Erika
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Upplevd stress hos lärare och undersköterskor2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine if there were age differences in perceived stress in a sample of teachers and nursing assistants. Differences in job satisfaction, work load, control, social support, vigor, and job insecurity were also investigated. Finally, the aim was to see how age and these work-related variables were able to explain differences in perceived stress. A web-based questionnaire was answered by 68 teachers and 88 nursing assistants, working in two municipalities in Halland, Sweden. They reported their stress-levels through ten items of the Perceived Stress Scale. Age and perceived stress were not significantly related. No differences in perceived stress between the age groups were found. Teachers reported higher work load than nursing assistants (p < .001). Age was not a predictor of perceived stress, but a higher work load (p < .001) and job insecurity (p = .008) predicted higher perceived stress, while higher job satisfaction (p = .017) predicted lower perceived stress. The conclusion is that certain work-related factors have a larger impact than age on workers perceived stress levels.

  • 63.
    Eriksson, Erika
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Hansson, Jorunn
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Upplevd stress hos vårdpersonal inom kommunal äldrevård2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The level of self-reported stress in adults is thought to be strongly influenced by perceived lifestress and the ability and strategies to cope with such stressful situations have been shown to function as a buffer against stress. Moreover previous research has shown a negative correlation between age and perceived stress, suggesting that through life, we learn how to handle stressful situations better. In times when the working population gradually becomes older, gaining more understanding about perceived stress and age should be imperative. This relation was therefore analyzed in a sample of 88 nursing staff, working within the public elderly care in a Swedish county, showing a significant difference in perceived stress between the younger and older age groups. However compared to earlier studies made on samples from different professions, a contradicting result was obtained, with age correlating positively with perceived stress, where older nursing staff was found to be significantly more stressed than their younger colleagues. Further analysis was done on a smaller sample of assisting nurses, which was split into two groups according to line of work; family care home staff (N = 41) and nursing home staff (N = 29), showing a statistically significant difference in perceived stress between the two groups, where nurses working in family care homes were significantly less stressed than their colleagues employed in nursing homes. The implications of these observations for better understanding of age and stress among employees in elderly care are further discussed.

  • 64.
    Eriksson, T. Gerhard
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Masche-No, Johanna G.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Dåderman, Anna M.
    University West,Trollhättan.
    Personality traits of prisoners as compared to general populations: signs of adjustment to the situation?2017In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 237-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two recent studies have challenged the well-established belief that offending behaviors are inversely related to the personality trait of conscientiousness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore prisoners’ levels of traits according to the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality compared to control groups, with a focus on conscientiousness. Two separate samples of inmates in Swedish high-security prisons were investigated in three studies. Inmates and non-inmates completed a Swedish-language translation of Goldberg’s (1999) International Personality Item Pool questionnaire (IPIP-NEO, Bäckström, 2007). Male inmates (n = 46) in Studies 1 and 2 scored higher on conscientiousness than non-inmates (norm data based on approximately 800 males, and a students’ sample), which conflicts with previous results. Study 3 further explored the conscientiousness differences on the facet level. Male and female inmates (n = 131) scored higher on order and self-discipline (even after an adjustment for social desirability) than students (n = 136). In conjunction with previous findings, these differences are interpreted as being either temporal or enduring adjustments to the prison environment. It is suggested that researchers and clinical teams should cautiously interpret the FFM factor of conscientiousness (and its facets) when planning the further treatment of inmates.

  • 65.
    Eriksson, Tommy
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Jämförelse mellan en fängelse- och en icke brottsdömd population av deras samvetsgrannhet och psykopati: en tvärsnittsstudie av skillnader och deras möjliga betydelse2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research (e.g., Miller & Lynam, 2001) has shown that delinquents score loweron the personality trait conscientiousness than individuals who have not been convictedof a crime. However, a Swedish study (Eriksson, 2010) has arrived at the opposite result.Furthermore, there is some disagreement with regards to the causality betweenconscientiousness and psychopathy. This study aimed at investigating the differencesbetween convicted and non-convicted individuals as well as scrutinizing thecontradictions found in the literature. The primary purpose was to investigate if Swedishinmates in a maximum security prison differ from the general population with regards toconscientiousness. Also of interest was which facets of conscientiousness can predictpsychopathy in a Swedish criminal population. Associations between criminal behaviorand conscientiousness and psychopathy were also explored. A sample of prison inmatesand a control group consisting of Internet respondents (N = 257, Mage= 34.2, SD = 10.7)filled out the Swedish translation of Goldberg’s (1999) International Personality ItemPool (IPIP-NEO, Bäckström, 2010) and a newly developed psychopathy self-report scale.The group of inmates had on average higher conscientiousness levels compared to thecontrol group. More specifically, inmates rated themselves higher with regards to thefacets order and self-discipline, whereas the control group rated themselves higher ondutifulness. Psychopathy was found to correlate negatively with dutifulness, achievementstriving, and deliberation. The results indicate that the Five Factor Model (FFM) can beapplied to a Swedish prison population in order to assist researchers and psychologistswho are evaluating clients with instruments that measure criminal behavior andpsychopathy. However, items on the IPIP-NEO need to be adjusted so that the questionsfit the prison environment.

  • 66.
    Esse, Moa
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Boväng, Ellinor
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Psykiska sjukdomar i somatiken: Grunden till sjuksköterskans attityder till vårdandet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Individer med psykiska sjukdomar är ett vanligt förekommande patientklientel på somatiska vårdavdelningar. Att vårda dessa individer kräver ofta mycket arbete och fokus från allmänsjuksköterskan. Syftet var att belysa vad som kan ligga till grund för sjuksköterskors attityder till vårdandet av patienter med psykiska sjukdomar i somatiska vårdmiljöer. Metod Studien genomfördes som en litteraturstudie, på ett systematiskt vis, baserad på data från tolv vetenskapliga studier. Vetenskaplig litteratur inom området söktes upp, granskades, analyserades och sammanställdes. Resultat Sjuksköterskans attityder visade sig främst vara kopplade till dennes vård- och arbetsmiljö, sjuksköterskeutbildningen och den tillgång till stöd som sjuksköterskan upplevde samt hennes tidigare erfarenheter.  Resultatet presenteras utifrån tre kategorier: Vårdmiljöns betydelse för sjuksköterskans attityder, Utbildningens och kunskapens betydelse för sjuksköterskans attityder samt Erfarenhetens betydelse för sjuksköterskans attityder. Diskussion De mest centrala fynden diskuteras utifrån resultatets tre kategorier. Om sjuksköterskeutbildningar utökade kursutbudet inom psykiatrisk omvårdnad och om möjlighet till bättre stöd och kontinuerlig utbildning, blev tillgänglig för personal på somatiska vårdavdelningar, skulle detta förmodligen förändra den negativa inställning som många sjuksköterskor har till vårdandet av psykiskt sjuka patienter. Det skulle också skapas bättre förutsättningar för sjuksköterskor att kunna bistå med en bättre vård. Det har utförts relativt lite forskning inom området, ytterligare forskning är önskvärd.

  • 67.
    Faraon, Montathar
    Kristianstad University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Valence asymmetry in impression formation2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Are implicit attitudes as easily formed as explicit attitudes? Fifty-four participants carried out an experiment regarding the behaviors of a fictional protagonist. Attitudes were obtained by the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and by explicit evaluations. The results in the current study showed tendency towards a significant persistence effect for explicit attitudes and a positivity bias effect for implicit attitudes.

  • 68.
    Faraon, Montathar
    et al.
    Södertörn University.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Södertörn University.
    Political campaigning 2.0: the influence of online news and social networking sites on attitudes and behavior2014In: eJournal of eDemocracy & Open Government, ISSN 2075-9517, E-ISSN 2075-9517, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 231-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to examine differences in influence between online news (e.g., New York Times) and social networking sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) on attitudes in political campaigns. In a web-based experiment, campaign, polls and election between two fictitious candidates were simulated. Participants’ explicit and implicit attitudes as well as voting behavior were assessed using self-report items and the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The results reveal that information emanating from online news had a significant influence on explicit and implicit attitudes while that of social networking sites did not. Overall, negative items had a stronger impact than positive ones, more so in online news compared to social networking sites. Negative information from either type of media was more likely to change participants’ explicit attitudes in a negative direction and as a consequence also change their vote. Practical implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed.

  • 69.
    Flückiger-Forsman, Heidi
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Vad avgör förmågan att anpassa sig till livet i ett annat land?: En studie bland finlandssvenska kvinnor boende i Schweiz2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka vilken betydelse finlandssvenska kvinnors upplevda nivå av stress, självkänsla och emotion management (att kunna hantera de egna känslorna) hade för deras förmåga att anpassa sig till en ny tillvaro i Schweiz. Utöver detta syftade studien att klargöra vilka överlappningar som fanns mellan self-efficacy och dimensionerna i Black, Mendenhall och Oddou (1991) modellen över internationell anpassning. Fyra olika skalor användes för att undersöka relationen mellan anpassningsförmåga och variablerna ovan. Resultatet baserat på 35 respondenter visade att anpassningsförmåga korrelerade både med självkänsla och self-efficacy (tilltro till sin egen förmåga). Kvinnorna skattade anpassningen till livet i Schweiz som ringa krävande, hade låga stressupplevelser och en god självkänsla. Kvinnornas emotion management, var likaledes god. Resultaten bidrar till en bättre förståelse av anpassningsprocessen i ett annat land än det egna hemlandet för att underlätta omställningen.

  • 70.
    Forsberg, Erik
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Tvetydighet som moderator: om sambandet mellan moraliska intuitioner, attityd till tvetydighet och fördomar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With a sample of 430 participants this study aimed to investigate if the relationship between the individual’s moral foundations and prejudice attitudes is moderated by the individual’s attitude towards ambiguity, understood as the factors discomfort with ambiguity, moral absolutism and need for complexity. To create a measurement for prejudice attitudes an exploratory factor analysis was performed on the participants positive or negative affective attitude responses towards 21 different social groups and categories. The analysis replicated earlier findings and showed the presence of 3 prejudice factors: derogated-, dangerous- and dissidient groups. To test the main hypothesis 6 multiple regressions controlling for age was performed. The result showed no presence of a moderation effect but there was support for several main effects. Overall the prediction effect for prejudice attitudes was stronger for binding foundations than the individuals attitude towards ambiguity. Binding foundations predicted more prejudice attitudes regardless of type of prejudice but the effect was strongest for prejudice attitudes towards dissident groups. Moral absolutism predicted prejudice attitudes towards dissident- and derogated groups. Need for complexity predicted more prejudice attitudes towards dissident groups. Discomfort with ambiguity predicted less prejudice attitudes towards dissident groups. In comparison moral absolutism showed the strongest prediction effect of the ambiguity factors in predicting attitudes towards dissident groups. Age showed signs of a main effect in that older individuals tended to be more tolerant towards derogated- and dissident groups. Limitations and suggestions for further research is also discussed. 

  • 71.
    Forsberg, Erik
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Gustafsson Bysell, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Sitt rak i ryggen!2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that meditation brings great benefits to the practitioner, but there is no comprehensive knowledge of what it is in meditation that is so favorable. We therefore tested Zen Buddhism's claim that the dorsal position favors our ability to concentrate. This was done by examining the relationship between body position, concentration and memory. The quasi- experiment consisted of a within-group design in which participants had to perform the memory test Free Recall twice, once sitting with their back straight and once with their back slouched, and also to answer self-assessment questions regarding their perceived ability to concentrate, general memory and detail memory. Hypothesis 1 was that students would perform better at Free Recall when they sat with a straight back. Hypothesis 2 was that participants who rated their ability to concentrate, their general memory and their detailed memory as low, would benefit more than others to sit with a straight back while they were performing the memory test.

    The results showed that participants generally performed significantly better when they sat with a straight back and that those who reported having a low ability to concentrate and a bad memory benefited the least by the change in body position. Our conclusion was therefore that Zen Buddhism's claim that the dorsal position favors the concentration ability was supported. But unlike what we assumed in hypothesis 2 it turned out that those who assessed that they already have a good concentration and a good general memory are the ones who mainly benefits from straightening their back. 

  • 72.
    Forsberg, Erik
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Nilsson, Artur
    Lund University.
    Jørgensen, Øyvind
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Moral dichotomization at the heart of prejudice: the role of moral foundations and intolerance of ambiguity in generalized prejudice2019In: Social Psychological and Personality Science, ISSN 1948-5506, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1002-1010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study confronted the classical idea that generalized prejudice is rooted in a cognitive tendency to sort reality into rigid and simple categories with the more recent idea that prejudice is shaped by moral intuitions. In a diverse Swedish sample (N = 430), moral absolutism was more strongly associated with generalized prejudice against derogated and dissident (but not dangerous) groups than were other aspects of intolerance of ambiguity. But there was little direct association between any aspect of intolerance of ambiguity and generalized prejudice once indirect relations through binding moral intuitions (which elevated prejudice) and individualizing moral intuitions (which decreased prejudice) had been taken into account. These findings suggest that intolerance of ambiguity is associated with generalized prejudice mainly insofar as it leads to a distinctly moral dichotomization of persons into categories such as insiders and outsiders, law-abiding citizens and deviants, and the righteous and the impure.

  • 73.
    Fredriksson, Jeanette
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Självbedrägeri på sociala medier: narcissistiska personlighetsdrag, uppmärksamhetssökande, generell självkänsla och socialt självbedrägeri på Facebook2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study with (N=255) test subjects, examined the relations between strategies for social self-deception, narcissistic personality traits, attention-seeking and the test subjects' perceived self-esteem on Facebook. Furthermore, it examined how these three aspects related to time spent on Facebook and number of friends on Facebook. A measuring tool was constructed to capture two main dimensions - 'situating' and 'persuasive', as per Roy Dings (2017) theory. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in only one dimension, and three multiple regression analyses showed that the three aspects did predict the usage of strategies for social self-deception, with narcissistic personality traits being the strongest predictor. Low self-esteem correlated to spending more time on Facebook, and narcissism correlated to having a higher number of friends on Facebook. Another discovery was that people, regardless of age, were nearly equally likely to use strategies for social self-deception on Facebook. Finally, limitations and suggestions for future studies are discussed.

  • 74.
    Fredriksson, Jeanette
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Skillnader i upplevelsen av flow under ett styrketräningspass, beroende på kön och tränad tid2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns en rad olika orsaker till att människor börjar, upprätthåller och fortsätter med fysisk aktivitet i olika former. Två troliga orsaker är tidsaspekten d.v.s. hur länge en person har utövat en aktivitet samt möjligheten att uppleva flow i aktiviteten. En betydande andel svenskar utövar styrketräning, individuellt eller i grupp. Denna populära träningsform ger en allt mer stillasittande befolkning möjlighet till både prevention och förbättring av hälsa. De positiva effekterna av styrketräning visar sig dock sällan omedelbart utan kräver både inre motivation, upplevelse av glädje och tid. Inom flowteorin var den inre motivationen, glädjen och balansen mellan kompetens och utmaning komponenter som på ett naturligt sätt ledde till viljan hos en person att upprepa en aktivitet och erhålla kontinuitet. I denna studie ställdes frågan om upplevelsen av generell flow under ett styrketräningspass ökade ju längre en person hade utövat denna typ av aktivitet och om det fanns skillnader i mängden upplevd generell flow mellan män och kvinnor under ett styrketräningspass. I denna studie identifierades signifikanta skillnader i den generella flowupplevelsen mellan grupper indelade efter hur länge deltagarna hade styrketränat. Resultaten antydde också att generell flow optimerades efter ca fyra år, i förhållande till styrketränad tid. Studien visade också att det fanns skillnader i mängden upplevd flow mellan könen under ett styrketräningspass. Kvinnorna upplevde mindre generell flow jämfört med männen. Skillnaderna var dels övergripande men även anmärkningsvärt stora inom vissa delar av flowbegreppet, som t.ex. en högre grad av självmedvetenhet hos kvinnorna jämfört med männen under ett styrketräningspass.

  • 75.
    Garmy, Pernilla
    et al.
    School Health Care, Klostergårdsskolan, Lund.
    Jakobsson, Ulf
    Nyberg, Per
    Development and psychometric evaluation of a new instrument for measuring sleep length and television and computer habits of Swedish school-age children2012In: Journal of School Nursing, ISSN 1059-8405, E-ISSN 1546-8364, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 138-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to develop a new instrument for measuring length of sleep as well as television and computer habits in school-age children. A questionnaire was constructed for use when children visit the school health care unit. Three aspects of the validity of the questionnaire were examined: its face validity, content validity, and construct validity. Test-retest reliability was assessed by giving the questionnaire twice, 2 weeks apart, to the respondents. The questionnaire was assessed as being reasonably valid, the test-retest results (n = 138) showing 90.4% of the estimates regarding bedtime on weeknights on the two survey occasions to lie within +/- 30 min of each other, the test-retest agreement also being rather close (kappa > .600) regarding both sleep and media habits. The instrument can be a valuable tool in a clinical setting, both for measuring sleep habits in a class and for discussing sleep with individual school children and their families.

  • 76.
    Garwicz, Martin
    et al.
    Neuronano Research Center, Lund University.
    Christensson, Maria
    Neuronano Research Center, Lund University.
    Psouni, Elia
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    A unifying model for timing of walking onset in humans and other mammals2009In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 106, no 51, p. 21889-21893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The onset of walking is a fundamental milestone in motor development of humans and other mammals, yet little is known about what factors determine its timing. Hoofed animals start walking within hours after birth, rodents and small carnivores require days or weeks, and nonhuman primates take months and humans approximately a year to achieve this locomotor skill. Here we show that a key to the explanation for these differences is that time to the onset of walking counts from conception and not from birth, indicating that mechanisms underlying motor development constitute a functional continuum from pre- to postnatal life. In a multiple-regression model encompassing 24 species representative of 11 extant orders of placental mammals that habitually walk on the ground, including humans, adult brain mass accounted for 94% of variance in time to walking onset postconception. A dichotomous variable reflecting species differences in functional limb anatomy accounted for another 3.8% of variance. The model predicted the timing of walking onset in humans with high accuracy, showing that this milestone in human motor development occurs no later than expected given the mass of the adult human brain, which in turn reflects the duration of its ontogenetic development. The timing of motor development appears to be highly conserved in mammalian evolution as the ancestors of some of the species in the sample presented here diverged in phylogenesis as long as 100 million years ago. Fundamental patterns of early human life history may therefore have evolved before the evolution of primates.

  • 77.
    Gavie, Josefin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Högberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Lucid dreaming treatment och lucida drömmars relation till locus of control, depression samt subjektivt välbefinnande2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lucida drömmar (LD) innebär att drömmaren inser, under drömmens gång, att omgivningen och händelserna runtomkring är en dröm och inger förmågan att kunna påverka och reflektera över händelserna i drömmen. I lucid dreaming treatment (LDT) får drömmaren lära sig att förändra mardrömmars händelseförlopp. Dock blir inte alla lucida och många tror att det är själva känslan av kontroll som ger en effekt. Studien kommer utforska om kontroll utgör en nyckelkomponent i LDT genom att undersöka sambandet mellan LD och locus of control (LoC), depression och subjektivt välbefinnande där LD verkar som en medierande variabel mellan å ena sidan LoC och å andra sidan depression samt subjektivt välbefinnande. Deltagarna (n = 54) i undersökningen har fyllt i formulär gällande frekvens av drömmar och LD samt formulären Rotter’s 29 item internal-external scale, Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale, International positive and negative affect schedule short form, Satisfaction with life scale och Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Undersökningen gav inte stöd för ställda hypoteserna att LD har en medierande effekt i sambandet mellan LoC och depression eller mellan LoC och subjektivt välbefinnande. Dock har den visat på en liten signifikant korrelation mellan högre frekvens av LD och högre grad av negativ affekt. Resultatet antyder att LD korrelerar med känslor, vilket bör undersökas vidare då affekt skulle kunna vara en komponent inom LDT via möjligheten att förändra känslor från negativa till positiva.

  • 78.
    Glamheden, Rebecca
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Cederquist, Lisa
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Hur inverkar verbala konfidensbedömningar på numeriska konfidensbedömningar?: En experimentellstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöktes hur realismen i vittnens numeriska konfidensbedömningar av sina

    minnesutsagor påverkades av om de först fick uttrycka graden av säkerhet med ord i en

    verbal konfidensbedömning och sedan i siffror i en numerisk konfidensbedömning, jämfört

    med om vittnen enbart fick göra en numerisk konfidensbedömningar. Deltagarna fick se en

    filmsekvens och därefter besvara frågor om filmen i en enkät. Dryga hälften av deltagarna

    fick göra numeriska konfidensbedömningar medan andra hälften fick besvara en likadan

    enkät fast med både verbala- och numeriska konfidensbedömningar.

    Vi fann inga signifikanta skillnader för de olika undersökta beroendemåtten korrekthet, konfidens, överkonfidens och

    kalibrering. Dock tydde resultaten på att den verbala- och numeriska konfidensbedömningen var associerad med en något sämre korrekthet av minnesprestation, med en något högre grad av överkonfidens samt en sämre kalibrering än för den betingelse som enbart är numerisk. 

  • 79. Gonzalez, Valentin E.
    et al.
    Wenestam, Claes-Göran
    University of Gothenburg.
    Children's understanding of figurative expressions: developmental and individual differences. Paper presented at the 23rd International Congress of Applied Psychology, July 17-22, Madrid, Spain1994Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study involving 160 Swedish children aged 7 to 14 years has been conducted to ascertain qualitative differences in their understanding of figurative expressions. Twelve proverbs and idioms involving semantic clashes Q e.g. 'Sow the wind and reap the whirlwind' Q where administered in an open-ended questionnaire format. Subjects were asked to write as many congruent and different meanings to each expression as they could imagine. The obtained constructions were categorised according to their literal, lexical figurative, and original figurative content, and an index was assigned to each subject indicating his/her ability to offer examples of one or more of those categories. Finally, a correlational analysis relating age, gender, and the ability to produce alternative meanings was performed. A pattern emerged indicating that younger children tend to understand figurative expressions literally, while older ones are able to produce several alternative irterpretations. The transition between those stages occurs around 9-l0 years of age. Girls, in their turn, are able to perform at the last level earlier than boys.

    The results are similar to those obtained in a parallel study using multiple-choice items for the same expressions. Nevertheless, the quality of the data is better in that it shows interesting differences in the meaning-making strategies used by each subject.

  • 80.
    Gusevac, Stela
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Sambandet mellan personlighet, affekt och emotionsreglering2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att verifiera sambandet mellan personlighetsdrag, affekt och emotionsreglering. Det undersöktes om hur specifika personlighetsdrag kan predicera användning av emotionsreglering. Utgångspunkten var tidigare forskning som visar korrelationer mellan dessa tre variabler. Undersökningen utfördes online och sammanlagt deltog 47 personer. Extraversion i sig visade sig kunna predicera både användning av Omvärdering och upplevelse av positiv affekt, medan Neuroticism bara verkar kunna predicera negativ affekt. Multipelregressionsanalysen visade att Öppenhet och Vänlighet leder till ökning användning av Omvärdering. Ökningen i Öppenhet var också relaterad till ökning av positiv affekt, samtidigt som Extraversion var relaterad till minskad användning av Supression.  Utöver det hittades positiva korrelationer mellan Supression och negativ affekt samt Omvärdering och positiv affekt, och negativt samband med vice versa. 

  • 81.
    Göransson, Maria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Mina tankar eller dina?: psykiskt välbefinnande hos avhoppare från sekter i relation till psykiska övergrepp i rörelsen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine if psychological well-being among ex-cult members is related to the extent of psychological abuse in the group, and to investigate the level and characteristics of their psychological well-being. Participants were 57 ex-cult members from eight different Swedish religious groups, who were primarily recruited from organizations for ex-cult members. They participated by answering an internet questionnaire. The results showed that higher levels of psychological abuse, measured with the GPA-scale, was related to lower levels of psychological well-being, measured with the CORE-OM, which supported the hypothesis. On the other hand, no relation was found between psychological well-being and the number of years in the group or the number of years since leaving the group. Furthermore it was found that ex-cult members have a lower level of psychological well-being than the normal population, which was in accordance with the hypothesis, in particular showing an elevated risk behaviour. The suggested conclusion is that low psychological well-being among ex-cult members is to a great extent caused by psychological abuse in the group. The results also indicate that personnel in health care should be aware of risk behaviour among these patients and that ex-cult members would benefit from better insight in cult environments by personnel in health care.

  • 82.
    Haapaniemi, Jan-Erik
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Personlighetsdimensionerna i femfaktormodellen och möjligheten att predicera upplevd stress2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns individuella skillnader i hur vi påverkas av stress och ett sätt att identifiera skillnaderna är att undersöka hur personlighetsdrag predicerar upplevd stress. Detta kan tillämpas vid rekrytering till yrken med särskilda krav på stresstålighet. Lazarus transaktionsmodell är ledande inom stressforskning och inom personlighetsteorier representerar femfaktormodellens (FFM) neuroticism, extraversion, öppenhet, samstämmighet och samvetsgrannhet de grundläggande personlighetsdragen. Enligt tidigare forskning utgör neuroticism en särskild sårbarhet för stress. Tre hypoteser prövades och undersökningens syftet var att predicera hur personligheten påverkar benägenheten att uppleva stress utifrån FFM, på dimensions- och facettnivå, samt att undersöka skillnader i upplevd stress beroende på kön. Etthundratolv studenter svarade på en enkät innehållande NEO-PI-R som mäter personlighetsdimensionerna samt Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) som mäter upplevd stress. Korrelationsanalyser, t-test och hierarkiska multipla regressioner gjordes. Hypoteserna om neuroticism och stress får stöd i resultatet men inte hypotesen om kön och stress. Oväntade resultat beträffande andra personlighetsdimensioner framkommer och möjliga orsaker till detta diskuteras.

  • 83.
    Hagdahl, Kristina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Jimmy, Hammarbäck
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Studiemotivation en jämförelse mellan gymnasieelevers egen uppfattning om motivationsnivå och Self-Determination Theory: en jämförelse mellan gymnasieelevers egen uppfattning om motivationsnivå och Self-Determination Theory2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien handlar om svenska gymnasieelevers motivation för att studera matematikämnet. Den teoretiska grunden hämtas ifrån Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur väl gymnasieelevers egen uppfattning om sin motivationsnivå kan prediceras genom de fyra ingående motivationsorienteringarna i Self-Determination Theory: (1) external regulation; (2) introjected regulation; (3) identified regulation; och (4) intrinsic motivation. Deltagarna (n = 132), 44 pojkar, 84 flickor och fyra som valde att inte specificera kön, studerar vid två gymnasieskolor i Falu kommun. Deltagarna fick via en webbsida besvara en enkät som mätte variablerna: upplevd motivationsnivå, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation och intrinsic motivation. Multipel regression användes för att testa om de ingående variablerna i Self-Determination Theory kan predicera deltagarnas upplevda motivationsnivå. Resultatet visar att 69.9% av upplevd motivationsnivå kan förklaras genom de fyra ingående motivationsorienteringarna. De ingående fyra motivationsorienteringarna fanns ordnade enligt teori, vilket innebar att faktorer som upplevs mer autonoma också indikerar på högre motivationsnivå. Studiens resultat visar att gymnasieelevers självupplevda motivationsnivå kan prediceras genom Self-Determination Theory och dess motivationsorienteringar. De deltagare som skattar sin egen motivationsnivå som hög, är också de deltagare som i högst grad drivs av identified regulation och inre motivation, liksom att de deltagare som skattar sin självupplevda motivationsnivå som lägre drivs mer av yttre motivation.

  • 84.
    Hansson, Erika
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi. Lund university.
    Disordered eating among Swedish adolescents: associations with emotion dysregulation, depression and self-esteem2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The path to an eating disorder (ED) always leads through a borderland, which, in this thesis, is referred to as disordered eating (DE) (Neumark-Sztainer, Wall, Eisenberg,Story, & Hannan, 2006; Waaddegaard, Thoning, & Petersson, 2003). In this borderland, people tend to make unhealthy eating choices, such as greatly reducing their food intake, self-inducing vomiting, or engaging in binge eating, but not to the extent that they would receive an ED diagnosis. Nevertheless, DE can have a strong negative effect on psychological health. Approximately 15%–52% of all adolescents, depending on the gender and the study’s focus, are found within the borderland between a healthy diet accompanied by psychological well-being and full-blown ED (e.g. Hautala et al., 2011; Herpertz-Dahlmann et al., 2008). While most of these individuals return to a more or less healthy diet after engaging in DE for some time, others continue to engage in DE and also tend to have trouble regulating their emotions, depression, and low self-esteem. For these reasons, DE itself, apart from being a springboard to EDs, is well worth exploring.At the outset of this thesis, an instrument assessing DE among 1265 adolescents (54.5% girls) was validated. This easily administered questionnaire, referred to by the acronym SCOFF (Morgan, Reid, & Lacey, 1999), comprises five questions assessing possible eating disturbances that are all answered using a “yes”/“no” answer format. The results showed that more girls than boys suffered from DE, and that girls also suffered from more severe DE, which is in line with previous research (e.g. Hautala et al., 2008). Additionally, this assessment of the SCOFF gave rise to the question of whether a positive answer on only certain items (instead of the stipulated cut-off of two) is necessary for indicating the possible presence of DE among adolescents, such as the item assessing whether individuals had ever vomited because they felt uncomfortably full.To further explore DE among adolescents, a person-oriented approach to identify specific patterns of DE based on the subscales of the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) (restraint, eating, weight, and shape concerns) was used. There were six different DE patterns for both boys and girls. The associations of these patterns with emotion dysregulation, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem, which all are related to DE (e.g. Shea & Pritchard, 2007; Svaldi, Griepenstroh, Tuschen- Caffier, & Ehring, 2012), were also assessed. Four of the six girl clusters and five of the six boy clusters showed scores above the cut-off for a clinical ED on at least one of the four indicators. Furthermore, although the “non-problematic” pattern was substantial, including 50% and 76% of girls and boys, respectively, a large portion of adolescents were part of clusters reporting generally high levels of DE. This might partly have to do with my use of an overly permissive cut-off, but nevertheless indicates that a considerable amount of adolescents suffer from DE. Generally, individuals in the DE patterns showed worse emotion regulation, depressive thoughts, and self- esteem than did those in the “non-problematic” patterns. However, some exceptions were found, which emphasizes the utility of analyzing different patterns of DE, not merely severity. Specifically, both girls and boys belonging to the pattern characterized by scores well above the cut-off on shape and weight concerns reported the lowest levels of self-esteem. Moreover, girls and boys in the pattern with scores above the cut-off on restraint showed good emotion regulation skills, few depressive symptoms, and high self-esteem.In Study III, the possible links between adolescents’ and parents’ possible DE and emotion dysregulation were explored, alongside the possible impact of shared family meals on DE. This study further examined whether it is possible to predict DE among adolescents according to their parents’ behaviors. Both DE and emotion dysregulation were found to be more frequent among adolescents than among parents. Furthermore, both adolescents and parents showed weak but significant associations between DE and emotion dysregulation, and showed similarities regarding specific aspects of emotion regulation, although the associations were gender specific. For example, parental emotional strategies were associated with girls’ emotional strategies, impulse control, and emotional goals, but only with boys’ emotional strategies. The only factor that was (weakly) associated with DE and emotion regulation among adolescents was the number of dinners that they shared with the family. Additionally, parental ED was the only predictor of current adolescent DE.In summary, the results of this thesis showed that many adolescents, especially girls, suffer from DE as well as poor emotional regulation, depressive thoughts, and low self-esteem. This is a problem, especially given that existing instruments for evaluating DE do not seem optimal, especially for boys. For instance, answering “yes” to the question of ever having engaged in self-induced vomiting because you have felt too full is probably best followed by a visit to the school nurse. Furthermore, the results indicated the importance of viewing DE not as a singular problem, but as a collection of different problems, even among individuals of the same gender. These differences call for different strategies aimed at helping adolescents achieve a healthier diet. Finally, while the parental influence of DE was significant, more research is required,preferably in a Swedish or Nordic context, where parental responsibility is not as heavily reliant on the mother as in other countries.

  • 85.
    Hansson, Erika
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO).
    Daukantaité, Daiva
    Lund University.
    Johnsson, Per
    Lund University.
    Disordered eating and emotion dysregulation among adolescents and their parents2017In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 5, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Research on the relationships between adolescent and parental disordered eating (DE) and emotion dysregulation is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether mothers' and fathers' own DE, as measured by SCOFF questionnaire, and emotion dysregulation, as measured by the difficulties in emotion regulation scale (DERS), were associated with their daughters' or sons' DE and emotion dysregulation. Furthermore, the importance of shared family meals and possible parent-related predictors of adolescent DE were explored.

    METHOD: The total sample comprised 1,265 adolescents (M age  = 16.19, SD = 1.21; age range 13.5-19 years, 54.5% female) whose parents had received a self-report questionnaire via mail. Of these, 235 adolescents (18.6% of the total sample) whose parents completed the questionnaire were used in the analyses. Parents' responses were matched and compared with those of their child.

    RESULTS: Adolescent girls showed greater levels of DE overall than did their parents. Furthermore, DE was associated with emotion dysregulation among both adolescents and parents. Adolescent and parental emotion dysregulation was associated, although there were gender differences in the specifics of this relationship. The frequency of shared dinner meals was the only variable that was associated to DE and emotion dysregulation among adolescents, while parental eating disorder was the only variable that enhanced the probability of adolescent DE.

    CONCLUSION: The present study contributes to the literature by demonstrating that there are significant associations between parents and their adolescent children in terms of DE, emotion dysregulation, and shared family meals. Future studies should break down these relationships among mothers, fathers, girls, and boys to further clarify the specific associational, and possibly predictive, directions.

  • 86.
    Hansson, Erika
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Lunds universitet.
    Daukantaité, Daiva
    Lunds universitet.
    Johnsson, Per
    Lunds universitet.
    SCOFF in a general adolescent population2015In: Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 2050-2974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Although Disordered Eating Behaviors (DEB) is an ill-defined concept, multiple studies have examined prevalence of DEB and its relations to other variables in various populations. DEB have been shown to predict more serious eating disorders which in turn can lead to death. Mostly girls seem to suffer from DEB, but the question has been raised whether this, at least, partially is due to the methods used for screening. The SCOFF-questionnaire has been suggested as a quick and easily administered tool to assess DEB. However, the psychometric results regarding SCOFF suggest some inconsistencies, and more research is needed in various countries and age samples.

    Method

    To validate SCOFF, a total of 1265 Swedish adolescents (51.6 % girls) completed self-report questionnaires using the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) as a reference standard.

    Results

    The factor analyses show inconclusive results as to whether SCOFF should be regarded as a comprehensive scale; furthermore, the results indicate a correlation between SCOFF and the EDE-Q in both girl and boy samples. Girls scored significantly higher on SCOFF and also had a higher total score, indicating more severe problems than boys.

    Conclusions

    The results raised questions as to whether the SCOFF might be interpreted and responded to in different ways by girls and boys, risking overlooking boys’ DEB and also whether one “yes” answer, instead of the stipulated two, could be sufficient when using SCOFF for screening purposes. In sum, the results challenge the use of SCOFF in a general adolescent population.

  • 87.
    Hansson, Erika
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi. Lund University.
    Daukantaitė, Daiva
    Lund University.
    Johnsson, Per
    Lund University.
    Typical patterns of disordered eating among Swedish adolescents: associations with emotion dysregulation, depression, and self-esteem2016In: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108X, Vol. 4, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Using the person-oriented approach, we determined the relationships between four indicators (restraint and eating, shape, and weight concerns) of disordered eating (DE), as measured by the self-reported Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), to identify typical DE patterns. We then related these patterns to clinical EDE-Q cut-off scores and emotion dysregulation, depression, self-esteem, and two categories of DE behaviors (≥2 or ≤1 "yes" responses on the SCOFF questionnaire).

    METHOD: Typical patterns of DE were identified in a community sample of 1,265 Swedish adolescents (Mage  = 16.19, SD = 1.21; age range 13.5-19 years) using a cluster analysis. Separate analyses were performed for girls (n = 689) and boys (n = 576).

    RESULTS: The cluster analysis yielded a six-cluster solution for each gender. Four of the six clusters for girls and five for boys showed scores above the clinical cut-off on at least one of the four DE indicators. For girls, the two clusters that scored above the clinical cut-offs on all four DE indicators reported severe psychological problems, including high scores on emotion dysregulation and depression and low scores on self-esteem. In contrast, for boys, although two clusters reported above the clinical cut-off on all four indicators, only the cluster with exceedingly high scores on shape and weight concerns reported high emotion dysregulation and depression, and extremely low self-esteem. Furthermore, significantly more girls and boys in the most problematic DE clusters reported ≥2 "yes" responses on the SCOFF questionnaire (as opposed to ≤1 response), indicating clear signs of DE and severe psychological difficulties.

    CONCLUSION: We suspect that the various problematic DE patterns will require different paths back to a healthy diet. However, more research is needed to determine the developmental trajectories of these DE patterns and ensure more precise clinical cut-off scores, especially for boys. Comprehensive understanding of DE patterns might be of use to healthcare professionals for detecting DE before it develops into an eating disorder.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Lund, EPN (dnr: 2012/499).

  • 88.
    Hansson, Erika
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Masche, J. Gowert
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Disordered eating in a general population: just an­other depressive symptom or a specific problem?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that about 30% of adolescent girls and 15% of adolescent boys suffer from disordered eating (DE) which can be defined as problematic eating below criteria for eating disorders according to DSM-V (Hautala et al., 2008; Herpertz-Dahlman et al., 2008). Even sub-clinical unhealthy weight-control behaviors have predicted outcomes related to obesity and eating disorders five years later (Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2006). However, two issues question the validity of DE. First, in contrast to eating disorders, under- or overweight/obesity are not necessary parts of DE. Second, some symptoms and correlates of DE are similar to those of depression. E.g., parent-adolescent relationships seem to play an important role in explaining both DE (Hautala et al., 2011; Berge et al., 2010) and internalizing problems (Soenens et al., 2012). Thus, this study examined associations between DE and a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems, parent-adolescent relationship characteristics, and food intake and sleep habits in a general population of adolescents. Comparing results with and without controlling for depression reveals whether DE is a specific problem or merely a depressive symptom. This study also explored whether DE and the other variables under study are associated independently of weight status (underweight, overweight/obesity, and normal weight), specific to under- or overweight, or spurious if taking weight status into account.

    The study is based on the first wave of an on-going longitudinal study, and all measures are child-reported (N=1,281). Adolescents attending grades 7 to 10 in a Southern Swedish municipality (age 12.5 to 19.3, M = 15.2, SD = 1.2) filled out questionnaires in class.  DE was measured using the SCOFF, a five-item screening scale validated for use in general populations (e.g. Muro-Sans et al., 2008; Noma et al., 2006).

    The results of univariate ANOVAs indicate that associations with DE were largely independent of weight status. Moreover, most associations with disordered eating were spurious when controlling for depression. However, some associations remained. Above and beyond depression effects, adolescents with DE reported lower self-esteem, stronger feelings of being over-controlled by their parents and active withholding of information towards them, consumption of fewer meals during the week, and higher levels of daytime sleepiness. Boys with ED slept more hours during the week and ate more fruits and vegetables than boys without ED. In conclusion, despite an overlap between depressive symptoms and disordered eating, this study provides ample evidence that sleep, nutrition habits, self-esteem, and parental control issues distinguish eating disordered adolescents from those suffering from general depressive symptoms.

  • 89.
    Hansson, Erika
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Lunds universitet.
    Masche, J. Gowert
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Disordered eating in a general population: just an­other depressive symptom or a specific problem?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that about 30% of adolescent girls and 15% of adolescent boys suffer from disordered eating (DE) which can be defined as problematic eating below criteria for eating disorders according to DSM-V (Hautala et al., 2008; Herpertz-Dahlman et al., 2008). Even sub-clinical unhealthy weight-control behaviors have predicted outcomes related to obesity and eating disorders five years later (Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2006). However, two issues question the validity of DE. First, in contrast to eating disorders, under- or overweight/obesity are not necessary parts of DE. Second, some symptoms and correlates of DE are similar to those of depression. E.g., parent-adolescent relationships seem to play an important role in explaining both DE (Hautala et al., 2011; Berge et al., 2010) and internalizing problems (Soenens et al., 2012). Thus, this study examined associations between DE and a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems, parent-adolescent relationship characteristics, and food intake and sleep habits in a general population of adolescents. Comparing results with and without controlling for depression reveals whether DE is a specific problem or merely a depressive symptom. This study also explored whether DE and the other variables under study are associated independently of weight status (underweight, overweight/obesity, and normal weight), specific to under- or overweight, or spurious if taking weight status into account.

    The study is based on the first wave of an on-going longitudinal study, and all measures are child-reported (N=1,281). Adolescents attending grades 7 to 10 in a Southern Swedish municipality (age 12.5 to 19.3, M = 15.2, SD = 1.2) filled out questionnaires in class.  DE was measured using the SCOFF, a five-item screening scale validated for use in general populations (e.g. Muro-Sans et al., 2008; Noma et al., 2006).

    The results of univariate ANOVAs indicate that associations with DE were largely independent of weight status. Moreover, most associations with disordered eating were spurious when controlling for depression. However, some associations remained. Above and beyond depression effects, adolescents with DE reported lower self-esteem, stronger feelings of being over-controlled by their parents and active withholding of information towards them, consumption of fewer meals during the week, and higher levels of daytime sleepiness. Boys with ED slept more hours during the week and ate more fruits and vegetables than boys without ED. In conclusion, despite an overlap between depressive symptoms and disordered eating, this study provides ample evidence that sleep, nutrition habits, self-esteem, and parental control issues distinguish eating disordered adolescents from those suffering from general depressive symptoms.

  • 90.
    Hedstrom, Ellen
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Parenting Style as a Predictor of Internal and External Behavioural Symptoms in Children: The Child's Perspective2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine three distinct parenting styles and their effect on children’s behavioural patterns, as perceived by the child. The parenting styles, based on Baumrind’s typologies of authoritative, authoritarian and permissive parenting, were measured as well as the children’s self-rated internal and external symptoms. Results indicated that there was a relationship between authoritarian parenting and all aspects of internal symptoms (depression, loneliness and self-esteem) as well as delinquency and aggression (external symptoms). Gender had an effect on depression and loneliness with females displaying higher levels. Permissive parenting was the largest contributor to drug use and an effect of age on drug use was also found. In conclusion, the results from this study shows that authoritarian parenting has a detrimental effect on a host of mental health issues and behavioural problems. However, authoritative parenting was shown to have the most positive outcome across the study. Implications for positive parenting style interventions are discussed. In addition, further studies examining parent-child relations from the child’s perspective are suggested.

  • 91.
    Hejderup, Cecilia
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    Attityder mot pedofiler i ett genusperspektiv2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersoka skillnader mellan kvinnors

    och mans attityder gentemot pedofiler och deras handlingar. Kanske

    kan ocksa media spela en roll i detta samanhang. Vi vantade oss att

    kvinnor skulle vara mildare i synen mot pedofiler eftersom kvinnor

    overlag ar mer forstaende an man. Undersokningen undersokte ocksa

    om det fanns nagon skillnad i attityder som ar relaterad till alder. Tre

    olika alderskategorier anvandes, 18-25, 26-34 och 35+. Antalet

    forsoksdeltagare var 142 personer varav 80 kvinnor och 62 man.

    Forsoksledarna anvande sig av en enkat for att undersoka synen pa 4

    olika kategorier som var foljande: straff, garningsman, media och

    rattsvasende. Resultatet visade att kvinnor inte hade mildare syn pa

    denna typ av brottslingar an man. Man fann dock en skillnad mellan

    aldersgrupperna nar det gallde den kvinnliga delen av

    forsoksdeltagarna, den aldsta aldersgruppen hade en mer fordomande

    syn an de andra grupperna. Detta kan hora ihop men motsatta

    tendenser hos konen pa sa satt att man blir mer toleranta och kvinnor

    striktare angaende denna fraga. Forslag till vidare forskning inom

    omradet diskuteras.

  • 92.
    Hereora Hummerhielm, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Samuelsson, Robert
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Medievåldets påverkan påsjälvkänsla och empati2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens övergripande syfte är att få en ökad kunskap om medievåld och dess exponering. En webbaserad enkät har använts där människor av alla åldrar och kön deltagit i studien. Yngsta deltagaren var 18 år och äldsta 61 år gammal. 64 kvinnor och 45 män deltog. Huvudresultat efter ett t-test och en två-vägs ANOVA visade på att det inte fanns några huvudeffekter med skillnader i empati relaterade till kön eller hög respektive låg medieexponering i just dagspress. Däremot visade det sig det fanns en signifikant interaktion där kön tillsammans med hög och låg exponering av medievåld, hade en effekt på empati. Kvinnor som exponerades mer av våldsrelaterad media i dagspress visade sig ha en högre empatisk förmåga än män. Analys av skönlitteratur och hur empati, relaterat till kön och våldsexponering, visade att kvinnor i denna studie hade tendens till en högre empati än män. De ytterligare tre exponeringsvariablerna: facklitteratur, film och TV-spel, visade inga indikeringar för interaktionseffekter men visade sig däremot ha signifikanta huvudeffekter mellan könen. Självkänsla som beroende variabel visade sig att inte variera på grund av de beroende variablerna kön eller hög- samt låg medieexponering (likt ovanstående) och gav inga signifikanta resultat.

  • 93.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Crime victims' experiences of police interviews and their inclination to provide or omit information2004In: International Journal of Police Science and Management, ISSN 1461-3557, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 155-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research concerns crime victims’ experiences of Swedish police interviews and their inclination to provide or omit information in such interviews. A group of rape or aggravated assault victims, consisting of 178 women and men, answered a questionnaire in this explorative study, which revealed that police officer behaviour in interviews was mainly calm and obliging. Results from factor analyses show that these crime victims perceived police attitudes to be characterised by either dominance or humanity. While being interviewed, crime victims either responded with feelings of anxiety or feelings of being respected, the latter of which encouraged them to be cooperative. Logistic regressions revealed that interviews marked by dominance and responses of anxiety are significantly associated with crime victims who omit information. Interviews marked by humanity, responses of feeling respected, and cooperation are significantly associated with crime victims who provide information.

  • 94.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Crime victims' psychological well-being related to police interviews and questions from the prosecutor2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of Therapeutic Jurisprudence is to execute legal procedures such that they promote the social and psychological well-being of the individual involved in a juridical action.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate crime victims’ psychological well-being related to their experiences of being interviewed by the police and questioned by the prosecutor.

    Eighty-three crime victims completed a questionnaire about their experiences from their police interviews and the questions from the prosecutor. To measure the crime victims’ psychological well-being, the Sense of Coherence form and the Impact of Event Scale was used.

    PCA revealed that the victims perceived their police interviews and questions from prosecutors as marked of humanity or dominance. Victims who perceived high humanitarian police interviews showed a significant higher psychological well-being than those who perceived low humanitarian police interviews. There were no significant differences in psychological well-being associated with questions from prosecutors.

  • 95.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Interviewing suspects2012In: Forensic psychology: crime, justice, law, interventions / [ed] Graham Davies, Anthony Beech, Chichester: BPS Blackwell, 2012, 2, p. 135-150Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 96.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Investigative interviewing as a therapeutic jurisprudential approach2009In: International developments in investigative interviewing / [ed] Williamson, Tom, Milne, Becky, Savage, Thephen P., London: Willan Publishing , 2009, p. 149-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 97.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Investigative interviewing as a therapeutic jurisprudential approach2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the idea of therapeutic jurisprudence, law enforcement actors are seen as therapeutic agents promoting crime victims’ and suspects’ psychological well-being in legal procedures. Contrary to psychological well-being bad demeanour or behaviour of law enforcement actors may cause a secondary victimization and obstruct legal procedures, and as a consequence of such obstructions be anti-therapeutic. An overwhelming majority of the special squad police officers have perceived, during their entire career, high stress due to exposure to different events in patrol as well as investigative duty. Reactions from such exposure have serious negative impacts on the police officers’ psychological well-being, and may also affect the interviewing approach they adopt. This paper discusses the definition and measurement of psychological well-being in relation to the perspective of investigative interviewing. Three studies regarding crime victims’ and suspects’ experiences as well as police officers’ view of investigative interviewing in consideration of Antonovsky’s sense of coherence are presented. Interviewees’ and interviewers’ experiences and interview outcomes with respect to psychological well-being will be discussed.

  • 98.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Police interviews with victims and suspects of violent and sexual crimes2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The police interview is one of the most important investigative tools that law enforcement has close at hand. The present work comprising three empirical studies and focusing on the police interviews in very serious crimes of violence and sexual offences. This research showed that police interviews marked by dominance were mainly associated with a higher proportion of suspects' denials whereas an approach marked by humanity was significantly associated with admissions. Crime victims' experience of an interviewing style marked by dominance was significantly associated with the victims' omissions of information whereas a humanitarian interviewing style was significantly related to victims providing all information from painful events. Special squad police officers' attitudes towards interviewing suspects and crime victims may be affected by traumatic experiences in duty and may automatically generate dominant attitudes. The police interview is multi-faceted and thoroughly related to cognitive as well as social psychology. The reader of this book will realize that legal procedures not only have juridical effects, but to the highest degree, also psychological effects.

  • 99.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Kristianstad University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Police interviews with victims and suspects of violent and sexual crimes: interviewees' experiences and interview outcomes2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The police interview is one of the most important investigative tools that law enforcement has close at hand, and police interview methods have changed during the twentieth century. A good police interview is conducted in the frame of the law, is governed by the interview goal, and is influenced by facilitating factors that may affect the elicited report. The present doctoral dissertation focuses on police interviews in cases of very serious crimes of violence and sexual offences. Results reveal crime victims’ and perpetrators’ experiences of being interviewed and police officers’ attitudes towards conducting interviews related to traumatizing crimes. Study 1 revealed that when police officers interviewed murderers and sexual offenders, the interviewees perceived attitudes characterized by either dominance or humanity. Police interviews marked by dominance and suspects’ responses of anxiety were mainly associated with a higher proportion of denials, whereas an approach marked by humanity, and responses of being respected were significantly associated with admissions. In line with Study 1, the victims of rape and aggravated assault in Study 2 also revealed the experience of two police interview styles, where an interviewing style marked by dominance and responses of anxiety was significantly associated with crime victims’ omissions of information. Moreover, a humanitarian interviewing style, and crime victims’ feelings of being respected and co-operative, was significantly related to crime victims providing all information from painful events. Special squad police officers’ attitudes towards interviewing crime victims, in Study 3, also showed a humanitarian approach and two dominant approaches, one affective and the other refusing. The attitude towards interviewing suspects of crimes in focus revealed humanitarian and dominant interviewing attitudes, and an approach marked by kindness. The present thesis shows that, during their entire career, an overwhelming majority of the special squad police officers have experienced stressful events during patrol as well as investigative duty. Results show that symptoms from stressful event exposures and coping mechanisms are associated with negative attitudes towards interviewing suspects and supportive attitudes towards crime victim interviews. Thus, experiences from stressful exposures may automatically activate ego-defensive functions that automatically generate dominant attitudes. Moreover, it is important to offer police officers who have been exposed to stressful events the opportunity to work through their experiences, for example, through debriefing procedures. After debriefings, police officers are better prepared to meet crime victims and suspects and, through conscious closed-loop processes, to conduct police interviews without awaking ego-defensive functions.

  • 100.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Psychological well-being, humanity and dominance in police interviews: cuses and efects2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of Therapeutic Jurisprudence is to execute legal procedures such that they promote the social and psychological well-being of the individual involved in a juridical action.

    The aim of study one is to investigate whether personality characteristics (the Big Five) may explain crime victims’ psychological well-being related to their experiences of being interviewed by the police and questions from the prosecutor.

    Eighty-three crime victims completed a questionnaire, previously used by Holmberg and Christianson (2002) and Holmberg (2004), about their experiences from their police interviews and the questions from the prosecutor. To identify personality characteristics, the participants completed the Big Five Inventory, and for measuring the crime victims’ psychological well-being, the Sense of Coherence form has been used. Crime victims’ experiences from police interviews and their psychological well-being will be discussed in the perspective of personality characteristics.

    Previous studies by Holmberg and Christianson (2002) and Holmberg (2004) have shown associations between the interviewing styles (humanity and dominance) and interview outcomes. A study two with the aim of experimentally investigate the causality between interviewing styles, psychological well-being and interview outcomes will be presented and discussed.

    The aim of these two studies is to shed lights on causes and effects on therapeutic jurisprudential investigative interviews.

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