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  • 3051.
    Åhgren, Bengt
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Patient choice and health care integration: a review of the consistency between two Swedish policy concepts2010In: International Journal of Integrated Care: Volume 10, 6 December 2010, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Despite of an insignificant track record of quasi market models in Sweden, new models of this kind have recently been introduced in health care; commonly referred to as ‘choice of care’. This time citizens act as purchasers; choosing the primary care centre or family physician they want to be treated by, which, in turn, generates a capitation payment to the chosen unit. Policy makers believe that such systems will be self-remedial, that is, as a result of competition the strong providers survive while unprofitable ones will be eliminated. Because of negative consequences of the fragmented health care delivery, policy makers at the same time also promote different forms of integrated health care arrangements. One example is ‘local health care’, which could be described as an upgraded community-oriented primary care, supported by adaptable hospital services, fitting the needs of a local population. This paper reviews if it is possible to combine this kind of integrated care system with a competition driven model of governance, or if they are incompatible.

    Theory: Inter-organisational and interprofessional collaboration, accessibility of services, and provider continuity.

    Method: Literature-based review.

    Results and conclusions: The findings indicate that some choice of care schemes could hamper the development of integration in local health care. However, geographical monopolies like local health care, enclosed in a non-competitive context, lack the stimulus of competition that possibly improves performance. Thus, it could be argued that if choice of care and local health care should be combined, patients ought to choose between integrated health care arrangements and not among individual health professionals.

  • 3052.
    Åhgren, Bengt
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sweden.
    The Art of Integrating Care: Theories Revisited2012In: Open Public Health Journal, ISSN 1874-9445, Vol. 5, p. 36-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration of care is high on public health agendas all around the world. The development and implementation of integrative arrangements has been promoted for more or less two decades. Despite this every so often extensive history, there are recognised needs to take research into areas yet poorly explored, which include measures and outcomes of integrated care. On the other hand, existing evidence and knowledge can probably become more ennobled and thereby contribute to a deeper understanding of the compound art of integrating of health care services. Accordingly, the aim of this article is to re-evaluate and synthesise some revisited theories for the facilitation of sustainable integrated care solutions.

    This exploration shows it is important to have crucial prerequisites for integration in place: both functional and interactional conditions. This appears to be an organic process where the stakeholders go through gradual changes until the optimum level of integration as well as mutualistic interactions are established.

    It could be argued that refined knowledge could be excerpted from existing research. Then again, this strategy does not exclude actions for new research in poorly explored areas. Both approaches are important for the development of sustainable integrated care.

  • 3053.
    Åhgren, Bengt
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    The mutualism between chains of care and local care2008In: International Journal of Integrated Care – Vol. 8, 4 June 2008, 2008, p. e13-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    There is a growing interest in compensating for the fragmented delivery of care by promoting integrated care. This movement is a feature of national and local policy, and it is being supported and encouraged amongst care providers.

    Aims

    Discuss the concepts of Swedish integrated care and their impact on care delivery systems.

    Results

    The chain of care concept is commonly regarded as a means to make a care delivery system better adapted to the needs of patients. In many county councils, this transformation is supported by policies focusing on quality and comprehensiveness. Despite several years of experience, a vast majority of the county councils regard themselves as unsuccessful in developing chains of care.

    In addition, many county councils have changed their delivery systems during recent years and implemented ‘Local Care’, an upgraded family- and community-oriented primary care supported by a flexible hospital system. It is unusual to find a high degree of organisational cohesiveness in the implementation of local care. Instead these solutions are in many cases supposed to be built on chains of care.

    Conclusions

    Chains of care are increasingly regarded as building stones of local care, which means that chains of care are embraced in a context and by conditions more favourable than former non-integrative care delivery systems. In this sense, chains of care may have a renaissance, after assuredly being high on the policy agendas but with several years of modest development results. Thus, local care needs chains of care to evolve and chains of care need the integrative framework of local care to sustain.

  • 3054. Åhgren, Bengt
    Utvärdering av Blekingesjukhuset2005Report (Other academic)
  • 3055. Åhgren, Bengt
    Utvärdering av integration inom närsjukvård2007In: Folkhälsa i samverkan mellan professioner, organisationer och samhällssektorer / [ed] Runo Axelsson och Susanna Bihari Axelsson, Studentlitteratur AB, 2007, p. 305-321Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3056.
    Åhgren, Bengt
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Utvärdering av samverkan2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3057.
    Åhgren, Bengt
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Whys and Wherefores of Integrated Health Care2008In: Integrated Health Care Delivery / [ed] Leonie A. Klein and Emily L. Neumann, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2008, p. 137-150Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3058.
    Åhgren, Bengt
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Översyn av operations- och anestesiverksamheten inom länssjukvården i Landstinget Kronoberg2004Report (Other academic)
  • 3059. Åhgren, Bengt
    Översyn av operations- och anestesiverksamheten vid Länssjukhuset Ryhov2004Report (Other academic)
  • 3060.
    Åhgren, Bengt
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Axelsson, Runo
    Determinants of integrated health care development: chains of care in Sweden2007In: International Journal of Health Planning and Management, ISSN 0749-6753, E-ISSN 1099-1751, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 145-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local health care in Sweden is an emerging form of integrated care, linked together by chains of care. Experiences show, however, that the development of chains of care is making slow progress. In order to study the factors behind this development, an embedded multiple-case study design was chosen. The study compared six health authorities in Sweden, three with successful and three with unsuccessful chain of care development. Three major determinants of integrated health care development were identified: professional dedication, legitimacy and confidence. In more detail, space for prime movers and trust between participants were crucial success factors, while top-down approaches targeting at the same time a change of management systems were negative for the development of chains of care. Resistance from the body of physicians was a serious obstacle to such a development. Local health care depends on developed chains of care, but it seems that health care managers do not have the management systems necessary to run these clinical networks, mainly due to a lack of acceptance from the medical profession. This is an impossible situation in the long run, since the number of chains of care is likely to increase as a result of the emerging local health care. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 3061.
    Åhgren, Bengt
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Axelsson, Runo
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Evaluating integrated health care: a model for measurement2005In: International journal of integrated care, ISSN 1568-4156, Vol. 5, no Jul-Sep, p. e01-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: In the development of integrated care, there is an increasing need for knowledge about the actual degree of integration between different providers of health services. The purpose of this article is to describe the conceptualisation and validation of a practical model for measurement, which can be used by managers to implement and sustain integrated care.

    THEORY: The model is based on a continuum of integration, extending from full segregation through intermediate forms of linkage, coordination and cooperation to full integration.

    METHODS: The continuum was operationalised into a ratio scale of functional clinical integration. This scale was used in an explorative study of a local health authority in Sweden. Data on integration were collected in self-assessment forms together with estimated ranks of optimum integration between the different units of the health authority. The data were processed with statistical methods and the results were discussed with the managers concerned.

    RESULTS: Judging from this explorative study, it seems that the model of measurement collects reliable and valid data of functional clinical integration in local health care. The model was also regarded as a useful instrument for managers of integrated care.

    DISCUSSION: One of the main advantages with the model is that it includes optimum ranks of integration beside actual ranks. The optimum integration rank between two units is depending on the needs of both differentiation and integration.

  • 3062.
    Åhgren, Bengt
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Axelsson, Runo
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University.
    Integrated Care: Pathfindings from Sweden2013In: Integrated care for Ireland in an international context: challenges for policy, institutions and specific service user needs / [ed] Tom O'Connor, Cork, Ireland: Oak Tree Press , 2013, p. 90-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3063.
    Åhgren, Bengt
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Axelsson, Susanna Bihari
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Axelsson, Runo
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Evaluating intersectoral collaboration: a model for assessment by service users2009In: International journal of integrated care, ISSN 1568-4156, Vol. 9, p. e03-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: DELTA was launched as a project in 1997 to improve intersectoral collaboration in the rehabilitation field. In 2005 DELTA was transformed into a local association for financial co-ordination between the institutions involved. Based on a study of the DELTA service users, the purpose of this article is to develop and to validate a model that can be used to assess the integration of welfare services from the perspective of the service users.

    THEORY: The foundation of integration is a well functioning structure of integration. Without such structural conditions, it is difficult to develop a process of integration that combines the resources and competences of the collaborating organisations to create services advantageous for the service users. In this way, both the structure and the process will contribute to the outcome of integration.

    METHOD: The study was carried out as a retrospective cross-sectional survey during two weeks, including all the current service users of DELTA. The questionnaire contained 32 questions, which were derived from the theoretical framework and research on service users, capturing perceptions of integration structure, process and outcome. Ordinal scales and open questions where used for the assessment.

    RESULTS: The survey had a response rate of 82% and no serious biases of the results were detected. The study shows that the users of the rehabilitation services perceived the services as well integrated, relevant and adapted to their needs. The assessment model was tested for reliability and validity and a few modifications were suggested. Some key measurement themes were derived from the study.

    CONCLUSION: The model developed in this study is an important step towards an assessment of service integration from the perspective of the service users. It needs to be further refined, however, before it can be used in other evaluations of collaboration in the provision of integrated welfare services.

  • 3064.
    Åhgren, Bengt
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nordgren, Lars
    Lunds universitet.
    Is choice of care compatible with integrated health care?: an exploratory study in Sweden2012In: International Journal of Health Planning and Management, ISSN 0749-6753, E-ISSN 1099-1751, Vol. 27, no 3, p. e162-e172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Competitive and integrative policy actions are simultaneously being promoted in Swedish primary care; citizens' choice of care is launched while primary care is expected to integrate its activities with other providers for the creation of ‘local health care’. Competition tends, however, to fragment the provision of services. The aim of this study is, accordingly, to explore whether or not these policies are compatible in practice. For this purpose, strategically designed group interviews were conducted with citizens. When citizens make active choices, they are under the influence of self-perceived conditions: that is, the accessibility of the care, its continuity and the treatment offered by the care provider, conditions which, in turn, have a lot in common with the guiding principles of local health care. On the other hand, citizens who choose passively, because of not being in contact with primary care, have no difficulties in being disloyal to the chosen unit when becoming patients. In doing so, they also contribute to the fragmentation of local health care. Making entirely free choices when it comes to primary care seems to be incompatible with local health care. However, choice of care only partly equals the conditions of free choice. Choice of care and local health care would thus seem to be compatible, in practice, for the majority of patients.

  • 3065. Åhgren, Bengt
    et al.
    Romberg, Rune
    Avveckling av sjukhusbolagen: Bevaras frihetsformade värden när leden rättas? - Slutrapport2004Report (Other academic)
  • 3066.
    Åkesson, Therese
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Upplevelser av att arbeta med djur på daglig verksamhet: En kvalitativ intervjustudie bland personer med funktionsnedsättning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The central part in all public health work is health promotion and disease preventing actions among the population. Since all public health work includes the whole population, the work has to embrace disabled people as well. Within the disability policies, participation and equality are important goals, which illustrate the importance of a job. In previous studies the positive effects of animal have been detected among persons with disabilities, by better balance, better mobility, larger social network, new knowledge and most of all happiness. The aim of this study was to investigate how people with disabilities experience their health when they are working with animal husbandry at daily activities. The study was based on a project which started in Örkelljunga in January 2012. The purpose was to help the persons in the project to have a more active day at their daily activity. The survey was conducted with interviews as a qualitative method, in which six participants with disabilities where interviewed. The result showed that the participants felt that their daily activity was more meaningful since they had started working with animals and they showed joy while performing their tasks. Most importantly they felt better, where happier and more alert. The conclusion of the study showed that working with animals on daily activities could have a health promotion effect on the participant’s well-being and development.   

  • 3067.
    Åman, Ulrika
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Persson, Sanna
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    En sjukdom för livet: Ungdomars upplevelse av att leva med diabetes typ 12010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden 750 children and adolescents’ are diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 1 every year. Adolescence is often a time of searching for identity and liberation from parents. Through this period adolescents are supposed to find their place in society. For the affected adolescents a new world of challenges suddenly opens. Aim: The purpose was to describe adolescents’ experience of living with diabetes mellitus type 1. Method: The study is based on scientific articles that have been found from databases. The participated adolescents in the articles were 10-19 years old. Result: The results showed that diabetes affected the adolescents’ lives greatly. There were both positive and negative experiences that often depended on how well the disease was integrated into their lives. Peers and parents had an important role in providing support but also sometimes felt nagging and overprotective. Conclusions: It’s important for the nurse to have knowledge about diabetes and how it affects life of adolescent. The adolescents thought it was important to control the disease and to be like everybody else. In this matter it is important for the nurse to be able to educate and support adolescents’ and protect their integrity through understanding and knowledge.

  • 3068.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Umeå University.
    Johansson, Peter
    Linköping University Hospital.
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    Social support and its association with health-related quality of life among older patients with chronic heart failure2013In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 69-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social support is generally known to influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL), but this association is not well explored among older patients with chronic heart failure.

    Aims: (1) To describe social support in older patients with chronic heart failure in relation to gender. (2) To investigate if age, gender, cohabitation, perceived financial situation, and disease severity are associated with social support. (3) To investigate if social support is associated with HRQoL after controlling for age, gender, and disease severity.

    Methods: Data were collected in a sample of 349 patients (≥65 years) with chronic heart failure. Patients’ HRQoL was measured with the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire and the Short Form-12 Health Survey Questionnaire. The Interview Schedule for Social Interaction measured social support. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, repeated-measure ANOVA, and multiple linear regression analyses with robust standard errors.

    Results: Social support was generally rated high, although being a man, living alone, perceiving a problematic financial situation, and high disease severity (NYHA) were associated with lower levels of social support. Age was not associated with social support. Social support was generally associated with HRQoL, in particular the emotional dimensions.

    Conclusion: Taking social support into account when caring for older patients with heart failure can be of importance for improving or maintaining HRQoL.

  • 3069.
    Åsen, Kristina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Boking, Anna
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Dental erosion: kolsyrade vattens erosiva potential2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the erosive potential of the most commonly used carbonated waters with or without flavouring. The study was preformed as an in vitro study at the Institution of Odontology at University of Gothenburg. The study was comprised by 34 bottled carbonated waters with or without flavouring, three carbonated waters produced in a carbonator machine and six control drinks. Products were tested and pH was measured using a pH electrode and buffered gradually with 0,1 M NaOH until pH reached neutral value. Calculation of the acidity of the drinks, which is a grade on its erosive potential, was measured. The results showed that a majority of the studied carbonated waters had a pH baseline value >5, but variations existed among the different labels. All of the studied waters showed a lower erosive potential compared with the control products freshly squeezed lemon- and orangejuice, but compared to soft drinks. Data showed that the acid concentration gradually arouse when carbondioxide was added to the water. Different flavouring had only a slight influence on the erosive potential. This study showed that adding carbondioxide was of larger importance than adding flavouring for the acid concentration in the water.

  • 3070.
    Åstrand, Anna
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Vet de ens om att jag är här?: Att vänta på akutmottagningen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Emergency department is units were urgently ill and wounded patients can receive treatment and care. The most urgent patients are those who will be treated first, leaving the non-urgent patients to wait. This system of priority can causes a prolonged waiting time. Purpose: to describe the patients’ experience of waiting in the Emergency department. Method: Literature review. Results: The analysis revealed five categories; to feel abounded, acceptance, dissatisfied, anxiety and uncertainty. A lot of studies showed that information concerning estimated waiting time could calm the patients. Absent information and contact with the staff could give anxiety. A pro-longed waiting time had a negative effect on the total experience. The environment and organization on the Emergency department, affected the patient to feel distrust and stress. However, there were patients who described that they were satisfied with the care they received. Discussion: The patients have needs of getting information, get noticed and get in contact with the staff. The nurse has to possess knowledge in the experiences of patients. Conclusion: The five categories can, alone or connected affect the patients’ experience. The staff at the Emergency department must try to understand the patients need for information and contact, and there through try to improve the patients’ experience.

  • 3071.
    Åvik Persson, Helene
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linnaeus University.
    Fürst, Carl-Johan
    Lund University and Region Skåne.
    Ahlström, Gerd
    Lund University.
    Behm, Lina
    Lund University.
    Early and late signs that precede dying among older persons in nursing homes: the multidisciplinary team's perspective2018In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Nursing home residents in Sweden are old, frail and usually have multiple morbidities which often make dying a prolonged suffering. It has been found that older persons at nursing homes receive far less palliative care than younger persons, partly because it is difficult to identify when the final stage of life begins. The identification may help the staff to enable the older person and their families to participate in planning the care in accordance with their own preferences and values. With this in mind the aim was to explore the experiences of early and late signs preceding dying in older persons in nursing homes from the multidisciplinary team's perspective.

    METHODS: The focus group method was used to interview 20 health-care professionals on the basis of semi-structured questions. Four focus groups were conducted at four nursing homes in two counties in southern Sweden. The groups included different professionals such as assistant nurses, registered nurses, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, social workers and unit managers. The analysis was conducted according to the focus group method developed by Kruger and Casey.

    RESULTS: The analysis revealed one major theme, from unawareness to obviousness, which illustrates that the participants experienced dying as a happening, not a process, and found it difficult to identify early signs. Even though it was a new way of thinking, several suggestions of early signs were presented. The main category "Going into a bubble" illustrates early signs, which meant that the older person showed signs of wanting to withdraw from the outside world. The main category "The body begins to shut down" illustrates late signs, which meant that the older person showed signs that indicate that the body starts to prepare for death.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study conveys new knowledge concerning the multidisciplinary team's collective experience of early and late signs that precede dying. This knowledge can increase the understanding of when a palliative care approach needs to be in place at nursing homes. The use of a palliative care approach in care planning requires consensus in the perception of the dying process of frail older persons.

  • 3072.
    Óðinsdóttir, Guðný Björk
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Droplet digital PCR analys av somatisk mosaicism hos familjer med Hemofili A2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3073.
    Öhlander, Claes
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    West, Saga
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Vilken erfarenhet har patienter med schizofreni av mötet med omvårdnadspersonal inom psykiatrisk vård?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Schizofreni är en av allvarlig och ofta livslång psykisk sjukdom som påverkar många delar av den drabbades liv. Mötet mellan omvårdnadspersonalen och patienten inom den psykiatriska vården är avgörande eftersom det lägger grunden för möjligheten till en god hälsa. Omvårdnadspersonalens uppgift är att involvera patienten i dennes omvårdnad och att se patienten som en hel människa. Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva vilka erfarenheter patienter med schizofreni har av mötet med omvårdnadspersonalen inom den psykiatriska vården. Metod: En allmän litteraturöversikt genomfördes baserad på tio vetenskapliga artiklar, vilka kvalitetsgranskades, analyserades och sammanställdes. Resultat: Resultatet visade att det fanns tre genomgående erfarenheter av mötet; Behov av en dialog; Behov av att bli involverad och Behov av att bli sedd som en person. För att få en djupare förståelse för patienternas erfarenheter av mötet krävs ytterligare forskning som utgår ifrån patientperspektivet. Sådan kunskap och förståelse kan påverka patientens vård och behandling i positiv riktning. 

  • 3074.
    Öhman, Helene
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Esbjörnsson, Ann-Kristin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    BHV-sjuksköterskans erfarenhet av att ge stöd gällande amning vid första hembesöket2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Att amma är förenat med betydande hälsovinster för både barn och mor ändå ses amningsfrekvensen sjunka i världen. För att lyckas med amning behöver familjen mycket stöd i ett tidigt skede efter hemkomsten från BB. Vid bristande stöd ses amningen avslutas tidigare än planerat. Tidigare studier har visat att många mödrar upplever bristande stöd relaterat till skiftande kunskaper hos BHV-sjuksköterskorna. Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva BHV-sjuksköterskors erfarenhet av att ge stöd till nyblivna mödrar gällande amning vid första hembesöket från barnhälsovården. Metod: En kvalitativ studie genomfördes med 16 semistrukturerade intervjuer. Både distriktsjuksköterskor och barnsjuksköterskor som arbetar i barnhälsovården deltog. Utifrån en kvalitativ innehållsanalys analyserades intervjuerna. Resultat: I resultatet framträdde ett övergripande tema: Att ett holistiskt förhållningssätt i mötet med mödrarna ger möjlighet att utforma ett individuellt stöd. Kategorierna som framträdde var skapa relationer, underlätta vid svårigheter samt förmedla trygghet utifrån kompetens. Slutsats: Resultatet i denna studie visar att för att BHV-sjuksköterskorna ska kunna känna sig trygga i sitt amningsstöd framkom tre viktiga aspekter: det första hembesöket, samarbetet mellan de olika instanserna som familjerna möter i samband med att bli föräldrar och tid för BHV-sjuksköterskor att utbyta erfarenheter med varandra. Studien visar också att attityder gällande amning i samhället påverkar BHV-sjuksköterskornas erfarenheter av att ge stöd vid amning.

  • 3075.
    Öhman, Sofie
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    De utsatta skolbarnen: Sambandet mellan mobbning och psykosomatiska symtom - en registerstudie2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Bullying is a serious problem in Swedish schools. Headache, stomachache, back pain and tiredness are frequent psychosomatic symptoms. An important task for the school nurse may be the prevention of bullying. Aim: was to study potential links between the experience of being the victim of bullying and the occurrence of psychosomatic symptoms among school children in grades 5 and 7. Method: The study was a cross sectional study based on register data was obtained from the Folkhälsoinstitutet. This study included a total of 7596 schoolchildren between the ages of 11 and 13 years. Material was analysed with bivariate and multivariate regression models. Results: Schoolchildren who felt bullied were found to have more psychosomatic symptoms than schoolchildren who were not bullied. (OR= 2.73). The girls had more psychosomatic symptoms than boys. (OR= 1.76). Schoolchildren in grades 7 had more psychosomatic symptoms than children in grade 5. (OR=2.73). Schoolchildren that were stressed by school work showed more psychosomatic symptoms. (OR= 3.38). The girls were less often bullied than boys. (OR=0.86). School children who are not happy in school were more often exposed to bullying than students who enjoyed school. (OR=1.52). Conclusion: Bullying and stress of schoolwork is a danger to school children’s health. School children who are bullied feel even worse in school.

  • 3076.
    Örn, Nina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Beijer, Emma
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Barns psykiska hälsotillstånd - efter flykt från krig och våld2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I dagsläget beräknas 20 miljoner människor vara på flykt världen över. År 2006 fick Sverige in 6320 ansökningar om uppehållstillstånd gällande barn. Flyktingbarn kan ha varit med om traumatiska händelser i hemlandet, såsom krig och våld vilket kan förändra deras psykiska hälsotillstånd. Syfte: Att belysa barns psykiska hälsotillstånd efter flykt från krig och våld. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en systematisk litteraturstudie med kvalitativ ansats. Resultat: Flyktingbarn mår psykiskt dåligt när de emigrerat, problem som visar sig är posttraumatiskt stressyndrom, depression, ångest, rädsla, sömnproblematik och psykosociala problem. Diskussion: Ju fler traumatiska upplevelser barnen varit med om desto sämre mår de psykiskt. Det är viktigt att sjuksköterskan har kunskap om flyktingbarnens bakgrund och deras psykiska hälsotillstånd för att kunna ge ett adekvat bemötande och god omvårdnad. En omvårdnadsteori sjuksköterskan kan arbeta utifrån är Madeleine Leiningers transkulturella omvårdnadsmodell som syftar till att försöka förstå en kultur inifrån och förstå kulturens egna sätt att uppfatta sjukdom.

  • 3077.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Andersson, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Jönköping University.
    Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances OIDP) in Swedish2008In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 187-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim was to assess the validity and reliability of a Swedish version of the Oral impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) index measuring oral health-related quality of life. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After translation and cultural adaptation, a 3-site sample of 204 adults (20-86 years) was interviewed using the OIDP. Moreover, the study included a self-administered questionnaire and a clinical examination. RESULTS: A total of 39.7% reported at least one oral impact on daily life. The most common performances affected were eating and cleaning teeth (both 20.6%). Oral effects on psychological performances caused the highest impacts. No gender or age differences were demonstrated with respect to having at least one impact. However, among those affected, women, old and young subjects scored higher than men and other ages, respectively, on the OIDP. The face and content validity were deemed good in pilot interviews with laypersons and dental professionals. The construct validity was confirmed, as the OIDP score was consistently associated with self-perceived oral health OR 2.13 (95% CI 1.10-4.10) and other self-rated variables, e.g. satisfaction with oral health OR 2.43 (CI 1.34-4.41), also when accounting for age, gender and socioeconomic differences. Associations were estimated using logistic regression. Lacking 10 or more teeth was associated with a higher OIDP score, which supports the criterion validity of the instrument. In a test-retest analysis Cohen's kappa was 0.77. CONCLUSIONS: The Swedish version of the OIDP appears to be a valid and reliable measure for assessing oral impacts on daily performances.

  • 3078.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Andersson, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Jönköping University.
    Oral impacts on daily performances: associations with self-reported general health and medication2009In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 67, no 6, p. 370-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of general diseases and medication on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a Swedish adult population using the Swedish version of Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP). Material and methods. A three-site sample of 200 adults (20-86 years; participation rate 70%) was interviewed using the OIDP, and a medical anamnesis was performed in 2006-7. A self-reported questionnaire provided complementary socio-economic data. Results. The burden of medical diagnoses and medications was greatest among the older participants in the study. The mean number of medicines in regular users was: ≥60 years, 3.6 (SD 2.6); 40-59 years, 1.9 (SD 1.5); and 20-40 years, 1.9 (SD 1.8) (p =0.013). There were no gender differences in general health or medication variables. Self-reported health, medical diagnoses and medication were significantly and consistently associated with the OIDP score: subjects with ≥1 diagnosis, OR 2.22 (95% CI 1.19-4.14) and subjects with ≥1 medicines, OR 1.85 (95% CI 1.01-3.40) versus those without diagnoses or medication. However, there was a clear gradient: OIDP scores increased with increasing numbers of diagnoses and medicines. Conclusion. The Swedish version of the OIDP was found useful for measuring impacts of general health and medication on OHRQoL. Dental care should pay special attention to patients with medical conditions or who are on medication, because these patients are more likely to experience oral impacts on daily performances.

  • 3079.
    Östholm, Lena
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Persson, Christine
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Fysisk aktivitet på recept och dess följsamhet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Insufficient physical activity is a public health problem. The Swedish recommendation is to be physically active for a minimum of 30 minutes every day, which is fulfilled by about half the adult population. Recent research has shown that sedentary behavior is an independent risk factor. Physical activity on prescription (FaR®) is an individually adapted and written prescription, a method to encourage physical activity. The National Board of Health and Welfare has observed that counseling combined with a written prescription convey better adherence than just counseling. Purpose: The purpose was to describe important factors improving the adherence to FaR®. Method: A literature overview was conducted with intent to go from a thought process to knowledge. Result: Factors like the prescriber, patient’s prerequisites, communication and regularity has been identified as meaningful to the process of FaR® and it´s adherence. Discussion: The knowledge of these factors creates a possibility to further developments of FaR®. The role of the prescriber is important, to interpret and individually adapt the prescription to make the best prerequisites and provide good adherence. Conclusions: To identify these factors, the prescriber, communication, patient’s prerequisites and regularity, creates opportunities to further generate the quality of FaR ® and it´s adherence.

  • 3080.
    Østermark Sørensen, Helle
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Work and non-work related determinants of Danish workers mental health problems: A mixed method study2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify work and non-work related determinants of mental health problems in Danish workers´ from a pragmatic integrative perspective. A convergent mixed method design consisting of a quantitative (n=391) and qualitative strand (n=10) with integrated interpretation was applied. The determinants of workers´ psychological distress was found to be multi-facetted and multi-contextual. Both strands identified high demands/effort and low social support/reward as important determinants both within and outside the workplace. Moreover it was found that it is the interaction of strains across context that facilitates mental health problems rather than a single element. The mixed method design contributed with an expanded perspective on the complexity of mental health problems among the Danish workers.

  • 3081.
    Westergren, Albert (Editor)
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Datorbaserad Utbildning Näring och Ätande (DUNÄT). Utvecklad och lanserad för PC och iOS/Android 2015 (App Name: Dunät. App Version Number: 1.0.0. App type: iOS App. App SKU: 20150220. App Apple ID: 975219063)2015Artistic output (Unrefereed)
  • 3082.
    Westergren, Albert (Editor)
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Minimal Eating Observation and Nutrition Form (MEONF-II) utvecklad för iOS och Android, lanserad 2015. Applikaktion.2015Artistic output (Unrefereed)
59606162 3051 - 3082 of 3082
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