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  • 501.
    Söderquist, Pär
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Large-scale releases of native species: the mallard as a predictive model system2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human alteration of natural systems, and its consequences are of great concern and the impact on global ecosystems is one of the biggest threats that biodiversity stands before. Translocations of invasive species, as well as intraspecific contingents with non-native genotypes, whether they are deliberate or unintentional, are one such alteration and its consequences are continuously being assessed. The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the most numerous and widespread duck in the world and a flagship in wetland conservation. It is also an important game species which is heavily restocked for hunting purposes, especially in Europe where over three million ducklings are released every year. Because of its hunted status, its abundance, and the number of released individuals, it can serve as a model species to study effects of releases, both for conservation and restocking for hunting, on wild populations. In this thesis the status of the mallard was assessed in the Nordic countries and the effects of releases on the wild populations were studied by mining historical ringing data, comparing morphology of present-day wild, farmed, and historical mallards, and analyzing phylogeography of wild and farmed mallards in Europe. The status of the mallard population in the Nordic countries are generally good, however, a joint effort of European countries is needed to monitor and manage the population. A significant difference between wild and farmed mallards concerning longevity, migration, bill morphology and genetic structure was also found, together with signs of cryptic introgression of farmed genotypes in the wild population with potential fitness reduction as a result. The effect is however limited by that only a fraction of released farmed mallards reach the breeding season due to low survival. A natural captive environment is crucial to keep individuals wild-like with high survival rates after release. However, with an introgression of potentially maladapted farmed genotypes leading to a reduction in fitness, a low survival of released mallards would favor the wild population. A legislative change regarding obligation to report numbers, provenance, and release sites of farmed mallard should be considered, together with practical solutions of ringing and genetic monitoring of released mallards.

  • 502.
    Söderquist, Pär
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Large-scale releases of native species: the mallard as a predictive model system2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human alteration of natural systems, and its consequences are of great concern and the impact on global ecosystems is one of the biggest threats that biodiversity stands before. Translocations of invasive species, as well as intraspecific contingents with non-native genotypes, whether they are deliberate or unintentional, are one such alteration and its consequences are continuously being assessed. The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the most numerous and widespread duck in the world and a flagship in wetland conservation. It is also an important game species which is heavily restocked for hunting purposes, especially in Europe where over three million ducklings are released every year. Because of its hunted status, its abundance, and the number of released individuals, it can serve as a model species to study effects of releases, both for conservation and restocking for hunting, on wild populations. In this thesis the status of the mallard was assessed in the Nordic countries and the effects of releases on the wild populations were studied by mining historical ringing data, comparing morphology of present-day wild, farmed, and historical mallards, and analyzing phylogeography of wild and farmed mallards in Europe. The status of the mallard population in the Nordic countries are generally good, however, a joint effort of European countries is needed to monitor and manage the population. A significant difference between wild and farmed mallards concerning longevity, migration, bill morphology and genetic structure was also found, together with signs of cryptic introgression of farmed genotypes in the wild population with potential fitness reduction as a result. The effect is however limited by that only a fraction of released farmed mallards reach the breeding season due to low survival. A natural captive environment is crucial to keep individuals wild-like with high survival rates after release. However, with an introgression of potentially maladapted farmed genotypes leading to a reduction in fitness, a low survival of released mallards would favor the wild population. A legislative change regarding obligation to report numbers, provenance, and release sites of farmed mallard should be considered, together with practical solutions of ringing and genetic monitoring of released mallards.

  • 503.
    Söderquist, Pär
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Effekter av utsättningar av farmade änder ämnade för jakt2018In: Man and Biosphere Health –: en komplett akademisk miljö / [ed] Rehnstam-Holm, A.-S., Kristianstad: Högskolan Kristianstad , 2018, p. 41-47Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I över 40 år har det i Sverige pågått ett storskaligt, ekologiskt experiment där hundratusentals gräsänder årligen har fötts upp i fångenskap och satts ut i våtmarker för att öka på den jaktbara populationen. Genom uppfödning i fångenskap riskerar man att de farmade gräsänderna blir annorlunda gentemot de vilda. För att studera effekterna på den vilda populationen av dessa utsättningar startades 2010 ett doktorandprojekt finansierat av Naturvårdsverket. Projektet kom fram till att farmade änder skiljer sig i beteende och utseende mot de vilda. Det går även att genetiskt skilja på farmade och vilda gräsänder. Ett nytt projekt startades 2017 för att vidare studera effekter av utsättningar, nu även på miljön och den biologiska mångfalden där änderna sätts ut. Projekten om effekter av utsättningar av farmade änder involverar forskare från olika lärosäten i Sverige, men också från flera olika europeiska länder. Ett nära samarbete med olika lokala privata aktörer som uppfödare, markägare, jägare och viltmästare samt större organisationer somViltmästareförbundet och Svenska Jägareförbundet är avgörande för projektens framgång. Att kommuniceraresultaten på så väl vetenskapliga konferenser som för icke akademiker involverade i projekten samt i undervisning på Högskolan Kristianstad och på gymnasieskolor har hela tiden varit en målsättning. Projekten har också en tydlig plats i forskningsmiljön MABH vars kompetenser inom t.ex. vattenvård, sjukdomsspridning och landskapsutnyttjande kanknytas till projekten.

  • 504.
    Söderquist, Pär
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Utsatta änder – så går det för dem2014In: Svensk jakt, ISSN 0039-6583, Vol. 152, no 12, p. 72-73Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 505.
    Söderquist, Pär
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Thulin, Carl-Gustaf
    Champagnon, Jocelyn
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Kreisinger, Jakub
    Prins, Herbert
    Crooijmans, R
    Kraus, Robert
    Released game birds cause introgression in European mallard2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The practice of restocking already viable populations to improve harvest has since long been common in forestry, fisheries and wildlife management. The potential risks with restocking of native species has for a long time been overshadowed by the related issue of invasive species. However, during the last decade releases of native species with a potential non-native genome have attained more attention. A suitable model species for studying genetic effects of large-scale releases of a native species is the Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; it is the most widespread duck in the world, it is a migrating species, and an important game bird. In several European countries it is also farmed and released to increase the harvestable population, and more than 3 million unfledged hatchlings are released each year around Europe. The aims of this study were to determine if wild and released farmed Mallards differed genetically among subpopulations in Europe, if there are signs of previous or ongoing introgression between wild and farmed Mallards, and if the genetic structure of the wild Mallard population has changed since large-scale releases started in the 1970s. We used 360 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to analyze the genetic structure of historical wild, present-day wild, and farmed Mallards. We found a clear genetic difference between wild and farmed Mallards in Europe. We also found signs of introgression of farmed genes in the wild Mallard population, however, the rate of hybridization is probably minor due to low survival of released farmed Mallards and a change of the wild population since the start of large-scale releases is therefore limited. A low level of hybridization between farmed and wild Mallard is desired as introgressed genes may be detrimental for wild Mallards, and efforts to increase survival of farmed Mallards should therefore not be encouraged.

  • 506.
    Söderquist, Pär
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Thulin, Carl-Gustaf
    SLU, Umeå.
    Champagnon, Jocelyn
    Frankrike.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Frankrike.
    Kreisinger, Jakub
    Tjeckien.
    Prins, Herbert
    Nederländerna.
    Crooijmans, Richard
    Nederländerna.
    Kraus, Robert
    Tyskland.
    Released gamebrds cause introgression in European mallard2015In: 4th Pan-European Duck Symposium, Hangö, Finland, 2015, p. 75-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The practice of restocking already viable populations to improve harvest has since long been common in forestry, fisheries and wildlife management. The potential risks with restocking of native species has for a long time been overshadowed by the related issue of invasive species. However, during the last decade releases of native species with a potential non-native genome have attained more attention. A suitable model species for studying genetic effects of large-scale releases of a native species is the Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; it is the most widespread duck in the world, it is a migrating species, and an important game bird. In several European countries it is also farmed and released to increase the harvestable population, and more than 3 million unfledged hatchlings are released each year around Europe. The aims of this study were to determine if wild and released farmed Mallards differed genetically among subpopulations in Europe, if there are signs of previous or ongoing introgression between wild and farmed Mallards, and if the genetic structure of the wild Mallard population has changed since large-scale releases started in the 1970s. We used 360 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to analyze the genetic structure of historical wild, present-day wild, and farmed Mallards. We found a clear genetic difference between wild and farmed Mallards in Europe. We also found signs of introgression of farmed genes in the wild Mallard population, however, the rate of hybridization is probably minor due to low survival of released farmed Mallards and a change of the wild population since the start of large-scale releases is therefore limited. A low level of hybridization between farmed and wild Mallard is desired as introgressed genes may be detrimental for wild Mallards, and efforts to increase survival of farmed Mallards should therefore not be encouraged.

  • 507.
    Söderquist, Pär
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Thulin, C.-G.
    Champagnon, Jocelyn
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Kreisinger, J.
    Prins, H
    Crooijmans, R.
    Kraus, R.
    Released game birds cause continent-wide introgression: a changing genetic landscape in European mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 508.
    Söderquist, Pär
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Longevity and migration distance differ between wild and hand-reared mallards Anas platyrhynchos in Northern Europe2013In: European Journal of Wildlife Research, ISSN 1612-4642, E-ISSN 1439-0574, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 150-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mallard Anas platyrhynchos is the world’s most widespread and numerous dabbling duck. It is also farmed and released to the wild by the millions each year, but the effects of this on wild populations remain little studied. By using historical national ringing–recovery data from Sweden and Finland, we here address three predictions based on previous studies: (1) longevity is higher in wild than in hand-reared mallards, (2) wild mallards migrate longer than hand-reared, and (3) migration distance in wild ducks surviving long enough to start fall migration has decreased over the last 50 years. Indeed, wild mallards lived longer than hand-reared (19 versus 9 months in Swedish birds and 13 versus 4 months in Finnish birds). Compared to wild mallards, a smaller proportion of hand-reared birds survived long enough to have the chance to enter the wild breeding population; less than 25 % of the Swedish birds and less than 10 % of the Finnish birds lived a year or longer. Wild birds migrated farther than hand-reared (mean distance in Swedish birds, 676 versus 523 km; in Finnish birds, 1,213 versus 157 km), a pattern caused by both shorter life span and lower migration speed in hand-reared birds. Mean migration distance in wild Swedish mallards was 787 km in 1947–1972 but 591 km in 1977–1993. This difference was not statistically significant, though, possibly due to the limited sample size and lack of data from the last two decades. In general, our study provides a conservative test of the predictions addressed, calling for more research about the consequences of restocking duck populations.

  • 509.
    Söderquist, Pär
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Norrström, Joanna
    Kristianstad University.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Frankrike.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Wild mallards have more "goose-like" bills than their ancestors2015In: 4th Pan-European Duck Symposium, Hangö, Finland, 7-11/4, 2015, 2015, p. 38-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild populations of the world’s most common dabbling duck, the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed Mallards started. Three groups of Mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started), present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild Mallards (only males). Farmed Mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed Mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild Mallards. Present-day Mallards thus tend to have more ‘‘goose-like’’ bills (wider, higher, and shorter) than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released Mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild Mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with ‘alien genes’ may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds.

  • 510.
    Söderquist, Pär
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Norrström, Joanna
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Wild Mallards have more ”goose-like” bills than their ancestors2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild populations of the world’s most common dabbling duck, the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed Mallards started. Three groups of Mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started), present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild Mallards (only males). Farmed Mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed Mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild Mallards. Present-day Mallards thus tend to have more ‘‘goose-like’’ bills (wider, higher, and shorter) than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released Mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild Mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with ‘alien genes’ may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds.

  • 511.
    Söderquist, Pär
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Norrström, Joanna
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, CNERA Avifaune Migratrice, La Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, Arles.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Wild mallards have more ‘‘goose-like’’ bills than their ancestors: a case of anthropogenic influence?2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 12, article id e115143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild populations of the world’s most common dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed mallards started. Three groups of mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started), present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild mallards (only males). Farmed mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild mallards. Present-day mallards thus tend to have more “goose-like” bills (wider, higher, and shorter) than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with ‘alien genes’ may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds.

  • 512.
    Ter Schure, Arnout F.H.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Larsson, Per
    Lund University.
    Merilä, Juha
    Finland.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Latitudinal Fractionation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Frogs (Rana temporaria)2002In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 36, no 23, p. 5057-5061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flame retardant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have become ubiquitous environmental pollutants. The environmental distribution of PBDEs is much less studied than that of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).To compare the environmental fate of the PCBs withtheir partial substitute, the PBDEs, common frogs (Ranatemporaria) were collected along a 1500-km-long latitudinal gradient of the Scandinavian Peninsula and their livers analyzed for PCBs and PBDEs. Mean concentrations of total PCBs and BDE47 ranged from 9200 to 92 900 and 30 to120 ng kg-1 fresh weight, respectively, whereas BDE99 was detected in less than 50% of the frogs. PCB concentrations were higher than that of the PBDEs, and the differences decreased in the northern latitudes. Moreover, the pollutant concentrations in frog livers were negative functions of latitude. The observed scatter and regression slopes imply several influencing factors (such as habitat, exposure route, uptake, metabolism, excretion, etc.) and indicate release events instead of the grasshopper effect. Biological variables such as gender, age, body size, and lipid content did not influence pollutant concentrations in the frog livers. The total PCB and BDE47 concentrations in frogs were highly correlated. Hence, their environmental fate is analogous and our results highlight the need to examine the potential role of xenobiotics on amphibian populations.

  • 513. Tessier, L
    et al.
    Boisvert, J L
    Vought, Lena B. M.
    Lunds universitet.
    Lacoursière, Jean O.
    Lunds universitet.
    Anomalies on capture nets of Hydropsyche slossonae larvae (Trichoptera; Hydropsychidae) following a sublethal chronic exposure to cadmium2000In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 425-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A laboratory study on the sublethal effects of cadmium (Cd) on the net-spinning process of the larvae of Hydropsyche slossonae was conducted in order to assess the potential of net anomalies as an indicator of chronic exposure to Cd. Two major anomalies with different frequency levels were identified after chronic exposure to 0.37, 1.2, 11.6, 21.4 and 43.3 μg l−1 of Cd. The first was a distortion of the midline meshes where the diamond-shape structure is disrupted and the meshes are separated by extra strands (called ‘midline’ anomaly). The second aberration consisted of a distortion of the rectilinear structure of net opening by strands being fused or added over the meshes (called ‘crossover’ anomaly). The midline distortion may be linked to a physiological stress caused by Cd, which can affect the control of the net-spinning process. It was not possible to relate the crossover aberrations to a specific toxic action of Cd, but data indicated that both anomalies are independent from each other and that two modes of action could be implicated. Protein analyses of capture nets have revealed silk polypeptide modifications at the highest Cd concentration tested, indicating a possible effect of Cd interaction with silk proteins. However, neither a gradient-concentration nor a time-dependent response could be established with both aberration frequencies. Silk protein modifications would rather play a secondary role in the appearance of both net anomalies, and mostly at a high concentration level. Finally, the toxicity curves (EC50) show that the sensitivity threshold for both types of aberration ranged from 1 to 5 μg l−1 which is highly sensitive compared with other sublethal effects of Cd on other macroinvertebrate species. Hence, the use of capture-net anomalies of hydropsychid larvae would represent a valuable indicator of sublethal toxicity induced by Cd and possibly by other metals in running waters.

  • 514. Tessier, L
    et al.
    Boisvert, J L
    Vought, Lena B. M.
    Lunds universitet.
    Lacoursière, Jean O.
    Lunds universitet.
    Effects of 2,4-dichlorophenol on the net-spinning behavior of Hydropsyche slossonae larvae (Trichoptera; Hydropsychidae), an early warning signal of chronic toxicity2000In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 207-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to assess the potential of hydropsychid capture net anomalies as a bioindicator of chronic toxicity in streams and rivers, the effects of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) exposure on the net-spinning behavior of Hydropsyche slossonae were examined for anomalies after 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 exposure days to gradient concentration of 2,4-dichlorophenol. The net-spinning behavior was significantly affected when larvae were exposed to 1.0, 10, 25, and 50 μg·L−1, as expressed by the occurrence of two distinct abnormalities. The first one was a distortion of the midline meshes, where the normal diamond-shape structure is disrupted and the meshes are separated by extra strands (called “midline” anomaly). The second aberration observed was called “chaotic” net, where the nets are highly irregular without any real structure or well-defined areas. A good correlation was found between the chaotic net frequencies and the reduction of ATP concentrations in the larvae, indicating possible uncoupling effects of 2,4-DCP on the oxidative phosphorylation process. Toxicity curves demonstrate that the sensitivity threshold of chaotic net frequencies ranged from 3.5 to 7 μg·L−1, which is highly sensitive compared with other sublethal effects of 2,4-DCP on other aquatic species.

  • 515. Tessier, Louis
    et al.
    Boisvert, Jacques L.
    Vought, Lena B. M.
    Lunds universitet.
    Lacoursière, Jean O.
    Lunds universitet.
    Anomalies on capture nets of Hydropsyche slossonae larvae (Trichoptera; Hydropsychidae), a potential indicator of chronic toxicity of malathion (organophosphate insecticide)2000In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 50, no 1-2, p. 125-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A laboratory study on the sublethal effects of malathion on the net-spinning behavior of the caddisfly larvae Hydropsycheslossonae was conducted in order to assess the potential of net anomalies as an indicator of chronic exposure to organophosphorus insecticides. Two anomalies were identified after chronic exposure to 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 μg l−1 malathion. The first was a distortion of the midline meshes where the normal diamond shape structure was disrupted and the meshes were separated by extra strands (called ‘midline’ anomaly). The second aberration observed was a significant decrease in net symmetry. Both anomalies were highly correlated to the toxic action of malathion, i.e. inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses of capture nets did not show any modification of silk polypeptides after exposure to malathion, indicating that net distortions were not related to silk composition. Both anomalies seem to represent the symptoms of the specific toxic action of malathion; nevertheless, they can serve as an index of the physiological condition of the larvae, especially the midline anomaly. The symmetry of the nets decreased significantly after exposure to 0.5 and 1.0 μg l−1. However, the toxicity curves (EC50) showed that the sensitivity threshold for the midline anomaly ranged from 0.11 to 0.28 μg l−1, which reflect more realistic exposure to concentrations expected to occur in the field. Hence, the use of capture net anomalies of hydropsychid larvae could represent a valuable indicator of sublethal toxicity induced by malathion and other organophosphorus insecticides in running waters.

  • 516. Tessier, Louis
    et al.
    Boisvert, Jacques L.
    Vought, Lena B. M.
    Lunds universitet.
    Lacoursière, Jean O.
    Lunds universitet.
    Characterization of Hydropsyche slossonae (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) capture net polypeptides2000In: Canadian Entomologist, ISSN 0008-347X, E-ISSN 1918-3240, Vol. 132, no 1, p. 59-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A laboratory study on the sublethal effects of malathion on the net-spinning behavior of the caddisfly larvae Hydropsycheslossonae was conducted in order to assess the potential of net anomalies as an indicator of chronic exposure to organophosphorus insecticides. Two anomalies were identified after chronic exposure to 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 μg l−1 malathion. The first was a distortion of the midline meshes where the normal diamond shape structure was disrupted and the meshes were separated by extra strands (called ‘midline’ anomaly). The second aberration observed was a significant decrease in net symmetry. Both anomalies were highly correlated to the toxic action of malathion, i.e. inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses of capture nets did not show any modification of silk polypeptides after exposure to malathion, indicating that net distortions were not related to silk composition. Both anomalies seem to represent the symptoms of the specific toxic action of malathion; nevertheless, they can serve as an index of the physiological condition of the larvae, especially the midline anomaly. The symmetry of the nets decreased significantly after exposure to 0.5 and 1.0 μg l−1. However, the toxicity curves (EC50) showed that the sensitivity threshold for the midline anomaly ranged from 0.11 to 0.28 μg l−1, which reflect more realistic exposure to concentrations expected to occur in the field. Hence, the use of capture net anomalies of hydropsychid larvae could represent a valuable indicator of sublethal toxicity induced by malathion and other organophosphorus insecticides in running waters.

  • 517.
    Thuresson, Frida
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Nilsson, Dennis
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Kulturreliktväxternas livskraft: en jämförelse mellan växtinventeringar av ödeträdgårdar i Skåne och Blekinge2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Växter som kan nyttjas till vår fördel har utvecklats under en lång tid. Från bondestenåldern när kontrollen över skörden växer fram till att mer avancerade trädgårdar med kulturreliktväxter blomstrar upp i 1800-talets bondesamhälle. Syftet med arbetet är att jämföra kulturreliktväxter på torp och gårdslämningar i Hässleholms kommun. Även data från tidigare studier användes för att undersöka skillnaden mellan gårdar och torp samt undersöka om övergivnadsåret påverkar antalet kulturväxter som finns kvar. Övergivna gårdar hyste fler kulturväxter än övergivna torp och gårdarna hade fler träd och buskar än torpen. Torparen ville troligtvis ha växter med snabb avkastning och hade varken råd eller tid med prydnadsbuskar eller att plantera fruktträd som behöver flera år på sig att ge frukt. Övergivnadsåret påverkar inte artantalet och kanske att markanvändningen av platsen spelar en större roll än övergivnadsåret. Vi tycker att det gröna kulturarvet behövs lyftas fram tydligare då bevarandet av kulturväxter och deras historia är viktig. 

  • 518.
    Thyr, Maria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment. Helgeå Model Forest.
    Kartläggning av ädellövskog i Helgeåns avrinningsområde: skyddsvärda områden idag och i framtiden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 519.
    Tolf, Conny
    et al.
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Wille, Michelle
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Grosbois, Vladimir
    Centre de coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), Montpellier.
    Hasselquist, Dennis
    Department of Biology, Lund University.
    Olsen, Björn
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Individual variation in influenza A virus infection histories and long-term immune responses in mallards2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 4, p. e61201-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild dabbling ducks (genus Anas) are the main reservoir for influenza A virus (IAV) in the Northern Hemisphere. Current understanding of disease dynamics and epidemiology in this virus-host system has primarily been based on populationlevel ,surveillance studies and infection experiments conducted in laboratory settings. Using a combined experimentalnatural approach with wild-strain captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), we monitored individual IAV infection histories and immunological responses of 10 birds over the course of 15 months. This is the first detailed study to track natural IAV infection histories over several seasons amongst the same individuals growing from juvenile to adults. The general trends in the infection histories of the monitored birds reflected seasonal variation in prevalence at the population level. However, within the study group there were significant differences between individuals in infection frequency as well as in short and long term anti-IAV antibody response. Further observations included individual variation in the number of infecting virus subtypes, and a strong tendency for long-lasting hemagglutinin-related homosubtypic immunity. Specifically, all infections in the second autumn, except one, were of different subtypes compared to the first autumn. The variation among birds concerning these epidemiologically important traits illustrates the necessity for IAV studies to move from the level of populations to examine individuals in order to further our understanding of IAV disease and epidemiology.

  • 520.
    Turk, Valentina
    et al.
    Marine Biological Station, Institute of Biology,Piran, Slovenia.
    Rehnstam, Ann-Sofi
    Department of Microbiology, University of Umeå.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Umeå Marine Sciences Centre, University of Umeå.
    Hagström, Åke
    Department of Microbiology, University of Umeå.
    Release of bacterial DNA by marine nanoflagellates, an intermediate step in phosphorus regeneration1992In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 58, no 11, p. 3744-3750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of dissolved DNA and nanoflagellates were found to covary during a study of diel dynamics of the microbial food web in the Adriatic Sea. This observation was further investigated in a continuous seawater culture when nanoflagellates were fed bacteria grown in filtered seawater. Analysis of dissolved organic phosphorus and dissolved DNA showed a sixfold increase of dissolved DNA in the presence of the nanoflagellates (Ochromonas sp.). The amount of DNA released suggested that the majority of the consumed bacterial DNA was ejected. Phagotrophic nanoflagellates thus represent an important source of origin for dissolved DNA. The rate of breakdown of dissolved DNA and release of inorganic phosphorus in the pelagic ecosystem is suggested to be dependent on the ambient phosphate pool. In the P-limited northern Adriatic Sea, rapid degradation of the labelled DNA could be demonstrated, whereas the N-limited southern California bight water showed a much lower rate. Phosphorus originating from dissolved DNA was shown to be transferred mainly to organisms in the <3-μm-size fractions. On the basis of the C/P ratios, we suggest that a significant fraction of the phosphorus demand by the autotrophs may be sustained by the released DNA during stratified conditions. Thus, the nucleic acid-rich bacterial biomass grazed by protozoa plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus in the marine environment.

  • 521.
    Tuvendal, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    A handshake between markets and hierarchies: geese as an example of successful collaborative management of ecosystem services2015In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 15937-15954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important task in research about natural resource management is to communicate the utility of different approaches from various settings. Using ecosystem services as a conceptual frame, we study a local solution to alleviate goose-human conflicts in an agricultural region in Sweden. Increasing goose numbers and crop damage led to the foundation of a goose management group (GMG), comprising landowners, farmers, hunters, ornithologists, conservation NGOs, and local and county level administration. The GMG was not given any formal or legal authority. We asked: is this management solution successful? Which problems can be solved and which remain? Can the GMG stand as a model for management of other species and in other landscapes? We interviewed present members of the GMG and analyzed minutes from its meetings. We found that the GMG has autonomy to self-organize and shows adaptive capacity over time in handling variability and complexity in its socio-ecological system. This makes the GMG a sustainable solution for local management of a resource in which goose population growth and legislation are decided at other (national or international) levels. We assessed what constitutes perceived success and found that GMG is geared toward “mediation of opposing preferences” by establishing a figurative handshake between stakeholders. By comparing how four general challenges in ecosystem service management align with formative attributes of the GMG, we discuss in which ways this management solution is applicable to other ecosystem services in other contexts.

  • 522.
    Ulvholt, Mikael
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Bottensedimentets betydelse för flodpärlmusslans föryngring – en metodutveckling 2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera is an endangered species. To survive, the young mussels demand a fairly coarse bottom material containing an appropriate quantity of organic substrate to survive without suffocating. In order to estimate if a bottom is suitable for juvenile mussels, samples of the sediment are needed. To obtain samples a sampling device called the Mulv collector has been developed within this project. Bottom samples were collected from 18 stations in 4 south Swedish streams, Vramsån, Kling-storpsbäcken, Brönnestadsån and Bräkneån. No rejuvenation of the mussel was found at the stations containing more than 25% fine material.

  • 523.
    Vecchi, Matteo
    et al.
    Italien.
    Cesari, Michele
    Italien.
    Bertolani, Roberto
    Italien.
    Jönsson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Rebecchi, Lorena
    Italien.
    Guidetti, Roberto
    Italien.
    Integrative systematic studies on tardigrades from Antarctica identify new genera and new species within Macrobiotoidea and Echiniscoidea2016In: Invertebrate systematics, ISSN 1445-5226, E-ISSN 1447-2600, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 303-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades represent one of the most abundant groups of Antarctic metazoans in terms of abundance and diversity, thanks to their ability to withstand desiccation and freezing; however, their biodiversity is underestimated. Antarctic tardigrades from Dronning Maud Land and Victoria Land were analysed from a morphological point of view with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and from a molecular point of view using two genes (18S, 28S) analysed in Bayesian inference and maximum-likelihood frameworks. In addition, indel-coding datasets were used for the first time to infer tardigrade phylogenies. We also compared Antarctic specimens with those from Italy and Greenland. A combined morphological and molecular analysis led to the identification of two new evolutionary lineages, for which we here erect the new genera Acanthechiniscus, gen. nov. (Echiniscidae, Echiniscoidea) and Mesobiotus, gen. nov. (Macrobiotidae, Macrobiotoidea). Moreover, two species new to science were discovered: Pseudechiniscus titianae,sp. nov. (Echiniscidae : Echiniscoidea) and Mesobiotus hilariae, sp. nov. (Macrobiotidae : Macrobiotoidea). This study highlights the high tardigrade diversity in Antarctica and the importance of an integrated approach in faunal and taxonomic studies.

  • 524.
    Vidström, Arne
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Yllesugning och ylleätning hos katter (Felis silvestris catus)2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wool sucking and wool eating are comparatively unusual behavioral problems in domestic cats. They have not been studied much, despite having been known for a long time. There is a lack of well formulated hypotheses that can explain the results from the only published study about the subject thus far.  Because of that need, an internet-based survey with 205 cats was performed. According to the results, the natural suckling behavior can remain into adulthood when a kitten is taken from its mother before 5-6 weeks of age. The suckling behavior is directed towards fabric in the form of the oral stereotypy wool sucking. Wool eating turned out to be a stereotypic behavior too, but in this case associated with the degree of object play that a cat engages in. The degree of object play is higher in younger cats than in older cats, and also higher in breeds of Southeast Asian origin than in other breeds. The degree of wool eating turned out to follow the same pattern as the degree of object play. Wool eating thus seems to be a misdirected predatory behavior. It is still unclear if there is a connection between wool sucking and wool eating or not.

  • 525. Voelz, Neal J.
    et al.
    Vought, Lena B. M.
    Lunds universitet.
    Lacoursière, Jean O.
    Lunds universitet.
    The distribution and abundance of hyporheic invertebrates in a small Swedish stream2006In: International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology, Vol 29, Pt 4, Proceedings, 2006, p. 1777-1781Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 526. Vought, Lena B. M.
    et al.
    Dahl, J
    Pedersen, CL
    Lacoursière, Jean O.
    Nutrient retention in riparian ecotones1994In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 342-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient retention mechanisms in riparian buffer strips are reviewed with emphasis on surface runoff and subsurface flows, the main pathways of exchanges between the stream and its surroundings. Unique physical and biogeochemical properties prevailing in these riparian ecotones dictate the flux of water, nutrients and other exogenous substances between the upland areas and the stream. Removal of nutrients from surface inflows is induced by deposition of sediment bound nutrients and exchange of dissolved nutrients with the soil/litter surface. Removal of nitrogen in subsurface flows can partly be explained by vegetation uptake, but the main mechanism for removal is usually denitrification. In channelized streams, the subsurface inflows have, in most cases, been altered to discharges via drainage tiles, with the exchange flows (water leaving and re-entering the open-channel via the stream bed and banks) being greatly decreased. Consequently, to improve nitrogen removal in these systems, these flows have to be intercepted or reestablished either through restoration of the old stream valley or through managed structures in the buffer strips.

  • 527.
    Vought, Lena B. M.
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Kullberg, A
    Petersen, R C
    Effect of riparian structure, temperature and channel morphometry on detritus processing in channelized and natural woodland streams in southern Sweden1998In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 273-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Ten south Swedish streams were selected to represent two distinct types—natural woodland streams and channelized streams. Measurements were made on leaching, decomposition and microbial respiration of the dominant riparian vegetation (European Black Alder), structure of the benthic macroinvertebrate community, macroinvertebrates inhabiting leaf material, channel morphometry, macrophyte composition, water chemistry and total accumulated degree days.

    2. Leaf decomposition rates were not significantly different when channelized streams were compared with natural woodland streams. In channelized streams the average decomposition rate was −0.0556±0.0337 (±S.D.) day−1 compared with −0.0457±0.0115 day−1 in natural woodland streams.

    3. There was significantly higher variation in leaf decomposition among the five channelized streams compared with the five natural streams (F–test, p<0.05). This was mainly due to extremely high decomposition rates in channelized streams colonized by emergent macrophytes.

    4. Alder decomposition rates were low in channelized streams without macrophytes (−0.0053 °day−1), intermediate in natural streams (−0.0087 °day−1), and high in channelized streams with macrophytes (−0.0136 °day−1).

    5. The shredder functional group ranged from 13 to 70% of the benthic community in the natural streams. Channelized streams had a more variable shredder population ranging from 0.5 to 80%. The highest values were found in channelized streams that had become colonized by macrophytes.

    6. There was a significant difference in total accumulated degree days between the channelized (256 °day) and natural woodland streams (209 °day). This is most likely an effect of drainage tiles contributing warmer groundwater to the channelized streams during fall.

    7. It is concluded that, contrary to the prevailing conceptual model of stream systems, decomposition rates and macroinvertebrate functions are not necessarily reduced in streams without riparian vegetation. The loss of the riparian canopy can stimulate emergent macrophytes which will provide autochthonous detritus for benthic communities. This will change benthic community structure and the life cycle strategies present.

  • 528.
    Vought, Lena B. M.
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Lannerstad, M
    The structure of the riparian ecotone and its implication for stream macroinvertebrate community2001In: International Association Of Theoretical And Applied Limnology, Vol 27, Pt 3, Proceedings, 2001, p. 1357-1360Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 529.
    Vought, Lena B. M.
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Pinay, G
    Fuglsang, A
    Ruffinoni, C
    Structure and function of buffer strips from a water-quality perspective in agricultural landscapes1995In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 31, no 1-3, p. 323-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buffer strips can greatly improve the water quality of nearby agricultural streams by reducing nutrient leaching in groundwater and surface water runoff, even though they comprise little of the total catchment area. Hence, vegetated buffer zones located along streams and in the upland portions of the catchment can minimize erosion or trap sediments in surface runoff and thereby decrease phosphorus loading in surface water. For example, a buffer strip 10 m wide can reduce the phosphorus load, typically bound to sediment, by as much as 95%. Moreover, both natural and constructed riparian forests and wetlands may create conditions favorable for nitrogen transformation/removal by soil microbial processes such as denitrification, with as much as 100% of the nitrate being removed in these zones.

    In addition to nutrient removal, buffer strips will increase the diversity of flora and fauna in the otherwise monocultural landscape. The vegetation along the stream will also stabilize the stream banks and improve habitat for both fish and invertebrates within the stream.

  • 530.
    Wallensten, A.
    et al.
    Smedby Health Center, Kalmar County Council.
    Munster, V. J.
    Department of Virology and National Influenza Center, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.
    Department of Virology and National Influenza Center, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam.
    Fouchier, R. A. M.
    Department of Virology and National Influenza Center, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam.
    Olsen, B.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Umeå University.
    Multiple gene segment reassortment between Eurasian and American lineages of influenza A virus (H6N2) in Guillemot (Uria aalge)2005In: Archives of Virology, ISSN 0304-8608, E-ISSN 1432-8798, Vol. 150, no 8, p. 1685-1692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Guillemots banded in the northern Baltic Sea were screened for influenza A virus (IAV). Three out of 26 sampled birds tested positive by RT-PCR. Two of these were characterized as subtype H6N2. Phylogenetic analyses showed that five gene segments belonged to the American avian lineage of IAVs, whereas three gene segments belonged to the Eurasian lineage. Our findings indicate that avian IAVs may have a taxonomically wider reservoir spectrum than previously known and we present the first report of a chimeric avian IAV with genes of American and Eurasian origin in Europe.

  • 531.
    Wallensten, Anders
    et al.
    Smedby Health Center, Kalmar.
    Munster, Vincent J.
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Kalmar University.
    Brytting, Mia
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Fouchier, Ron A.M.
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam.
    Fransson, Thord
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm.
    Haemig, Paul D.
    Kalmar University.
    Karlsson, Malin
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna.
    Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam.
    Stervander, Martin
    Ottenby Bird Observatory, Degerhamn.
    Waldenstrom, Jonas
    Kalmar University.
    Olsen, Björn
    Kalmar University.
    Surveillance of influenza A virus in migratory waterfowl in northern Europe2007In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 404-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted large-scale, systematic sampling of influenza type A virus in migratory waterfowl (mostly mallards [Anas platyrhynchos]) at Ottenby Bird Observatory, southeast Sweden. As with previous studies, we found a higher prevalence in fall than spring, and among juveniles compared with adults. However, in contrast to other studies, we found that prevalence in spring was sometimes high (mean 4.0%, highest 9.5%). This finding raises the possibility that ducks are capable of perpetuating influenza A virus of different subtypes and subtype combinations throughout the year and from 1 year to the next. Isolation of the H5 and H7 subtypes was common, which suggests risk for transmission to sensitive domestic animals such as poultry. We argue that wild bird screening can function as a sentinel system, and we give an example of how it could have been used to forecast a remote and deadly outbreak of influenza A in poultry.

  • 532.
    Wamsler, Christine
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Niven, Lisa
    Lund University.
    Beery, Thomas H.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Bramryd, Torleif
    Lund University.
    Ekelund, Nils
    Malmö University.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Osmani, Adelina
    Lund University.
    Palo, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Stålhammar, Sanna
    Lund University.
    Operationalizing ecosystem-based adaptation: harnessing ecosystem services to buffer communities against climate change2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem-based approaches for climate change adaptation are promoted at international, national, and local levels by both scholars and practitioners. However, local planning practices that support these approaches are scattered, and measures are neither systematically implemented nor comprehensively reviewed. Against this background, this paper advances the operationalization of ecosystem-based adaptation by improving our knowledge of how ecosystem-based approaches can be considered in local planning (operational governance level). We review current research on ecosystem services in urban areas and examine four Swedish coastal municipalities to identify the key characteristics of both implemented and planned measures that support ecosystem-based adaptation. The results show that many of the measures that have been implemented focus on biodiversity rather than climate change adaptation, which is an important factor in only around half of all measures. Furthermore, existing measures are limited in their focus regarding the ecological structures and the ecosystem services they support, and the hazards and risk factors they address. We conclude that a more comprehensive approach to sustainable ecosystem-based adaptation planning and its systematic mainstreaming is required. Our framework for the analysis of ecosystem-based adaptation measures proved to be useful in identifying how ecosystem-related matters are addressed in current practice and strategic planning, and in providing knowledge on how ecosystem-based adaptation can further be considered in urban planning practice. Such a systematic analysis framework can reveal the ecological structures, related ecosystem services, and risk-reducing approaches that are missing and why. This informs the discussion about why specific measures are not considered and provides pathways for alternate measures/designs, related operations, and policy processes at different scales that can foster sustainable adaptation and transformation in municipal governance and planning.

  • 533. Wendt-Rasch, L
    et al.
    Vought, Lena B. M.
    Lunds universitet.
    Woin, P
    Effects of fenvalerate on the net-spinning behaviour of Hydropsyche siltalai (Dohler) (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae)1998In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 382, no 1-3, p. 53-61Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 534.
    Widén, Cecilia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Critén, Sladjana
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Persson, Rutger G
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Measuring inflammatory markers in saliva inpolyphenols research2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently an interest in the possible anti-inflammatory effects of intake of fruits and berries. The aim of this study was to determine whether the twice daily administration of a berry beverage rich in polyphenols had effects on salivary levels of a selected group of pro-inflammatory cytokines for one week in a pre- and post-study design. Levels of selected cytokines were compared in whole saliva and saliva obtained using commercially available collection devices (Salivette® Cotton and Salivette® Synthetic rolls). Twenty healthy subjects drank 200 mL of a berry beverage consisting of equal parts of bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus), black currant (Ribes nigrum), lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) diluted with 50% water. Levels of cytokines, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-12 and TNF-α were assessed. Levels of cytokines differed between sources of collection but were highest in whole saliva. The use of cotton or synthetic rolls does not seem to be useful as a method for saliva collection and cytokine analysis. There was no significant change in the levels of selected cytokines at baseline and after intake of the berry beverage in whole stimulated saliva. There was a large inter-individual variation in cytokine levels.

  • 535.
    Woodward, Guy
    et al.
    Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College Cork.
    Gessner, Mark O.
    Department of Aquatic Ecology, Eawag.
    Giller, Paul S.
    Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College Cork.
    Gulis, Vladislav
    Institute of Marine Research (IMAR) and Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra.
    Hladyz, Sally
    Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College Cork.
    Lecerf, Antoine
    Université de Toulouse.
    Malmqvist, Björn
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    McKie, Brendan G.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Tiegs, Scott D.
    Department of Aquatic Ecology, Eawag.
    Cariss, Helen
    Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University.
    Dobson, Mike
    Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University.
    Elosegi, Arturo
    Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao.
    Ferreira, Verónica
    Institute of Marine Research (IMAR) and Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra.
    Graça, Manuel A.S.
    Institute of Marine Research (IMAR) and Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra.
    Fleituch, Tadeusz
    Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.
    Lacoursière, Jean O.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Nistorescu, Marius
    Department of Systems Ecology and Sustainability, University of Bucharest.
    Pozo, Jesús
    Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao.
    Risnoveanu, Geta
    Department of Systems Ecology and Sustainability, University of Bucharest.
    Schindler, Markus
    Department of Aquatic Ecology, Eawag.
    Vadineanu, Angheluta
    Department of Systems Ecology and Sustainability, University of Bucharest.
    Vought, Lena B. M.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Chauvet, Eric
    Université de Toulouse.
    Continental-scale effects of nutrient pollution on stream ecosystem functioning2012In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 336, no 6087, p. 1438-1440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive nutrient loading is a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide that leads to profound changes in aquatic biodiversity and biogeochemical processes. Systematic quantitative assessment of functional ecosystem measures for river networks is, however, lacking, especially at continental scales. Here, we narrow this gap by means of a pan-European field experiment on a fundamental ecosystem process—leaf-litter breakdown—in 100 streams across a greater than 1000-fold nutrient gradient. Dramatically slowed breakdown at both extremes of the gradient indicated strong nutrient limitation in unaffected systems, potential for strong stimulation in moderately altered systems, and inhibition in highly polluted streams. This large-scale response pattern emphasizes the need to complement established structural approaches (such as water chemistry, hydrogeomorphology, and biological diversity metrics) with functional measures (such as litter-breakdown rate, whole-system metabolism, and nutrient spiraling) for assessing ecosystem health.

  • 536.
    Zorita, Saioa
    et al.
    Division of Analytical Chemistry, University of Lund.
    Hallgren, Pär
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Mathiasson, Lennart
    Division of Analytical Chemistry, University of Lund.
    Steroid hormone determination in water using an environmentally friendly membrane based extraction technique2008In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1192, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a method was developed for determination of steroid hormones (17beta-estradiol, estrone, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol) in tap and sewage water samples from Sweden. Sample preparation and analysis were performed by a hollow-fibre microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction (HF-MMLLE) set-up combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this approach, only the organic liquid in the lumen (10microL) of the hollow-fibre membrane was utilised for depleting extraction. Several parameters were studied, including: type of organic solvent, sample pH, salt and humic acid content. The optimised method allowed the determination of the analyte at the low ngL(-1) level in tap and sewage water. A linear plot gave correlation coefficients better than 0.995 and resulted in a method limit of detection of 1.6, 3 and 10ngL(-1) for 17beta-estradiol, estrone, and 17alpha-ethynylestradiol, respectively, in sewage water. Enrichment factors were over 1400 after derivatisation. The repeatabilities at 50 and 600ngL(-1) were better than 10% and 6%, respectively.

  • 537.
    Ångman, Hanna
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    I tigerns rike: en landskapsvetenskaplig studie om två underarters populationsförändring och ekologiska värde för landskapet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study is a literature review and seek to find out two subspecies of tiger´s (Panthera tigris) population change and the reasons surrounding this on a time scale from 1970 to 2010. It also includes finding out the landscape and ecological consequences related to this, in order to discuss the sustainable conservation opportunities in the future. The two chosen subspecies for the study is the sumatran tiger and the amurtiger.

    The method has been mainly supported by previous studies, statistics and reports on the subject, but has allow themselves to be analysed and discussed in search for new fatc that can bring more light over the tigers popoulationchanges and the reserach of the tigerlandscape. Comparative studies with other predators, our Swedish wolf out and foray into the landscape, however, brings us a good picture of what could happen if the tiger continues to decrease or completely disappear from their landscape.

    Despite declining statistics, there were clear signs that fragmentation and human population growth are important factors to discuss the tiger's decline. The sumatran tiger was shown to be dangerly threatened by deforestation and human population growth in Sumatra, while the amurtiger seemed to be more resistent despite earlier researches has shown. An explanation for this might be the fact that the two subspecies range has been analyzed the same way despite large differences in environment and sieze and this can play a big role in my results that differes from earlier reserach results. It is clear, however, that humans general attitude toward predatos in their local area, so called human-wildlife conflicts, complicates the issue of conservation of the tiger when damage caused by the predators can be fatal and not to easy or affordable to compensate.

  • 538.
    Östberg, Håkan
    Kristianstad University.
    Kan gullstånds hålla stånd?- återinventering av Senecio paludosus i Kristianstad Vattenrike 20122013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Botanist Kjell-Arne Olsson inventoried the plant fen ragwort Senecio paludosus 1983 in Scania andfound a big number of locations within Biosphere Reserve Kristianstad Vattenrike. In 2012, a reinventoryof the 1983 survey was carried out to study whether there has been any change in the fenragwort population in Kristianstad Vattenrike since the last inventory. The results show that therehas been no overall change in the number of fen ragwort in Kristianstad Vattenrike, on certainpremises they have increased in number while in others they have fallen. However, the inventoryshows that almost half of the locations with fen ragwort have disappeared during the same period.The main reason for this is that fen ragwort did not manage to competitive with other vegetation,taking in consideration this has been smaller premises with young plants. In addition to competitionother factors such as prolonged high water, grazing and caterpillars from Tyria jacobaeaecontributed to the decrease. Despite this the future looks stable for fen ragwort in KristianstadVattenrike where several very strong premises exist in the region.

  • 539.
    Österling, Jesper
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Skapa grön infrastruktur för nyckelbiotoper med kantzoner runt värdefulla Vatten.: GIS-analys i Dalarna för bättre biodiversitet i skogsbruket2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker förslaget att kombinera utökade kantzoner med nyckelbiotoper med en matrix av hyggesfri skog. Om det här förslaget hade varit framgångsrikt i praktiken hade det medfört många fördelar för biodiversiteten i skogar och vattendrag. Genom analys med GIS-program analyserar studien ifall nyckelbiotoper har en tendens med att ligga nära vatten, och hur mycket skog och nyckelbiotop hade inkluderats i ett antal hypotetiska utökade kantzoner. Studiens resultat visar dock att det inte finns ett kausalt samband med att nyckelbiotoper skulle ligga nära vatten, och mängden skog och nyckelbiotop som skulle ha inkluderats i de hypotetiska kantzonerna är försumbart.

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