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  • 251.
    Johansson, Rebecka
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Kristin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract

    Background: After a while the usage of urinary catheters leads to UTI which for the patient means inconvenience, suffering and pain. Aim: The aim of this study was to illuminate how to prevent UTI from patients with indwelling catheter. Method: This study was a literature review in which the articles have been searched for in PubMed, Cinahl and ELIN@Kristianstad. Results: It is important for the nurse to clean the periutheral area before inserting the catheter, and has the knowledge of different cathetermaterials. Silver alloy-coated catheters reduces the rate of UTI. Discussion: It is important to remove the catheter when it is no longer needed in order to let the patient regain the integrity and self-esteem and also be relieved from discomfort, something that is important to every patient and for the nurse to observe.

  • 252.
    Johansson, Tobias
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Knutsson, Annika
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Prehospital sjukvårdsledning - sammanställning av erfarenheter från KAMEDO-rapporter2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: An effective management of the healthcare's organization on one disaster site is considered as a condition in order to decrease damages and suffering at them as been hit of an accident. In KAMEDO-reports is described true accidents, how among other thing organizational parts been implemented and evaluations of which importance different decisions had. Aim: The aim of the study was to examine KAMEDO-reports concerning prehospital medical management on disaster sites. Method: Eight KAMEDO-reports was examined with focus on organization and management. Results: Four areas in which all could be influenced by the healthcare personnel in leading position was described: Management and Co-operation, Load and Go - Stay and Play, Priority and Triage. In most cases, the personnel that arrived in the first ambulance took the initial management responsibility. In seven of eight reports the principle of Load and Go was used which mainly depended on good transport possibilities and short distances to hospitals. A tendency could be discerned that the use of priority markings and damage cards was poorly used. About triage to the hospitals became correct in order to avoid overload depended in big part on how well the management functioned on the disaster site. Conclusion: It is important that personnel that is surely familiar with working on a disaster site also remains in conductive position in case of a big accident.

  • 253.
    Johnsson, Paulina
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Persson, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Har BMI betydelse i skolan?: En studie om samband mellan övervikt/fetma och skolupplevelser hos elvaåringar.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sveriges folkhälsopolitik utgår idag från elva folkhälsomålområden. I målen finns bland annat fysisk aktivitet, goda matvanor och barns trygga uppväxtvillkor. Övervikt och fetma är ett utbrett och ökande folkhälsoproblem i Sverige, vilket kan leda till bland annat hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar och diabetes. Bland barn och ungdomar har prevalensen för övervikt och fetma fördubblats de senaste två decennierna. Orsaken till övervikt och fetma är främst en obalans i energiintag och förbrukning, men även andra levnadsvanor kan ha en betydelse. Syfte: Syftet med studien är att studera relationen mellan elvaåringars BMI och deras skolupplevelse samt deras levnadsvanor. Material/Metod: Studien utgår från data insamlade av Statens Folkhälsoinstitut (FHI). Datan är insamlad via enkätundersökningen Skolbarns hälsovanor, som är en del av en internationell undersökning om barns hälsa. I den här studien fokuseras det på elvaåriga elever. Data analyserades i SPSS Statistics och skillnader hypotestestades med ANOVA och Chi 2-test. Resultat: Elever med övervikt eller fetma blir i större utsträckning mobbade och trivs sämre i skolan än elever med normalvikt. De upplever sig även få mindre hjälp av pedagoger och lärare under lektionstid. Trivs eleven i skolan har den en ökad chans att prestera bättre. Att vara fysiskt aktiv samvarierar med att eleven upplever sig duktigare i skolan och känner sig piggare. Piggare känner sig även elever som regelbundet äter frukost på vardagarna. Studien visar också på ett samband mellan god sömn och lägre BMI- värde. Konklusion: Skolan är en arena för preventivt arbete mot övervikt och fetma, eftersom barns BMI har ett samband med deras sociala samspel i skolan. Skolan har också möjlighet att arbeta med barns levnadsvanor gällande kost och fysisk aktivitet då barnen spenderar mycket tid där. Det är även viktigt i det preventiva arbetet att barnen får en god sömn, vilket är föräldrarnas ansvar.

  • 254.
    Juliusson, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Sylvén, Louise
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Zettersköld, Annika
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Närståendes upplevelser vid akut kritisk sjukdom2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract

    Background: When an acute illness or trauma occurs, life becomes disorganised and shattered for the critically ill person and his/her family members. The family members are confronted with thoughts about life and death which can cause stress and anxiety. How the family members cope with the crisis is individual and depending on personality and earlier experiences. Aim: The purpose of this literary review was to illustrate the family members´ experiences when dealing with a critically ill family member. Method: A literary review was made based on fifteen qualitative and quantitative scientific articles and a literary book. Findings: The analysis of the articles resulted in two main categories; security and insecurity. Information, involvement and wellbeing were the three subcategories which together lead to family members´ feeling of security. The feeling of insecurity was caused by negative experiences such as a lack of information, exclusion and discomfort. Conclusion: Nurses need to improve their knowledge and understanding in order to guide and support family members dealing with a life crisis. The result of the literary review made it apparent that all hospital personal are important for family members to feel security. The nurse however is a key employee of the hospital staff in order to offer a holistic family nursing.

  • 255.
    Jönsson, Annaber
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Turkowitch, Beatrice
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Kvinnans och mannens behov vid förlust av ett väntat barn2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: People are individuals who react differently when confronted with unexpected events. To miscarry is nature’s own way of sorting out the foetuses which could never become a fully grown child. The loss can without help be difficult to handle and can impact the couple negatively towards future pregnancies. The nursing staff ought to familiarize themselves with the experience, encounter their feelings and identify their needs. The aim of the study was to identify the female’s and the male’s needs during the loss of an expected child. Method: The study is based on 11 scientific articles searched for electronically in databases and manually. The content was analysed, codes and categories were developed. Result: The female and the male needed to be confirmed, to receive answers and find meaning in the event. During their hospital visit they needed a simple and adequate language. The result showed a need for creating memories. A further need for the male was to protect his partner. Conclusion: The female and the male ought to be seen as a unit. They need someone to take notice of their feelings, thoughts, someone that provided explanations, someone giving time.

  • 256.
    Jönsson, C
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Kempe, U
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Sjuksköterskors hantering av stressfyllda situationer i arbetet/ Nurses dealing with work related stress2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: The majority of nurses experience work related

    stress, which can lead to a negative impact on patient care. The

    stress can be handled by coping strategies. Aim: To illuminate

    coping strategies among nurses experiencing work related

    stress. Method: The study has been accomplished as a

    literature study, with a systematic review of scientific articles.

    Findings: Following coping strategies appeared: problem

    solving, long-term strategies, passive strategies, leisure

    strategies, social support and mental strategies. Conclusion:

    Awareness of coping strategies for dealing with work related

    stress, can lead to improvement in patient care.

  • 257.
    Jönsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Anna
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    The school as an arena for alcohol prevention: A study on how alcohol prevention / promotion can be carried out in upper level of compulsory school2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    The consumption of alcohol has stabilized in Sweden 2007, after several years of high increase. Despite the stabilization of the consumption the avaliability of alcohol has been raising, which constitute a big and in future years likely an increased risk in health among young people. The aim of the study was to describe how the staff on a secondary school works among pupils with alcohol prevention and promotion. Aquired knowledge are received from litterature, scentific articels and Internet to strength the relevance of the study. The school is an important arena in the work with alcoholprevention among pupils. The study indicates how essential it is to integrate parents, the use of social emotional training (SET) and cooperation between actors in and outside school in the work with young people and alcohol. To improve the work schools should take in connsideeration the pupils, through possibility of pupils influence for example. Thus three aspects are important to elucidate at the development of alcoholprevention.

  • 258.
    Jönsson, Jennie
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lorenz, Christel
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Factors influencing bystanders to start cardiopulmonary resuscitation out-of-hospital Faktorer som har betydelse för om bystanders påbörjar hjärtlungräddning utanför sjukhus – en litteraturstudie2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Objective: The out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest incidence in Sweden averages about 10 000 a year. Whether the victim will survive or not is dependent upon rapid actions according to the chain of survival – early alarm, early CPR, early defibrillation and early medical treatment. While waiting for the ambulance the victim is completely dependent on immediate help from any bystander, because early CPR improves survival rates by two-three folds. Unfortunately not all bystanders start CPR because of different reasons. Aim: To describe factors influencing bystander and presumed bystanders to start cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a victim suffering from cardiac arrest out-of-hospital. Method: Literature review based on 14 scientific articles, which were reviewed and analysed. Results: Bystanders can be categorised in bystanders and presumed bystanders. The factors can be summarised in five categories, physical factors of the victim, the bystanders’ physical and psychological factors, risk of infection, legal and social factors and the bystanders’ CPR-knowledge. Conclusion: Knowledge seems to be a determining factor influencing bystanders and presumed bystanders to start CPR out-of-hospital. Through CPR-courses the nurse/CPR-instructor mentally can prepare bystanders to start CPR.

  • 259.
    Jönsson, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lundquist, Sandra
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Maja
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Preventiva åtgärder mot övervikt hos barn och ungdomar: Litteraturstudie.2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Statistics regarding children, who are overweight, shows alarming results in many parts of the world. Overweight may cause serious consequences, as for instance heart- and vascular diseases. Research is pointing out that hereditary, social, behavioural and cultural facts may promote developing overweight and it is of great importance to find out how to prevent overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The purpose of the literature study was to compile primary and secondary preventions against overweight/obesity in children and adolescents. The result showed that prevention through education, recommendations, healthy eating and exercise may be usable in the work to prevent overweight among children and adolescents. Generally the knowledge increased regarding diet and the importance of physical activity among children and adolescents. On the other side the preventions were not always successful. From the articles, upon which the result is building, it is clear that there was a slight parent cooperation. One of the difficulties in the work to prevent overweight among children, is that the parents shows lack of motivation and involvement and furthermore denial of the problem. Continued research should concentrate upon intervention with increased involvements from the parents.

  • 260.
    Jönsson, Marie
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Tillvarons pussel: En studie om fyra behandlares tankar kring barns självkänsla. The puzzle of existence. A study about four therapists thoughts around children’s self-esteem.2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    The study aims to get knowledge about how therapists express their apprehension and their method of working around children with low self-esteem. From this angel I have tree questionings : How does the therapists define self-esteem? How does the therapists know if a child has a low self-esteem? How does the therapists work with this complex of problems? The study is a qualitative survey with interviews. The group of survey consists of four therapists from different backgrounds, who work with children and their self-esteem. The interviews were recorded on tape and written out running text and analysed in relation to its subject. The result shows that low self-esteem is a part of a bigger problem. All of the therapists thought that the children that simply feels bad has a low self-esteem. For the therapists self-esteem signified the apprehension the child has about her self. The work with children’s self-esteem was about giving the child encouragement and acknowledgement for what they are.

  • 261.
    Jönsson, Roger
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Monikander, Karl-Magnus
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Warheim, Jenny
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Cystisk fibros Att vara förälder till ett barn med cystisk fibros2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common hereditary disease that leads to an early death. Earlier CF was considered as a childhood disease but today the expected age is 50 years. CF affects all the epithelial cells in the body which makes mucus and other body fluids more viscous than normal. The thick mucus leads to among other things respiratory problems and infections of the lungs. Today there is no cure, only medicines that controls the symptoms.

    Aim: To describe parents experiences living with a child with CF.

    Method: The study was carried out as a literature review. The articles were examined by qualitative content analysis.

    Result: The study showed that having a child CF takes a great deal of effort from the parents. The family must adjust to the time consuming daily care of the child. This can lead to a strain relationship between the parents. The uncertain future leads to distress for the parents. It is important that the contact between the medical care and the family is well functioning in this the nurse has a central role.

    Conclusion: One of the most important tasks the nurse has is to look at the family from an overall point of view. It is important to support the whole family not just the individual with the disease.

  • 262.
    Jörgensen, Stine
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Patienters emotionella upplevelser under första året efter en coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) / Patients' emotional experiences during the first year after a coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    BAKGRUND: CABG blir en allt vanligare åtgärd vid kranskärlssjukdom inom svensk sjukvård. Målet med operationen är att lindra symtom vid kärlkramp och hjärtinfarkt samt att reducera mortaliteten. SYFTE: Syftet var att beskriva patienters emotionella upplevelser under det första året efter en CABG operation. METOD: En allmän litteraturstudie som grundades på kvalitativa vetenskapliga artiklar genomfördes. Resultatet baserades på sju vetenskapliga artiklar som söktes fram via elektroniska databaser och därefter granskades och analyserades. RESULTAT: I resultatet framkom upplevelser ifrån sjukhusvistelsen, positiva och negativa upplevelser under återhämtningsfasen samt upplevelsen av att känna sig som en börda. DISKUSSION: En bra information, stöd och uppmuntran är faktorer som kan bidra till en bättre återhämtning, vilket i sin tur kan leda till fler positiva emotionella upplevelser hos patienten efter operation. Problematik kan ses med att anhöriga behöver bli vårdare i hemmet. Gemenskap med andra patienter beskrevs som positiva upplevelser. SLUTSATS: En slutsats som kan dras av litteraturstudien är att informationen som ges till patienterna har stor betydelse inför kommande operation och återhämtning. Stöd efter operation visar sig vara av stor betydelse för hur patienten mår och för vilken livskvalitet som upplevs efter operationen.

    Abstract in English:

    BACKGROUND: CABG is a frequently used treatment at coronary heart disease in Swedish care. The goal with the surgery is to relieve symptoms in angina and myocardial infarction and to reduce mortality. AIM: The aim was to describe patients´ emotionall experiences during the first year after a CABG operation.METHOD: A general literature review based on qualitative scientific articles was performed. The result was based on seven scientific articles which were searched and retrieved in electronic databases, examined and analysed. RESULTS: The result described experiences from the hospital stay, positive and negative experiences during the recovery phase, and the experience of feeling as a burden.DISCUSSION: Information, support and encouragement are factors that can contribute to a better recovery for the patient, and give a more positive emotional experience after the operation. Problems can be seen when the relatives need to be carers at home. Interaction between patients were described as positive experiences. CONCLUSION: One conclusion to be drawn from the literature study is that the information given to patients is of great importance for the future operation and recovery. Support after surgery affects how the patient is doing and how the quality of life is affected after surgery.

  • 263.
    Jörnestål, Adriana
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Olsson, Sandra
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Det är väl inte så farligt, eller? Om tonårsflickors tankar och åsikter kring narkotika2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to increase the knowledge of teenage girls thoughts and opinions about narcotics. We used a qualitative method and collected information by interviews. During the past years different studies shows that the desire to try narcotics has increased among teenagers. Teenagers are trying hard to find their identity which is shaped among people that they have a close relationship to. During this time friends has big influence when they experiment with different kind of styles. In the group they feel that they belong somewhere.

    This study showed that the majority of the teenage girls had a restrictive attitude to narcotics. It also appeared that the girls were curious to try narcotics. According to the them this curiousity was individual and they clearly expressed that they didn’t feel any influence from their friends.

  • 264.
    Karlberg, Anna-Christina
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Mårtensson, Annika
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Våga se barnen! Personals upplevelser av sitt arbete med barn till missbrukande förälder/föräldrar Dare see the children! Personnels experience of their work with children of addicted parents2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose with our study is to increase our knowledge about how personnel in different activities experience the work with childrens who is growing up with addicted parents. What the personal experienced as important facts was structure and flexibility to take care of all children´s special need.

    Something else they experienced was, during discussions with children it´s important to listen to them and confirm their self-esteem.

    We have found that there are many well-functioning activities of this kind of children, but there are difficulties to have the parents to take the children to the activities.

    The personal believe that this is because the parents do not realise their addiction problem enough. The respondents expressed a which to get closer to the school so they can increase cooperation and reach more children in this way, and a lot of these respondents also point out that the community where ever the children are has a obligation to report or notify the social service if there are any children that need care.

  • 265.
    Karlsson, Alina
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Delic, Nadina
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Invandrarnas integrationsprocess: - En kvantitativ studie om invandrarnas attityder till sin egen integrationsprocess i det svenska samhället. Immigrants`process of integration. -A quantitative study of immigrants`attitudes to their own process of integrating into Swedish society.2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    The goal of our research is to give the general picture of the attitudes of immigrants to their own integration process into the Swedish society, focusing on the feeling of belonging, satisfaction with the social network, as well as confidence in the future. Moreover, in our study, we investigate a possible relation between the attitudes of the immigrants to the above-mentioned variables and their age and education. The research is based on a quantitative questionnaire investigation, which comprises all Sfi students at level D in the northeastern part of Skåne county.

    The research shows that the majority are open to the Swedish culture and traditions, keeping, at the same time, their own native traditions. Four out of five think that the Swedish language is important for integration. The majority of the respondents indicate that they are participating in society and that they are more or less satisfied with their social network. Many think that they have good chances of obtaining a decent education, getting work practice and a job and two out of three look positively at their future.

    Our research has not been able to prove that there is any significant relation between the respondents' attitudes and their age and education.

  • 266.
    Karlsson Ekholm, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Jönsson, Roger
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Inte bara en dålig dag: Upplevelser av depression ur ett genusperspektiv2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt World Health Organization beräknas depression vara den andra största sjukdomsorsaken i västvärlden år 2020. Män och kvinnor har olika upplevelser och uttryckssätt vid depression. Kvinnor visar sina känslor tydligare än män, vilket kan leda till att mäns upplevelser av depression kan förbises. Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva män respektive kvinnors upplevelser av depression för att sjuksköterskan ska få en djupare förståelse för depression ur ett genusperspektiv. Metod: En allmän litteraturstudie genomfördes baserad på tio vetenskapliga artiklar. Resultat: Upplevelser av depression var liknande för både män och kvinnor, men vissa skillnader förekom. Båda könen upplevde ensamhet, hopplöshet, utmattning, skam och dålig självkänsla. Hos kvinnor framkom oftare att de kände att de måste leva upp till omgivningens förväntningar, och hos män framkom oftare upplevelser av ilska och tankar på död och självmord. Diskussion: Vår diskussion belyser skillnader och likheter i män och kvinnors upplevelser av depression. Att kvinnor diagnostiseras oftare kan bero på att män visar andra eller färre symptom. Detta fenomen bör åskådliggöras för att möjliggöra förändringar i mötet mellan sjuksköterska och patient. Både män och kvinnor upplevde att det fanns en stigmatisering av depression och att isolering fördjupade depressionen. Slutsats: Eftersom depression även uppkommer i samband med somatiska sjukdomar kommer sjuksköterskan ofta att möta män och kvinnor som insjuknat i depression. Därför är det av vikt att förstå deras upplevelser och bemöta dem med respekt och empati. Författarna efterlyser fortsatt forskning om framförallt mäns, men även kvinnors upplevelser och uttryckssätt i samband med depression.

  • 267.
    Karlsson, Elisabet
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Orala hälsorelaterade livskvalitetsinstrument som har använts på äldre individer – en litteraturstudie 2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Aim: Through the review of scientific articles, this study aimed to identify which oral health-related quality of life instruments that have been used in studies to measure the oral health-related quality of life in older individuals and the application of such instruments.

    Method: The study is based on a systematic literature review, where 14 articles have been chosen and evaluated against a checklist.

    Result: The oral health-related quality of life instruments that have been used on individuals, 65 years and older, are OHIP-49, OHIP-14, OHIP-20 or OHIP-EDENT, GOHAI and OIDP. The instruments are used to examine factors associated with the oral health-related quality of life. Significant associations have been identified, among other things, between the number of teeth in static occlusion, dry mouth and the quality of the dentures, and oral health-related quality of life. Social and cultural associations have also been revealed.

    Conclusions: Today there exist several well functioning instruments that are used for research purposes. There is, however, a need for additional research. Research in longitudinal studies is needed to see if the instruments can indicate which treatment is the most effective. Furthermore, the instruments must be simplified so that they can be used in clinical settings.

  • 268.
    Karlsson, Ellinor
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Johansson, Anette
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Den ideella verksamheten och dess betydelse för individen The voluntary organisations meaning for the individual 2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    In Sweden the voluntary socialwork is a complement to the public authorities. The voluntary organisations has become more important considered helping people in different situations of need.

    The aim of this study has been to examine the voluntary organisations meaning for individuals.

    The aim was reached through interviews by five guests from different organisations.

    We have also interviewed two employees from the different organisations to find out if there is any differences in their way of work.

    This study indicates that the organisations means a lot for the individuals. The social network, something to do during the day, a kind treatment but also the milieu are factors that seems important for the individuals. The organisations even creates a feeling of connection and satisfy other kind of needs.

  • 269.
    Karlsson, Gill
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Ljungbäck, Anna
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Jag önskar att det inte fanns: .. - om de professionellas upplevelser kring sexuella övergrepp mot barn.2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Our paper is targeting mainly students, but also all other people interested in social work with children.

    The purpose of our study was to investigate how the social workers experience and handle their work with children, who have been exposed to sexual abuse, and what kind of support and guidance the social workers are offered, in order to handle their working situation.

    We chose to perform a qualitative study, by the use of interviews, since we found it to be the most appropriate way to gather the information.

    Our conclusion is that the work with these issues is emotionally burdensome and requires a great commitment, however it is essential for the social workers to maintain a certain distance to their work, in order not to influence their personal lives. It is through experience and knowledge that the social workers learn how to handle their working situation. We also learned that although the work with sexual abuse against children gave birth to different emotions of the social worker, the social workers feel satisfaction with their work, by helping the exposed children.

    We hope that our paper will inspire and encourage to further studies in the area, since there is still much to be explored.

  • 270.
    Karlsson, Jill
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lindkvist, Therese
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Möjligheter till utveckling av en hälsofrämjande skola2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    School can be an effective environment for achieving a more equal health among children and adolescents, since many individuals can be reached by the health promoting work in the school. In the year of 2000 a project in Skåne was started for the development of health promoting schools. The health promoting projects however, have shown to be of short duration. So, as an alternative, the integration of the health in school ought to be tried. The aim of this study is to give examples how health promoting schools can strengthen their profile. Seven principals on health promoting schools were interviewed. The barriers against the integration were the lack of plans and goals for the health promoting work, few engaged staff, weak parent involvement and lack of resources. Possibilities for integration of health in schools on the other hand, appeared when a new principal entered the school, earlier health thinking existed among the staff, engaged staff, existing discussions, education and resources. The conclusion of this study is that it takes comprehension and knowledge about the importance of the health promoting school, if a health culture is to be accomplished.

  • 271.
    Karlsson, Leif
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Att ändra kurs: högskolemässighet inom yrkesinriktad högskoleutbildning2000Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 272.
    Karlsson, Leif
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Folkhälsopedagogen söker legitimitet: ett möte mellan pedagogik och verksamhetsförlagd utbildning2004Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the thesis were to study how the students in the work experience period of The Study Program in Public Health and Education experienced how the discipline of education could contribute to health promotion in practice and if whether the integration between theory and practice in this case reached the appropriate higher education standard.

    The data collection comprised semi-structured interviews, the student’s descriptions of the trainee post, their aims and objectives and the follow-up and evaluation of their aims and objectives.

    The thesis questions were examined from different perspectives; insight with the task to relate the empirical subjects to a wider economical, cultural, political and historical context, critique was built on insight but was more explicit to power relations, lack of freedom, ideological dominance and social asymmetry. Finally transformative redefinition focussed on emancipation and on development of the pedagogical practice. The analysis around insight and critique was based on three categories: the work experience period’s influence on learning as the student experienced it, the importance of pedagogical theory in health promotion practice as the student experienced it, and the work as a professional in the health promotion field as the student experienced it.

    The analysis around insight was divided in two parts or phases. The first phase was a concentration and categorisation of the material within each theme which led to different conceptualisations. These conceptualisations were explored in relation to the theoretical basis and to the concept higher education standard. The second part sought to discover variation in the student group. The patterns should be seen as the product of the relationship between the student and the trainee post. The analysis identified seven categories or different patterns of development: undeveloped, contradictory, critical, theoretical, salvation like, prevented and integrated. The patterns varied in how the work experience period influenced learning, the importance of pedagogical theory in health promotion practice and how the work as a professional in the health promotion field was apprehended. These patterns were also put in relation to the theoretical grounds and to the concept higher education standard.

    Critique discussed the results obtained from the insight analysis from concepts like power, authority and oppression, dominant ideology, dissensus perspective, colonisation of the lifeworld and discourses.

    The transformative redefinition focussed on more pragmatic research questions, namely the consequences the study would or could have on the theoretical as well as on the practical part of the Study Program of Public Health and Education.

  • 273.
    Karlsson, Sara
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Roth, Helen
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Tuvesson, Nina
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Familjens situation då barnet insjuknar i Diabetes typ 1 - Litteratursammanställning2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Diabetes mellitus Type 1 is one of the most common chronicle diseases in childhood. This signifies big changes in the daily life for the child and its family. Aim: The aim of the study was to illustrate the family’s situation when the child falls ill in Type 1 diabetes. Method: The search for literature has been done both manually and in databases. The collected materials have been red and analysed by the authors. Result: The result of the 13 selected qualitative and quantitative present literature reviews show that a child’s chronic condition is traumatic for all family members and it usually changes family life and requires parents to adapt. The role of the family when it comes to interventions and adaptability to the disease are important factors; it has a big significance in the child’s health. Conclusion: The nurse could play a considerable part by knowing the burden of nursing. The qualification for a long-term effect in nursing is empathy and consideration for the patient. The study will increase the nurse’s understanding to give a good and supportive care to the family.

  • 274.
    Karlsson, Tony
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Monika
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Hur sjuksköterskan genom patientundervisning kan främja egenvårdskapacitet hos typ 2 diabetiker/ How the nurse through patient education can support self-care capacity in type 2 diabetes2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Effective treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes needs a good communication between nurse and patient. This creats a good relation and leads to a more effective patient education. Aim: The aim with the literature study was to describe how nurses trough patient education can achieve self-care for patients with diabetes type 2. Methods: Literature studies with both qualitative and quantitative articles were examined. Findings: The articles that were chosen for the results were sorted in the two categories relation and communication. Conclusion: A good communication can win the patient’s trust. This can creat trust which is successful by patient education.

  • 275.
    Klingberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Mun-H-Center, National Orofacial Resource Center, Göteborg.
    Lingström, Peter
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Óskarsdóttir, Sólveig
    Department of Pediatrics, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University.
    Friman, Vanda
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University.
    Bohman, Eva
    Department of Pedodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University.
    Carlén, Anette
    Department of Oral Microbiology, Faculty of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University.
    Caries-related saliva properties in individuals with 22q11 deletion syndrome2007Inngår i: Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics, ISSN 1079-2104, E-ISSN 1528-395X, Vol. 103, nr 4, s. 497-504Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Objectives. The aims were to compare saliva secretion rate, buffer capacity, cariogenic bacteria, total protein, IgA, and electrolytes between patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and control subjects and to study correlations between saliva and serum levels of IgA and electrolytes in 22q11DS patients.

    Study design. Twenty-nine consecutive 22q11DS patients (mean age 12.6 years) and matched healthy control subjects were clinically examined, and stimulated saliva samples were collected.

    Results. Patients with 22q11DS had impaired salivary secretion rate (P <.01) and buffer capacity (P <.05), higher numbers of cariogenic bacteria (P <.01), increased saliva protein concentrations (P <.001), and reduced output of electrolytes (P <.001 -.05) compared with control subjects. A correlation between concentration in serum and saliva was found only for IgA (r =.622; P<.01).

    Conclusions. Different salivary components were affected in patients with 22q11DS, which may explain the increased caries risk seen in these patients.

  • 276.
    Klingberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Mun-H-Center, Göteborg.
    Óskarsdóttir, Sólveig
    Drottning Silvias barn- och ungdomssjukhus, Göteborg.
    Lingström, Peter
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Carlén, Anette
    Avdelningen för oral mikrobiologi, Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborg.
    Norén, Jörgen G.
    Avdelningen för pedodonti, Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborg.
    Friman, Vanda
    Infektionskliniken, Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset, Göteborg.
    22q11DS: ett ovanligt vanligt syndrom2007Inngår i: Tandläkartidningen, ISSN 0039-6982, Vol. 99, nr 7, s. 54-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    22q11-deletionssyndrom (22q11DS) är ett vanligt syndrom som förekommer hos ett av 4 000 nyfödda barn. Diagnosen har ett flertal medicinska symtom men också neuropsykiatriska och psykiska. 22q11DS påverkar även tänder, mun och oral hälsa på flera olika sätt. Det är därför viktigt att tandvårdspersonal har kännedom om diagnosen.

  • 277.
    Kristensen, Nina
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Rijpma, Louise
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Att leva med trycksår - en litteraturstudie om hur patienter med trycksår upplever det dagliga livet2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Pressure ulcer is a complication that arises often due to a lowered general condition. Pressure ulcer arise because of long term compressive load application. That’s why it’s of utmost importance as a nurse to work in preventive ways, as the pressure ulcer lead to physical, psychological and social consequences for the patient. Purpose: The purpose was to describe the patients experiences of living with pressure ulcer. Method: The mode of procedure has been a general literature study with a systematic search in different databases. The search gave results in the form of seven scientific articles, which were analysed. Result: When analysing the articles results, four categories stood out: living with pain, living with impairments, living with anxiety and living with preconceptions. The results showed that the pressure ulcer caused a large amount of pain for the patients. What also emerged was that the health care personnel did not always pay attention to their pain and give pain relief. The pressure ulcer caused much anxiety and also led to great impairments in daily life, which could bring social isolation. Conclusion: The pressure ulcer caused a large amount of pain and suffering for the patients. In order for patients with pressure ulcer to receive adequate care the nurses need to improve how they pay attention to and relieve the patients pain, and also increase their knowledge and understanding of how the pressure ulcer affect the patients daily lives.

  • 278.
    Kristensson, Linda
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Schär, Emma
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Hur vuxna med permanent ileostomi upplever sin livskvalitet2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Having an ileostomy can affect the quality of life. Quality of life is defined by Siri Naess as being active, relating well to others, having self-esteem and having a basic mood of happiness. The nurse’s task is to focus on the stoma care and work in a holistic way. The aim of the study was to describe how adults with permanent ileostomy experience their quality of life. A literature review was carried out and was built on the results of nine scientific articles which were found in databases and by manual search. The articles were judged for quality and an article overview was made. The result of the study showed that as a whole, persons living with ileostomy experienced good quality of life. Persons with ileostomy experienced that the sexual life was most affected. To make the sexual life and questions about it less taboo the nurse needs to discuss this subject as a natural part in the conversation with the patient. By knowledge and experience the nurse can provide support and advice and create a secure relationship to the person with ileostomy.

  • 279.
    Kroon, Marie
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Larsson, Åsa
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Regnander, Charlotte
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Föräldrars upplevelser av att ha ett barn som insjuknat i diabetes2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    When a child is diagnosed with diabetes the whole family is affected. The effect of the illness often means drastically changes to their daily life. The aim of this study has been to describe the experiences of the parents´ having a child fallen ill with diabetes. The study has been done as a general literature study. The procedure has been to systematically search, critically investigate and summarise results from different studies made on the chosen area of subject. In the combination of the results one could identify different categories based on the experiences of the parents. These categories describe the parents´ experiences of having the feeling of: worry and fear, constant stress, need of support and information, how to handle the situation and also the experience of a changed way of living when a child in the family falls ill with diabetes. The frame work of the results, which also is discussed in this study, is that a good communication between the nurse and the parents contributes to the parents´ experience of the medical attendance being more positive and less troublesome. The nurse can by giving good and correct information create the feeling of safety within the family. This can contribute to the family feeling capable of handling its situation and to give hope for the future.

  • 280.
    Lantz, Lena
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Solitander, Lisa
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Debriefingens betydelse för sjuksköterskor 2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    BAKGRUND: Debriefingens användande är relativt nytt inom sjukvården och dess effekt debatteras bland forskare. Sjuksköterskor utsätts för många extrema och känsloladdade situationer, debriefing kan då vara något som stöttar i vardagen. SYFTE: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att belysa hur yrkesverksamma sjuksköterskor ser på betydelsen av debriefing. METOD: En litteraturstudie gjordes och en deduktiv metod användes för att identifiera mönster och skapa kategorier. RESULTAT: I resultatet presenteras sex kategorier: meningsfullhet-, icke meningsfullhet, begriplighet-, icke begriplighet, hanterbarhet-, och icke hanterbarhet. DISKUSSION: Både positiva och negativa aspekter av debriefing har uppmärksammats och det framgick att debriefing upplevdes som positivt på mer än ett sätt. Deltagarna insåg att de inte var ensamma om sina känslor och kommunikationen ökade precis som det ömsesidiga stödet. Andra menar att debriefing hjälper att minska utbrändhet. Dock är inte alla bekväma i situationen att dela sina känslor i grupp. SLUTSATS: Vi anser att debriefing ska finnas som ett alternativ, men viljan att delta ska vara fri. Det är viktigt att informera vårdpersonal om att sessionen kan inverka positivt på så väl privatliv som arbetsliv. Behoven hos individer ser olika ut och det är viktigt att vi som sjuksköterskor uppmärksammar detta.

  • 281.
    Lantz Selind, Helena
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Åkerblom, Marie
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    "Balansgången mellan den äldres rätt och anhörigas rätt är inte alltid så lätt" Biståndshandläggares upplevelse av samverkan med anhöriga inom äldreomsorgen "The balance between the rights of the elderly and the rights of the relatives are not always easy" Executive officials experience of the cooperation with relatives within the care of the elderly2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of our study has been to come to an understanding of how the executive officials within the care of the elderly experience the cooperation with relatives to elderly people who is in need and apply for public home help according to the law of social services. Our expectation of this study is that we gain an increased insight how they as executive officials manage this cooperation situations. The method we used in this study has a qualitative research approach. This design was chosen as the most appropriate approached to illuminate and exploring the experience of the executive officials. Nine executive officials has described their experience in this matter in an interview were we both participate. The theories we used are the theory of cooperation and the theory of communications. The result was analyzed and has been categorized in; Relatives part in the cooperation with the executive officials; The executive officials part in the cooperation with the relatives; The executive officials dilemma in the cooperation with the relatives; The model of organisation with the New Public Management design. The findings show in the analyses that the executive officials were on the whole satisfied with the cooperation with the relatives. The executive officials saw the relatives as a resource in the way of an information source. Our conclusion is that the executive officials saw the relatives to elderly people in need as an important resource. This both for the elderly people and for the executive officials in the needs assessment process. But their relation wasn’t always with out conflicts. These situations show often of the executive officials professional approach throw their ways of handle this conflicts and their comprehension for the relatives situation.

  • 282.
    Larsson, Annika
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lundin, Malin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Patienter med självskadebeteende - Deras upplevelser av sitt beteende och mötet med vården: Patients who self-mutilate - Their experiences of their behavior and nursing care2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Självskadebeteende startar ofta i tidiga tonåren men orsaken grundar sig i traumatiska upplevelser i barndomen. Beteendet är en medveten handling som utförs för att dämpa den psykiska smärtan och resulterar i en vävnadsskada. Patienterna anser sig ofta bli stigmatiserade och behandlade som objekt när de istället behöver känna stöd och förståelse från personalen i omvårdnaden. Syfte: Att belysa patienter med självskadebeteende, deras upplevelser av sitt beteende och av omvårdnadspersonalens förhållningssätt vid mötet i omvårdnaden. Metod: En litteraturstudie baserad på 11 vetenskapliga artiklar. Resultat: Analys av artiklarna resulterade i tre huvudkategorier; ”Upplevelser av självskada och bakomliggande orsaker”, ”Patienternas önskan om värdigt bemötande” och ”Negativa upplevelser av vården”. Patienter med självskadebeteende upplevde att beteendet tog kontroll över det dagliga livet. Känslan av hopp, stöd och förståelse var viktiga delar i omvårdnaden men ofta kände patienterna sig ignorerade och missförstådda. Slutsats: Patienter med självskadebeteende känner sig ofta missförstådda och ensamma. Omvårdnadspersonal behöver riktlinjer för hur de skall bemöta dessa patienter vilka behöver känna sig delaktiga i sin omvårdnad och få kontinuerligt stöd. Mer forskning ur patientperspektiv behövs för att förbättra omvårdnadspersonalens förhållningssätt gentemot dessa patienter.

    Background: Self-mutilation often starts in adolescence but is established through traumatic experiences in early childhood. The behavior is a conscious act that is performed to alleviate psychological pain, resulting in tissue damage. The patients often feel stigmatized and treated like objects when they need to feel supported and understood in the nursing care. Aim: To highlight patients who self-mutilate, their experiences of their behavior and of the attitudes in the nursing care. Method: A literature review based on 11 scientific articles. Result: The analysis of the articles resulted in three major categories; ”Experiences of self-injury and underlying reasons”, ”Patients wishes of worthy treatment” and ”Negative experiences of nursing care”. Patients who self-mutilate experienced that their behavior took control over their daily life. Feelings of hope, support and understanding were important parts of the nursing care but the patients often felt disregarded and misunderstood. Conclusion: Patients who self-mutilate often feel misunderstood and alone. The nurses need guidelines for how to treat these patients who need to feel involved in their nursing care and how to get continuous support. More research is needed from the patient perspective to improve nurses attitudes towards patients who self-mutilate.

  • 283.
    Larsson, Emma
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Långtidsfrisk eller arbetsglädje - vad speglar arbetsrelaterad hälsa?2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    The work related illness has increased and instead of focusing on what’s causing it more and more efforts are put on trying to find the health factors within and outside the work environment. During the past years the term ‘long-term health’ has arisen; instead of focusing on the number of employees on the sick-list, the focus should be put on the number of employees that has a record of long-term health within an organization, i.e. health-presence. In order to see whether health promotion interventions at work give the wanted result there need to be a measurement that can measure the work-related health. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare long-term health and job satisfaction as measures for work-related health. The material and method used was a quantitative cross-sectional study with a structured questionnaire. The data collection was done within a municipal administration with 1096 employees (at the time of the study). The response rate was 68,4%. When analyzing the data SPSS was used to be able to investigate multivariate relations. The result showed that there were more health factors in the work environment that could be explained by experiencing high job satisfaction than being long-term healthy. The conclusion was that high job satisfaction was a better measure for work related health than using number of long-term healthy employees. Long-term health can better be used as an objective measure for work presence while job satisfaction is a subjective measure indicating what makes employees satisfied and healthy at work.

  • 284. Larsson, Emma
    et al.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Sova ute aktivitet: en utvärderingsbedömning2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 285.
    Lauridsen, Linda
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Patienters upplevelser vid parenteral nutritionsbehandling hemma vid palliativ vård på grund av cancer – en litteraturstudie Patients experiences of parental nutrition at home due to palliative care of cancer - a literature study 2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Malnutrition is a common problem for patients with cancer that leads to anxiety and frustration for the whole family. Patients with palliative cancer disease treated at home are entitled to an adequate nutrition treatment suited to individual needs.

    Aim: The aim of the literature review was to describe how cancer patients experience their nutriment situation before and after the introduction of parental nutrition and the experience of getting home parental nutrition. Methods: A literature study was carried out where qualitative and quantitative articles were examined. Findings: Five qualitative and five quantitative articles were examined. Four categories were created; patients experiences of their nutriment situation before the introduction of parental nutrition, mental experiences receiving parental nutrition at home, physical experiences receiving parental nutrition at home, patients experiences in general receiving parental nutrition at home. Conclusion: Through the parental nutrition treatment at home patients felt that the physical condition improved and the physiological symptoms were decreased. Even though family life was affected patients strived for a normal life. More studies are needed on the role of the nurse in the palliative care regarding nutritional treatment and how her support affects the patient’s positive experience.

  • 286.
    Lavesson, Alexandra
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lindkvist, Kerin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Familjens uppfattningar kring sitt barns fetma - en litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Barnfetma är den vanligaste barnsjukdomen i Europa idag. Kost, fysisk inaktivitet och sociala faktorer är de stora anledningarna till att sjukdomen utvecklas. I behandlingen av fetman ska hela familjen involveras då detta ger ett bättre resultat. En förståelse hur familjen uppfattar sjukdomen bör finnas hos vårdpersonal. Syfte: Att belysa familjens uppfattningar kring sitt barns fetma. Metod: En systematisk litteraturstudie med innehållsanalys av nio vetenskapliga artiklar. Resultat: Analysen visade på fyra teman: Kunskap i förhållande till beteende, Kroppsuppfattning, Social omgivning och känslor samt Vårdkontakt. Familjer var medvetna om vad som var bra kostvanor men deras beteende speglade inte denna kunskap. Uppfattningarna om barnens begränsningar vid fysisk aktivitet som föräldrarna hade överrensstämde inte med barnens egna uppfattningar. Barnens faktiska viktstatus stämde inte med familjens uppfattningar. Familjer som sökte hjälp hade redan försökt med förändrade kostvanor och tyckte då att de bara fick upprepade råd. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskor bör ha kunskap om familjens uppfattningar i mötet med familjen för att kunna hjälpa till att bromsa upp epidemin av barnfetma.

  • 287.
    Lena, Sallstrom-Olsson
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Experiences and needs of family members in the end of life care at a nursinghome2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: There might be a risk that family members experience limited possibilities to act, participate and influence the end of life care for the elderly in the nursing home. For family members it could be the first time they face death which can imply a lot of questions and existential needs. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the needs of family members in the patient terminal care in a nursing home. Research methods: The study implemented a qualitative approach and data was collected through four interviews and through a literature review were 17 articles were selected. The results were processed and analysed with a qualitative content analysis and two main categories, participation and assurance with subcategories were identified. Results: Families have a basic need of feeling assured that their elderly relative gets appropriate care in the nursing home. Feeling assurance could be a situation where the family members participate in the end of life care with confidence. The experience of family members is that the situation for feeling participation exist when there is a possibility to make decisions, act as intermediary or representative and be able to take responsibility. The environment that ensures feeling assurance is to feel support, to get insight, to receive information and know that the elderly persons symptoms are under control.

  • 288.
    Lenander, Sara
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Sancraian, Victoria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Omgivningens betydelse för patienter med Alzheimers sjukdom: med inriktning på musik - En litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Alzheimer’s disease belongs to the largest group of dementia and stands for the half of those 37 millions persons whom are affected of dementia in the entire world. Alzheimer’s disease affects the patients with changes on their behaviour. It is important as a nurse to prevent that the symptoms increase. Music is very important for all people and it has been used in many different contexts. In order to use music in the care as an alternative to other shapes of treatments, it is very important to have knowledge about its importance. Aim: The aim of this study was to illustrate the influence of music on patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Method: A literature review was performed that was based on scientific articles. Result: The result shows that music contribute with several positive effects on patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Music can reduce agitations levels, it stimulate the memory, and increase the physical movements. Conclution: Knowledge about the music’s importance for patients with Alzheimer’s disease could be improved among caregivers in order to introduce music as in care as a form of treatment.

  • 289.
    Leppänen, Vesa
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Coping with troublesome clients in home care2008Inngår i: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557, Vol. 18, nr 9, s. 1195-1205Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    I describe methods used by home carers to cope with troublesome clients and analyze how the organizational context affects their use. Empirical data consist of participant observation and field interviews with 14 home carers in three municipalities in southern Sweden. Home carers might try to avoid working with troublesome clients, prepare themselves mentally before visiting them, try to withhold them psychologically, try to understand them and explain their behavior, try to change their behavior, and vent experiences with colleagues. Although some of these methods are practiced frontstage, in interactions with clients, others take place backstage, only involving staff. Their use is influenced both by properties of frontstage work, for instance, the intimate nature of many tasks and the experienced need to keep up a "good" relationship with clients, and by the organization of backstage work, for instance, the organization of staff meetings and supervisors' understanding of coping processes.

  • 290.
    Levin, Elna-Marie
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lindström, Christina
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Volmer, Lena
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Sjuksköterskans stöd till vuxna patienter med rheumatoid artrit - empirisk studie på reumatologmottagningar2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Rheumatoid arthritis is a common disease worldwide. The disease is described as a chronic inflammation that afflicts mainly the joints, the tendrons and the synovial joint. The inflammation breaks down cartilage, ligaments and bone. When the patient gets the diagnosis he/she frequently reacts with chock, denial or/and dissociation. Active support from the nurse can have an important impact on the patient in accepting and processing that he/she suffers from disease. The nurse support can be of instrumental, emotional and informative character. The instrumental support means access to people who can give practical help. The emotional support means access to close and confidential personal relationships. The informative support is when someone gets information to solve a task or handle a situation. Aim: To examine how adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis perception the nurse support. Method: This empiric study was carried through by inquiries presented to adult patients with the diagnosis rheumatoid arthritis. The participant of the study were registered patients at two different rheumatoid arthritis clinics. Results: 41 patients, 11 men and 30 women participated. The result showed that most of the participants felt that they had received support from the nurse and that all the different supports, instrumental, emotional and informative was to there satisfaction. Conclusion: Different factors have an effect on the patients perceptions of the nurse- support. These factors must be taken in consideration in order to develop the caretaking of the patient. Development can be made by continuous follow-ups. It is important that the patient becomes more conscious, more competent and more involved in order to easier cope with the disease. The holistic oriented nurse ca by supporting the patient help him/her reach this goal.

  • 291.
    Lilja Andersson, Petra
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Vägar genom sjuksköterskeutbildningen: studenters berättelser2007Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet är att utifrån studenters livsberättelser, få kunskap om och förståelse för hur de upplever och hanterar sjuksköterskeutbildningens olika delar med särskilt fokus på spänningsfälten mellan: yrkesexamen – akademisk examen, högskoleförlagd utbildning – verksamhetsförlagd utbildning samt huvudämnet omvårdnad – stödämnet medicinsk vetenskap. Syftet är vidare att få kunskap om och förståelse för aspekter av betydelse för studenters lärande på vägen genom utbildningen. Den teoretiska och metodologiska ansatsen är Life History. Designen är longitudinell och studien inleddes med en enkätundersökning med en enkät till alla antagna studenter vid det aktuella lärosätet. Åtta studenter följdes därefter med återkommande intervjuer under hela utbildningstiden. Studenternas berättelser visade att de upplevde och hanterade vägen genom utbildningen olika, utifrån deras individuella föreställningar och erfarenheter. De aspekter som var av betydelse för studenternas lärande var; att ha ett tydligt mål, att föreställningar omvärderas, att få bekräftelse, att det abstrakta blir konkret, utbildningen som en del av livet, att pendla mellan närhet och distans till det kommande yrket och att hantera teori och praktik i relation till varandra. Det visade sig att yrkesexamen var viktigast för studenterna och att de hade svårt att finna betydelse i den akademiska delen av utbildningen. Studenterna upplevde att det var i den verksamhetsförlagda utbildningen de lärde sig och utvecklades professionellt. Förväntningarna med betoning på medicinsk vetenskap lever fortfarande kvar i studenternas föreställningar om utbildningen och yrket. Spänningen mellan studenternas föreställningar och mötet med utbildningens innehåll var tydlig. Den kunskap studien har gett kan användas för att stödja studenternas lärandeprocess. En viktig pedagogisk implikation är att använda berättande som metod i utbildningen. Berättande är ett sätt att möta studenten men också en väg till lärande då berättande i sig hjälper studenten att skapa mening. Lärare måste även finna pedagogiska former som hjälper studenten att dels konkretisera, dels se utbildningens innehåll som en förståelig och meningsfull helhet istället för som spänningsfält mellan olika delar.

  • 292.
    Liljenberg, Lisandra
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Ann
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Ledarskapets betydelse för nyttjandet av friskvårdsprogrammet på Centralsjukhuset Kristianstad - en enkätstudie bland personalen på Centralsjukhuset2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    The workplace is a good arena for healthy activities because of its ability to reach big target groups. A preventive health care program prevents ill-health and since 2001 Centralsjukhuset Kristianstad has a health care program, “Främja hälsan”. Leadership is important in the health promotion work when to get the collaborators motivated and involved in the health care program. The aim of the cross-sectional study was to investigate the collaborators opinion about the managers’ pedagogical role in the health promotion work at Centralsjukhuset Kristianstad. According to the result half of the staff used the program and the majority thought they had a good health. Some results were contradictory but we drew a conclusion that the manager can promote health in his/hers way to act but that doesn’t mean he/she is involved or versed in the program. When the result was put together the manager’s role in the preventive health care program seemed not so important in relation to how much the collaborators used the program. We discussed that perhaps it’s not the managers task to motivate and involve the collaborators to use the program, maybe it’s someone elses role.

  • 293.
    Lindblad, Lovisa
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Walther, Ida
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Upplevelsebaserat lärande som metod i sex- och samlevnadsundervisning i åk 7-9: En kvalitativ undersökning2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund/Litteraturgenomgång: Skolan spelar en viktig roll när det gäller att forma

    ungdomars sexuella hälsa. Samtidigt konkurrerar skolan med media som informationskanal.

    Forskning visar att ungdomar idag tar större sexuella risker och sexuellt överförbara

    infektioner ökar. En utvärdering visar att sexualundervisningen i skolorna är bristfällig och vilar på ett patogent perspektiv. Upplevelsebaserat lärande är en metod som delvis används i undervisningen. Metoden grundar sig på att eleverna skapar erfarenheter genom aktivt deltagande i olika simuleringar.

    Syfte: Syftet är att få en ökad förståelse för upplevelsebaserat lärande som metod i sex- och samlevnadsundervisning i åk 7-9.

    Metod: En kvalitativ undersökning med fem intervjuer genomfördes med undervisande personal.

    Resultat: Behovet av ämnet sex och samlevnad är stort. Upplevelsebaserat lärande kräver mer förarbete, tid, intresse och engagemang från den undervisande personalen än annan undervisning. Metoden når eleverna och ger en helhetsbild i lärandeprocessen. Eleverna blir tryggare och vågar mer. Metoden upplevs ej lämplig i klasser med olika etnicitet och mognadsgrad bland eleverna.

    Diskussion: Upplevelsebaserat lärande syftar till att genom

    simuleringar nå eleverna i deras livsvärld. Detta angreppssätt undviker dekontextualisering. Men detta lyckas inte alltid då det kan uppstå problem. Tid, hanterbarhet och engagemang är några av dem. Metoden har stora möjligheter för hälsofrämjande arbete.

  • 294.
    Linderoth, Louise
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Åkesson, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Förekomst av sex- och samlevnadsundervisning på gymnasienivå - ungdomars kunskaper och attityder angående sexuellt överförbara sjukdomar och kondomanvändning – en tvärsnittsstudie 2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sexually transmitted diseases among youths is a growing problem. Generally, the knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases is relatively good, however, the risktaking among youths is great. The schools education regarding sex is often insufficient. The foundation for avoiding STD is knowledge. However, knowledge does not solve the attitude problem regarding the use of condoms. The purpose of our study was to describe the knowledge of older teenagers regarding STD, the sexual education in high school, and the youths attitude towards the usage of condoms. High school seniors were selected as respondents. This study uses a quantitative method. A survey was performed to collect data since the subject might be considered sensitive. The survey was distributed to 189 students of which 175 answered the survey. The result shows that schools are the biggest source of information regarding sexual education. Also, the results show that women, more often than men, are exposed to the risks of being infected with STD. To highlight the importance of preventive work for youths sexual behavior, we believe that school is a very important place. In conclusion, a good system for teaching about sexually related topics in school is very important in order to decrease the risky behavior of the youth.

  • 295.
    Lindgren, Caroline
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Mattsson, Susanne
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Sexualitet och informationsbehov hos män som behandlats för prostatacancer2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Men that have gone through treatment for prostate cancer may lose their sexuality as result of treatment. The sexual ability might symbolize manliness, despite age and sexual activities. Aim: The aim of the literature study was to describe; Influence on sexuality and the daily life for men with prostatecancer and their experience of informationneeds. Method: The material for the literature study was searched through databases; 13 scientific articles were selected and two articles through manual search, all 15 articles were examined. Result: Five categories were found in the result of the literature study; physical dimension, emotional/mental dimension, social/practical dimension and informationneeds. The result showed side effects of treatment such as impotence, erectile dysfunction, reduced sexual satisfaction and urinary incontinence. Conclusions: The study showed how important sexuality is for men’s identity, quality of life and self-respect. It also showed that sexuality existed in several dimensions and that the nurse should be aware about this when he/she informs men with prostate cancer. Individualized information may strengthen men’s emotional condition and lead to participation in his care.

  • 296.
    Lindgren, Lisa
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Borglin, Sofia
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Elevers upplevelser av extra anpassad skolidrott- en intervjustudie2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    The Swedish curriculum says that the education will adapt and take notice of every child’s individual condition and needs. Every child has the right to development, to feel the happiness of growing and to experience satisfaction of making progress and overcome difficulties. In every class it is often children who need adapted physical education. The earlier these children can get support and practice, the bigger the chance is that they will catch up. The aim with our study was to investigate pupil’s experiences of adapted physical education to se if it worked as a supporting environment for health and well-being. We interviewed eight children that took part of adapted physical education and also their teacher. We assume that the children opened up at the adapted physical education and got more space to show what they could do. They were able to develop in their own pace and the teacher allowed them to take the time they needed. The results of our study can be used as a basis to bring out the sense of physical education in different levels and how you can work with it in a more salutogenic and holistic way.

  • 297.
    Lindh, Inga-Britt
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Severinsson, Elisabeth
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg.
    Berg, Agneta
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Exploring student nurses' reflections on moral responsibility in practice2008Inngår i: Reflective Practice, ISSN 1462-3943, E-ISSN 1470-1103, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 437-448Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Student nurses are faced with a demand for moral responsibility during their clinical education. In order to gain an understanding of how they reflect on the phenomenon of moral responsibility in nursing practice, repeated focus group interviews were conducted. Fourteen student nurses in their final year of the three year baccalaureate programme in nursing were interviewed during their final placement. The interpretive content analysis disclosed the manifestations of moral responsibility as being available for the patient, shielding the patient and being confronted with the voice of conscience. The findings highlighted the importance of space given to ethical reflection on a regular basis as a joint activity. This included by both student nurses and professionals.

  • 298.
    Lindh, Inga-Britt
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Severinsson, Elisabeth
    University of Stavanger.
    Berg, Agneta
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Moral responsibility: a relational way of being2007Inngår i: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 129-140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports a study exploring the meaning of the complex phenomenon of moral responsibility in nursing practice. Each of three focus groups with a total of 14 student nurses were conducted twice to gather their views on moral responsibility in nursing practice. The data were analysed by qualitative thematic content analysis. Moral responsibility was interpreted as a relational way of being, which involved guidance by one's inner compass composed of ideals, values and knowledge that translate into a striving to do good. It was concluded that, if student nurses are to continue striving to do good in a way that respects themselves and other people, it is important that they do not feel forced to compromise their values. Instead they should be given space and encouragement in their endeavours to do good in a relational way that advances nursing as a moral practice.

  • 299.
    Lindhe, Jan
    et al.
    Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Odontology, The Sahlgrenslea Academy at Göteborg University.
    Meyle, Joerg
    Department of Periodontology, Zentrum für Zahn-Mund-und Kieferheilkunde, Justus-Liebig-Universitätt Giessen.
    Zitzmann, N.U.
    Berglundh, T.
    Heitz-Mayfield, L.J.A.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Roos-Jansåker, Anne-Marie
    Clarke, E.
    Polyzois, I.
    Peri-implant diseases: consensus report of the Sixth European Workshop on Periodontology.2008Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 35, nr 8 Suppl, s. 282-285Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Issues related to peri-implant disease were discussed. It was observed that the most common lesions that occur, i.e. peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis are caused by bacteria. While the lesion of peri-implant mucositis resides in the soft tissues, peri-implantitis also affects the supporting bone. Peri-implant mucositis occurs in about 80% of subjects (50% of sites) restored with implants, and peri-implantitis in between 28% and 56% of subjects (12-40% of sites). A number of risk indicators were identified including (i) poor oral hygiene, (ii) a history of periodontitis, (iii) diabetes and (iv) smoking. It was concluded that the treatment of peri-implant disease must include anti-infective measures. With respect to peri-implant mucositis, it appeared that non-surgical mechanical therapy caused the reduction in inflammation (bleeding on probing) but also that the adjunctive use of antimicrobial mouthrinses had a positive effect. It was agreed that the outcome of non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis was unpredictable. The primary objective of surgical treatment in peri-implantitis is to get access to the implant surface for debridement and decontamination in order to achieve resolution of the inflammatory lesion. There was limited evidence that such treatment with the adjunctive use of systemic antibiotics could resolve a number of peri-implantitis lesions. There was no evidence that so-called regenerative procedures had additional beneficial effects on treatment outcome.

  • 300.
    Lindholm, Christina
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Debridering av nekrotiska sår2007Inngår i: Sår, ISSN 1653-9591, nr 4, s. 10-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
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