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  • 251.
    Söderquist, Pär
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Norrström, Joanna
    Kristianstad University.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Frankrike.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Wild mallards have more "goose-like" bills than their ancestors2015In: 4th Pan-European Duck Symposium, Hangö, Finland, 7-11/4, 2015, 2015, p. 38-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild populations of the world’s most common dabbling duck, the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed Mallards started. Three groups of Mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started), present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild Mallards (only males). Farmed Mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed Mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild Mallards. Present-day Mallards thus tend to have more ‘‘goose-like’’ bills (wider, higher, and shorter) than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released Mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild Mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with ‘alien genes’ may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds.

  • 252.
    Söderquist, Pär
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Norrström, Joanna
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Wild Mallards have more ”goose-like” bills than their ancestors2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild populations of the world’s most common dabbling duck, the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed Mallards started. Three groups of Mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started), present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild Mallards (only males). Farmed Mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed Mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild Mallards. Present-day Mallards thus tend to have more ‘‘goose-like’’ bills (wider, higher, and shorter) than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released Mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild Mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with ‘alien genes’ may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds.

  • 253.
    Söderquist, Pär
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Norrström, Joanna
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, CNERA Avifaune Migratrice, La Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, Arles.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Wild mallards have more ‘‘goose-like’’ bills than their ancestors: a case of anthropogenic influence?2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 12, article id e115143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild populations of the world’s most common dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed mallards started. Three groups of mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started), present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild mallards (only males). Farmed mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild mallards. Present-day mallards thus tend to have more “goose-like” bills (wider, higher, and shorter) than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with ‘alien genes’ may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds.

  • 254.
    Tolf, Conny
    et al.
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Wille, Michelle
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Grosbois, Vladimir
    Centre de coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), Montpellier.
    Hasselquist, Dennis
    Department of Biology, Lund University.
    Olsen, Björn
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Individual variation in influenza A virus infection histories and long-term immune responses in mallards2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 4, p. e61201-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild dabbling ducks (genus Anas) are the main reservoir for influenza A virus (IAV) in the Northern Hemisphere. Current understanding of disease dynamics and epidemiology in this virus-host system has primarily been based on populationlevel ,surveillance studies and infection experiments conducted in laboratory settings. Using a combined experimentalnatural approach with wild-strain captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), we monitored individual IAV infection histories and immunological responses of 10 birds over the course of 15 months. This is the first detailed study to track natural IAV infection histories over several seasons amongst the same individuals growing from juvenile to adults. The general trends in the infection histories of the monitored birds reflected seasonal variation in prevalence at the population level. However, within the study group there were significant differences between individuals in infection frequency as well as in short and long term anti-IAV antibody response. Further observations included individual variation in the number of infecting virus subtypes, and a strong tendency for long-lasting hemagglutinin-related homosubtypic immunity. Specifically, all infections in the second autumn, except one, were of different subtypes compared to the first autumn. The variation among birds concerning these epidemiologically important traits illustrates the necessity for IAV studies to move from the level of populations to examine individuals in order to further our understanding of IAV disease and epidemiology.

  • 255.
    Tuvendal, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    A handshake between markets and hierarchies: geese as an example of successful collaborative management of ecosystem services2015In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 15937-15954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important task in research about natural resource management is to communicate the utility of different approaches from various settings. Using ecosystem services as a conceptual frame, we study a local solution to alleviate goose-human conflicts in an agricultural region in Sweden. Increasing goose numbers and crop damage led to the foundation of a goose management group (GMG), comprising landowners, farmers, hunters, ornithologists, conservation NGOs, and local and county level administration. The GMG was not given any formal or legal authority. We asked: is this management solution successful? Which problems can be solved and which remain? Can the GMG stand as a model for management of other species and in other landscapes? We interviewed present members of the GMG and analyzed minutes from its meetings. We found that the GMG has autonomy to self-organize and shows adaptive capacity over time in handling variability and complexity in its socio-ecological system. This makes the GMG a sustainable solution for local management of a resource in which goose population growth and legislation are decided at other (national or international) levels. We assessed what constitutes perceived success and found that GMG is geared toward “mediation of opposing preferences” by establishing a figurative handshake between stakeholders. By comparing how four general challenges in ecosystem service management align with formative attributes of the GMG, we discuss in which ways this management solution is applicable to other ecosystem services in other contexts.

  • 256.
    Wallensten, A.
    et al.
    Smedby Health Center, Kalmar County Council.
    Munster, V. J.
    Department of Virology and National Influenza Center, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.
    Department of Virology and National Influenza Center, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam.
    Fouchier, R. A. M.
    Department of Virology and National Influenza Center, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam.
    Olsen, B.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Umeå University.
    Multiple gene segment reassortment between Eurasian and American lineages of influenza A virus (H6N2) in Guillemot (Uria aalge)2005In: Archives of Virology, ISSN 0304-8608, E-ISSN 1432-8798, Vol. 150, no 8, p. 1685-1692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Guillemots banded in the northern Baltic Sea were screened for influenza A virus (IAV). Three out of 26 sampled birds tested positive by RT-PCR. Two of these were characterized as subtype H6N2. Phylogenetic analyses showed that five gene segments belonged to the American avian lineage of IAVs, whereas three gene segments belonged to the Eurasian lineage. Our findings indicate that avian IAVs may have a taxonomically wider reservoir spectrum than previously known and we present the first report of a chimeric avian IAV with genes of American and Eurasian origin in Europe.

  • 257.
    Wallensten, Anders
    et al.
    Smedby Health Center, Kalmar.
    Munster, Vincent J.
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Kalmar University.
    Brytting, Mia
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Fouchier, Ron A.M.
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam.
    Fransson, Thord
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm.
    Haemig, Paul D.
    Kalmar University.
    Karlsson, Malin
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna.
    Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam.
    Stervander, Martin
    Ottenby Bird Observatory, Degerhamn.
    Waldenstrom, Jonas
    Kalmar University.
    Olsen, Björn
    Kalmar University.
    Surveillance of influenza A virus in migratory waterfowl in northern Europe2007In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 404-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted large-scale, systematic sampling of influenza type A virus in migratory waterfowl (mostly mallards [Anas platyrhynchos]) at Ottenby Bird Observatory, southeast Sweden. As with previous studies, we found a higher prevalence in fall than spring, and among juveniles compared with adults. However, in contrast to other studies, we found that prevalence in spring was sometimes high (mean 4.0%, highest 9.5%). This finding raises the possibility that ducks are capable of perpetuating influenza A virus of different subtypes and subtype combinations throughout the year and from 1 year to the next. Isolation of the H5 and H7 subtypes was common, which suggests risk for transmission to sensitive domestic animals such as poultry. We argue that wild bird screening can function as a sentinel system, and we give an example of how it could have been used to forecast a remote and deadly outbreak of influenza A in poultry.

3456 251 - 257 of 257
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