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  • 301.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Department of Animal Ecology, University of Umeå.
    Long-term survival, length of breeding season, and operational sex ratio in a boreal population of common frogs, Rana temporaria L.1990In: Canadian Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0008-4301, E-ISSN 1480-3283, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 121-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A population of individually marked adult Rana temporaria was studied during the breeding season in 1979–1988 in east-central Sweden. Annual return rate averaged 31% (range 16–51%) in males and 16% (range 5–33%) in females. Return rate was not size dependent but increased with every successful previous hibernation, indicating an increased survival rate with age. Return rate was not correlated with winter harshness. Once adult, males had on average 1.5 (maximum 6) seasons with the possibility of reproducing. Corresponding values for females were 1.4 and 4. Mean length of the breeding season was 20 (SD = 2) days. Calling generally started at water temperatures below 3 °C. The lowest spawning temperature was 1 °C. Average temperatures at spawning onset and peak spawning were 5 and 6 °C, respectively. Large males tended to arrive earlier at the pond than small males. Males arrived earlier and stayed longer than did females. The overall population sex ratio was close to unity. The operational sex ratio (OSR) varied during the breeding season, averaging 0.54 (one female to two males). No male was observed to mate more than once per season. I argue that survival selection is more important to male lifetime mating success than is competition in the breeding pond (sexual selection as affected by OSR and length of the breeding season).

  • 302.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Mer krut på fågelskyddet!2008In: Vår fågelvärld, ISSN 0042-2649, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 35-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 303.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Nötskrikans vintervanor2012In: Vår fågelvärld, ISSN 0042-2649, Vol. 71, no 5, p. 12-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 304.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Department of Animal Ecology, University of Umeå.
    Ovarian cyclicity and fecundity in boreal common frogs Rana temporaria L. along a climatic gradient1991In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 340-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypotheses that the patterns of energy storage, ovarian development and fecundity change along a climatic gradient were tested. Data from adult female common frogs Rana temporaria L. were collected in three study areas from mixed boreal lowland forest to alpine heath. There were no consistent altitudinal trends in body length or weight. Age, however, increased with altitude. During the feeding season, the rate of primary deposition of energy in the fat bodies was higher in mid-altitude than in lowland females. Relative ovary weight increased faster in alpine heath and mid-altitude frogs than in lowland frogs. There were no indications of an ovarian resting period. Rather, with increased altitude the oocytes for next year's reproduction tended to have entered the vitellogenic growth phase even before oviposition; possibly this was an adaptation to a short feeding season. Body length and fecundity were exponentially related in the lowland and the mid-altitude study areas. The relationship between body weight and fecundity appeared to be linear in at least the lowland population. Fecundity per gram body mass increased with age. Although differences between study areas were found, there was no consistent altitudinal trend in either absolute or size-relative fecundity. Fecundity varied between years as well as between populations. A negative correlation between relative liver weight and fecundity indicated a high cost to reproduction. Nevertheless, skipping years of reproduction, a phenomenon suggested to occur primarily in resource-poor environments, was rare.

  • 305.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Punktinsats på hög nivå gav "fel" spettar2006In: Fåglar i Västerbotten, ISSN 0348-1166, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 306.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Department of Animal Ecology, University of Umeå.
    Random mating in a boreal population of European common frogs Rana temporaria L.1987In: Holarctic Ecology, ISSN 0105-9327, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 193-195Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 307.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Rekordmånga lyckade häckningar av vitrygg2018In: Vår fågelvärld, ISSN 0042-2649, Vol. 77, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 308.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Slätten tur och retur på 25 år2001In: Fåglar i Västerbotten, ISSN 0348-1166, Vol. 26, p. 54-57Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 309.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Department of Animal Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Song differences between North American and European White-winged Crossbills (Loxia leucoptera).1993In: The AUK: A Quarterly Journal of Ornithology, ISSN 0004-8038, E-ISSN 1938-4254, Vol. 110, no 2, p. 385-385Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 310.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Success factors behind multi-stakeholder management of geese in an agricultural landscape2016In: 7th North American Duck Symposium: waterfowl ecology and adaptive management, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On both sides of the Atlantic, geese are a major management challenge, not least because of shifting distributions, increased availability of nutritious agricultural forage, and unprecedented growth of some populations. In northwest Europe, managers face the task of devising management strategies for areas with up to 10 co-occurring goose species. These taxa range from being globally threatened to over-abundant, usually present in mixed-species assemblages whose composition change seasonally. I present a case study from a densely populated agricultural region in south Sweden where goose numbers and damage by geese on crops have increased dramatically during recent decades. A goose management group (GMG) was founded in 2002 comprising landowners, farmers, hunters, ornithologists, conservation NGOs, and local and county level administration. The GMG has autonomy to self-organize and a key point is that it has neither legal jurisdiction nor authority to make formal decisions. This makes the GMG adaptive, free to react quickly to signals from the socio-ecological system. In essence, the GMG provides a collaborative arena for sharing experiences and discussing conflicts. With time this has built trust between stakeholders so that there is no longer any disagreement over input variables such as goose numbers, bag size, and magnitude of crop damage. Further GMG success factors are its continuity over time, that it is embedded in the local community, and that some of its members also represent authorities that do have jurisdiction over hunting permits and crop damage reimbursement. This is an example of how human-wildlife conflicts can be reduced and defused by simple means. Interestingly, GMG members as well as people outside the group consider it a success even though it has not led to reduced goose numbers locally, illustrating that understanding the sociology of management conflicts is often just as important as understanding biological details of the system.

  • 311.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Institutet för Skoglig Zooekologi, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Umeå.
    Threats to boreal frogs1993In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 254-255Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 312.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Varför sätta näbbsadelmärken på krickor?2004In: Ringinform, ISSN 1100-4134, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 38-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 313.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Ärta2007Other (Other academic)
  • 314.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Andersson, Å
    Sjöberg, K
    Stjärtand2007Other (Other academic)
  • 315.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Arzel, Celine
    Finland.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Holopainen, Sari
    Finland.
    Nummi, Petri
    Finland.
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Finland.
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Population change in breeding boreal waterbirds in a 25‐year perspective: what characterises winners and losers?2019In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 167-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    1. Understanding drivers of variation and trends in biodiversity change is a general scientific challenge, but also crucial for conservation and management. Previous research shows that patterns of increase and decrease are not always consistent at different spatial scales, calling for approaches combining the latter. We here explore the idea that functional traits of species may help explaining divergent population trends.
    2. Complementing a previous community level study, we here analyse data about breeding waterbirds on 58 wetlands in boreal Fennoscandia, covering gradients in latitude as well as trophic status. We used linear mixed models to address how change in local abundance over 25 years in 25 waterbird species are associated with life history traits, diet, distribution, breeding phenology, and habitat affinity.
    3. Mean abundance increased in 10 species from 1990/1991 to 2016, whereas it decreased in 15 species. Local population increases were associated with species that are early breeders and have small clutches, an affinity for luxurious wetlands, an herbivorous diet, and a wide breeding range rather than a southern distribution. Local decreases, by contrast, were associated with species having large clutches and invertivorous diet, as well as being late breeders and less confined to luxurious wetlands. The three species occurring on the highest number of wetlands all decreased in mean abundance.
    4. The fact that early breeders have done better than late fits well with previous research about adaptability to climate change, that is, response to earlier springs. We found only limited support for the idea that life history traits are good predictors of wetland level population change. Instead, diet turned out to be a strong candidate for an important driver of population change, as supported by a general decrease of invertivores and a concomitant increase of large herbivores.
    5. In a wider perspective, future research needs to address whether population growth of large‐bodied aquatic herbivores affects abundance of co‐occurring invertivorous species, and if so, if this is due to habitat alteration, or to interference or exploitative competition.
  • 316.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Arzel, Céline
    Frankrike.
    Forskare efterlyser rapporter om näbbmärkta änder2003In: Jakt och jägare, ISSN 1401-8306, Vol. 63, no 9, p. 25-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 317.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Arzel, Céline
    Frankrike.
    Kricka från Brånsjön flyger till Wales - och lär oss mer om en ovanligt okänd vanlig fågelart2003In: Fåglar i Västerbotten, ISSN 0348-1166, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 73-74Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 318.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Arzel, Céline
    Frankrike.
    Näbbmärkta änder i nytt forskningsprojekt2003In: Svensk jakt nyheter, Vol. 8, no 5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 319.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Arzel, Céline
    Finland.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Frankrike.
    Rovdjur och mat gör krickans dag till natt2007In: Vår fågelvärld, ISSN 0042-2649, Vol. 66, no 7, p. 15-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 320.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Arzel, Céline
    Frankrike.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Frankrike.
    Ändernas hemliga nattliv2008In: Svensk jakt, ISSN 0039-6583, Vol. 146, no 4, p. 274-276Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 321.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Arzel, Céline
    Frankrike.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Frankrike.
    Lepley, Michel
    Frankrike.
    Bosca, Fabrice
    Frankrike.
    Legagneux, Pierre
    Frankrike.
    Nogues, Jean-Baptiste
    Frankrike.
    Flyway patterns of food abundance in Eurasian Teal (Anas crecca crecca)2006In: Integrating science and duck management : 4th North American duck symposium and workshop, 2006, p. 52-53Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 322.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Berg, Charlotte
    Lerner, Henrik
    Sprider gäss och svanar smittsamma sjukdomar?2018In: Fakta för förvaltare: gäss och svanar: kunskapssammanställning om bete, övergödning, smittspridning och skyddsjak / [ed] Johan Elmberg & Johan Månsson, Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket , 2018, p. 49-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    • Swans and geese occur in larger numbers near more people than ever before, in Sweden as well as in Western Europe.

    • Increasing populations sometimes lead to problems and conflicts. On agricultural land geese and swans can cause costly damage to growing crops. Intense grazing by these birds may also affect natural vegetation, sometimes leading to conflict with conservation and biodiversity goals.

    • Geese and swans are obligate herbivores, consuming leaves, stems, seeds and  root parts of terrestrial and aquatic plants. • Grazing on growing crops may cause conflicts of interest also when geese and swans congregate in large numbers in wetlands adjacent to cropland.

    • Geese and swans provide a multitude of ecosystem services, for example viewing, hunting, meat, and eco-tourism revenues. GEESE AND SWANS AS VECTORS OF DISEASE

    • A large number of disease agents has been recorded in geese and swans, viz. viruses, bacteria and unicellular parasites. • Some of these have the capacity to infect other bird species and mammals.

    • Geese and swans are highly mobile and often occur close to humans and in our agricultural landscape. As a consequence, they are sometimes suspected of  transmitting disease to livestock and humans

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  • 323.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Berg, Charlotte
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linneaus University.
    Hessel, Rebecca
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Potential disease transmission from wild geese and swans to livestock, poultry and humans: a review of the scientific literature from a One Health perspective2017In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 7, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are more herbivorous waterfowl (swans and geese) close to humans, livestock and poultry than ever before. This creates widespread conflict with agriculture and other human interests, but also debate about the role of swans and geese as potential vectors of disease of relevance for human and animal health. Using a One Health perspective, we provide the first comprehensive review of the scientific literature about the most relevant viral, bacterial, and unicellular pathogens occurring in wild geese and swans. Research thus far suggests that these birds may play a role in transmission of avian influenza virus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and antibiotic resistance. On the other hand, at present there is no evidence that geese and swans play a role in transmission of Newcastle disease, duck plague, West Nile virus, Vibrio, Yersinia, Clostridium, Chlamydophila, and Borrelia. Finally, based on present knowledge it is not possible to say if geese and swans play a role in transmission of Escherichia coli, Pasteurella, Helicobacter, Brachyspira, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Microsporidia. This is largely due to changes in classification and taxonomy, rapid development of identification methods and lack of knowledge about host specificity. Previous research tends to overrate the role of geese and swans as disease vectors; we do not find any evidence that they are significant transmitters to humans or livestock of any of the pathogens considered in this review. Nevertheless, it is wise to keep poultry and livestock separated from small volume waters used by many wild waterfowl, but there is no need to discourage livestock grazing in nature reserves or pastures where geese and swans are present. Under some circumstances it is warranted to discourage swans and geese from using wastewater ponds, drinking water reservoirs, and public beaches. Intensified screening of swans and geese for AIV, West Nile virus and anatid herpesvirus is warranted.

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  • 324.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Dessborn, Lisa
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Arzel, Céline
    Andungar har bra koll när faran hotar2014In: Vår fågelvärld, ISSN 0042-2649, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 34-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 325.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Dessborn, Lisa
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Arzel, Céline
    Så undviker andungarna rovdjuren2015In: Svensk jakt, ISSN 0039-6583, Vol. 153, no 6, p. 38-40Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 326.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Dessborn, Lisa
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Englund, G.
    Fisk och änder konkurrerar med varandra2012In: Fåglar i Västerbotten, ISSN 0348-1166, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 19-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 327.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Dessborn, Lisa
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Englund, Göran
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Presence of fish affects lake use and breeding success in ducks2010In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 641, no 1, p. 215-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several previous studies indicate that presence of fish has negative effects on waterbirds breeding on lakes, owing either to competition for common invertebrate prey or fish predation on ducklings/chicks. However, others have reported results to the contrary and it remains unresolved what factors trigger, inhibit, and modulate fish-waterbird interactions. The present study was designed to test the effect of fish presence per se, with a minimum of variation in possibly confounding environmental variables. Thus, after stratifying for area, depth, altitude, pH, and total phosphorus we compared 13 lakes with and 12 without fish (mainly pike Esox lucius and perch Perca fluviatilis) with respect to (i) general species richness of waterbirds, (ii) species-specific utilization and breeding success of two dabbling ducks (mallard Anas platyrhynchos and teal Anas crecca) and a diving duck (goldeneye Bucephala clangula). General species richness of waterbirds was higher on fishless lakes. Overall use (bird days) and brood number of teal and goldeneye were higher on fishless lakes. The latter also had more benthic and free-swimming prey invertebrates compared to lakes with fish. Mallard use, mallard brood number, and abundance of emerging insects did not differ between lake groups. Generalized linear models including fish presence as factor and considering seven environmental variables as covariates, confirmed that all waterbird variables except mallard days and broods were negatively correlated to fish presence. There was also a residual positive relationship of lake area on general species richness, teal days, and teal broods. Our data demonstrate a stronger effect of fish presence on diving ducks and small surface feeding ducks than on large surface-feeding ducks. We argue that observed patterns were caused by fish predation on ducks rather than by fish-duck competition for common prey.

  • 328.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Dessborn, Lisa
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Nummi, Petri
    Helsingfors universitet.
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Finska vilt- och fiskeriforskningsinstitutet.
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Umeå.
    Forskare vill ha inventering före fågeljakt2008In: Jakt och Jägare, ISSN 1401-8306, no 6, p. 45-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 329. Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Edenius, L.
    Abundance patterns in bird communities in old boreal forest in relation to stand structure and local habitat configuration1999In: Ornis Fennica, ISSN 0030-5685, Vol. 76, no 3, p. 123-133Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 330.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Folkesson, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, CNERA Avifaune Migratrice, La Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, Arles.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Putting density dependence in perspective: nest density, nesting phenology, and biome, all matter to survival of simulated mallard Anas platyrhynchos nests2009In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 317-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breeding success in ground-nesting birds is primarily determined by nest survival, which may be density-dependent, but the generality of this pattern remains untested. In a replicated crossover experiment conducted on 30 wetlands, survival of simulated mallard nests was related to "biome" (n=14 mediterranean and 16 boreal wetlands), breeding "phenology" (early vs late nests), and "density" (2 vs 8 nests per 225 m shoreline). Local abundances of "waterfowl", "other waterbirds", and "avian predators" were used as covariates. We used an information-theoretic approach and Program MARK to select among competing models. Nest survival was lower in late nests compared with early ones, and it was lower in the mediterranean than in the boreal study region. High-density treatment nests suffered higher depredation rates than low-density nests during days 1-4 of each experimental period. Nest survival was negatively associated with local abundance of "waterfowl" in the boreal but not in the mediterranean biome. Effect estimates from the highest-ranked model showed that nest "density" (d 1-4) had the strongest impact on model fit; i.e. three times that of "biome" and 1.5 times that of "phenology". The latter's effect, in turn, was twice that of "biome". We argue that our study supports the idea that density-dependent nest predation may be temporally and spatially widespread in waterfowl. We also see an urgent need for research of how waterfowl nesting phenology is matched to that of prey and vegetation.

  • 331.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Green, M.
    Gustafsson, R.
    Haas, F.
    Liljebäck, N.
    Lindström, Å.
    Nilsson, L.
    Ottosson, U.
    Ottvall, R.
    Svensson, M.
    Svensson, S.
    Tjernberg, M.
    Hur många fåglar finns det i verkligheten?2013In: Vår fågelvärld, ISSN 0042-2649, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 58-59Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 332.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Density-dependent nest predation in mallards Anas platyhynchos: patterns and implications2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 333.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Konstgjorda reden ger riktiga svar2011In: Svensk Jakt, Vol. 1, p. 92-94Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Häckningen är en känslig och farlig fas i fåglarnas årliga cykel. Många rovdjur utgör ett hot mot ägg och ungar. Viltforskare vid Högskolan Kristianstad berättar här om nya rön om samspelet mellan gräsänder och de rovdjur som rövar deras bon.

  • 334.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Manipulated density of adult mallards affects nest survival differently in different landscapes2007In: Canadian Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0008-4301, E-ISSN 1480-3283, Vol. 85, no 5, p. 589-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breeding success in many birds including wildfowl is mainly determined by nest predation. Few studies address cues used by predators to find duck nests, and the same is true for spacing patterns that ducks might use to reduce predation. We designed a crossover experiment in agricultural and forested settings to test the assumption that nest predation rate is related to density of adult birds on a lake. We used introduced wing-clipped mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L., 1758) to increase local pair density and semi-natural nests to assess predation rate. Depredation patterns were analyzed by model fitting in program MARK, using introduction and landscape type as main effects and abundance of avian predators and wild waterbirds as covariates. Depredation was higher at agricultural lakes than at forest lakes. Nest survival decreased with increasing abundance of wild waterfowl, whereas it tended to increase with the abundance of "other waterbirds". There was a landscape-dependent effect of increased mallard pair density: positive at agricultural lakes and negative at forest lakes. Avian predators found 91% of depredated "known-predator" nests at agricultural lakes and 25% at forest lakes; mammals found 9% at agricultural lakes and 75% at forest lakes. The landscape-dependent density effect may in part be due to different predator communities in these landscape types.

  • 335.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Svältrisk orsak till att flera västerbottniska sjöar saknar häckande änder2012In: Fåglar i Västerbotten, ISSN 0348-1166, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 10-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 336.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Änder klarar sig bättre utan grannar2012In: Anser, ISSN 0347-9595, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 22-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Häckningen är på många sätt den viktigaste delen av fåglarnas årscykel, men den är också en av de farligaste.

    Ett bo fullt med ägg är ju en fantastisk måltid för många rovdjur. mFågelekologer vid Högskolan Kristianstad berättar här om nya rön om samspelet mellan gräsänder och de rovdjur som gillar deras bon. Det finns mycket att vinna för de änder som häckar vid rätt tidpunkt och placerar sina bon på rätt ställe!

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  • 337.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Dessborn, Lisa
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Jonzén, Niklas
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Valkama, Jari
    Gräsandens liv och död2008In: Svensk Jakt, no 10, p. 82-84Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 338.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Nummi, Petri
    Finland.
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Finland.
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    SLU.
    Density dependent breeding success in mallards2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breeding success in wild mallards was studied on small eutrophic nemoral lakes in a two-year cross-over experiment in which wing-clipped conspecifics were added to increase pair density. The number of wild mallards that came to the lakes to nest (prior to introductions) did not differ between years. Introduction treatment led to a significant reduction in brood number in wild mallards, but it did not alter the number of stage 2+ ducklings finally produced on a lake. Introduction had no effect on lake utilization by broods, ducklings and non-breeding adults (cumulative days over the entire breeding season). Abundance of invertebrate prey differed greatly among lakes, but it did not correlate with breeding success. Breeding success was thus subject to sequential density-dependence; i.e. a lower number of broods still produced the same number of 2+ ducklings. We speculate that predation is the most likely process behind both patterns. We conclude that late and snapshot measures of duckling productivity may mask density dependent population processes of fundamental importance to regulation and harvest policy.

  • 339.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Nummi, Petri
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    Farligt att vara andägg2002In: Svensk jakt, ISSN 0039-6583, Vol. 140, no 10, p. 18-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 340.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Finska vilt- & fiskeriforskningsinstitutet, Joensuu.
    Nummi, Petri
    Helsingfors universitet.
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Umeå.
    Hur många får ligga i orubbat bo?2003In: Vår fågelvärld, ISSN 0042-2649, no 3, p. 28-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 341.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Finland.
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    SLU, Umeå.
    Nummi, Petri
    Finland.
    Within-season sequential density dependence regulates breeding success in mallards Anas platyrhynchos2005In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 108, p. 582-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Density dependence in vital rates is a key issue in population ecology but remains largely unexplored experimentally. We studied breeding success, lake use, and prey availability in wild mallards Anas platyrhynchos on small nemoral lakes in a replicated, two-year cross-over experiment in which pair density was increased. The number of wild mallards that settled on lakes prior to introductions of extra pairs did not differ between control and introduction years. Introductions led to a lake-level reduction in the number of broods observed. However, the number of stage 2/ (almost fledged) ducklings did not differ between treatments, nor did lake utilization by nonbreeding adults, broods and ducklings. Prey resource availability differed greatly among lakes, but it did not correlate with breeding success. Partialling out the possible effect of food competition from wild adult nonbreeding mallards did not change this conclusion. Our study demonstrates sequential density dependence in breeding success; introductions caused a decrease in brood number, but despite fewer broods a similar number of nearly fledged ducklings were produced. We suggest that predation and/or lake change of broods soon after hatching created these patterns. We conclude that using a single and late measure of breeding success such as fledged birds can mask regulatory processes. Implications of density dependence and its relation to individual reproductive success are understood better if breeding success is decomposed into nest success, duckling survival and fledgling survival.

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  • 342.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Joensuu Game and Fisheries Research.
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    Department of Animal Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Nummi, Petri
    Department of Applied Biology, University of Helsinki.
    Within-season sequential density dependence regulates breeding success in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)2005In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 582-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Density dependence in vital rates is a key issue in population ecology but remains largely unexplored experimentally. We studied breeding success, lake use, and prey availability in wild mallards Anas platyrhynchos on small nemoral lakes in a replicated, two-year cross-over experiment in which pair density was increased. The number of wild mallards that settled on lakes prior to introductions of extra pairs did not differ between control and introduction years. Introductions led to a lake-level reduction in the number of broods observed. However, the number of stage 2+ (almost fledged) ducklings did not differ between treatments, nor did lake utilization by nonbreeding adults, broods and ducklings. Prey resource availability differed greatly among lakes, but it did not correlate with breeding success. Partialling out the possible effect of food competition from wild adult nonbreeding mallards did not change this conclusion. Our study demonstrates sequential density dependence in breeding success; introductions caused a decrease in brood number, but despite fewer broods a similar number of nearly fledged ducklings were produced. We suggest that predation and/or lake change of broods soon after hatching created these patterns. We conclude that using a single and late measure of breeding success such as fledged birds can mask regulatory processes. Implications of density dependence and its relation to individual reproductive success are understood better if breeding success is decomposed into nest success, duckling survival and fledgling survival.

  • 343.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    Nummi, Petri
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Finns det mer andrum?2005In: Svensk jakt, ISSN 0039-6583, Vol. 143, no 8, p. 80-82Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 344.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Olsen, Björn
    Vart tog fågelinfluensan vägen?2010In: Vår fågelvärld, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 8-12Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 345.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Hagman, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet.
    Löwenborg, Kristin
    Stockholms universitet.
    Kärvemo, Simon
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Snokens barnkammare försvinner2013In: Fauna och flora : populär tidskrift för biologi, ISSN 0014-8903, Vol. 108, no 1, p. 10-16Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 346.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Hagman, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet.
    Löwenborg, Kristin
    Stockholms universitet.
    Pettersson, Gustav
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Anais, Voisin
    Stockholms universitet.
    Kärvemo, Simon
    Stockholms universitet & Uppsala universistet.
    Movements and habitat choice of resident and translocated adult female grass snakes (natrix natrix) during the egg-laying period2019In: Herpetological Journal, ISSN 0268-0130, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 245-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used externally applied transmitters to study movements of female grass snakes (Natrix natrix) during the egg-laying period in a near-urban landscape in Sweden. Half of the studied snakes were residents while the other half were translocated individuals with no previous experience of the area. As predicted, resident females moved more goal-oriented and shorter distances than did translocated individuals. Habitat use did not differ between resident and translocated snakes; they were typically found in bushes, reeds, and tall vegetation. Habitat preference (use in relation to availability) showed that bushy habitats, tall grassy vegetation and reedbeds were over-used in proportion to availability, whereas forest and open grass lawns were used less than expected based on availability. Our study highlights the importance of preserving and restoring linear habitat components providing shelter and connectivity in conservation of grass snakes. We suggest that externally applied transmitters are a better option than surgically implanted ones in movement studies of grass snakes, and that translocation as a conservation method for snakes has drawbacks.

  • 347.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Hessel, Rebecca
    Fox, Anthony David
    Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University.
    Dalby, Lars
    Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University.
    Interpreting seasonal range shifts in migratory birds: a critical assessment of 'short-stopping' and a suggested terminology2014In: Journal of Ornithology = Journal fur Ornithologie, ISSN 0021-8375, E-ISSN 1439-0361, Vol. 155, no 3, p. 571-579Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term 'short-stopping' is increasingly used in ecology to describe spatio-temporal changes in occurrence of migratory species. Spurred by the insight that it has been used in a variety of contexts, we reviewed its use in avian ecology. A literature search yielded 59 papers explicitly treating short-stopping in birds, most of them in peer-reviewed journals. The term was first used in 1967 to describe a northward shift in wintering Canada Geese in North America and has been used with increasing frequency to the present day. Geese dominate the short-stopping literature, which is confined to the northern hemisphere. Short-stopping has been used to describe (1) a shortened autumn migration that results in a wintering distribution closer to breeding areas, (2) a shortened spring migration that results in a breeding distribution closer to wintering areas, and (3) a delay in autumn migration that leads to a perceived reduced abundance in some part of the winter range. We advocate that short-stopping should be used only to describe (1) range shifts that involve shortening of the migratory corridor, and that they are qualified explicitly by season (i.e. breeding/winter) and degree (i.e. full or partial range shift). In other cases of breeding, wintering or entire range shifts where the migratory corridor is elongated or remains the same, we recommend using the term 'range shift', qualified by season, geography and orientation (i.e. the direction of the range shift). We also discuss the need for spatially explicit avian count monitoring mechanisms (rather than capture-recapture or hunting bag data) designed specifically to track such changes in distribution in the future.

  • 348.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Hirschfeld, E
    Svensk fågelrapportering: bra måste bli bättre!2005In: Vår fågelvärld, ISSN 0042-2649, Vol. 64, no 8, p. 36-37Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 349.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Hirschfeld, Erik
    Cardoso, Helder
    Diurnal seabird movements at Cabo Carvoeiro (Peniche, Portugal): observations in early October 20122013In: Seabird, ISSN 0267-9310, Vol. 26, p. 24-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecology and movements of seabirds are still inadequately understood, mainly because they can rarely be studied efficiently from land. The potential of Cabo Carvoeiro (Peniche, Portugal) for monitoring seabird movements from land is poorly known internationally, as few results from this site have been published in English. Here we present data from standardised counts in October 2012 and draw attention to recent organised seabird counts in Portugal. Despite unfavourable weather conditions for concentrating seabirds towards land, we observed a strong passage of Northern Gannet   Morus bassanus, Cory’s Shearwater Calonectris diomedea, Great Skua  Stercorarius skua, and Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus (mean morning passage of 252, 99, 19, and 21 birds / hour, respectively). Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus, Sooty Shearwater P. griseus and Great Shearwater P. gravis occurred regularly in low numbers. Extrapolation indicates that thousands of seabirds passed daily within a few kilometres from land. The high counts of some species and the fairly high species diversity observed by us and in the RAM (Rede de observação de Aves e Mamiferos marinhos) initiative show that Cabo Carvoeiro is an outstanding site for monitoring and studying seabirds in the eastern Atlantic, as it is also located further south in the flyway than most other seawatch points. We hope this note will inspire ornithologists from other countries to participate in standardised seabird counts at Cabo Carvoeiro and other Portuguese sites.

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  • 350.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Hirschfeld, Erik
    Cardoso, Helder
    Portugal.
    Hessel, Rebecca
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Passage patterns of seabirds in October at Cabo Carvoeiro Portugal, with special reference to the Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus2016In: Marine Ornithology, ISSN 1018-3337, E-ISSN 2074-1235, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 151-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land-based counts of migrating seabirds remain essential to increase knowledge about their numbers and movements. To assess the value of Cabo Carvoeiro (Peniche, Portugal) as a monitoring site in the East Atlantic, we studied seabird species composition, passage patterns and flock size during mid-October 2014. During standardized counts, we observed nearly 8 000 seabirds of 17 species. The ratio of individuals passing in a southerly to southwesterly direction was >96% in all species, showing that genuine migrants were counted. The passage rate (birds/hour) was higher for Northern Gannets Morus bassanus than for any other species, by a factor of approximately 50 (morning mean 906/h, afternoon mean 1 153/h). The globally endangered Balearic Shearwaters Puffinus mauretanicus, Great Skuas Stercorarius skua and Pomarine Skuas S. pomarinus had passage rates of 10–25/h. Flock size distribution in the 11 most numerous species showed that most migrated singly or in groups of two. Flock size was larger in Balearic Shearwaters than in both Cory’s Calonectris borealis and Manx Shearwaters P. puffinus. Among skuas, flock size was larger in Pomarine than in Great Skuas. The passage rate of Manx Shearwaters was positively correlated with that of Northern Gannets, Great Skuas and Sandwich Terns Sterna sandvicensis. Northern Gannets showed a positive co-variation with Pomarine Skuas. Balearic and Sooty Shearwaters Ardenna griseus were the only species that did not show any significant co-variation with another species. Morning and afternoon passage rates did not differ significantly in any of the six most numerous species (Northern Gannets, Cory’s and Balearic Shearwaters, Great and Pomarine Skuas, and Sandwich Terns), or in Sooty Shearwaters (less numerous). Thus, the passage rates at Cabo Carvoeiro in October of Balearic Shearwaters and five other species were as high or higher than those reported from any other seawatch in Portugal, indicating the international value of seabird monitoring at Cabo Carvoeiro during the autumn migration.

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