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  • 251.
    Osterberg, Kai
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Persson, Roger
    Lund University.
    Viborg, Njordur
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Tenenbaum, Artur
    Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde.
    The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion: a prospective validation of the onset of sustained stress and exhaustion warnings2016Ingår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 16, artikel-id 1025Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The need for instruments that can assist in detecting the prodromal stages of stress-related exhaustion has been acknowledged. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion (LUCIE) could accurately and prospectively detect the onset of incipient exhaustion and to what extent work stressor exposure and private burdens were associated with increasing LUCIE scores. Methods: Using surveys, 1355 employees were followed for 11 quarters. Participants with prospectively elevated LUCIE scores were targeted by three algorithms entailing 4 quarters: (1) abrupt onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 18), (2) gradual onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 42), and (3) sustained Exhaustion Warning (n = 36). The targeted participants' survey reports on changes in work situation and private life during the fulfillment of any algorithm criteria were analyzed, together with the interview data. Participants untargeted by the algorithms constituted a control group (n = 745). Results: Eighty-seven percent of participants fulfilling any LUCIE algorithm criteria (LUCIE indication cases) rated a negative change in their work situation during the 4 quarters, compared to 48 % of controls. Ratings of negative changes in private life were also more common in the LUCIE indication groups than among controls (58 % vs. 29 %), but free-text commentaries revealed that almost half of the ratings in the LUCIE indication groups were due to work-to-family conflicts and health problems caused by excessive workload, assigned more properly to work-related negative changes. When excluding the themes related to work-stress-related private life compromises, negative private life changes in the LUCIE indication groups dropped from 58 to 32 %, while only a negligible drop from 29 to 26 % was observed among controls. In retrospective interviews, 79 % of the LUCIE indication participants confirmed exclusively/predominantly work stressors, while 6 % described a predominance of private life stressors. Conclusions: Negative changes in the work situation were the most prominent change related to a sustained increase in LUCIE scores. The findings seem to confirm that LUCIE is a potentially useful tool for clinical screening of incipient work-related exhaustion.

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  • 252.
    Ottová-Jordan, Veronika
    et al.
    Tyskland.
    Smith, Otto R. F.
    Norge.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning, Avdelningen för psykologi. Jönköping University, HLK.
    Gobina, Inese
    Lettland.
    Rathmann, Katharina
    Tyskland.
    Torsheim, Torbjørn
    Norge.
    Mazur, Joanna
    Polen.
    Välimaa, Raili
    Finland.
    Cavallo, Franco
    Italien.
    Jericek Klanscek, Helena
    Slovenien.
    Vollebergh, Wilma
    Nederländerna.
    Meilstrup, Charlotte
    Danmark.
    Richter, Matthias
    Tyskland.
    Moor, Irene
    Tyskland.
    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
    Tyskland.
    Trends in health complaints from 2002 to 2010 in 34 countries and their association with health behaviours and social context factors at individual and macro-level2015Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 83-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This article describes trends and stability over time in health complaints in adolescents from 2002 to 2010 and investigates associations between health complaints, behavioural and social contextual factors at individual level and economic factors at macro-level.

    METHODS: Comprising N = 510 876 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children and adolescents in Europe, North America and Israel, data came from three survey cycles of the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Age- and gender-adjusted trends in health complaints were examined in each country by means of linear regression. By using the country as the random effects variable, we tested to what extent individual and contextual variables were associated with health complaints.

    RESULTS: Significant associations are stronger for individual level determinants (e.g. being bullied, smoking) than for determinants at macro-level (e.g. GDP, Gini), as can be seen by the small effect sizes (less than 5% for different trends). Health complaints are fairly stable over time in most countries, and no clear international trend in health complaints can be observed between 2002 and 2010. The most prominent stable determinants were being female, being bullied, school pressure and smoking.

    CONCLUSION: Factors associated with health complaints are more related to the proximal environment than to distal macro-level factors. This points towards intensifying targeted interventions, (e.g. for bullying) and also targeting specific risk groups. The comparably small effect size at country-level indicates that country-level factors have an impact on health and should not be ignored.

  • 253. Ottová-Jordan, Veronika
    et al.
    Smith, Otto R.F.
    Gobina, Inese
    Mazur, Joanna
    Augustine, Lilly
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO).
    Cavallo, Franco
    Välimaa, Raili
    Moor, Irene
    Torsheim, Torbjörn
    Katreniakova, Zuzana
    Vollebergh, Wilma
    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
    Trends in Multiple Recurrent health complaitns in 15-year-olds in 35 countries in Europe, North America and Israel from 1994 to 20102015Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 25, nr suppl 2, s. 24-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Health complaints are a good indicator of an individual's psychosocial health and well-being. Studies have shown that children and adolescents report health complaints which can cause significant individual burden.

    METHODS: Using data from the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study, this article describes trends in multiple recurrent health complaints (MHC) in 35 countries among N = 237 136 fifteen-year-olds from 1994 to 2010. MHC was defined as the presence of two or more health complaints at least once a week. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate trends across the five survey cycles for each country.

    RESULTS: Lowest prevalence throughout the period 1994-2010 was 16.9% in 1998 in Austria and highest in 2006 in Israel (54.7%). Overall, six different trend patterns could be identified: No linear or quadratic trend (9 countries), linear decrease (7 countries), linear increase (5 countries), U-shape (4 countries), inverted U-shape (6 countries) and unstable (4 countries).

    CONCLUSION: Trend analyses are valuable in providing hints about developments in populations as well as for benchmarking and evaluation purposes. The high variation in health complaints between the countries requires further investigation, but may also reflect the subjective nature of health complaints.

  • 254.
    Ousdal, Olga T.
    et al.
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Server, Andres
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Increased amygdala and visual cortex activity and functional connectivity towards stimulus novelty is associated with state anxiety2014Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. e96146-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel stimuli often require a rapid reallocation of sensory processing resources to determine the significance of the event, and the appropriate behavioral response. Both the amygdala and the visual cortex are central elements of the neural circuitry responding to novelty, demonstrating increased activity to new as compared to highly familiarized stimuli. Further, these brain areas are intimately connected, and thus the amygdala may be a key region for directing sensory processing resources to novel events. Although knowledge regarding the neurocircuit of novelty detection is gradually increasing, we still lack a basic understanding of the conditions that are necessary and sufficient for novelty-specific responses in human amygdala and the visual cortices, and if these brain areas interact during detection of novelty. In the present study, we investigated the response of amygdala and the visual cortex to novelty, by comparing functional MRI activity between 1st and 2nd time presentation of a series of emotional faces in an event-related task. We observed a significant decrease in amygdala and visual cortex activity already after a single stimulus exposure. Interestingly, this decrease in responsiveness was less for subjects with a high score on state anxiety. Further, novel faces stimuli were associated with a relative increase in the functional coupling between the amygdala and the inferior occipital gyrus (BA 18). Thus, we suggest that amygdala is involved in fast sensory boosting that may be important for attention reallocation to novel events, and that the strength of this response depends on individual state anxiety.

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  • 255.
    Ousdal, Olga Therese
    et al.
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Specht, Karsten
    University of Bergen.
    Server, Andres
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Dolan, Ray J.
    University College London.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    The human amygdala encodes value and space during decision making2014Ingår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 101, s. 712-719Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Valuable stimuli are invariably localized in space. While our knowledge regarding the neural networks supporting value assignment and comparisons is considerable, we lack a basic understanding of how the human brain integrates motivational and spatial information. The amygdala is a key structure for learning and maintaining the value of sensory stimuli and a recent non-human primate study provided initial evidence that it also acts to integrate value with spatial location, a question we address here in a human setting. We measured hemodynamic responses (fMRI) in amygdala while manipulating the value and spatial configuration of stimuli in a simple stimulus-reward task. Subjects responded significantly faster and showed greater amygdala activation when a reward was dependent on a spatial specific response, compared to when a reward required less spatial specificity. Supplemental analysis supported this spatial specificity by demonstrating that the pattern of amygdala activity varied based on whether subjects responded to a motivational target presented in the ipsilateral or contralateral visual space. Our data show that the human amygdala integrates information about space and value, an integration of likely importance for assigning cognitive resources towards highly valuable stimuli in our environment.

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  • 256.
    Paganini, Anna
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital & Göteborg University.
    Moss, Tim
    England.
    Persson, Martin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskap, Forskningsmiljön PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Mark, Hans
    University of Gothenburg & Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    A gender perspective on appearance-related concerns and its manifestations among persons born with unilateral cleft lip and palate2020Ingår i: Psychology, Health & Medicine, ISSN 1354-8506, E-ISSN 1465-3966, s. 1-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) affects a person's facial appearance and can cause appearance-related distress. Appearance-related distress and its manifestations are not fully understood. Women with CLP tend to experience a higher degree of distress as well as undergo more aesthetic revisions than men. The aim of this study was to investigate if self-reported appearance-related gender differences occur among adults born with unilateral CLP using the Derriford Appearance Scale 24 (DAS24). One hundred sixty two consecutive patients, 107 men and 55 women, with unilateral CLP and no associated syndromes treated at the same hospital were asked to answer the DAS24. A mixed methods approach was used to analyse the questionnaires both quantitively and qualitatively. Fifty men and 30 women participated, the results showed that the aspects of appearance considered most disturbing was cleft-related among both genders, most common in regards to the nose. Three themes were found: acceptance, cleft features, and general appearance issues. The quantitative part showed that women reported higher appearance-related social anxiety and avoidance than men. This study demonstrated that appearance-related distress is present in both genders; however, women expressed more distress than men. Moreover, non-cleft as well as cleft features are of importance for self-reported dissatisfaction.

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  • 257.
    Persson, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning.
    Empatiskt bemötande och stress och återhämtning2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Empati är en viktig del av bemötande inom människovårdande yrken som tandvård och vård. Det finns teorier om att stress påverkar empati negativt genom att det bland annat leder till håglöshet och ökad cynism samt att återhämtning kan minska stress vilket indirekt kan påverka empatisk förmåga i bemötandet i positiv riktning. 

    Syftet med studien var att utforska om det fanns skillnader i självskattad empati, stress och återhämtning bland personer med olika lång yrkeserfarenhet, utbildning och utbildningsnivå. Utöver detta testades också om det fanns samvariationer mellan självskattningarna i empati, stress och återhämtning. Dessutom gjordes försök att mäta bemötande med hjälp av fiktiva fallexempel från vård och tandvård. Försöksdeltagare i studien utgjordes av 40 personer, till yrket undersköterskor, sjuksköterskor, blivande specialistsjuksköterskor och blivande tandhygienister. Pearsons korrelationsanalyser har använts för att beräkna korrelationer och envägs variansanalyser, ANOVA, för att beräkna skillnader mellan grupper. 

    I föreliggande studies resultat förefaller det som om yngre personer med mindre yrkeserfarenhet är mer stressande och mer empatiska medan äldre personer med fler arbetade år är mindre stressade och mindre empatiska medan utbildningstyp och utbildningsnivå inte verkar spela någon som helst roll.  Frågorna innehållande fiktiva fall konstateras behöva ytterligare utveckling. Inga som helst signifikanta skillnader avseende olik grupptillhörighet som yrke; blivande specialistsjuksköterskor, blivande tandhygienister, undersköterskor; eller utbildningsnivå; gymnasienivå, kandidatexamensnivå, magisterexamen eller högre kunde ses i studien. Studien inspirerar till fortsatt forskning inom området bemötande och empatisk autencitet. 

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  • 258.
    Persson, Matilda
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Ansiktsigenkänning: Holistisk och analytisk bearbetning vid ansiktsigenkänning av den egna etniska gruppen jämfört med andra etniska grupper2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract (Svenska)

    Den här undersökningen försöker ta reda på om orsaken till att människor bättre minns ansikten av sin egen etnicitet än ansikten med annan etnisk bakgrund ligger i mer holistisk än analytisk inkodning. Det testades även om kända och okända ansikten inkodas holistiskt eller analytiskt. Sammanlagt 51 personer deltog i undersökningen. Hälften av stimulusmaterialet var ljushyade (amerikaner av europeiskt ursprung) och hälften var mörkhyade (amerikaner av afrikanskt ursprung). 1/3 av stimulusmaterialet var bilder av mörka och ljusa kända personer. Uppgiften var att försöka känna igen bilderna då de visades på nytt med en förvrängning som skulle gynna antingen holistisk eller analytisk bearbetning. Resultaten visade att kända ansikten inkodades bättre än okända, och att skillnaden var större för holistisk än analytisk bearbetning. Skillnaden mellan ljusa och mörka ansikten gick i samma riktning, men var inte signifikant.

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  • 259.
    Persson, Roger
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Österberg, Kai
    Lund University.
    Viborg, Njördur
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Tenenbaum, Artur
    Gothenburg University.
    Two Swedish screening instruments for exhaustion disorder: cross-sectional associations with burnout, work stress, private life stress, and personality traits2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, nr 4, s. 381-388Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To examine the relationships of two screening instruments recently developed for assessment of exhaustion disorder (ED) with some other well-known inventories intended to assess ED-related concepts and self-reports of job demands, job control, job support, private life stressors, and personality factors.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional population sample ( n = 1355) completed: the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), Self-reported Exhaustion Disorder Scale (s-ED), Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Big Five Inventory (BFI), and items concerning family-to-work interference and stress in private life.

    RESULTS: Compared to participants without any indication of ED, participants classified as having ED on KEDS or s-ED had higher scores on all four SMBQ subscales, lower scores on the UWES-9 subscales vigor and dedication, higher JCQ job demands scores, lower JCQ job support scores, higher degrees of family-to-work interference and stress in private life, and higher BFI neuroticism and openness scores. In addition, participants classified as having ED on KEDS had lower scores on the UWES-9 absorption subscale, the JCQ job control scale, and lower BFI extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness scores, compared to the subgroup not classified as having ED.

    CONCLUSIONS: As expected, we observed an overall pattern of associations between the ED screening inventories KEDS and s-ED and measures of burnout, work engagement, job demands-control-support, stress in private life, family-to-work interference, and personality factors. The results suggest that instruments designed to assess burnout, work engagement, and ED share common ground, despite their conceptual differences.

  • 260.
    Plenty, Stephanie
    et al.
    Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Almqvist, Ylva
    Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Swedish National Institute of Public Health .
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Psychosocial working conditions: an analysis of emotional symptoms and conduct problems amongst adolescent students2014Ingår i: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 407-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored how psychosocial features of the schoolwork environment are associated with students' mental health. Data was drawn from 3699 ninth grade (15 year-old) Swedish students participating in the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. Using Structural Equation Modelling, perceived school demands, decision control and social support from teachers, classmates and parents were examined in relation to students' emotional and conduct problems. Higher demands were associated with greater emotional symptoms and conduct problems. Although weaker social support predicted emotional symptoms and conduct problems, the relative influence of teachers, classmates and parents differed. Teacher support was more closely associated with conduct problems, particularly for girls, while classmate support was more strongly related to emotional symptoms. The findings indicate that while excessive school pressure is associated with poorer mental health, social support can assist in optimising adolescents' emotional health and adaptive behaviour, as well as shaping perceptions of demands.

  • 261.
    Ploeg, Jantje
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning.
    Relationen mellan arbetstillfredsställelse och psykisk hälsa bland skolkuratorer i Sverige2020Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet psykisk hälsan anses vara grunden för människans välbefinnande, hälsa och funktionsförmåga genom att tänka, att interagera med andra, att använda emotioner och att njuta av livet. En yrkesgrupp som behöver ta hand om såväl sin egen som andras psykiska hälsa är skolkuratorer, vems arbetsuppdrag är mycket omfattande dock svår att beskriva. Tidigare forskning har visat att arbetstillfredsställelse eller arbetsglädje kan vara en faktor som är relaterad till en individs psykiska hälsa.

    Syftet i föreliggande studien var att undersöka om det finns faktorer i arbetssituationen som predicerar psykisk hälsa bland skolkuratorer i Sverige, med fokus på det salutogena perspektivet. Data erhölls från ett urval av 340 svenska skolkuratorer som besvarade en elektronisk enkät, baserade på två validerade enkäter om hälsa (SHIS) och arbetssituation (WEMS). Med hjälp av en multipel regressionsanalys studerades skolkuratorernas psykiska hälsa och vilka av prediktorerna stöd, kontroll, ansträngning, känsla av sammanhang (KASAM) och utmaning bidrar till ökad psykisk hälsa bland skolkuratorer i Sverige.

    Resultaten gav en ögonblicksbild av den psykiska hälsan bland skolkuratorer i Sverige samt visade att stöd, kontroll och ansträngning predicerar högre nivåer av psykisk hälsa bland svenska skolkuratorer, men inte KASAM och utmaning. Resultaten diskuterades i relation till tidigare forskning och förslag till framtida forskning togs upp.

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  • 262.
    Psouni, Elia
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Lärarutbildning.
    Bengtsson, H.
    Relationship between parents' attachment and caregiving representations at different levels of awareness2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 263.
    Psouni, Elia
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Janke, Axel
    LOEWE – Biodiversity and Climate Research Center – BiK-F, Senckenberganlage, Frankfurt am Main.
    Garwicz, Martin
    Neuronano Research Center, BMC F10, Lund University.
    Impact of carnivory on human development and evolution revealed by a new unifying model of weaning in mammals2012Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. e32452-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Our large brain, long life span and high fertility are key elements of human evolutionary success and are often thought to have evolved in interplay with tool use, carnivory and hunting. However, the specific impact of carnivory on human evolution, life history and development remains controversial. Here we show in quantitative terms that dietary profile is a key factor influencing time to weaning across a wide taxonomic range of mammals, including humans. In a model encompassing a total of 67 species and genera from 12 mammalian orders, adult brain mass and two dichotomous variables reflecting species differences regarding limb biomechanics and dietary profile, accounted for 75.5%, 10.3% and 3.4% of variance in time to weaning, respectively, together capturing 89.2% of total variance. Crucially, carnivory predicted the time point of early weaning in humans with remarkable precision, yielding a prediction error of less than 5% with a sample of forty-six human natural fertility societies as reference. Hence, carnivory appears to provide both a necessary and sufficient explanation as to why humans wean so much earlier than the great apes. While early weaning is regarded as essentially differentiating the genus <italic>Homo</italic> from the great apes, its timing seems to be determined by the same limited set of factors in humans as in mammals in general, despite some 90 million years of evolution. Our analysis emphasizes the high degree of similarity of relative time scales in mammalian development and life history across 67 genera from 12 mammalian orders and shows that the impact of carnivory on time to weaning in humans is quantifiable, and critical. Since early weaning yields shorter interbirth intervals and higher rates of reproduction, with profound effects on population dynamics, our findings highlight the emergence of carnivory as a process fundamentally determining human evolution.

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  • 264.
    Rama, Driton
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Är lagöverträdande ungdomar mer impulsiva än laglydiga jämnåringar?2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker om det finns någon skillnad i impulsivitet mellan de ungdomar som begår brott och dem som inte gör det. Andra faktorer som undersöks är skillnader i spänningssökare personlighet och empati hos laglydiga och lagöverträdande ungdomar. Detta har undersökts genom en kvantitativ studie med laglydiga och lagöverträdande ungdomar. Ungdomsbrottslingars resultat från självskattningsformulär har jämförts med högpresterande och andra laglydiga ungdomar. Resultaten som kommit fram stöds inte av tidigare forskning då det finns inte någon skillnad i grad av självskattat impulsivitet mellan en grupp ungdomsbrottslingar och högpresterande eller andra laglydiga ungdomar. Dock fanns det signifikanta skillnader i graden av självskattat empati. Den blandade laglydiga gruppen hade högre empati än de andra grupperna. Det var inga signifikanta skillnader i självskattat empati mellan ungdomsbrottslingarna och naturprogram gruppen.

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  • 265. Reckless, Greg E.
    et al.
    Bolstad, Ingeborg
    Nakstad, Per H.
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital.
    Motivation alters response bias and neural activation patterns in a perceptual decision-making task.2013Ingår i: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 238, s. 135-147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation has been demonstrated to affect individuals' response strategies in economic decision-making, however, little is known about how motivation influences perceptual decision-making behavior or its related neural activity. Given the important role motivation plays in shaping our behavior, a better understanding of this relationship is needed. A block-design, continuous performance, perceptual decision-making task where participants were asked to detect a picture of an animal among distractors was used during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The effect of positive and negative motivation on sustained activity within regions of the brain thought to underlie decision-making was examined by altering the monetary contingency associated with the task. In addition, signal detection theory was used to investigate the effect of motivation on detection sensitivity, response bias and response time. While both positive and negative motivation resulted in increased sustained activation in the ventral striatum, fusiform gyrus, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, only negative motivation resulted in the adoption of a more liberal, closer to optimal response bias. This shift toward a liberal response bias correlated with increased activation in the left DLPFC, but did not result in improved task performance. The present findings suggest that motivation alters aspects of the way perceptual decisions are made. Further, this altered response behavior is reflected in a change in left DLPFC activation, a region involved in the computation of perceptual decisions.

  • 266.
    Reckless, Greg E.
    et al.
    University of Oslo.
    Ousdal, Olga T.
    University of Oslo.
    Server, Andres
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Walter, Henrik
    Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin.
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    University of Oslo.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    The left inferior frontal gyrus is involved in adjusting response bias during a perceptual decision-making task2014Ingår i: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 398-407Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Changing the way we make decisions from one environment to another allows us to maintain optimal decision-making. One way decision-making may change is how biased one is toward one option or another. Identifying the regions of the brain that underlie the change in bias will allow for a better understanding of flexible decision-making.

    Methods

    An event-related, perceptual decision-making task where participants had to detect a picture of an animal amongst distractors was used during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Positive and negative financial motivation were used to affect a change in response bias, and changes in decision-making behavior were quantified using signal detection theory.

    Results

    Response bias became relatively more liberal during both positive and negative motivated trials compared to neutral trials. For both motivational conditions, the larger the liberal shift in bias, the greater the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activity. There was no relationship between individuals' belief that they used a different strategy and their actual change in response bias.

    Conclusions

    The present findings suggest that the left IFG plays a role in adjusting response bias across different decision environments. This suggests a potential role for the left IFG in flexible decision-making.

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  • 267.
    Riddersporre, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Sociala kategorier och stereotypa uppfattningars inverkan vid bedömning av gymnasieelever2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stereotypa uppfattningar om människor grundar sig på egenskaper som

    associeras med sociala kategorier. Denna tillhörighet ger olika

    referenspunkter, så kallade standards, vid bedömning av andra. Utifrån

    teorin om shifting standards och antagandet att gymnasieprogram kan ses

    som sociala kategorier, undersöktes om och hur bedömningar av elever från

    olika typer av gymnasieprogram varierade och påverkades. Åttiotre

    personers enkätsvar som analyserades. Antingen bedömdes en typisk elev

    samt en specifik elev, eller enbart en specifik elev, från ett studie- eller

    yrkesförberedande program. Hypotesen var att en aktiverad effekt av en

    generell standard för en programtyp skulle skilja sig åt mellan

    programtyperna. Det fanns en signifikant skillnad i uppfattning om den

    typiska eleven från respektive programtyp. Dock fanns inga signifikanta

    skillnader kring den specifika eleven mellan programtyperna och således

    aktiverades ingen effekt av standarden.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 268.
    Riedmüller, Catharina
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning.
    Prokrastinera mindre och må bättre?: En studie av korrelationer mellan prokrastinering, self-compassion och livstillfredsställelse2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien har undersökt huruvida det föreligger något samband mellan prokrastinering, self-compassion och livstillfredsställelse. Det har även undersökts om studenter prokrastinerar i högre grad än de som arbetar. Studien har genomförts med en enkät som delats på internet och som till största delen spridits i Facebook-grupper. Det var 96 respondenter som svarade på enkäten och av dessa arbetade 61 personer och 35 studerade. Genom histogram framkom att underlaget för prokrastinering och livstillfredsställelse inte var normalfördelat. För att testa huruvida det föreligger någon signifikant skillnad mellan de som arbetar och de som studerar avseende prokrastinering, har det icke-parametriska testet Mann Whitney U använts. Resultatet visade att en signifikant skillnad föreligger och det är studenterna som i genomsnitt prokrastinerar i högst grad. Även skillnaden i grupperna avseende livstillfredsställelse testades med Mann Whitney U och en signifikant skillnad återfanns även här. Self-compassion jämfördes mellan studenter och arbetande med ett oberoende t-test, men någon signifikant skillnad förelåg inte. Vidare genomfördes korrelationsundersökningar, vilka testades med Spearman´s rho. Resultatet visade att det förelåg signifikanta korrelationer mellan prokrastinering och self-compassion samt self-compassion och livstillfredsställelse, men korrelationerna var relativt svaga. Slutsatsen blev således att studenterna prokrastinerade i högre grad än de som arbetade och att det fanns en signifikant negativ korrelation mellan prokrastinering och self-compassion samt en signifikant positiv korrelation mellan self-compassion och livstillfredsställelse. 

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  • 269. Risberg, Jarl
    et al.
    Hagstadius, Stefan
    Johanson, Aki
    Stenberg, Georg
    University of Lund.
    Regional cerebral blood flow correlates of anxiety and personality traits1991Ingår i: Lassen, N.A., Ingvar, D.H., Raichle, M.E., Friberg, L. (eds), Brain work and mental activity: quantitative studies with radioactive tracers: proceedings of the Alfred Benzon Symposium 31 held at the premises of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, Copenhagen August 12-16, 1990, Copenhagen: Munksgaard , 1991, s. 392-401Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 270.
    Rosander, Pia
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    The importance of personality, IQ and learning approaches: predicting academic performance2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present doctoral thesis was to examine to what extent personality traits and approaches to learning contribute to academic performance in upper secondary school (high school), after controlling for the well-known fact that general intelligence accounts for a large part of the variance. The general proposition of the thesis is that personality traits are stable dispositions and therefore predispose an individual to behave or act in a specific manner (Costa & McCrae, 1976). Additionally, another important determinant of academic performance is students’ approaches to learning, the way someone studies and makes sense of a particular school subject (Biggs, 1999). Study I examined how personality traits, divided into facets, predict academic performance in different school subjects. The results from several SEM analyses showed that personality, specifically Conscientiousness, has a positive influence on academic performance. In addition, there was a negative relation between Extraversion and academic performance and a positive relation between Neuroticism and academic performance. There were also interesting findings on the facet levels for all traits. The major conclusion of this study is that personality traits, both on the factor level and on the facet level, are important to academic performance in general, but sometimes more specifically to different school subjects. In Study II, the aim was to investigate the unique contribution of learning approaches to academic performance. A second aim was to explore possible gender differences in learning approaches. It was found that learning approaches contributed uniquely to academic performance, over and above personality and general intelligence. Differences between girls and boys were found, both with respect to the use of learning approaches and the consequences of these learning approaches for performance results. Based on a longitudinal design, the aim of Study III was to explore to what extent personality traits predict academic performance. Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Neuroticism were found to predict overall academic performance. Results suggest that personality traits, as measured at the age of 16, can predict academic performance at the age of 19, and more specifically: the grades of conscientious students improved from age 16 to age 19. This study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period.

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    Kappa
  • 271.
    Rosander, Pia
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Bäckstrom, Martin
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Personality traits and general intelligence as predictors of academic performance: a structural equation modelling approach2011Ingår i: Learning and individual differences, ISSN 1041-6080, E-ISSN 1873-3425, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 590-596Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, after controlling for general intelligence, predict academic performance in different school subjects. Upper secondary school students in Sweden (N=315) completed the Wonderlic IQ test (Wonderlic, 1992) and the IPIP-NEO-PI test (Goldberg, 1999). A series of hierarchical structural equation models showed that general intelligence, Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Neuroticism were significantly linked to overall academic performance. There were also different findings for a lower level of personality traits, e.g. different personality traits were associated with different subjects. The findings are discussed with regard to previous results on personality traits as determinants of academic performance in different school subjects and the fact that lower level traits may facilitate achievement in particular subjects.

  • 272.
    Rosander, Pia
    et al.
    Institutionen för Psykologi, Lunds universitet.
    Bäckström, M.
    A longitudinal study of personality traits and intelligence as predictors of academic performance: the importance of conscientiousnessManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 273.
    Rosander, Pia
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    Personality traits measured at baseline can predict academic performance in upper secondary school three years late2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, nr 6, s. 611-618Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to explore the ability of personality to predict academic performance in a longitudinal study of a Swedish upper secondary school sample. Academic performance was assessed throughout a three-year period via final grades from the compulsory school and upper secondary school. The Big Five personality factors (Costa & McCrae, 1992) - particularly Conscientiousness and Neuroticism - were found to predict overall academic performance, after controlling for general intelligence. Results suggest that Conscientiousness, as measured at the age of 16, can explain change in academic performance at the age of 19. The effect of Neuroticism on Conscientiousness indicates that, as regarding getting good grades, it is better to be a bit neurotic than to be stable. The study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period. The results offer educators avenues for improving educational achievement.

  • 274.
    Rosander, Pia
    et al.
    Institutionen för Psykologi, Lunds universitet.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Institutionen för Psykologi, Lunds Universitet.
    The unique contribution of learning approaches to academic performance, after controlling for IQ and personality: are there gender differences?2012Ingår i: Learning and individual differences, ISSN 1041-6080, E-ISSN 1873-3425, Vol. 22, nr 6, s. 820-826Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the unique contribution of learning approaches to academic performance, also taking gender differences into account. The participant sample consisted of 476 school pupils (53% girls and 47% boys) from two upper secondary schools in Sweden who completed two self-reported measures related to personality and learning approaches and one cognitive ability test. A series of hierarchical regressions were performed with participants' school subject-specific grades as the criterion variable and learning approaches as the predictor variable, after controlling for all variance related to IQ and personality. The results showed that learning approaches accounted for 6% and 16% of the variance in academic performance for girls and boys, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of possible explanations for and implications of the gender differences found.

  • 275.
    Ryding, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund.
    Decety, Jean
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund.
    Sjöholm, Hans
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund.
    Ingvar, David H.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund.
    Motor imagery activates the cerebellum regionally: a SPECT rCBF study with 99mTc-HMPAO1993Ingår i: Cognitive Brain Research, ISSN 0926-6410, E-ISSN 1872-6348, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 94-99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Our earlier findings of a cerebellar activation during motor imagery (Brain Res., 535 (1990) 313-317) were made with a technique with low regional resolution. Therefore we could not elucidate the distribution of the cerebellar activation. In the present study the cerebellar regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes during motor imagery (MI) was measured with a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) rCBF method (99mTc-HMPAO) with higher regional resolution during (1) silent counting, and (2) MI (which included silent counting) in 17 normal subjects. Comparing the SPECT results from the two tasks revealed the regional activations during MI. We confirmed that the most pronounced regional activations during MI were found in the cerebellum, especially in its infero-lateral parts on both sides.

  • 276. Ryding, Erik
    et al.
    Stenberg, Georg
    University of Lund.
    An example of analysis of regional significance levels in a multiregional CBF measurement with the t-moment test1991Ingår i: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 11, Suppl. 2, 1991, Vol. 11, nr Suppl. 2, s. S453-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 277.
    Sauciuc, Gabriela-Alina
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Zlakowska, Jagoda
    Polen.
    Persson, Tomas
    Lunds universitet.
    Lenninger, Sara M.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning, Forskningsmiljön Forskning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap inriktning fritidshem och förskola.
    Alenkaer Madsen, Elainie
    Lunds universitet.
    Imitation recognition and its prosocial effects in 6-month old infants2020Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, nr 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The experience of being imitated is theorised to be a driving force of infant social cognition, yet evidence on the emergence of imitation recognition and the effects of imitation in early infancy is disproportionately scarce. To address this lack of empirical evidence, in a within-subjects study we compared the responses of 6-month old infants when exposed to ipsilateral imitation as opposed to non-imitative contingent responding. To examine mediating mechanisms of imitation recognition, infants were also exposed to contralateral imitation and bodily imitation with suppressed emotional mimicry. We found that testing behaviours-the hallmark of high-level imitation recognition-occurred at significantly higher rates in each of the imitation conditions compared to the contingent responding condition. Moreover, when being imitated, infants showed higher levels of attention, smiling and approach behaviours compared to the contingent responding condition. The suppression of emotional mimicry moderated these results, leading to a decrease in all social responsiveness measures. The results show that imitation engenders prosocial effects in 6-month old infants and that infants at this age reliably show evidence of implicit and high-level imitation recognition. In turn, the latter can be indicative of infants' sensitivity to others' intentions directed toward them.

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  • 278.
    Schlenkert, Christel
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Olausson, Mats
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Stress och sociala medier bland gymnasister2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka samband mellan upplevd stress och användande av och tillgänglighet till sociala medier bland gymnasister. 167 elever deltog i studien och besvarade en digitalt presenterad enkät angående sina beteendevanor kring sociala medier och upplevd stress. Resultatet visade att en stor andel av eleverna var aktiva användare av sociala nätverk under lektionspass, 73,6 %, och av mobiltelefoner på nätterna, 60,4 %. Samtidigt kände 58,6 % av eleverna oro eller ångest för skolarbetet. Statistisk analys visade att stressnivån ökade med ålder och var högre hos flickor än hos pojkar. Hos flickorna fanns även en signifikant koppling mellan användande av sociala medier och endogen eller inifrån kommande stress. Flickornas användande av mobiltelefon nattetid uppvisade positiva korrela­tioner till såväl sömnsvårigheter som flera exogena eller utifrån kommande stressvariabler. Hos pojkarna fanns en signifikant koppling mellan sömnsvårigheter och frek­vensen hos deras Facebook-användande. Den exogena stresskänslan av svårighet att klara av vardagens krav hade hos pojkarna ett signifikant sam­band till vanan att gå in på Facebook under lektionspassen, medan hos flickorna samma stress­variabel var signifikant kopplad till vanan att läsa och skriva SMS på natten. En sammanfattande tolkning av resultaten visade att flickor generellt uppvisade ett starkare samband mellan stress och användning av sociala medier än pojkar. 

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    Stress_SocialaMedier
  • 279.
    Sikström, Sverker
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hellman, Johan
    Lund University.
    Dahl, Mats
    Lund University.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning.
    Johansson, Marcus
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    The role of sparsely distributed representations in familiarity recognition of verbal and olfactory materials2018Ingår i: Cognitive Processing, ISSN 1612-4782, E-ISSN 1612-4790, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 481-494Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the generalized signal detection theory (GSDT), where familiarity is described by a sparse binomial distribution of binary node activity rather than by normal distribution of familiarity. Items are presented in a distributed representation, where each node receives either noise only, or signal and noise. An old response (i.e., a "yes" response) is made if at least one node receives signal plus noise that is larger than the activation threshold, and item variability is determined by the distribution of activated nodes as the threshold is varied. A distinct representation leads to better performance and a lower ratio of new to old item variability, than a more distributed and less distinct representations. Here we apply the GSDT to empirical data on verbal and olfactory memory and suggest that verbal memory relies on a distinct neural item representation, whereas olfactory memory has a fuzzy neural representation leading to poorer memory and inducing a larger ratio of new to old item variability.

  • 280.
    Siotis Ekberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Briem, Valdimar
    Lunds universitiet.
    de Lima, Sonia
    Pyskiatriska öppenvården, Region Skåne.
    Dödsolyckor på spåret och deras psykologiska konsekvenser för lokförarna2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är slutrapporten från vår undersökning av psykiska konsekvenser för lokförare av de påkörningar de varit med om på järnvägsspåren. Tidigare har det publicerats tre delrapporter i projektet (Briem, de Lima & Siotis, 2004; Briem, Siotis & de Lima, 2007a, 2007b), och resultaten pekar entydigt i samma riktning. De indikerar att dödsolyckorna på järnvägsspåren har långvariga och ofta svårartade psykiska effekter på lokförarna. Förutom att orsaka lokförarna obehag och lidande kan detta påverka deras hälsa och arbetsprestation, och därmed också säkerheten på järnvägen. Vi har funnit tydliga stressindikationer hos lokförarna både i våra intervjuer och i observation av deras beteende. Dessa tecken på underliggande stress till trots, var det vanligt med påståenden från lokförarna om att allt stod psykosocialt bra till med dem. Även defensiv copingstil och ändrad känsla av sammanhang i tillvaron, vilket ibland framkom i testresultaten, vittnar om underliggande stresstillstånd. Vi har också funnit indikationer på repressiv anpassning, ibland även tecken på PTSD, särskilt i fall där det inte fanns tillräckligt socialt stöd. I jämförelser av lokförares reaktioner med motsvarande reaktioner hos järnvägsanställda i andra befattningar fann vi bl.a. en samverkan mellan allmänna livshändelser och traumatiska händelser i arbetet, samt skillnader i stressindikationer mellan män och kvinnor. Dessa skillnader från övriga anställda kan delvis bero på yrkesspecifika sociobiologiska egenskaper i lokförargruppen, vilken av tradition huvudsakligen består av män med hög medelålder, det senare beroende på rekryteringsfaktorer och tid i yrket. Inom själva lokförargruppen fanns i flesta avseenden endast obetydliga skillnader. Vi kan konstatera två saker: (i) Lokförarna i de tre undersökta urvalen tillhör en gemensam population, trots skillnader beroende på deltagarnas individuella egenskaper som ålder och kön. (ii) Lokförargruppen uppvisar betydande skillnader från övriga deltagare med hänsyn till ett flertal egenskaper och testresultat, och utgör således en av egna karakteristika präglad grupp som på vissa avgörande punkter särskiljer sig från övriga järnvägsanställda. Våra huvudsakliga resultat indikerar att det finns ett permanent, ofta lågstämt, traumatiskt stresstillstånd hos många av de lokförare som varit med om en påkörning med dödlig utgång. Tillståndet kvarstår ibland årtionden efter händelsen, och kan förvärras om lokförarna upplever fler olyckor som liknar den ursprungliga traumatiska händelsen. Även andra, stressiga händelser kan förvärra tillståndet. Komplexiteten i dessa samband visar att det är nödvändigt att ta hänsyn till många olika faktorer vid hantering av psykologiska följder av allvarliga olyckor på järnvägen. Det är viktigt att ha en medvetenhet om behovet av bearbetning och stöd som kan uppkomma hos de olycksdrabbade lokförarna vid olika tillfällen efter traumatiska olyckor. En trolig anledning till att psykiska problem ofta dröjer kvar hos lokförarna är att någon regelrätt terapeutisk insats sällan sätts in efter en traumatisk händelse. Den support som ursprungligen givits av lokförarnas egen kamratförening är dock ovärderlig i och med att den lindrar de akuta stressreaktionerna, men den ersätter inte de professionella åtgärder som i många fall behövs. Vi har i detta projekt lagt grunden till effektiv bedömning av lokförarnas psykiska välmående. Det som nu återstår är att genom en fortsatt forskningsinsats komma fram till effektiv behandling och eventuella terapiformer för denna så utsatta grupp.

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  • 281.
    Siotis Ekberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Briem, Valdimar
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    de Lima, Sonia
    Psykiatriska öppenvården, Region Skåne.
    Lokförare och dödsolyckor på spåret: Psykologiska och säkerhetsmässiga aspekter.: Delrapport 3, september 2007.2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lokförare är en för olyckor särskilt ustsatt grupp. I genomsnitt inträffar två allvarliga olyckor i veckan på järnvägsspåren, och statistiskt sett kommer varje lokförare att vara med om minst en påkörning med dödlig utgång under sitt yrkesliv. Att vara vittne till en dödsolycka skapar i de flesta fall svår stress, och det är inte ovanligt att lokförare drabbas av långvariga, om än inte nödvändigtvis invalidiserande, psykiska symtom efter att ha varit med om en dödsolycka på spåret. I innevarande projekt undersöktes de psykiska följderna för lokförare av traumatiska händelser på järnvägen. Trettiotre personer anställda vid tågdrift inom Södra banregionen deltog i denna delstudie, 28 lokförare och 5 personer i annan befattning. Deltagarna svarade på ett antal frågor om sig själva, om de olyckor de varit inblandade i och om sitt psykiska tillstånd. Först analyserades dessa data ("Malmö II") enskilt, och sedan analyserades svar från 26 av lokförarna (de som hade mer än 5 års tjänstgöring) tillsammans med motsvarande data från vår första delstudie i innevarande projekt (Briem, de Lima, & Siotis, 2004). Resultaten tyder på att urvalen i allt väsentligt kan ses som representativa för samma population, och att flera individuella faktorer påverkar utfallet hos individerna. Detta diskuteras i relation till tidigare forskning och lokförarpopulationens psykosociala egenskaper.

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  • 282.
    Siotis Ekberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Briem, Valdimar
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    de Lima, Sonia
    Psykiatriska öppenvården, Region Skåne.
    Lokförare och dödsolyckor på spåret:Psykologiska och säkerhetsmässiga aspekter.: Delrapport 2, 2007.2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lokförare är en för olyckor särskilt ustsatt grupp. I genomsnitt inträffar två allvarliga olyckor i veckan på järnvägsspåren, och statistiskt sett kommer varje lokförare att vara med om minst en påkörning med dödlig utgång under sitt yrkesliv. Att vara vittne till en dödsolycka skapar i de flesta fall svår stress, och det är inte ovanligt att lokförare drabbas av långvariga, omän inte nödvändigtvis invalidiserande, psykiska symtom efter att ha varit med om en dödsolycka på spåret. I innevarande projekt undersöktes de psykiska följderna för lokförare och annaninblandad personal av traumatiska händelser på järnvägen. Fyrtioåtta personer anställda vidlokal tågdrift i Stockholm deltog i projektet, 27 lokförare och 21 i annan befattning. Deltagarnasvarade på ett antal frågor om sig själva, de olyckor de varit inblandade i och sitt psykiskatillstånd. Resultaten tyder på att de traumatiska effekterna kan ta sig komplexa uttryck, och attflera individuella och psykosociala faktorer påverkar utfallet hos enskilda personer. Härframstår som viktigast individens kön, tidigare trauman, samt fysisk eller psykologisk närhet tillden fokala olyckan. Anledningarna till detta diskuteras i relation till tidigare forskning. Möjliga åtgärder för att lindra stressen, omedelbart eller på längre sikt, diskuteras också.

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  • 283.
    Skog, Daniel
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Lärarutbildning.
    Personlighet, mellangruppskontakt och fördomar om thailändska minoritetsgrupper2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningens utgångspunkter finns i Gordon W. Allports kontaktteori gällande kontakt mellan grupper och även Theodor W. Adornos teori angående den auktoritära personligheten. Studien undersökte på vilket sätt auktoritär personlighet påverkar en majoritetsgrupps direkta- och indirekta kontakt med minoritetsgrupper samt majoritetsgruppens fördomar. De två grupper som berördes var majoritetsgruppen thailändare och minoritetsbefolkning i provinsen Chiang Rai i norra Thailand. En enkätstudie genomfördes på elever av majoritetsgruppen vid Mae Fah Luang University (N=44). En svag korrelation mellan högre auktoritära värden och låga kontaktvärden påträffades men var inte signifikant. Ingen signifikant korrelation påträffades mellan gruppkontakt och fördomar. Ingen signifikant korrelation påträffades mellan auktoritära värden och fördomar.

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  • 284.
    Sonesson, Göran
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Lenninger, Sara M
    Lunds universitet.
    The psychological development of semiotic competence: from the window to the movie by way of the mirror2015Ingår i: Cognitive development, ISSN 0885-2014, E-ISSN 1879-226X, Vol. 36, nr Oct/Dec, s. 191-201Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychologists have been interested in the mirror image chiefly as a device permitting the subject to discover his/her self-representation, and semioticians have denied that the mirror image could be a kind of sign. In the present paper, our intention is to develop a framework for realising a detailed comparison between perceptual reality, as seen in a peephole, and mirror images, as well a streaming video and pre-recorded video. In the first section, we introduce the semiotic notion of sign, using precise criteria to assure that the mirror image, as used by adults, functions as a sign. In the second section, experimental studies comparing some constellations of perceptual reality, mirror images, and video strips are scrutinized, and we report briefly the results of a study which we ourselves set up to investigate the capacities of 2 year old children to understand an object choice task conveyed by means in those four kinds of media. The result suggests that continuity, which is the opposite of differentiation defining the sign, is still important for enabling the understanding of the task in children at this age.

  • 285. Sonmark, Kristina
    et al.
    Godeau, Emmanuelle
    Augustine, Lilly
    Högskolan Jönköping, CHILD.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Modin, Bitte
    Individual and contextual expressions of school demands and their relation to psychosomatic health: a comparative study of students in France and Sweden2016Ingår i: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 93-109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the health-related implications of both individual students’ and class-level concentrations of perceived demands in terms of pressuring, difficult and tiring schoolwork in France and Sweden, two countries with substantial differences in their educational systems and recent notable differences in PISA-results. Data come from Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (2001/02, 2005/06 and 2009/10) and comprise a total of 33,243 students aged 11, 13 and 15. Findings show that feeling under pressure from schoolwork is less prevalent in Sweden than in France among 11 and 13-year olds, but almost twice as common among 15-year olds. Yet its correlation with 15-year olds’ psychosomatic complaints is stronger in France than in Sweden. Feeling tired by schoolwork is equally common for 11- and 13-year olds in the two countries, but more frequent among 15-year olds in Sweden. It is also a stronger predictor of psychosomatic complaints in Sweden than in France across all age-groups. While it is more common at all ages to perceive the schoolwork as difficult in France, its relationship with psychosomatic complaints is stronger among students in Sweden. The proportion of classmates reporting high school demands is also linked to poorer student health, but these effects were largely confined to girls in both countries.

  • 286.
    Sonnby-Borgström, Marianne
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Lunds universitet.
    Dismissing-avoidant pattern of attachment and mimicry reactions at different levels of information processing2004Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 45, nr 2, s. 103-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with a dismissing-avoidant pattern of attachment are assumed to repress anxiety-related signals, a disposition hypothesized to interfere with facial mimicry and emotional contagion. Further, they are assumed to have one internal working model associated with anxiety, operating out of awareness at early, automatic stages of information processing, and another positive model operating at later, cognitively controlled stages of processing. The main aim of the present investigation was to compare facial mimicry in dismissing-avoidant and non-dismissing subjects at different levels of information processing. Pictures of happy and angry faces were exposed to 61 subjects at three different exposure times (17, 56, and 2,350 ms) in order to elicit facial muscle reactions, first at automatic levels and then at a more controlled levels. Corrugator activity ("frowning muscles") represented negative emotions and zygomaticus activity ("smiling muscles") positive emotions. The dismissing-avoidant subjects scored significantly lower on emotional empathy than the non-dismissing subjects. At the automatic level the dismissing-avoidant subjects showed "normal" corrugator responses (negative emotions) upon exposure to angry faces. At the cognitively controlled level of processing (2,350 ms) a significant interaction effect was shown between Faces x Muscles x Attachment pattern. The dismissing-avoidant subjects showed no corrugator response and an increased zygomaticus response ("smiling reaction") to the angry face, whereas the non-dismissing subjects reacted with a significant mimicking reaction. The dismissing-avoidant subjects' tendency to "smiling" in response to the angry face at the controlled level (2,350 ms) may be interpreted as a repression of their earlier, automatically evoked (56 ms) negative emotional reaction.

  • 287.
    Sonnby-Borgström, Marianne
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Lunds universitet.
    Models-of-self and models-of-others as related to facial muscle reactions at different levels of cognitive control2003Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 141-151Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypotheses of this investigation were based on attachment theory and Bowlby's conception of "internal working models", supposed to consist of one mainly emotional (model-of-self) and one more conscious cognitive structure (model-of-others), which are assumed to operate at different temporal stages of information processing. Facial muscle reactions in individuals with positive versus negative internal working models were compared at different stages of information processing. The Relationship Scale Questionnaire (RSQ) was used to categorize subjects into positive or negative model-of-self and model-of-others and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to measure trait anxiety (STAI-T). Pictures of happy and angry faces followed by backward masking stimuli were exposed to 61 subjects at three different exposure times (17 ms, 56 ms, 2,350 ms) in order to elicit reactions first at an automatic level and then consecutively at more cognitively elaborated levels. Facial muscle reactions were recorded by electromyography (EMG), a higher corrugator activity representing more negative emotions and a higher zygomaticus activity more positive emotions. In line with the hypothesis, subjects with a negative model-of-self scored significantly higher on STAI-T than subjects with a positive model-of-self. They also showed an overall stronger corrugator than zygomatic activity, giving further evidence of a negative tonic affective state. At the longest exposure time (2,350 ms), representing emotionally regulated responses, negative model-of-self subjects showed a significantly stronger corrugator response and reported more negative feelings than subjects with a positive model-of-self. These results supported the hypothesis that subjects with a negative model-of-self would show difficulties in self-regulation of negative affect. In line with expectations, model-of-others, assumed to represent mainly knowledge structures, did not interact with the physiological emotional measures employed, facial muscle reactions or tonic affective state.

  • 288.
    Sonnby-Borgström, Marianne
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Lunds universitet.
    Svensson, Owe
    Lunds universitet.
    Emotional empathy as related to mimicry reactions at different levels of information processing2003Ingår i: Journal of nonverbal behavior, ISSN 0191-5886, E-ISSN 1573-3653, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 3-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypotheses of this investigation were based on conceiving of facial mimicry reactions in face-to-face interactions as an early automatic component in the process of emotional empathy. Differences between individuals high and low in emotional empathy were investigated. The parameters compared were facial mimicry reactions, as represented by electromyographic (EMG) activity, when individuals were exposed to pictures of angry or happy faces. The present study distinguished between spontaneous facial reactions and facial expressions associated with more controlled or modulated emotions at different information processing levels, first at a preattentive level and then consecutively at more consciously controlled levels: 61 participants were exposed to pictures at three different exposure times (17, 56, and 2350 ms). A significant difference in facial mimicry reactions between high- and low-empathy participants emerged at short exposure times (56 ms), representing automatic, spontaneous reactions, with high-empathy participants showing a significant mimicking reaction. The low-empathy participants did not display mimicking at any exposure time. On the contrary, the low-empathy participants showed, in response to angry faces, a tendency to an elevated activation in the cheek region, which often is associated with smiling.

  • 289.
    Sonnby-Borgström, Marianne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Lunds universitet.
    Svensson, Owe
    Gender differences in facial imitation and verbally reported emotional contagion from spontaneous to emotionally regulated processing levels2008Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, nr 2, s. 111-122Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on gender differences in facial imitation and verbally reported emotional contagion have investigated emotional responses to pictures of facial expressions at supraliminal exposure times. The aim of the present study was to investigate how gender differences are related to different exposure times, representing information processing levels from subliminal (spontaneous) to supraliminal (emotionally regulated). Further, the study aimed at exploring correlations between verbally reported emotional contagion and facial responses for men and women. Masked pictures of angry, happy and sad facial expressions were presented to 102 participants (51 men) at exposure times from subliminal (23 ms) to clearly supraliminal (2500 ms). Myoelectric activity (EMG) from the corrugator and the zygomaticus was measured and the participants reported their hedonic tone (verbally reported emotional contagion) after stimulus exposures. The results showed an effect of exposure time on gender differences in facial responses as well as in verbally reported emotional contagion. Women amplified imitative responses towards happy vs. angry faces and verbally reported emotional contagion with prolonged exposure times, whereas men did not. No gender differences were detected at the subliminal or borderliminal exposure times, but at the supraliminal exposure gender differences were found in imitation as well as in verbally reported emotional contagion. Women showed correspondence between their facial responses and their verbally reported emotional contagion to a greater extent than men. The results were interpreted in terms of gender differences in emotion regulation, rather than as differences in biologically prepared emotional reactivity.

  • 290. Sonnby-Borgström, Marianne
    et al.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Lunds universitet.
    Svensson, Owe
    Imitative Responses and Verbally Reported Emotional Contagion from Spontaneous, Unconscious to Emotionally Regulated, Conscious Information-processing Levels2008Ingår i: Neuropsychoanalysis, ISSN 1529-4145, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 81-98Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The first aim of the study was to investigate whether facial imitative responses and subjective experiences of emotional contagion (self-reported hedonic tone) can be evoked as a result of unconscious information processing or whether these responses rely on conscious, interpretative processing. As a second aim, the correspondence between the participants’ self-reported hedonic tone and the magnitude of their facial responses was investigated. The third aim was to explore how increased involvement of conscious processing (longer exposure times) influenced facial imitative responses, self-reported hedonic tone, and the correspondence between these responses. Information-processing levels from unconscious (17–23 ms) to conscious (2,500 ms) levels were induced by successively prolonged presentations of facial stimuli. The 102 participants were exposed to masked pictures of happy, angry, and sad facial expressions. Facial responses (EMG) and self-reports of hedonic tone were measured after facial stimuli exposures. Verbally reported emotional contagion and zygomaticus imitative responses were observed at the subliminal exposure level, as well as correlations between these responses. These results were interpreted as being in line with a spontaneous, unconscious process involved in imitation and the subjective experiences of emotional contagion. Correlations between the participants’ magnitude of facial responses and their degree of emotional contagion were found at all exposure levels, from subliminal to clearly supraliminal levels of exposure. At the supraliminal exposure, 26 of the participants responded with inverted zygomaticus responses (“smiles”) toward angry expressions, a response that may be interpreted as a defensive response.

  • 291.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Lunds universitet.
    Att veta utan att tänka1994Ingår i: Ingvar, D. H. (red), Att tänka sig: hjärnkunskap och vitterhet: ett Berzeliusseminarium, Stockholm: Svenska Dagbladet , 1994, s. 57-70Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 292.
    Stenberg, Georg
    University of Lund.
    Brain and personality: extraversion/introversion and associated traits in relation to EEG, evoked potentials and regional cerebral blood flow1990Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 293.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Conceptual and perceptual factors in the picture superiority effect2006Ingår i: European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0954-1446, E-ISSN 1464-0635, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 813-847Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The picture superiority effect, i.e. better memory for pictures than for corresponding words, has been variously ascribed to a conceptual or a perceptual processing advantage. The present study aimed to disentangle perceptual and conceptual contributions. Pictures and words were tested for recognition in both their original formats and translated into participants´ second language. Multinomial Processing Tree (Batchelder & Riefer, 1999) and MINERVA (Hintzman, 1984) models were fitted to the data, and parameters corresponding to perceptual and conceptual recognition were estimated. Over three experiments, orienting tasks were varied, with neutral (Exp 1), semantic (Exp. 2), and perceptual (Exp. 3) instructions, and the encoding manipulations were used to validate the parameters. Results indicate that there is picture superiority in both conceptual and perceptual memory, but conceptual processing makes a stronger contribution to the advantage of pictures over words in recognition.

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  • 294.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Lunds universitet.
    Det kognitivt omedvetna1994Ingår i: Åström, K., Engström, C., Marklund, K. (red), Nationalencyklopedin: ett uppslagsverk på vetenskaplig grund utarbetat på initiativ av Statens kulturråd. Bd 14, Höganäs: Bra böcker , 1994, s. 440-Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 295.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, University of Lund.
    Extraversion and the P300 in a visual classification task1994Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 543-560Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Amplitude differences between extraverts and introverts in the P300 component of visual event-related potentials were examined in a picture classification task. A set of pictorial stimuli was used with three types of instructions, requiring responses based on colour, semantic category, or a combination of both criteria. Forty university students (22 men, 18 women) served as subjects. Based on their scores on the Eysenck Personality Inventory, they were divided into 3 groups of Low, Medium or High Extraversion. The pictures evoked large late positivities, with higher amplitude in the right hemisphere. P300 amplitude increased with increasing degrees of extraversion. The effect of extraversion on amplitude (High > Medium > Low) was larger for target stimuli in posterior derivations. The extraversion effect was mainly attributable to the impulsivity subtrait. Whereas some earlier studies have found higher P300 amplitudes for introverts in tasks inducing habituation or attention decrement, the present tasks differed by using more varied stimuli and by requiring more processing. The results are discussed in relation to theories on the biological basis of extraversion.

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  • 296.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Lunds universitet.
    Känsloliv, personlighet och hjärnaktivitet1991Ingår i: Ingvar, D. H. (red), Hjärna, psyke och tid: ett Berzelius-seminarium, Höganäs: Wiken , 1991, s. 76-83Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 297.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Perceptual and conceptual contributions to the picture superiority effect2003Ingår i: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, vol. 8, Abstracts, 2003, Vol. 8, nr Abstracts, s. 50-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Pictures are typically better remembered than words, but explanations for this fact diverge. Some attribute picture superiority to more distinctive perceptual qualities, others to more efficient conceptual processing. In an effort to separate perceptual and conceptual factors, two groups were presented with mixed lists of pictures and words and were subsequently tested for recognition in either the original or the opposite (picture/word) format. One group, the Format Inclusion group, was instructed to endorse both formats of a studied item; the other - the Format Exclusion group - was instructed to endorse only the original format. Multinomial models were fitted to the response data, with separate parameters for a high-threshold process, recognizing items of high familiarity, and a low-threshold process, rejecting items of low familiarity. Model testing showed that both conceptual and perceptual processing was more efficient for pictures than for words. Especially the low-threshold process showed dramatic picture superiority.

  • 298.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Lund.
    Personality and the EEG: arousal and emotional arousability1992Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 13, nr 10, s. 1097-1113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Eysenck's theory asserts that low cortical arousal accompanies extraversion (or the sub-component impulsivity). In Gray's theory, impulsivity is associated with high sensitivity to signals of reward, and anxiety with high sensitivity to signals of punishment. These hypotheses were tested by recording EEG signs of arousal and phasic arousability in emotional imagery, using 17 EEG channels and frequency analysis by Fourier transform. Three conditions were used: a neutral control task, and two emotional conditions involving imagery about pleasant and unpleasant personal memories. Forty subjects participated (23 men, 17 women; median age 23 years). Orthogonal personality dimensions of impulsivity and anxiety were derived from a joint analysis of the EPI and KSP questionnaires. The results showed, as expected, lower arousal, defined by more posterior theta activity, in impulsive subjects than in non-impulsives. These differences extended across all conditions. The EEG responses to the emotional conditions, in relation to the neutral one, consisted primarily of a right-lateralized frontal theta increase and changes in temporal beta activity (an increase in the positive condition, and a decrease in the negative one). These responses were expected to be amplified for impulsive subjects in positive emotion, and for anxious subjects in negative emotion. The right-sided frontal theta activity was stronger in high-anxious subjects than in low-anxious ones across all conditions, suggesting higher overall emotionality. For the temporal beta activity, the expected amplification of the response to negative emotion in the high anxiety group was confirmed, but the corresponding prediction for impulsives and positive emotion was not upheld. It is concluded that anxiety is related to EEG signs of heightened emotionality, especially in negative affect, and that impulsivity is associated with lowered arousal.

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  • 299.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Lunds universitet.
    Subliminal perception1995Ingår i: Åström, K., Engström, C., Marklund, K. (red), Nationalencyklopedin: ett uppslagsverk på vetenskaplig grund utarbetat på initiativ av Statens kulturråd. Bd 17, Höganäs: Bra böcker , 1995, s. 392-Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 300.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Växjö universitet.
    Tankens genvägar2001Ingår i: Installation Växjö universitet 2001: de nya professorerna och deras föreläsningar, Växjö: Växjö Univ. Press , 2001, s. 37-46Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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