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  • 451.
    Andersson, David
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Kobaslic, Bojan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Can I trust you?: The importance of trust when doing business on P2P online platforms2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report has focused on how important a buyers eWOM is compared to his/her visual information when sellers decide if they can trust this buyer. A focus company was Airbnb, an online P2P platform where private individuals can rent out their living quarters to other private persons. The method involved sending out online web surveys to approximately 200 students in Högskolan Kristianstad. Results from these surveys suggests that a buyer’s eWOM and visual information had little or no impact upon if a seller decides to trust this buyer or not. The variable that had the most significant impact upon trust and thus the host’s intention to rent was the variable risk propensity. 

  • 452. Andersson, Edith M.
    et al.
    Hallberg, Ingalill R
    Edberg, Anna-Karin
    Department of Nursing, University of Lund.
    Nurses' experiences of the encounter with elderly patients in acute confusional state in orthopaedic care2003In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 437-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to illuminate nurses' experiences of the encounter with elderly patients who developed acute confusional state (ACS) in orthopaedic care. Forty-eight nurses with professional background as registered (n=26) or licensed practical nurses (n=22) who took part in the nursing care of acute confused patients were involved. Open-ended unstructured interviews were conducted with regard to the course of events, experiences and interpretation of what had happened during the ACS as well as the nurses' actions and encounter with the confused patient. The texts were analysed using manifest and latent content analysis, revealing that the nurses had difficulties in reaching the patients and their reality, and thus in understanding their experiences. Interpretation of the nurses' experiences showed that the nurses found it difficult to reach the patients' reality because the patients were in a divided and/or different world. They interpreted the patients as seeking solitude or company, keeping a distance or being suspicious of the nurses. The findings indicated that the interaction in the encounter between the acutely confused patients and the nurses indicated insufficient and/or broken reciprocity. The nurses used various strategies to meet the patients, being a companion and/or being a surrogate. They acted in the encounter based on their view of the patient and their ability to enter into and understand the patients' situation. The strategies were more or less successful, sometimes resulting in contact and calming the patients and in other cases increasing the patients' irritation and anger. The results were more successful when the strategies were derived from the nurses' interpretation of the patients' situation and the nurses paid attention to the patients and confirmed them.

  • 453.
    Andersson, Edith M
    et al.
    Department of Nursing, University of Lund.
    Hallberg, Ingalill R
    Department of Nursing, University of Lund.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Department of Nursing, Umeå University.
    Edberg, Anna-Karin
    Department of Nursing, University of Lund.
    The meaning of acute confusional state from the perspective of elderly patients2002In: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, ISSN 0885-6230, E-ISSN 1099-1166, Vol. 17, no 7, p. 652-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to illuminate lived experience of having been in an acute confusional state (ACS) as narrated by elderly patients in orthopaedic care.

    METHOD: Qualitative study with phenomenological hermeneutic method for analysing the data based on narrative interviews. Fifty patients (67-96 years of age) who developed ACS during hospitalisation and in all cases the ACS ceased during their stay on the ward were interviewed once lucid again regarding the course of the event, their experiences, memories and interpretation of what had happened during the ACS.

    RESULTS: The meaning of the patients' lived experiences of being and having been confused was interpreted as 'Being trapped in incomprehensible experiences and a turmoil of past and present and here and there', comprising the themes trying to get a grip on the experience of the confusion, encountering past, present and the realm of the imagination as reality during the period of confusion and confronting the idea of having been confused. Contradictory to earlier research the patients remembered and could tell in great detail about their ACS. While confused, the confusional state means that impressions of all kinds invade the mind of the person and are experienced as reality, making him/her a victim of these impressions rather than the one who controls what comes into his/her mind. While in the middle of these experiences the person simultaneously senses that the impressions are unreal, thus indicating that he/she is in some sort of borderland between understanding and not understanding. The things that come into the mind of the person can either be frightening or neutral or enjoyable scenarios that seem to be mainly familiar but can also be unknown. These scenarios seem to be a mixture of past and present, of events and people while they seem to float from location to location.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicates that what takes place during the ACS is not nonsense but probably a mix of the patient's life history, their present situation and above all a form of communication concerning their emotional state and inner experiences in this new situation. The findings also indicated that one possible approach to the patients is to confirm and support the patients in narrating their experiences both during the confusion and also after the ACS had ceased.

  • 454.
    Andersson, Elin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Magnusson, Johanna
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    ”Det är ett fantastiskt verktyg men samtidigt blir jag lite mörkrädd”: En forskningsstudie om pedagogers uppfattningar kring surfplattan i förskolan.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to study educators understanding of the tablet as an artefact in the preschool function. This is a qualitative study that was conducted with four educators who participated in semi structured interviews. Our results show a general positive perception among the educators but they see that there are development opportunities in the area. A conclusion that we made was that educators' perceptions of the tablet in preschool activities depend on their experience and the relationship they have with the artefact. Educator's perceptions also affect the use of the tablet in the preschool function

  • 455.
    Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Hansson, Maria
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    IFÖ - The perception through a corporate movie2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The picture a company sends out is important. Corporate identity, corporate image and the corporate communication are three concepts linked together. The purpose with this dissertation was to examine a corporate movie done by Ifö, a company producing bath and toilet equipment, by looking at its identity, image and communication. A deductive approached was used and in the theoretical framework an introduction regarding marketing was first presented. Further different theories and models were discussed with focus on the Operational model by Gray & Balmer and also the spiderweb developed by Bernstein. This model was also modified to give a clear picture of how Ifö is perceived.

    In the beginning of the dissertation an interview was done with the marketing director at Ifö, which was a base for the questionnaire survey. This was distributed to investigate the perception of Ifö from its stakeholders. Different attributes were decided to represent the corporate identity of the company Ifö. The result showed that the stakeholders in general perceived Ifö in the same way as Ifö wanted them to do except in some attributes where Ifö has sent out a more confused picture.

  • 456.
    Andersson, Elise
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Bertilsson, Veronica
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Planera och budgetera osäkerhet i skolförvaltningen: en kvalitativ undersökning i tre kommuner2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of our study is based on the new law of school which came into force in July 2011. In the law it is regulated that the municipality is responsible for all pupils in the municipality. Because of the new law of school the students and their guardians are free to choose which primary school they want to go to. Students can either choose a local school or an independent school and because of that planning and budgeting of the student population becomes more difficult for the municipalities when they do not know how many students will attend different schools.

    Our purpose in this study is to create an understanding and a deeper knowledge of how the school board in the municipality proceed in order to plan and budget uncertainty and if the budget has been affected by the free school choice and independent schools. This survey is based on a qualitative approach with interviews with economist on the school board in three municipalities; Helsingborgs’s city, Lund’s municipality and Kristianstad’s municipality.

    Based on the empirical material, it has emerged that the keywords in the budget are: planning, communication and control. To be able to budget for the schools which are uncertain because of the uncertain pupil numbers, these keywords are important throughout the whole budget process, from preparation of the budget to the monitoring of the budget. What has changed with the introduction of the free school choice and independent schools is that it becomes more difficult to plan for the schools and to know which school the students will choice. This has meant that long-term planning has become more important and principals have introduced a couple of approaches to attempt to find out at which school students will choice. The free school choice and independent schools have also contributed to the control and monitoring has become more important now than it was before.

  • 457.
    Andersson, Elna
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    Ball, John
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    Grammatikövningar i tyska och engelska - utformning i förhållande till styrdokument och forskning2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Synen på grammatik har förändrats mycket över tid och debatteras än idag. Eftersom grammatik ofta anses som en teoretisk och alltför abstrakt del av språkundervisning har vi valt att med hjälp av kvalitativ metod studera grammatikövningar i två nyutkomna läromedel – i engelska respektive tyska – för gymnasieskolan och ställa dessa övningar i relation till de direktiv som anges i styrdokument samt de resultat som forskning i andraspråkslärande pekar på. Några viktiga faktorer som nämns i forskning och styrdokument kring språkinlärning innefattar kommunikativa mål, elevers behov och förutsättningar, elevinflytande och elevansvar, reflektion, par- och grupparbete samt meningsfull kontext. Resultatet visar i stort att de grammatikövningar vilka undersökts i detta arbete inte motsvarar vad forskning och styrdokument understryker som viktigt när det gäller språkinlärning, i synnerhet av grammatikmoment.

  • 458.
    Andersson, Emeli
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Magnell, Ida
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Pettersson, Matilda
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Intranät från ett användarperspektiv: riktlinjer att följa vid en implementering2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, an Intranet is an important way for a company to share information. An Intranet has become a company’s way to communicate within the organisation. This communication is important, especially when the company is going through changes. In order for a project to succeed, the employees must support it. This support can be gained through good communication. Because of this, we have chosen to make our bachelor thesis about this interesting and important subject. Many organisations can find a solution for a well-functioning Intranet by asking its employees what they want in a new Intranet, and what they think about the change.

     

    This bachelor thesis is based on a study that conducted interviews at companies that were about to introduce a new Intranet. The study is aided by the theories in the subject, as well as with meetings with the company in order to obtain relevant information. The study gave us information about what the Intranet should endure and what the employees think about the change. We compiled the results and created some advice and guidelines that can help our company implement a new Intranet. These guidelines can also be used at other companies in similar situations.

  • 459.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Hansson, Anna
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Närståendes behov i omvårdnad av personer med demenssjukdom: Litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The illness of dementia causes decreased cognitive capacity and the personality of the person who is ill changes. To let the relatives be a part of the care and that nursing staff make time to listen to relatives opinions will make good chances for that both parts will be satisfied with the care that is given to the ill person. Aim: Examine relative´s needs in the care of the illness of Dementia. Method: The literature review (n=15) was executed by a systematic procedure. Result: The result of the study showed that relatives had their own needs that had to be satisfied, to get the possibility to create a relation to the nursing staff, to get time to talk, to take part of the care and to get information. Relatives had also needs of that the ill person needs were satisfied. For this to happen it demanded that the nursing staff created a good relation to the ill person, that he/she got enough of time and a good care. Conclusion: Relatives needs ofthat the ill person gets a good relationship with the nursing staff were not satisfied. Relative wished more time and contact with the nursing staff. The model of Calgary can be used by the nursing staff to make a survey of relatives needs in the care.

  • 460.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Lindström, Emelie
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ambassadörer inom tobaksprevention: en kvalitativ studie om peer education2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In the project known as TBU, tobacco free adolescents in Blekinge, ambassadors in the ages 16-19 have been used for spreading information about tobacco to adolescents in the ages 13-15. This approach is related to the method peer education. The use of peers who are close in age or have similar experiences represents another way of learning than the more common situation between a teacher and a student. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine how ambassadors use peer education as tobacco prevention and how the ambassadors could be affected by their work as peer educators. Method: The methods used in this study were interviews with the ambassadors and a focus group interview with the project group of TBU. The material was analysed with a content analysis. Results: The results show that the ambassadors had, or had developed, an interest for their work and an ability to communicate with their target group, which they also stated as important parts of the role as an ambassador. The ambassadors had also been affected by their work. Their communication skills had been improved and they had had an increase in knowledge, which was thought to be a result of their education containing different parts and perspectives. Conclusion: The most important in the work of the ambassadors to prevent the use of tobacco in adolescents was the education the ambassadors had the first week of their work period. Therefore, we suggest that TBU develops a concrete material for the education with well- defined methods and targets which would aim to develop the ambassadors interest for the subject and their communication skills. Further studies could examine the relationship between students and ambassadors from the student's perspective.

  • 461.
    Andersson, Emma
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    ”Verksam i betydande omfattning” Vad påverkar och avgör bedömningen? 2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har stor betydelse för ägare i fåmansföretag om deras andelar anses vara kvalificerade. Det är därför ett väsentligt gränsdragningsproblem inom juridiken att avgöra om en person har varit eller är verksam i betydande omfattning i fåmansföretaget.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att med hjälp av förarbeten, lag, doktrin och praxis klargöra innebörden av begreppet verksam i betydande omfattning, och vad som är avgörande vid denna bedömning.

    För att analysera uppsatsens problem kommer den rättsdogmatiska metoden att användas.

    Det grundläggande syftet bakom reglerna, att förhindra att arbetsinkomster tas ut i inkomstslaget kapital till en lägre beskattning, anses vara det väsentligaste vid bedömningen om en person ska anses verksam i betydande omfattning. Detta tillsammans med uttalandet i förarbetena, att arbetsinsatsen ska ha stor betydelse för vinstgenereringen i företaget, bildar grunden för bedömningarna. Inga av omständigheterna i ett specifikt fall ska bedömas isolerat från varandra utan det helheten som är väsentlig att titta på vid ett avgörande om någon ska anses verksam i betydande omfattning. Vad som framgår i denna utredning är att en begränsad arbetsinsats är möjlig utan att delägaren ska anses vara verksam i betydande omfattning. Hänsyn ska tas till att arten och omfattning av arbetsuppgifterna i relation till verksamheten. Denna möjliga arbetsinsats påverkas av exempelvis om bolaget har en extern VD, antalet styrelseledamöter, uttag av marknadsmässig lön, hur stor möjlighet delägaren har att ensamt påverka bolagets vinstgenerering och delägaren befattning. Typen av verksamhet är ännu en omständighet som påverkar delägarens möjliga arbetsinsats.

  • 462.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Andersson, Carolina
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    - Jag kunde prata med min son: En fokusgruppsstudie av föräldrars deltagande i föräldragrupp2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of our study is to examine how parents experienced their participation and their involvement in a solution-focused parenting group. The parenting groups are a part of the social welfare system in a town in south of Sweden. The study is conducted as a qualitative study with focus groups. 11 parents have participated. The study´s theoretical framework considers solution focused theory, social constructionism and process within groups.In the study we found that participants generally perceived their participation as positive and that they received confirmation by meeting other parents in the same situation. Participants’ expectations for practical tips and advice were fulfilled indirectly through their participation, but the focus of the parent group was to strengthen the participants themselves by thinking solution-focused. Although the participants did not receive the practical advice they initially expected, the parent group's approach felt to be positive and the participants have understood the idea behind the solution-focused approach. Overall, participants felt that they have become stronger as people and thus also as parents.The study shows that based on the parents’ statements the group leaders have throughout the parenting groups been faithful to the solution focused idea and have implemented this way of thinking within its participants.This study can be seen as a contribute to the development of future solution focused parenting groups. It also shows that there is a need for parenting groups and that this kind of activity can generate positive effects for participants.

  • 463.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Andreason, Charlotte
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Arvidsson, Therese
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Vad påverkar insamlingsorganisationers redovisning?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår uppsats har inspirerats av tsunamikatastrofen vid slutet av 2004. Året efter, under 2005, samlades de största medlen till katastrofen in, bara i Sverige samlades det in drygt en miljard kronor på ett halvår. Det är viktigt för insamlingsorganisationer att ha ett förtroende hos allmänheten då organisationerna är beroende av att allmänheten skänker stora summor till deras ideella arbete. På senare år har det dock skett en del stora skandaler vilket gjort att detta förtroende försvagats, det blir därför väsentligt för insamlingsorganisationer att förankra sin accountability i redovisningen. Vårt syfte är att förklara vad som påverkar omfattningen av insamlingsorganisationers redovisning.

    Utifrån den forskning och teori som finns inom området för insamlingsorganisationer har vi identifierat olika faktorer som kan tänkas påverka deras redovisning. Dessa faktorer är innehav av 90-konto, medlemskap i FRII, ålder, storlek samt bidrag från SIDA.

    Vi har valt att göra en urvalsundersökning av de insamlingsorganisationer som hade 90-konto utfärdat av SFI under 2005, men även en del stiftelser som inte innehar 90-konto ingår som en kontrollgrupp i studien. Undersökningen består av dokumentstudier av årsredovisningar från år 2005.

    Vi har i vår analys kommit fram till att samband finns mellan mängden redovisad information och några förklarande variabler. I analysen visas att våra identifierade faktorer; innehav av 90-konto, medlemskap i FRII, ålder, storlek och bidrag från SIDA tillsammans ger en justerad förklaringsgrad om 58,9% av mängden redovisad information.

  • 464.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Ekström, Andreas
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Fysisk aktivitet på fritidshemmet: en intervjustudie om hur fritidspedagoger förhåller sig till barns fysiska aktivitet på fritidshemmet2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka hur fritidspedagoger förhåller sig till barns fysiska aktivitet på fritidshemmet. I forskningsbakgrunden belyses fritidshemmets framväxt, fritidspedagogens roll samt hur fysisk aktivitet påverkar barns utveckling. Forskningsfrågan som ligger till grund för arbetet är vilken roll fritidspedagoger upplever sig ha i arbetet med fysisk aktivitet på fritidshemmet. En kvalitativ intervjuundersökning har genomförts på ett urval av sex fritidspedagoger som arbetar på olika fritidshem i Skåne. Resultatet av intervjuerna visar att fritidspedagogerna har ett positivt förhållningsätt till fysisk aktivitet på fritidshemmet och att de anser att en av deras roller på fritidshemmet är att aktivera barnen. Vidare använder fritidspedagogerna två olika tillvägagångssätt och två miljöer för att bedriva den fysiska aktiviteten på fritidshemmet. De tillvägagångssätt som nämns är fritidshemmets samarbete med föreningslivet, att fritidspedagogen skall verka som en förebild och visa barnen att det är roligt att röra på sig. Fritidspedagogerna nämner två platser som främjar den fysiska aktiviteten, vilka är gymnastiksalen och skolgården.

  • 465.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Feltenmark, Joel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Hur kvinnor som genomgår inducerad abort upplever sig bemötta i vården: En litteraturstudie om sjuksköterskors bemötande2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Inducerad abort utförs oftast på vårdinrättningar avsjuksköterskor. Hur sjuksköterskorna bemöter kvinnor i abortsituationer harbetydelse för deras upplevelse av abortvården. Syfte: Syftet var att beskrivakvinnors upplevelser av sjuksköterskors bemötande vid inducerad abort. Metod: En litteraturstudie grundad på kvalitativa artiklar genomfördes.Sökningarna gjordes i databaser med relevans för omvårdnad. Granskning avartiklarna gjordes enligt en mall. Resultat: Tre kategorierdefinieras som beskriver kvinnornas upplevelser; önskan om interaktion medsjuksköterskorna; viljan att bli sedd samt; rädsla för att bli dömd. Diskussion: Metoden diskuteras utifrån Shentons (2004)trovärdighetsbegrepp. Tre huvudfynd lyfts i resultatdiskussionen; Vikten av attfå bli bekräftad som moralisk beslutsfattare; Vikten av att inte få enundvikande vård samt Vikten av att bemötande inte präglas av fördomar.Resultatet diskuteras också utifrån Erikssons (1994) lidandeteori.Sjukdomslidande och vårdlidande uppkom av kvinnornas egna tankar och känslorsamt bristande kvalité i sjuksköterskornas bemötande. Det behövs vidareforskning om hur kvinnor upplever bemötandet i abortvården.

  • 466.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    Hansson, Pär
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    Rörelsens betydelse - vilken uppfattning har elever i skolår fyra till sex om rörelse i skolan?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete handlar om vilken betydelse rörelse har för barns utveckling och hur barn i skolår fyra till sex uppfattar rörelse i skolan. Litteraturen visar hur daglig rörelse bidrar till motorisk utveckling, välmående och hur den främjar inlärning och koncentration. Genom litteraturen belyses även hur viktig skolans inställning är, och vilka faktorer i skolan som påverkar elevernas motoriska utveckling.

    I arbetet har en enkätundersökning gjorts som om fatta 173 elever i skolår fyra till sex. Syftet var att undersöka elevernas inställning till rörelse i skolan, utöver idrottslektionerna. Resultatet visade att en klar majoritet elever ansåg att det var roligt att röra på sig och insåg att rörelse bidrar till att de mår bättre.

  • 467.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Karlsson, Julia
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Inlästa läromedel i undervisningen: lärares förhållningssätt och val kring inläsningstjänster2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur lärare kritiskt förhåller sig till inlästa läromedel samt vilka medvetna val kring inlästa läromedel lärare gör.

    Vi har valt att göra semistrukturerade intervjuer för att samla in data som vi sedan med hjälp av tidigare forskning har analyserat ur ett sociokulturellt perspektiv.

    Genom analys av de 12 intervjuer vi har genomfört i två kommuner i Skåne har vi kommit fram till att; lärare uppfattar forskning kring inlästa läromedel som bristande, de förlitar sig på att annan personal har tagit fram en fungerande tjänst för eleverna. De anser att inlästa läromedel har en positiv inverkan på elevernas inlärning oavsett om de har någon form av svårighet eller ej. Vi har sett att de anser sig göra medvetna val vad gäller inläsningstjänster i undervisningen.

  • 468.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Levin, Ida
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    "Jag kan inte tänka på något annat": en empirisk studie om rädsla ur ett livsvärldsperspektiv2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nursing staff often meet with patients that experience fear. An understanding of human's lived experiences is central in nursing. Attempts to understand phenomena that influence daily life of humans might contribute to a positive interaction between patient and nurse. Purpose: The aim was to describe fear from a life-world perspective. Method: The study was based on 74 narratives about fear, written by nursing students and a qualitative content analysis was used. Results: Situations that led to uncertainty and powerlessness triggered fear. When experiencing fear the usually silent body became “loud”, the body was felt as uncontrollable and the informants were temporally confused and had an altered perception of reality. The fear arouses more and new emotions and wishes to fight and flee. When the fear faded away, the body became silent, the informants perceived the situation unreal and embarrassing and felt that the experience left marks on their bodies and minds. Discussion: What frightens humans is individual as different people direct their consciousness differently. Fear exists in the lived body. It influences and is influenced by the lived time. Attempts to make one‟s own fear consciousness contribute to an ability to recognize and understand other's fear as well. Conclusion: To see and understand other's fear is central in nursing, as well as in other caring services. Since lived experience of fear is central it is important not to be prejudiced about what situations that trigger fear and to

    avoid judging other peoples fear.

  • 469.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Månsson, Maria
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Överviktiga patienter i hälso- och sjukvården: Att bemöta och bli bemött2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight is a public health problem in the Western world, and the disease can cause severe suffering. Usually, the nurse has the most contact on a frequent basis with overweight patients. The nurse’s task is to treat patients in a dignified manner regardless of age, appearance, function or capacity. Aim: The aim with this literature study was to enlighten the encountering with overweight patients in the health care system. Method: This study was carried out as a literature study based on nine scientific articles. Result: The result is presented from the patient’s perspective as well as from the health care professionals’ perspective. The study shows that the encountering with overweight patients is experienced both negatively and positively. The patients could feel that they established a good relationship to the health care professionals. Other patients experienced that they were judged directly by their overweight. The health care professionals experienced that overweight were a sensitive area to work within. Conclusion: For a caring relation where the encountering is experienced as positive, the health care professionals should be aware of their attitudes in the caring relation and consider the different aspects of the human they treat.

     

  • 470.
    Andersson, Eric
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business.
    Jeppsson, Johan
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business.
    Goodwill som en resultatjusterare: påverkar ledningens handlingsutrymme redovisningen av goodwill?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since year 2005 all Swedish listed companies has to present their financials and accountingaccording to the standard IFRS. This has allowed the management to make subjectiveinterpretations, which in turn has elaborated opportunities to influence the accounting. Thosepossibilities can be explained by Agency Theory and Positive Accounting Theory, which presumethe management acting opportunistically, in order to maximize self-interest. Management tend tomanipulate companies accounting, whereof goodwill can be used as an adjuster of results.The thesis disambiguate how management discretion affect companies accounting of goodwill,contingent of the organizational level. The thesis hypothesis elaborates thru factors of theorganizational level, which are also tested in order to see how the variables affect businesscorporations accounting of goodwill. A positive research philosophy is used in order to analyze thethesis purpose. The data collection has been accomplished using the company's annual reports.The thesis results indicates that the higher debt and stronger concentration of ownership, the lessamount goodwill is accounted. If companies has a lower debt and weaker concentration ofownership, it increases management discretion and thereby a potentially higher amount of goodwill.The thesis contribute to knowledge about managing goodwill and that management discretion hasa potentially impact on the accounting of goodwill. Finally, the thesis contributes to increasedopportunities to compare the thesis results with previous studies, which may result in the ownersbeing able to get more knowledge of how they best reduce management discretion and itsopportunistically decisions.

  • 471.
    Andersson, Erica
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Att få plats i samma lilla kostym: två muslimska församlingars arbete för att förmedla bilden av islam som en fredens religion2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Västerländska icke-muslimer har sedan 2000-talets början fått en allt mer negativ attityd gentemot islam och muslimer. På grund av faktorer som medias negativa förmedling av religionen genom upprepade associationer med terrorism har en förvanskad bild av islam som en politisk ideologi snarare än en religion och muslimer som ett enhetligt folkslag spritt sig hos Europas icke-muslimer. Muslimer kategoriseras som en massa där alla enskilda individer ska passa i samma lilla kostym, oavsett om den i verkligheten är för lång eller kort. Även i Sverige märks den allt mer påtagliga och inte sällan accepterade islamofobin, inte bara genom nyhetsmedias negativa förmedling av religionen och dess utövare utan även genom att islamfientliga partier som Sverigedemokraterna vinner allt större gehör hos så väl skolungdomar som hos den röstberättigade befolkningen. Den här uppsatsen har som syfte att ta reda på hur två lokala muslimska församlingar arbetar med att förmedla en mer positiv bild av islam och muslimer till samhället. Det visade sig att de två intervjuade imamerna båda ansåg att det bästa sättet att förmedla en positiv bild av islam på är att vara en så god muslim som möjligt. Genom att med sin blotta närvaro kunna bevisa att den negativa bilden är felaktig menar de att den icke-muslimska befolkningen kommer att uppleva sann kunskap om islam och muslimerna och då få en förändrad attityd till dem. Syftet var också att ta reda på hur arbetet med ungas tankar kring islam ser ut, och det visade sig att det arbetet ser ungefär likadant ut oavsett vilket åldersspann som är målgrupp. Återigen är det genom att sprida sann kunskap om islam och därmed öka förståelsen för muslimer och islamisk kultur.

  • 472.
    Andersson, Eva
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Toxikologisk tillväxtstudie av sötvattenalgen Raphidocelis subcapitata: En jämförelse mellan flödescytometer NovoCyte och automatisk cellräknare TC202018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biological toxicity tests are performed by exposing a test organism to different concentrations of chemicals over a certain period of time. Results from acute studies are presented as EC50 (Effect Concentration, affecting 50% of the population). Tests used as a basis for risk assessments shall be performed in a quality acceptable way based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). The aim of this study was to study the toxic effect of potassium dichromate on unicellular green algae R. subcapitata, by counting cells with two different apparatus: flow cytometer and automatic cell counter. Additionally, to compare the EC50 mean values against the ISO 8692 value for control of test precision and to compare accuracy and analytical time of two methods. Potassium dichromate was used for growth inhibition in toxicity tests. The EC50 results showed no statistically significant difference between the two instruments (p = 0.47). The accuracy of acute toxicity analysis was confirmed as valid as both EC50 average measurement values compared to ISO 8692 value were found within the 95% confidence interval. When comparing the two methods of the study, greater spread was observed around the mean value in the cell count's results, where three EC50 values were outside 95% CI. The result of the flow cytometer had less spread and higher accuracy compared to the cell count. The study showed that flow cytometers could be used in future toxicological tests with algae, but several repeated tests are required to confirm the benefits of analysis with the flow cytometer.

  • 473.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Chan, Yue-Mei
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Hadzimusic, Maja
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Kontanter eller bankkort - en studie av privatpersoners betalningsvanor2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Transaktionskostnader återfinns i årsredovisningar där en del utav dessa utgörs av bankkort respektive kontanter. I Tyskland har Deutsche Bank lyckats minska transaktionskostnaderna för elektroniska bankkortsbetalningar till andra europeiska länder med 80 %. En ökad kortanvändning skulle minska kontanthanteringens kostnader.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka varför privatpersoner fortfarande betalar med kontanter trots att det finns ett modernare betalningsalternativ som bankkort. Vidare skall ses vilka möjligheter det finns för att kunna öka kortanvändningen, så att transaktionskostnader kan minska ytterliggare.

    Grunden för den empiriska studien utgår från en intervju med en anställd på Kristianstads Sparbank som är insatt i bankkortsanvändandet. Genom intervjun kommer förståelsen om bankkortväsendet att öka. Informationen som ges under intervjun kommer sedan bl.a. att ligga som grund för utformning av frågor till en enkätundersökning bland privatpersoner i Kristianstad. Detta för att studera hur privatpersoner resonerar när det kommer till valet: kontanter eller bankkort?

  • 474.
    Andersson, Filip
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Teacher Education.
    Bosevska, Natali
    Kristianstad University, Department of Teacher Education.
    Genus i förskolan: En studie om pedagogers förhållningsätt till genus i förskolan.2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur pedagoger i förskolan förhåller sig tillgenusmedvetenhet och hur de arbetar för att främja jämställdhet. I vilkenomfattning arbetet med jämställdhet sker i förhållande till Lpfö 98 (Skolverket,1998) är också föremål för intresse i undersökningen. Syftet är också att fåintryck av hur förskolepedagoger uppfattar och genomför uppdraget att motverkatraditionella könsmönster. Undersökningen bygger på kvalitativa metoder,intervjuer och observationer gjordes, och de fördelades på fyra förskolor.Resultatet av undersökningen pekar på att det bland pedagoger finns en vissmedvetenhet kring genus och traditionella könsmönster i förskolan. Tydligtframgår också att det råder osäkerhet kring definitionen av genusbegreppet ochatt pedagogerna saknar verktyg för hur de skall gå till väga i arbetet med genus.Det har visat sig att pedagogerna ofta prioriterar andra områden och att de intealltid uppfattar behovet av att arbetet med genus bör genomsyra helaverksamheten. Validiteten hos undersökningen är tillräcklig för att ge idéer omvar vidare forskning inom området kan göras och att ge fingervisningar om vilkabehov det finns av utbildning inom området genus i förskolan.

  • 475.
    Andersson, Frida
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Martinsson, Sarah
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Har relationen någon betydelse?: En studie om föräldrars möjlighet till inflytande i förskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur föräldrar upplever sitt inflytande i förskolan och om relationen till förskolepersonalen påverkar föräldrars möjlighet till inflytande. Syftet är också att undersöka på vilket sätt föräldrar kan påverka i förskoleverksamheten och vad en sådan påverkan består i. För att komma åt syftet utfördes en kvalitativ individuell semistrukturerad intervjuundersökning, detta gjordes på föräldrar som har barn i förskoleverksamheten. Den teoretiska utgångspunkten i arbetet har varit relationell pedagogik, där vi behandlat tre begrepp: interpersonella relationer, punktuella- och det relationella perspektivet. Resultatet visar att majoriteten av föräldrarna hade en god relation till förskolepersonalen. Det alla föräldrar hade gemensamt var att de ansåg att föräldrar ska ha mer inflytande i förskolan, samtidigt som föräldrarna beskrev att de förstod att förskolepersonalen har riktlinjer och begränsningar att följa. Utifrån vår sammanställning har vi sett att ett fåtal föräldrar svarade att de inte har mycket inflytande på förskolan, några svarade att de hade inflytande till viss del och en förälder svarade att hon var nöjd med sitt inflytande i förskoleverksamheten. Som en slutsats har studien visat att den som inte hade en god relation också hade ett sämre inflytande i förskoleverksamheten.

  • 476.
    Andersson, Glenn
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    Kronvall, Tobias
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    Barns uppfattning om sin och föräldrarnas fysiska aktivitet och barns uppfattning om sin och föräldrarnas inställning till ämnet idrott och hälsa2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet handlar om barns och deras föräldrars fysiska aktivitet och barnens och föräldrarnas inställning till fysiska aktivitet i skolan. Kvantitativ metod används, i form av en enkätundersökning. Definition av fysiskt aktiv är all kroppslig rörelse som är ett resultat av skelettmuskulaturens kontraktion och som resulterar i en ökad energiförbrukning. 156 elever i årskurs 9 från två högstadieskolor ligger till grund för undersökningen. Eleverna besvarade frågor om ämnet idrott och hälsa och deras fysiska aktivitet på fritiden och i skolan. De fick även svara på frågor gällande deras föräldrars inställning till idrott och hälsa och deras fysiska aktivitet. Syftet är också att undersöka om det finns ett samband mellan barns och deras föräldrars inställning till fysisk aktivitet. Tidigare forskning i ämnet visar olika resultat gällande om det finns samband mellan barn och föräldrars inställning till fysisk aktivitet. Resultatet i arbetet visar att mödrars fysiska aktivitet har ett samband med barnens fysiska aktivitet. Resultatet visar att över hälften av föräldrarna och en stor del av elevgruppen är fysiskt aktiva en eller fler dagar i veckan. Eleverna och föräldrarna tycker idrott och hälsa är ett viktigt ämne i skolan.

  • 477.
    Andersson, Greger
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    Hansen, Ulf
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    ART (Aggression Replacement Training) - en resurs i grundskolan?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har i vårt arbete studerat hur ART (Aggressive Replacement Training) som metod kan användas ute i skolans värld. Frågan vi ställde oss var: Kan ART användas som resurs i grundskolan och i så fall hur? Arbetet syftar till att belysa och konkretisera ART både som behandlingsmetod för elever med aggressivt beteende samt i förlängningen, integrerat i skolverksamheten som skolämne. I teoridelen beskriver vi ART utifrån litteratur i ämnet, tillvägagångssätt och metodik. I empiridelen har vi intervjuat både elever och pedagoger/tränare ute i verksamheten. Frågorna ställdes i avsikt att belysa både lärares och elevers syn på ART för att utröna vilken nytta de anser sig ha av ART, samt vilken nytta de kommer att ha i framtiden. Vi har genomfört våra undersökningar under vår VFU-placering på en resursskola på vilken ART genomsyrar den dagliga verksamheten. Vi kan konstatera att ART är ett verksamt instrument i våra strävanden att skapa en trygg och lärorik läromiljö för alla våra elever.

  • 478.
    Andersson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Frostgård, Ida
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Jungheim, Johanna
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Att återgå till arbete – hur individen upplever att återgå till arbete efter långtidssjukskrivning för utmattningssyndrom 2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningen behandlar individens upplevelser av återgången till arbete efter långtidssjukskrivning på grund av utmattningssyndrom. Ansatsen var fenomenografi och insamlandet av undersökningsmaterialet skedde genom intervjuer. Resultatet visar att respondenterna i de flesta fall har varit drivande i sin egen återgång och att motivation är ett centralt begrepp i detta sammanhang. I resultatet framkom också att stöd är viktigt för en lyckad återgång. Varifrån stödet kommer varierar, men det är framför allt det professionella stödet, i form av samtalsterapi, som har visat sig vara viktigt. Resultatet tyder även på att det vid återgången är vanligt att känna ilska, både mot sig själv och mot sin omgivning. Undersökningen visar också att kontakten med arbetsplatsen är av stor vikt för en lyckad återgång.

  • 479.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Biomedicin: viktig grund men också hinder2009In: Andersson, Ingemar & Ejlertsson, Göran (red.). Folkhälsa som tvärvetenskap: möten mellan ämnen, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, p. 63-85Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 480.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    Department of Community Health Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Chronic pain: epidemiological studies in a general population1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to study the epidemiology of chronic pain (> 3 months duration) and factors associated to pain prevalence, prognosis, health care and medication in a general population. A cross-sectional mailed survey to a random population sample (n = 1806) was followed by a clinical examination and a prospective study of three selected groups. Pain related diagnoses from primary health care was monitored and compared with pain prevalence. The most important findings were: - a high total prevalence of chronic pain, 55.2%, without gender difference but varying by age and socioeconomic level. About one fourth (12.8%) reported high pain intensity and functional impairments. Women experienced pain at more locations and with higher intensity. - in a multivariate analysis increasing age, female gender, low education, high work strain, depression and insomnia were associated with chronic pain. - widespread pain showed a worse 2- year prognosis compared with neck shoulder pain. - musculoskeletal location of pain dominated, myalgia and myofascial pain being the most common symptom descriptions. - co-morbidity with chronic pain was common. More hypertensives and an increased level of serum uric acid associated to widepread pain indicated possible metabolic connections to pain. - smoking (current and previous) was associated with low-back and widespread pain. - chronic pain had a substantial influence of primary health care-seeking and medication; high pain intensity being the most important predictor of care and medication. - pain related diagnoses in primary health care increased between 1987 and 1996. Chronic pain, mainly with musculoskeletal location, is a community health problem. A multi-factorial approach in prevention and treatment on the basis of present knowledge is necessary.

  • 481.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Epidemiologi: att bestämma folkhälsans innehåll och orsaker2009In: Andersson, Ingemar & Ejlertsson Göran (red.). Folkhälsa som tvärvetenskap: möten mellan ämnen, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, p. 157-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 482.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Increased mortality among individuals with chronic widespread pain relates to lifestyle factors: a prospective population-based study2009In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. Widespread chronic pain has been related to disability and loss of quality of life, but in a few epidemiological studies also to increased mortality. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relationship between chronic pain, lifestyle factors and all cause mortality. Methods. A random sample of an adult (age 25-74) Swedish population (n = 1609) responded to a comprehensive questionnaire on pain, other symptoms, lifestyle, work and socioeconomic factors in 1988. Mortality data for this cohort between 1988 and 2002 were analysed. Survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier) and Cox proportional regression were used to study initially reported factors influencing survival. Results. Individuals with widespread chronic pain showed an increased mortality risk (hazard ratio, HR = 1.95, CI: 1.26-3.03) compared to the group without chronic pain. Death due to cardiovascular disease accounted for the increased mortality. Adjustment for lifestyle factors eliminated the excess risk. Conclusions. Increased mortality among individuals with widespread chronic pain is related to factors like smoking, sleep disturbances and low physical activity. The result emphasises the importance of including lifestyle factors in a cognitive-behavioural rehabilitation process. It remains to be shown whether health promotion activities aimed at lifestyle could change mortality among individuals with chronic pain.

  • 483.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    The course of non-malignant chronic pain: a 12-year follow-up of a cohort from the general population2004In: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 47-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high prevalence of chronic pain (duration >3 months) reported from different populations indicates a public health problem. Knowledge of the long-term course of chronic non-malignant pain is incomplete and scarce.This paper describes a follow-up of a cohort recruited from a survey in the general population. The cohort (n=214) consisted initially of individuals with widespread or located (neck-shoulder) pain or without chronic pain. The individuals were initially examined and replied to questionnaires on pain, social factors, lifestyle, medication and health care after two and 12 years. The deaths during the period were obtained from the population register. Complete data exist for 77% of the eligible individuals.After 12 years one-third of the individuals initially without pain reported chronic pain, and among those with initial chronic pain 85% still reported chronic pain. The number of painful areas was the strongest predictor of chronic pain 12 years later (OR 15.8; >3 locations vs. 0) whereas a social factor (having a close friend) decreased the risk (OR 0.44). The onset of chronic pain during the same period was related to the physical workload (work with bent positions; OR 5.31; yes vs. no). Mortality was significantly higher in the group initially reporting widespread pain compared with the other groups. The chronicity of widespread chronic pain supports early and intense intervention among individuals with located pain. The association between chronic widespread pain and increased mortality needs further investigation but may deepen the view of chronic pain as a public health problem.

  • 484.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    Department of Community Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    The epidemiology of chronic pain in a Swedish rural area.1994In: Quality of Life Research, 1994 3(Suppl. 1), 1994, Vol. 3 Suppl 1, p. S19-S26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to establish basic epidemiological data on chronic pain (duration > 3 months) in a rural population, a survey of pain symptoms was conducted by means of a postal questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to a random sample (from the population register) of 15% of the population aged 25-74 (n = 1806) in two Swedish primary health care districts. The response rate was 90%. In a follow-up study individuals selected among the responders (neck-shoulder pain, widespread pain and controls without pain; n = 213) were examined and interviewed. They were requestioned about pain symptoms 24 months after the initial survey. Without sex differences 55% of the population had perceived persistent pain for 3 months and 49% for 6 months. Women experienced more multiple localizations of pain and had pain in neck, shoulder, arm and thigh to a greater extent than men. Prevalence of pain increased by age up to 50-59 years for both genders and then slowly decreased. The neck-shoulder area was the most common site of pain (women 32.9%, men 27.5%). Blue-collar workers and employers (including farmers) reported chronic pain to a greater extent than other groups. In 13% of the population, manifest pain problems were associated with reduced functional capacity. Examination of selected pain groups indicated a high proportion of unspecific musculoskeletal symptoms. Diagnosis with definite definitions, explaining the pains, were found in 40% of the individuals. Individuals with widespread pain had a higher pain intensity, more somatic symptoms, were more depressive and had the lowest scores for quality of life.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  • 485.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Folkhälsovetenskap: perspektiv och framtid2009In: Folkhälsa som tvärvetenskap: möten mellan ämnen / [ed] Andersson, Ingemar & Ejlertsson, Göran, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, p. 367-375Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 486.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Salutogenetic and pathogenetic factors of equal importance to predict mortality in a Swedish general population2008In: European Journal of Public Health, 18(Suppl. 1), 2008, Vol. 18, no Suppl. 1, p. 193-194Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social support and physical exercise seem to be salutogenetic factors of importance for longterm survival to balance traditional risk factors such as smoking and defined diseases. The results support health promotion initiatives focused on salutogenetic factors and not only prevention in relation to traditional risk factors and diseases.

  • 487.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Sleep disturbances predict long-term mortality in men: a prospective Swedish study2007In: European Journal of Public Health, 17(Suppl. 2), 2007, Vol. 17, no Suppl. 2, p. 225-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 488.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad College of Health Professions.
    Leden, Ido
    Department of Medicine, Rheumatology Section, Central Hospital, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Widespread musculoskeletal chronic pain associated with smoking: an epidemiological study in a general rural population1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 0036-5505, E-ISSN 1940-2228, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 185-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data on smoking and pain symptoms from a random sample (n = 1806) of a general population were used to evaluate the association between chronic pain at various locations and smoking. In both genders current smoking was associated with reports of increased pain in low back, neck and with multiple locations. In a multiple logistic regression analysis current smoking was associated with an increase in widespread chronic musculoskeletal pain (OR 1.60, CI 1.04-2.46, in relation to non-smokers) and chronic low back pain (OR 1.58, CI 1.13-2.20, in relation to non-smokers). A dose-response relationship was found between the daily cigarette consumption and the prevalence of chronic low back pain. Smoking is associated not only with low back pain but also with chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. No conclusive decrease in pain prevalence was found after quitting smoking. Further studies are necessary to elucidate an aetiologic relationship between smoking and chronic pain.

  • 489.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    et al.
    Department of Community Health Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad College for Health Professions.
    Leden, Ido
    Department of Medicine, Central Hospital, Kristianstad.
    Rosenberg, Claes
    Simrishamn Health Care Centre.
    Characteristics of subjects with chronic pain, in relation to local and widespread pain report: a prospective study of symptoms, clinical findings and blood tests in subgroups of a geographically defined population1996In: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 146-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between reported chronic pain and clinical findings was studied by comparing survey data six months before and eighteen months after a clinical examination. Studied individuals (n = 165) were randomly selected from subsamples of an initial survey (n = 1806) to a general population. Among individuals reporting chronic pain 85% were assessed to have chronic pain at the examination. Diagnoses were found in 22% of examined pain individuals. Myofascial pain syndrome and myalgia were the most common findings. Compared with located neck-shoulder pain, widespread pain had a greater impact on the individual, a worse prognosis regarding pain duration and working capacity, and revealed a raised serum urate level of unclear significance. Although no specific cause of pain is found in individuals with widespread pain it is important to identify and treat this group due to the great effects on functional capacity and the worse prognosis.

  • 490.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Leden, Ido
    Department of Medicine, Rheumatology section, Central Hospital, Kristianstad.
    Rosenberg, Claes
    Simrishamn Health Care Centre.
    Chronic pain in a geographically defined general population: studies of differences in age, gender, social class, and pain localization.1993In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 174-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To establish basic epidemiological data on chronic pain (duration > 3 months) in a defined population. Relationships between age, gender, and social class were tested. DESIGN: A survey of pain symptoms, including location, intensity, duration, and functional capacity, was conducted by means of a mail questionnaire. SETTING: General populations in two Swedish primary health care districts. Medical care was provided in a state health system. SUBJECTS: A random sample (from the population register) of 15% of the population aged 25-74 (n = 1,806). The response rate was 90%. OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive epidemiologic data in relation to objectives of the study. RESULTS: Without sex differences, 55% (95% confidence interval, 53-58%) of the population had perceived persistent pain for 3 months and 49% for 6 months. Among individuals with chronic pain, 90% localized their pain to the musculoskeletal system to a variable extent. Women experienced more multiple localizations of pain and had pain in the neck, shoulder, arm, and thigh to a greater extent than men. Prevalence of pain increased by age up to 50-59 years for both genders and then slowly decreased. The neck-shoulder area was the most common site of pain (30.2%), followed by the lower back (23.2%). Even in the youngest age groups more than one of four reported chronic pain. Blue-collar workers and employers (including farmers) reported chronic pain to a greater extent than other groups. In 13% of the population, manifest pain problems were associated with reduced functional capacity. CONCLUSION: Chronic pain symptoms are common but unevenly distributed in a general population. The results may influence planning and consultation in primary health care as well as warranting selective prevention activities.

  • 491.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Leden, Ido
    Sektion för reumatologi, Medicinkliniken, Centralsjukhuset Kristianstad.
    Scherstén, Bengt
    Avdelningen för Samhällsmedicinska vetenskaper Lund/Dalby, Lunds Universitet.
    Impact of chronic pain on health care seeking, self care, and medication: results from a population-based Swedish study1999In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 503-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To explore individual and social factors that could predict health care utilisation and medication among people with chronic pain in an unselected population. DESIGN: A mailed survey with questions about pain and mental symptoms, disability, self care action, visits to health care providers, and medication. SETTING: General populations in two Swedish primary health care (PHC) districts. Medical care was given in a state health system. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample (from the population register) of 15% of the population aged 25-74 (n = 1806). MAIN RESULTS: Among people reporting chronic pain 45.7% (compared with 29.8 of non-chronic pain persons, p < 0.05) consulted a physician and 7.2% (compared with 1.2%, p < 0.05) a physiotherapist during three months. Primary health care was the most frequent care provider. High pain intensity, aging, depression, ethnicity, and socioeconomic level had the greatest impact on physician consultations. Alternative care, used by 5.9%, was associated with high pain intensity and self care. Use of self care was influenced by high pain intensity, regular physical activity, and ethnicity. Alternative care and self care did not imply lower use of conventional health care. Women reporting chronic pain consumed more analgesics and sedatives than corresponding men. Besides female gender, high pain intensity, insomnia, physician consultation, social network, and self care action helped to explain medication with analgesics. Use of herbal remedies and ointments correlated to self care action, visit to an alternative therapist, high pain intensity, and socioeconomic level. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of chronic pain has an impressive impact on primary health care and medication. Various therapeutic actions are common and are partly overlapping. The use of health care among people with chronic pain depends above all on pain perception and intensity of pain but is also affected by ethnicity, age, socioeconomic level, and depressive symptoms. Among people with chronic pain use of analgesics is common in contrast with other types of pain relief (acupuncture, physiotherapy) suitable for treating chronic pain symptoms.

  • 492.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine, Lund University.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Leden, Ido
    Department of Medicine, Rheumatology section, Central Hospital, Kristianstad.
    Scherstén, Bengt
    Department of Community Medicine, Lund University.
    Musculoskeletal chronic pain in general practice: studies of health care utilisation in comparison with pain prevalence1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 87-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study the relations between population prevalence of chronic pain and pain-related diagnoses (musculoskeletal and headaches) in primary health care (PHC) and to examine longitudinal variations in these diagnoses. DESIGN: A population-based mailed survey to catch prevalence data and continuous computerised diagnosis registration in PHC. SETTING: General population in a well-defined Swedish PHC district. SUBJECTS: A random sample of 15% of the population aged 25-74, n = 1101. Annual visitors to district physicians at the health centre. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of pain-related diagnoses in PHC in relation to population prevalence of chronic pain. Comparisons of the number of individuals (annual visiting rates) with pain-related diagnoses 1987-1996. RESULTS: Population pain prevalence and pain-related diagnoses in PHC corresponded as regards the magnitude and distribution of chronic pain by age and partly by pain location. Compared to low-back and widespread pain, neck-shoulder pain and headaches were less frequent in PHC in relation to reported prevalence. From 1987 to 1996 we found an increasing number of individuals seeking primary care with pain-related diagnoses. The increase was mainly assigned to the groups of fibrositis/myalgia and headache. CONCLUSION: Pain-related diagnoses in PHC reflect partly the occurrence of self-reported chronic pain symptoms in the population. The observed increase in visits with pain-related diagnoses in the last 10 years is due to an increased number of individuals with soft-tissue rheumatism and headaches. Future studies will have to elucidate whether these findings are due to an increase in morbidity or changes in care-seeking and social conditions.

  • 493.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Leden, Ido
    Reumatologsektionen, Medicinska kliniken, Centralsjukhuset Kristianstad.
    Att möta individer med smärta från rörelseapparaten: tidiga överväganden i primärvård2000In: Allmänmedicin, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 228-231Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 494.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Leden, Ido
    Sektionen för reumatologi, Medicinska kliniken Centralsjukhuset, Kristianstad.
    Increased serum uric acid - a marker of non-gouty widespread pain?: a study of female patients with inflammatory and non-inflammatory pain2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 261-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between reported chronic pain and the level of serum urate (SU) among women with various diagnoses of the musculoskeletal system. METHODS: Consecutive female patients (aged 20-70 years, n = 124), at rheumatology and rehabilitation practices, with chronic musculoskeletal pain of different origins were followed for 1 year after an initial survey of pain, lifestyle, quality of life, and disability. Repeated blood samples (including urate, creatinine, cholesterol, and glucose) were analysed. Multiple regression analysis was performed to explain initial variations in SU level in relation to pain and confounding factors. RESULTS: The level of SU was increased among individuals with widespread pain (>5 locations) independent of underlying diagnoses compared to those with fewer pain sites (270.5 vs. 241.2 micromol/L). Serum creatinine, body mass index (BMI), the number of pain locations, and sleep disturbances independently contributed to the SU level and explained 43% of the variation in SU. Individual variation in SU during 4 months was low. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological data on the relationship between the extent of body pain and SU were confirmed in a clinical setting. Besides known factors such as impaired renal function and obesity, widespread pain and sleep disturbances were related to an increase in SU. Medication and alcohol intake could not explain the findings. Longitudinal studies are necessary to elucidate whether the level of SU has any implications for the prognosis of chronic pain.

  • 495.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Leden, Ido
    Reumatologsektionen, Medicinska kliniken, Centralsjukhuset, Kristianstad.
    SBU-rapport Ont i ryggen - ont i nacken. Ambitiös genomgång av stort problemområde. Medicinsk kommentar2000In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 97, no 44, p. 4952-4954Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 496.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Leden, Ido
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Central Hospital, Kristianstad.
    Serum uric acid predicts changes in reports of non-gouty chronic pain: a prospective study among women with inflammatory and non-inflammatory pain2012In: Rheumatology International, ISSN 0172-8172, E-ISSN 1437-160X, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 193-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Widespread pain has earlier been associated with an increase in serum urate (SU). The aim of this study was to longitudinally study the relation between changes in pain reporting and the level of SU among women with chronic pain. Consecutive female patients (n = 124; aged 20-70 years), at rheumatology and rehabilitation practices, with chronic musculoskeletal pain of different origins were followed for 1 year with repeated blood samples and questionnaires. Complete data were obtained from 107 individuals. Factors that predicted an increase in pain extension during 12 months were studied in a logistic regression model. Changes in SU showed a significant correlation (r = 0.36) with changes in the number of reported pain locations. An initially high SU level (OR = 4.46), frequent use of alcohol (OR = 1.32) and a high number of pain locations (OR = 1.24) independently predicted an increase in pain extension during 12 months, whereas the use of steroids (OR = 0.21) in patients with inflammatory disorders resulted in a decreased number of reported pain locations. A relative increase in SU in combination with report of a high number of pain locations turned out to be a risk factor of increased pain extension in a cohort of women with chronic non-gouty pain followed during 1 year. The importance of SU in relation to chronic pain and its prognosis needs to be validated in larger studies.

  • 497.
    Andersson, H. Ingemar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Nilsson, P.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Bringsén, Åsa
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Positive work experience factors relate to salutogenic health-a survey among Swedish hospital employees2012In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 22, no Suppl. 2, p. 156-156Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 498.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    ”Något fel är det med honom, han kommer säkerligen aldrig att bliva en god medborgare”: En studie om barnavårdsnämnden, skolan och de avvikande barnen i 1930-talets Malmö stad2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study, a document analysis with a qualitative approach, explores children, under 18years, who have been subject to measures of child welfare in the city of Malmö during theyears 1935-1937. It also explores the school's role in this context. The questions that the studyis guided by is: How was children described in the Child Welfare documents in Malmö duringthe years 1935-1937? And what role did the school have in Child Welfare work and whatmotivated this? The theoretical approaches are Foucaults theories of power, control anddisciplining.It appears from the study that the school and child welfare authorities had a close cooperationwith the purpose to control the upbringing and disciplining of the children. It was through theupbringing that the deviant child would become a "normal", docile and good, industriouscitizen. The school, as well as the board, had to shoulder a part of the upbringing when theparents skills in their upbringing of the children was questioned by society.This study can hopefully provide knowledge and understanding of our social history, it mayhelp us to understand the great changes that have occurred and what is still unchanged.

  • 499.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Sjöholm, Hanna
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Läsförståelse - mer än bara att förstå: fyra lärares beskrivningar av arbetet med läsförståelseundervisning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta examensarbete studeras hur lärare beskriver sin utformning av läsförståelseundervisning i grundskolans tidigare år. För att göra studien möjlig har vi valt att intervjua fyra verksamma lärare. Studien utgår från en kvalitativ metod med semistrukturerade intervjuer och den teoretiska utgångspunkten är ett sociokulturellt perspektiv. Det insamlade materialet har analyserats genom tematisering och en diskussion om undersökningens resultat har gjorts mot bakgrund av vald forskning och den sociokulturella teorin. Studiens resultat visar att lärarna anser att det är viktigt att eleverna får möjlighet att utveckla läsförståelse och deras förhållningssätt till läsning är att det inte enbart är en färdighet utan även att det är viktigt att förstå och tänka kring innehållet i texter. Det finns en medvetenhet hos lärarna om att det är flera faktorer som samspelar i utvecklingen av läsförståelse och det som framkommer som mest centralt att arbeta med är ordförståelse. Av studiens resultat framgår det att högläsning och textsamtal är ett vanligt förekommande arbetssätt med läsförståelse och det arbetar lärarna med på olika sätt men gemensamt är att En läsande klass används i undervisningen. Gemensamt lärande och arbete med läsförståelse i meningsfulla sammanhang anser samtliga lärare är väsentligt i läsförståelseundervisningen. 

  • 500.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Andersson, Sara
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Möllerstedt, Caroline
    En reko konsult2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a so-called "expectation gap" exist between the accounting consultants and their clients. The excistence of an expectation gap has already been confirmed between auditors and their clients. Interviews were conducted with both accounting consultants and managers to find out what expectations they have for each other. The factors that influence the occurrence of an expectation gap and the size of them are many but the most important factor may be regarded as individuals' different needs and requirements. The gap can be reduced or entirely eliminated by ensuring the quality of an accounting consultant's work, for example, REKO and / or that management have more realistic demands that actually can be met. If accounting consultants choose to undergo the authorization, they submit to use the REKO, which means in particular that reports are more comprehensive. The reports will form the basis for important decisions for businesses and therefore, the managers want reports that are useful and informative. A large part of the effort to reduce or erase the expectation gap is a well-functioning dialogue between the companies and accounting consultants, as became apparent in our interviews.

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