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  • 201.
    Hammarlund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Thurn, Rosemarie
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Den livsviktiga tråden anknytning mellan vårdnadshavare och spädbarn ur ett professionellt perspektiv2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of this essay was to illustrate professionals’ reflections on the concept early attachment between guardian and infant, within different family support activities, and how professionals encourage early attachment between guardian and infant. The mental health state of infants is an important field of knowledge to explore. Attachment between guardian and infant is of the utmost importance for the development of children. The questions we had were: What contains the concept early attachment between guardian and infant from a professional point of view? Which factors have influence on early attachment between guardian and infant? How do professionals work with early attachment between guardian and infant? The essay is a qualitative study based on six interviews with two female district nurses, two female social welfare secretaries, a female psychologist and a female social worker. The result of our study showed that according to the professionals, early attachment between guardian and infant is vital for infants, the health and the ability of the guardians is of great importance for the quality of the attachment, and the professionals use different methods to encourage early attachment. They also suggest cooperation to encourage early attachment between guardian and infant.

    Key words: attachment, professional, guardian, infant, vital, development.

  • 202.
    Hamrén-Larsson, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Kvist, Sara
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Hälsoprofilbedömning - en metod för förändring av levnadsvanor?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    It`s important that every person take responsebly for her own lifestyle to promote health.

    Today the individuel often knows the consequense of a certain lifestyle, but she doesn`t know how to change the negative behavior. Health profile assesment (HPA) is a method where you through conversation transfer knowledge and awarness about the member. The healthprofiler also motivate to a healthier lifestyle. Our purpose with this studie was to examine how individuels effects of a health profile assesment also illuminate which part of the health profile assesment the individuels have noticed and which way of living they change. To answer our purpose we used a quantitative transverse study in the way of

    questionnairexamination as we shared to a selection (n=193) on different companies in

    Ostergotland and Scania. Through our result we noticed that the exercisepart was the easiest part to pay attention to and also to make a behaviorchange. Although it was the dietpart that influenced most individules. As a future as healtheducationalist we think that HPA is an efficacy method to support and promote individuels in their habits of living.

  • 203.
    Hansson, Anette
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Tångne, Nadja
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Jämförelse mellan två tandvårdskliniker avseende progression och behandling av approximala kariesskador – en journalstudie 2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Preventive measurements as well as clinical caries diagnostics are vital to retain a good dental health in the population. In order for optimal caries diagnostics radiographs are used. There is a great intra- and intervariation regarding cariesprogression. A large number of tools for cariesprevention at home or in the clinic are today used. The aim of this journal study was to compare the progression of carieslesions in the approximal area, diagnosed on radiographs, and preventive measures used to reduce cariesprogression between two examine dates on two dental clinics. The study included 60 patients aged 23-30 with a treatment interval of 12-18 months at respective clinic. Results show that there at baseline were fewer approximal carieslesions at the Studerandekliniken than at Näsby FTV. Progression on one or more surfaces where found for 67 % of the individuals at Studerandekliniken compared with 90 % at Näsby FTV. Only a few individuals showed progression on ≥10 surfaces. Several individuals get more than one preventive measure against caries. Professional cleaning was the preventive action most often performed on both clinics. To conclude although the variations in given prevention seen between the two clinics, it is believed that all kinds of prevention may be positive in order to prevent cariesprogression.

  • 204.
    Hansson, Carina
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Olofsson, Eva
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Patienters följsamhet till läkemedelsordinationer - en litteraturstudie -2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: One of the main concerns related to medical therapy is non-compliance to drugs. More than half of all patients do not comply with prescribed medication. Non-compliance to drug therapy leads to unnecessary suffering for the patient and there are no easy solutions to the problem. In order to create understanding for the individual patient it is important that medical staffs are enlightened on the existing problems concerning this matter. Purpose: To describe factors that effect compliance to drug prescription. Method: A systematic literature study by observation and review of earlier research. Result: Six factors emerged: side effects, negative attitude towards drugs, forgetfulness, incomprehension, costs and low confidence in healthcare. It appeared that there were many reasons why patients didn’t use their prescribed drugs. The decision to comply with the doctors prescription or not is an ongoing process, causes that speaks for and against can be different from one day to another. Conclusion: Non-compliance to drugs is a complex problem; measures focused in patient are necessary. Collaboration between different professionals in healthcare requests to a greater extent, in purpose to support and motivate the patient to comply drug therapy.

  • 205.
    Hansson, Jeanette
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Mattsson, Anna
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Olausson, Malin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Receving women in the accident and emergency department who have been abused by their male partner – an empirical nursing study2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduction:Violence towards women is an extensive and important problem in the society. Confronting women who are assulted by their male partner is a demanding task for the nurses.The aim of the study:The aim of this empirical study was to illustrate the experiences of nurses in the meeting with women exposed to violence by their male partner.Method:This is a qualitative interview study including nine female nurses. The material recieved from the interviews was analysed with help of content analysis. Categories were formed named Comunication, feelings, Ability to recognize the women, Lack of time, Need of support and further education. An application to the ethical council at the University of Kristianstad were remitted and approved. Result:The difficulties in the caring of assulted women were emerged as: The lack of time and the difficulties in recognicing the assulted women. These problems caused strong emotional feelings like inability to help, anger and frustration.Conclusion:The writers think that the attitude in the society have to change, in order to get the economical resurses needed to support the nurses with further education and feed back.

  • 206.
    Hansson, Susanne
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Ingerby, Jenny
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Beröring och dess betydelse för mötet mellan patient och vårdpersonal - En litteraturstudie2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Nursing staff use touch on a daily basis, often without reflecting over it. It is not only the touch itself that emerges, everyday nursing staff get involved in the meeting with patients. The use of touch can be divided in to different kinds of touch, due to its purpose these are instrumental- and expressive touch. Purpose: The purpose with the study was to illustrate what physical touch means for the meeting between patient and caregiver. Method: A literature review has been done, based on ten scientific articles and by these four domains emerged. Result: Four domains emerged why touch is given, how touch is given, where touch is given and its effects and how touch effects the meeting. Touch was given in the purpose of helping and calming the patients. It was described on which part of the body that was acceptable to touch and not acceptable. Studies also showed a difference between male and female staff giving touch to female respective male patients. Conclusion: It is important as nursing staff to have a good intention and a good will when they are about to touch a patient. The patient is often in a weak position. Therefore it is important that the nursing staff observe and listen to the patient so the meeting and the touch can be as good as possible.

  • 207.
    Haxha, Valmire
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Phan, Lien
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Inställningar till framtida tandvårdsbesök hos 19-åringar i Malmö stad2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka inställningar till framtida tandvårdsbesök hos 19-åringar samt se om det fanns några skillnader mellan tankar om fortsatta tandvårdsbesök, kunskaper om karies, DMFT/DSa, etnicitet och kön. Studien ägde rum på nio Folktandvårdskliniker i Malmö stad där ett frågeformulär lämnades till en grupp 19-åringar. Komplettering av vissa kliniska variabler ur ordinarie journalanteckningar gjordes också. Totalt deltog 81 personer i studien. Resultaten visade att många av ungdomarna tycker det är viktigt att uppsöka tandvården regelbundet. Man såg även att ungdomarna hade relativt goda kunskaper om karies samt en positiv syn till att teckna frisktandvård. Statistiskt signifikanta skillnader framkom gällande inställningar till fortsatta tandvårdsbesök och föräldrarnas etnicitet. Det är viktigt att ungdomarna kommer regelbundet till tandvården istället för att endast söka tandvård vid besvär. Det är även viktigt att information samt motivation ges om vad det finns för alternativ efter den organiserade barn- och ungdomstandvården.

    The aim of the study was to find out what attitude towards future dental care 19-year-olds have and to see if there were any differences between thoughts on continuing dental visits, knowledge about caries, DMFT/DSa, ethnicity and gender. The study took place at nine Public Dental Clinics in the city of Malmö. A questionnaire was handed out to 19-year-olds and certain clinical variables were collected from the regular journal notes. Totally 81 individuals participated. The results showed that many of the participants think that it is important to seek dental care on a regular basis. The youth had relatively good knowledge about caries and had a positive attitude towards subscription dental care. There were significant differences when it came to attitude towards future dental care visits and the parents’ ethnicity. It is important that young adults have regular dental visits instead of seeking dental care only when problems occur. It is also important that information and motivation is given about what options there are for future dental care after the governmental funded dental care period expires.

  • 208.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nätverket – en framgångsfaktor i arbetsorganisatoriskt utvecklingsarbete?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Nätverk är en platt arbetsorganisation som nyttjas alltmer frekvent. I Skåne startades nätverk för Hälsofrämjande skola/skolutveckling 2000, vars syfte var att få igång, stödja och utveckla grundskolornas hälsofrämjande processer. Kontaktpersoner utsågs, med ansvar att driva frågorna i deras respektive kommun. Det centrala i konceptet är att det hälsofrämjande arbetet skall fördelas över hela läroverk, inte enbart angå ett fåtal engagerade individer. Skolledare/rektor och en koordinator framställs i bakgrunden som nyckelpersoner för att möjliggöra denna process genom deras befogenheter respektive överblick och relationer till de involverade. Genom djupintervjuer har fyra nätverksdeltagare och en Skolkoordinator, fått ge sin syn på vilka framgångsfaktorer de anser förekomma. I resultatet framkom att fördelningen inte upplevs föreliggande, att skillnader råder mellan miljön i nätverket och på skolan samt att personligheter/egenskaper framför bestämda tjänster och befattningar är framgångsfaktorer. Att verkligt mandat ges till kontaktpersonerna från skolledningen är likaledes en framgångsfaktor, det räcker inte att få avsatt tid till nätverksdeltagande, utan verkställandet av konceptets innehåll måste få tillåtelse genom mandatet. Studien har också visat att förändringsarbetets stadium påverkar vilka befattningar och egenskaper/personligheter som kan betraktas som betydelsefulla, varför det förefaller viktigt att synliggöra stadierna innan kompetens, befattningar och egenskaper/personligheter diskuteras.

  • 209.
    Hedin, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Wiberg, Sandra
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Motionsvanor bland gymnasieflickor - En enkätstudie om motionsvanor samt faktorer som bidrar till regelbunden motion2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Individuals of today are living in a community that encourages an inactive life. For many individuals exercise is an important part in their life and can be a health factor and contribute to the joy of living. Some environments in the individuals’ everyday life are of supportive character. These supportive environments can make it easier for the individual to make healthier choices. The goal is to examine girls’ exercise habits and the effects of supportive environments for regular exercise. The theoretical points consist of model learning and the Vygotskijs’, Säljös’ and Bourdieus’ theories of learning. Quantitative approach was chosen in form of a questionnaire. The study received the approval of the University of Kristianstad ethical committee. Fifty-two percent of the girls exercised regularly, no significant differences were found between theoretical and practical programs. Many of the girls exercised together. It didn’t matter which exercise activity the girls were participating in. It was also found that in order to keep on with a specific activity, it had to be enjoyable. The girls’ exercise habits were influenced both positively and negatively due to supportive environments. The supportive environments were: family, friends and school. The conclusion is that supportive environments are importent to regular exercise.

  • 210.
    Heimby, Camilla
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Hensegård, Anna
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Närståendes upplevelser i samband med palliativ hemvård - att vara vårdgivare till en svårt sjuk familjemedlem2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    På 1960-talet uppkom hospice, där sjukvården tog över rollen som vårdare. Men nu är vi åter tillbaka att vårda i hemmet, där de närstående får ta sig an den ibland mycket krävande rollen som vårdare. Syftet med litteraturstudien var att undersöka närståendes upplevelser i sambans med palliativ hemvård. Metod som användes var en allmän litteraturstudie baserad på systematiska sökningar i olika databaser för att finna vetenskapliga artiklar. Resultatet delas upp i två delar. Första delen belyser upplevelsen av att vårda närstående i hemmet. Det handlar om upplevelser kring rollen som vårdgivare, dess påfrestningar och förändrade familjerelationer. Andra delen belyser upplevelser av att sjukvårdspersonal kommer och vårdar i hemmet. Slutsatser som kan dras är att närstående krävergod information, kunskap och stöd för att vårdandet av en svårt sjuk ska bli en positiv upplevelse. Diskussionen tar upp förebyggande åtgärder mot de påfrestningar som de närstående utsäts för och hur dessa kan förebyggas. Kunskap, delaktighet och information är tre viktiga behov som de närstående saknar och är i stort behov. Det är upp till sjukvårdspersonalen att tillfredsställa dessa behov i största möjliga mån. Diskussionen tar även upp om hemsjukvården kommer att finnas kvar pågrund av rådande samhällsförändringar.

  • 211.
    Heldt Holmgren, Emily
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Persson, Louise
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Anpassning till en förändrad kropp, oro, försämrad självkänsla och sociala begränsningar: Kvinnor som opererat bort ett eller båda brösten. - En litteratur studie2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bröstcancer är en vanlig cancerform i Sverige idag. Vid en operation där en borttagning av en brösttumör är nödvändig kan en kvinna tvingas ta bort ett bröst eller i sällsynta fall båda. Varje förändring i kroppen medför en förändring av människors tillgång till livet. En kvinna som tvingas genomgå en bröstoperation kan ha mycket att anpassa sig till i sin förändrade situation, kroppsligt, emotionellt och socialt. Syftet med studien var att belysa bröstcancerdrabbade kvinnors anpassning till sin livssituation efter att ha tagit bort ett eller båda brösten.

    Åtta vetenskapliga artiklar har använts till studien. Resultatet presenteras i två huvudteman: Vad bröstopererade kvinnor som tagit bort ett eller båda brösten behöver anpassa sig till och Hur bröstopererade kvinnor som opererat bort ett eller båda brösten anpassar sig till sin situation. Det kan vara viktigt att sjuksköterskor har vetskap om på vilket sätt kvinnor som opererat bort bröst anpassar sig till sin livssituation då sjuksköterskor kan hjälpa och från början erbjuda redskap så de kan handskas med sin situation.

  • 212.
    Henriksson, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Samuelsson, Emelie
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Kunskaper om karies och gingivit hos barn i årskurs 3-5 - en enkätstudie Knowledge of caries and gingivitis among third to fifth grade school children2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge of caries and gingivitis among third to fifth grade school children. A questionnaire was distributed to 117 children of a primary school in the south of Sweden. The result of the study indicate that the children had good knowledge regarding development and prevention of caries and gingivitis. However, the children did not know the meaning of the words caries and gingivitis. The children also appeared to lack important information about dietary measures to achieve good dental health.

  • 213.
    Heringhaus, Alina
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Kristian
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Rosdahl, Malin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Verbal och icke verbal kommunikation mellan sjuksköterska och patient2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Verbal och icke verbal kommunikation är ett utbyte av information eller känslor mellan två personer. Inom omvårdnadsarbetet är kommunikation ett viktigt redskap att använda sig av som sjuksköterska. Syfte: Att belysa verbal och icke verbal kommunikation mellan sjuksköterska och patient vid det akuta omhändertagandet av patienten. Metod: En allmän litteraturstudie med systematisk artikelsökning samt innehållsanalys av artiklarna. Resultat: Det finns både positiva och negativa sätt att kommunicera. Sjuksköterskorna var väl medvetna om vikten av god kommunikation, men trots detta visade det sig att det fanns påtagliga brister i omvårdnaden vid det akuta omhändertagandet. Sjuksköterskans sätt att kommunicera påverkades av många faktorer, bland annat patientens tillstånd och bakgrund samt störande faktorer som tidsbrist och telefon. Slutsats: Det tycks finnas ett behov av utökad utbildning och träning inom kommunikation för samtliga som arbetar inom omvårdnad. Dessutom bör forskningen inom kommunikation utökas.

  • 214.
    Hermansson, Tina
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Westerberg, Laila
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Du kan inte bara titta, du måste se Förhållningssättets betydelse i demensvården: En litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Personer med demens har ofta en bristande förmåga att kommunicera verbalt och uttrycker sig istället genom olika beteende. Det är av vikt att vårdpersonalen skapar ett nära samspel med vårdtagaren, för att om möjligt tolka och förstå vad de ger uttryck för. Syfte: Att belysa betydelsen av vårdpersonalens förhållningssätt vid omvårdnad av personer med demens. Metod: Allmän litteraturstudie baserad på tretton vetenskapliga artiklar. Resultat: Omvårdnaden av personer med demens påverkas av vilket förhållningssätt vårdpersonalen har. Förhållningssättet är beroende av flera olika faktorer, och ingen enskild faktor kan anses väga tyngre än någon annan. Det gemensamma för alla faktorer är att vårdpersonalen bör sträva efter att bekräfta vårdtagaren i omvårdnadssituationer. Förhållningssättet speglas av vilka värdegrunder och vilket synsätt människor har. Vårdpersonalen bör därför få tillfälle att kritiskt reflektera över sitt eget förhållningssätt. Demenssjuka personer utvecklar ett närmast totalt beroende av vårdpersonalen. Det är därför viktigt att vårdpersonalen inte bara har kunskap om vårdtagarens sjukdom, utan även ser den unika individen. Med goda kunskaper om vårdtagaren och dennes diagnos finns förutsättningarna för en individanpassad omvårdnad.

  • 215.
    Hesselgren, Frida
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Johansson, Ida
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lärarstudenters syn på jämställdhetsarbete i skolan ur ett lärande- och hälsofrämjande perspektiv2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag finns hälsoskillnader mellan könen, vilka delvis beror på ojämställda förhållanden i samhället, som uppkommit av värderingar för hur kvinnor och män ska vara. En förändring av värderingar kan ske i skolan där läraren har en betydelsefull roll. I lärarutbildningen förekommer ingen kontinuerlig undervisning kring hur lärarstudenterna ska integrera ett

    genusperspektiv i sin framtida yrkesroll. Syftet med denna uppsats var att undersöka på vilket sätt lärarstudenter anser sig kunna arbeta med jämställdhet i skolan ur ett lärande- och hälsofrämjande perspektiv. Datainsamlingen har skett genom tio intervjuer med lärarstudenter. I resultatet framkom att lärare bör vara förebilder och handledare för sina elever i jämställdhetsarbetet. Lärarstudenterna menar att klimatet i skolan bör genomsyras av öppenhet och respekt där dialog och reflektion är viktiga komponenter för att skapa medvetenhet hos både lärare och elever. De anser även att det är viktigt att se alla elever samt uppmuntra och respektera individen som den är oavsett samhällets förväntningar. Eleverna kan då känna trygghet och därmed utveckla ett starkare självförtroende som kan främja god hälsa. Om elever reflekterar över ställningstaganden och samhällssituationer är vår slutsats att elever kan medvetandegöras, vilket skapar förutsättningar för ändrade värderingar. Dessa värderingar ligger till grund för framtida val i livet och det är därför viktigt ur ett folkhälsopedagogiskt perspektiv att utöva jämställdhetsarbete i skolan, för att förhindra val som leder till hälsoskillnader mellan könen.

    Today there are differences in health between the genders. These differences are partly caused by unequal relationships in the society that have developed out of values for how women and men should be. In order to change a set of values it’s important to begin the process in school where the teacher has a significant role. In the teachers’ program of education there is no continuous training as to how teachers can integrate the perspective of genders in their future profession. The aim of this study was to examine in which way student teachers consider they can work with equality in school from a health promoting and educational angle. Data has been collected through ten interviews with students. The result shows that teachers need to be role models and supervisors for their pupils in the work of equality. In order to make teachers and pupils aware and make them begin to reflect, the dialogue is emphasized. The students also believe it’s essential to pay notice to each pupil as well as encourage the individual as she or he is, irrespective of the expectations of the society. Further more the atmosphere in school should be permeated with openness and respect. Then the pupils can feel safe and secure and improve their self-esteem, which can provide health. Our conclusion is that it’s important to make pupils cogitate upon standpoints and situations in society. Sets of values and lines of action are established in the school years and predict future life choices. Therefore it’s important, from a health promoting and educational viewpoint, to work with equality in

    school, in order to prevent differences in health.

  • 216.
    Hill, Peter
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Kvinnor utsatta för sexuella övergrepp - en litteraturstudie med fokus på mötet med hälso- och sjukvården2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: The numbers of crime towards women are increasing in our society. It is the medical caregiver’s responsibility to take care of these women when they are seeking help post assault. The caregiver’s task is to provide good care and performe a forensic evidence examination. Studies shows that many help-seeking women experienced the care they received as hurtful, and thus many female survivors of sexual assault did not seek help at all. The reason for this may be the emotional experience the victim receives from the healthcare. Aim: The aim of the study was to examine female emotional experience of the meeting with a caregiver after sexual assault. Method: The study is based on a systematic literature review. Findings: Many help-seeking female survivors of sexual abuse experienced the meeting with healthcare as hurtful. Many victims perceived that the medical personnel and people around them increased their feeling of guilt they carried post-assault. That decreased their likeliness to disclosure and help-seeking. Conclusion: Help-seeking women post-assault often experienced guilt in relation to what happened to them. The questions medical personnel asked the victims, the way they asked and the reaction of people surrounding them, may increase their feelings of guilt. With increased knowledge, healthcare-personnel can help these women to get the right support and help and this may increase their quality of life.

  • 217.
    Hirvonen, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Ryderling, Sara
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nursing staffs´ experience of their situation in the work with oral health in persons with psychical disabilities2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: The oral health is a problem for many people with psychical disabilities. The reason for that is among other things that the psychical disabilities could do it hard to handle fundamental routines in the everyday life. Aim: The aim of the literature review was to describe how the nursing staff experienced their situation about their work with oral health in persons with psychical disabilities. Method: The study has been done as an overview and the data has been analysed with content analysis. Result: Two head categories were identified; barrier that influence the ability to perform the work with oral health and barrier that influence the performance of the work with oral health. The first head category was connected with the categories; insufficient education, education of significance, failed support from dental staff and failed routines. The second head category was connected with the categories; influence of personal feelings, ethical dilemma and low priority. Conclusions: Insufficient education lead to that oral care was not prioritised and was influenced by personal feelings when the nursing staff lacked knowledge about the meaning of oral health. In other words it is important with more education in oral health and how this can be promoted, which could be made through a development work between nursing staff and dental staff.

  • 218.
    Holmberg, Kajsa
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Persson, Malin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Suicidal patients’ feelings and experiences of the meeting with nursing staff in residential psychiatric care2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Suicidal patients feelings and experiences of the psychiatric service can be a decisive moment of the following treatment. Although suicide is a common problem all over the world we know very little about the feelings that the patients are feeling in residential psychiatric care. Purpose: The aim of this litterature studie was to describe suicidal patients feelings and experiences of the psychiatric service. Method: Literature study was conducted through a search of articles in different databases. The data has been done as an overview and the data has been analysed with content analysis. Result: Head categories were formed throughout the data. The four main headings were; feelings of being observed, feelings of shame towards the nursing staff, the importance that someone is listening and patients feelings of compassion and commitment from the nursing staffs. Conclusions: Suicidal patients are in a very fragile state of mind during their time in psyhiatric service but are still aware of what is going on around them. The way the nursing staff treat the patients and how developed their skills in communications are, can be of decisive meaning. Nursing staff insufficient knowledge leads to negative feelings and experiences by the suicidal patients and because of that slower recovery

  • 219.
    Holst, Göran
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Livet som en berättelse2002Inngår i: Att möta personer med demens / [ed] Anna-Karin Edberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2002, s. 96-106Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 220.
    Hommel, Ami
    et al.
    Department of Orthopedics, Lund University Hospital.
    Bjorkelund, Karin B.
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Thorngren, Karl-Göran
    Department of Orthopedics, Lund University Hospital.
    Ulander, Kerstin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    A study of a pathway to reduce pressure ulcers for patients with a hip fracture2007Inngår i: Journal of Orthopaedic Nursing, ISSN 1361-3111, E-ISSN 1873-4839, Vol. 11, nr 3-4, s. 151-159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to an ageing population the numbers of patients with hip fractures are increasing. They often suffer from concomitant diseases and are therefore prone to be affected by complications such as pressure ulcers. The prevention of pressure ulcers among patients with a hip fracture is crucial. The aim of this study was to improve the quality of care and patient safety in patients with a hip fracture. A new evidence based clinical pathway was introduced to prevent hospital acquired pressure ulcers. Furthermore, the purpose was to bring attention to pressure ulcer prevention and to facilitate changes in clinical practice to improve quality of care and patient safety. A total of 478 patients with a hip fracture were consecutively included between April 2003 and March 2004. The new evidence based clinical pathway was introduced on October 1st 2003. The results from the first 210 patients in the control group and the last 210 patients in the intervention group are presented in this article. In the intervention group, hospital acquired pressure ulcers decreased by 50% (p < 0.007). It is possible to reduce the development of hospital acquired pressure ulcers among elderly patients with a hip fracture even though it is not possible to eliminate the effect of factors such as increased age and the patients’ medical status which are often the two main risk factors.

  • 221.
    Hommel, Ami
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Bjorkelund, Karin B.
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Thorngren, Karl-Göran
    Department of Orthopedics, Lund University Hospital.
    Ulander, Kerstin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nutritional status among patients with hip fracture in relation to pressure ulcers2007Inngår i: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 589-596Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & aims

    Patients with a hip fracture often have a poor nutritional status that is associated with increased risk of complications, morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an improved care intervention in relation to nutritional status and pressure ulcers. An intervention of best practices for patients with hip fracture was introduced, using the available resources effectively and efficiently with a not too complicated or expensive intervention.

    Methods

    A quasi-experimental study of 478 patients consecutively included between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2004. A new evidence-based clinical pathway was introduced on October 1, 2003. The results from the first 210 patients in the control group and the last 210 patients in the intervention group are presented in this article.

    Results

    The total number of patients with a hospital-acquired pressure ulcer was in the intervention group, 19 patients, and in the control group, 39 patients (p=0.007). No patient younger than 65 years developed a pressure ulcer. There were no statistical significant differences between the groups with respect to blood biochemical variables at inclusion. Patients in the control group had higher arm muscle circumference (AMC) (p=0.05), calf circumference (CC) (p=0.038) and body mass index (BMI) (p=0.043) values. Abnormal anthropometrical tests of BMI, triceps skin fold (TSF) <10th percentile and AMC <10th percentile were found in 12 patients in the control group and in 4 patients in the intervention group. None of the 4 patients in the intervention group developed pressure ulcers. However, 2 of the 12 patients in the control group were affected.

    Conclusions

    It is possible to reduce the development of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers among elderly patients with a hip fracture even though they have poor prefracture nutritional status. Results in this study indicate the value of the new clinical pathway, as number of patients who have developed pressure ulcers during their stay in hospital has been reduced by 50%.

  • 222.
    Hommel, Ami
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Björkelund, Karin B.
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Thorngren, Karl-Göran
    Department of Orthopedics, Lund University Hospital.
    Ulander, Kerstin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Differences in complications and length of stay between patients with a hip fracture treated in an orthopaedic department and patients treated in other hospital departments2008Inngår i: Journal of Orthopaedic Nursing, ISSN 1361-3111, E-ISSN 1873-4839, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 13-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The health care system has to deal with substantial health care costs, which are expected to continue to rise due to increasingly elderly populations. One way of saving has been a reduction of the number of beds in hospitals. The consequence is that acute patients are inappropriately admitted to non-specialized wards because of limited beds. These patients are also known as ‘‘outliers’’. In this study, consecutive patients with a hip fracture treated at the orthopaedic department (n = 273) are compared with patients treated at other departments (n = 147) according to the incidence of complications and the length of stay (LOS) before and after the introduction of an evidence-based clinical pathway. There was no medical difference between the populations. However, the strict demands of saving costs, with limited beds, have resulted not only in economic consequences with prolonged hospitalization, but also in patient suffering and the inconvenience of increased postoperative complications.Patients treated at non-specialized wards had an extra LOS of 3.7 days in the acute hospital settings and furthermore, 13.6 days of LOS including rehabilitation compared to patients treated at the orthopaedic department. In addition, we consider the implemented evidence-based clinical pathway to be successful since the number of complications was reduced. It is a major challenge to establish effective treatment and rehabilitation for patients after a hip fracture aiming to avoid complications and reduce LOS. These fragile patients with a hip fracture ought to be treated at the orthopaedic department, or at departments with geriatric and rehabilitation knowledge. Physiotherapists, occupational therapists and nurses specialising in orthopaedics and geriatricians should take an active part in the care of these patients.

  • 223.
    Hommel, Ami
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Ulander, Kerstin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Bjorkelund, Karin B.
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Norrman, Per-Ola
    Department of Orthopaedics, Lund University Hospital.
    Wingstrand, Hans
    Department of Orthopaedics, Lund University Hospital.
    Thorngren, Karl-Göran
    Department of Orthopaedics, Lund University Hospital.
    Influence of optimised treatment of people with hip fracture on time to operation, length of hospital stay, reoperations and mortality within 1 year2008Inngår i: Injury, ISSN 0020-1383, E-ISSN 1879-0267, Vol. 39, nr 10, s. 1164-1174Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hip fractures are a major cause of hospital stay among the elderly, and result in increased disability and mortality. In this study from 1 April 2003 to 31 March 2004, the influence of optimised treatment of hip fracture on time to operation, length of hospital stay, reoperations and mortality within 1 year were investigated. Comparisons were made between the first 210 patients in the period and the last 210 patients, who followed the new clinical pathway introduced at the University Hospital in Lund, Sweden. Early surgery, within 24h, was not associated with reduced mortality, but was significantly associated with reduced length of stay (p<0.001). Significantly more cases of osteosynthesis for femoral neck fracture were reoperated compared with all other types of surgery (p<0.001) when reoperations with extraction of the hook pins in healed fractures were excluded. Mortality was significantly higher among men than women at 4 (p=0.025) and 12 (p=0.001) months after fracture and among medically fit patients with administrative delay to surgery compared with patients with no delay (p<0.001).

  • 224.
    Hutor, Anette
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Wester, Matilda
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Interaction with long-term mentally ill seen from the caregivers point of view2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background. With the mental health care reform 1995, the long-term mentally ill patients were meant to be integrated in the society. Instead, they became “deported” to mental health care. Aim. To describe the interaction with long-term mentally ill patients, seen from the caregivers’ point of view. Method. Through search of data in one full text database and three other databases, eight articles were included in this literature review. Sample. The articles were not to be older than ten years and to be written in english. Analyse. Were done from inspiration of a manifest text analyse. Results. Following category appeared: “health care professionals encounter the long-term mentally ill”. This category was also divided into the subcategories: “non-supporting interaction” and “encouragement and hope”. Discussion. Through search in databases there might have been bias in, for example, science of behaviour. Most of the findings which have appeared in this literature review can not be generalised. Different interesting findings were discussed like, for example, health care professionals who base their point of view on normality: “Here’s the box make yourself fit in”. This may oppose the patients’ efforts to feel secure in their everyday life. Another perspective, regarding the interaction was the importance of quality of life, when it came to interacting with the patients. To see the patient from an illness point of view, changed to see the human instead and not the illness. Conclusion. Many of the long-term mentally ill patients are battling with feeling safe and secure in the everyday life. When they need support in the primary healthcare, for example, the nurse may be helped with guidance and reflection and to see beyond the illness of the patient where he/she is to be found right in that moment.

  • 225.
    Hägglund, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Roos, Helena
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Cultural Meetings in Child Health Centers: An Interview Study about Child Health Nurses experience of Intercultural Communication.2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Increasing immigration to Sweden has transformed a culturally homogeneous society into a more heterogeneous one. As a consequence intercultural communication and interaction have been increasing. Child health care agencies have encountered these increases. The aim of this study was to examine what the health care professionals experienced and communicated in these intercultural environments. Eight interviews with child health care nurses were carried through at four child health care centers in the south of Sweden. The results have shown that the child health nurses were affected by their different backgrounds and cultural diversity. An ethnocentric approach, including biased values of right and wrong, caused unsuccessful encounters with families from foreign countries. A culturally sensitive approach, on the other hand, with an understanding of cultural differences, proved to be successful and associated to plain communication and trust. A conclusion is that the nurses in childcare services should be provided with the opportunity to develop the necessary knowledge and tools needed for managing problems and obstacles they may encounter in their practices. Furthermore it was found that reflection was used for learning. We conclude that the nurses should be provided with opportunity to learn this way about their own culture and cultural relativity. A culturally sensitive approach leads to a better acceptance for cultural difference. From a health promotion point of view, this means that the prospect of promoting good health for immigrant children in the long run can be increased.

    Keywords: Intercultural communication, child health centers, ethnocentrism, cultural sensitivity, reflection.

  • 226.
    Höglind, Veronica
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Petra
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Upplevelser av hälsa och lärande relaterat till organisatoriskt förändringsarbete: En intervjustudie med sjuk- och undersköterskor.Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Work and health are strongly connected because people spend the most part of their adult life in a workplace. The work environment influences the fellow co-workers experience of health and learning in different ways. Accordingly the organizations influence has by doing so, created a great significance to fellow co-workers experiences. Organizational changes often create turbulence within an organization and are often experienced negatively by the fellow-co-workers even if it will give positive effects later. The aim of this study was to illuminate nurses- and assistant nurses experiences of health and learning related to organizational changes. The method was qualitative and the collection of data was done through twelve semi structural interviews with staff nurses and assistant nurses in a hospital. The result showed several factors in the workplace that effect the experience of health and learning, for example stress, social support, hierarchy, reflection and ways of working. The conclusion showed that there's both obstacles and possibilities for an individual to appropriate a change. Foremost it's about different personalities that have either harder or easier to appropriate and to accept changes. That’s why it's important that the organization is aware of the fellow co-workers different prerequisites for learning so that the changes will succeed and bring forward the positive effect the new organization hopes to achieve. To pursue organizational changes with this understanding in mind bring positive effects on fellow co-workers health. In relation to a health promotion perspective it's important that the organization promotes a salutogenic way of thinking, where there is an emphasis upon a holistic approach so that the fellow co-workers will be able to achieve health and well being.

  • 227.
    Idvall, Ewa
    et al.
    Kalmar County Council and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Berg, Agneta
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Patient assessment of postoperative pain management: orthopaedic patients compared to other surgical patients2008Inngår i: Journal of Orthopaedic Nursing, ISSN 1361-3111, E-ISSN 1873-4839, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 35-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We used a 14-item patient questionnaire, Strategic and Clinical Quality Indicators in Postoperative Pain Management, to describe how orthopaedic patients assessed the quality of care they received. The patients highest and lowest assessments were compared to assessments by other groups of surgical patients as reported in studies being published. Our study included 300 inpatients from four different orthopaedic wards in two county councils in Sweden. Patients answered a questionnaire on the day of discharge. The response rate was 74%, and 44% of the respondents were male. Elective surgery was the main reason for admission, and the mean length of stay was 7.3 days. One of the items rated highest was that pain relief was given quickly when requested. A literature review showed that this item also received a high rating in other studies using the same patient questionnaire. The item rated lowest concerned the regular use of a pain assessment instrument, which also received a low rating from patient groups other than the orthopaedics in this study. In conclusion, we found that orthopaedic patients and other groups of surgical patients gave similar assessments concerning the highest and lowest assessments of postoperative pain management. Nevertheless, further improvement is needed.

  • 228.
    Ingloff, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Malmberg, Terese
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Barn och ungdomars hälsa - En enkätstudie om hur elever upplever sin skolmiljö i relation till sin psykosociala hälsa2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den psykosociala hälsan bland Sveriges befolkning blir allt sämre. Undersökningar visar att mellan femton och fyrtio procent av befolkningen lider av oro, nedstämdhet, sömnbesvär och trötthet. Den största ökningen har skett i yngre åldrar med i stort sett fördubblade andelar. Då skolan utgör en central plats i barns och ungdomars liv är det viktigt att den är välfungerande och arbetar för att främja elevernas hälsa. Syftet med studien var undersöka hur eleverna på en skola i Helsingborgs stad upplevde sin skolmiljö i relation till sin psykosociala hälsa samt om skolans hälsofrämjande arbete påverkade elevernas upplevelse av hälsa i positiv riktning.

    Datainsamling har skett genom enkäter till alla elever i årskurs 4 – 9. I resultatet framkom det att det fanns skillnader i förekomsten av psykosomatiska symtom mellan flickor och pojkar samt att olika faktorer i skolmiljön påverkade förekomsten av psykosomatiska besvär. Det fanns inga samband mellan skolans hälsofrämjande aktiviteter och minskad förekomst av psykosomatiska symtom. I diskussionen relateras studiens resultat till de teoretiska utgångspunkterna och till tidigare forskning beträffande ämnet. Slutsatser som drogs var att barns uppväxtmiljö, samspel med andra människor samt hur individer tolkar omvärlden ligger till grund för barn och ungdomars psykosociala hälsa. Ur ett folkhälsopedagogiskt perspektiv är det viktigt att utveckla hälsofrämjande miljöer för barn och ungdomar samt att ha kunskap om enskilda individers förutsättningar och tidigare erfarenheter för att främja lärande och utveckling.

    Poor mental health conditions in the Swedish population are getting more common and mental

    disorders seem rapidly to increase. Studies have shown that between fifteen and forty percent of the population suffers from tiredness, low feelings and difficulty in getting to sleep. The increase of self-reported psychosomatic symptoms has been shown especially among children and adolescents. The school represents a central place for children and it is therefore important that the school provides an environment that promotes their health. The purpose of this study was to examine how the pupils at a School in Helsingborg city experience their school environment in relation to their mental health and if the school’s health promotion work have a positive effect on their health. Data was obtained from a questionnaire distributed to all pupils from the 4th to 9th grade. The result showed that there were differences between girls and boys in occurrence of psychosomatic symptoms and that that different factors in the school environment influenced the occurrence of psychosomatic symptoms. There were no association between the health promotion activities in school and lower occurrence of psychosomatic symptoms. The results of the study are related to the theoretical perspectives and to earlier research concerning the subject. The conclusions of this study were that children’s environment, the social interaction and how individuals understand their surroundings are important factors for children’s mental health. It is important in both a health promotion and an educational point of view to develop health-promoting environments for children and to have knowledge about individual conditions and earlier experiences to promote learning and development.

    This thesis is written in Swedish.

  • 229.
    Isaksson, Josefine
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Jonsson, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Faktorer som kan påverka upplevelsen av ensamhet hos äldre personer inom kommunal omsorg bosatta i Sverige2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Older people are a major patient group seeking medical care in Sweden. Several of the elderly are living alone and the main reason for living alone is when the spouse passes away. Loneliness is a factor that can affect quality of life, health and wellbeing. Loneliness is an individual experience, loneliness can be self-chosen but involuntary loneliness can lead to lifelong suffering and feelings of loneliness. Aim: The aim of the study was to highlight the factors affecting loneliness among elderly people within municipal care living in Sweden. Method: The method used is a literature review and the article results were analysed with inspiration of the content analysis. Results: The result is divided into four categories: Social networking, activity and assistance needs, communication difficulties and gender differences. The feeling of loneliness may be affected by living alone or living in special accommodations. People with different ethnic origin and people with incipient dementia development are two groups of patients who experience loneliness. There are gender differences in the experience of loneliness. The result shows that men do not experience loneliness to the same extent as women do. Discussion: The experience of loneliness can generate poor health. As a nurse, it is important to have knowledge of the factors affecting the feeling of loneliness in order to prevent poor health.

  • 230.
    Issal, Christina
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Unga kvinnors upplevelser av bröstcancer: en litteraturstudie. Young women´s experiences of breast cancer: a literature review2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
  • 231.
    Jakobsson, Liselotte
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Dagligt liv för patienter med prostatacancer:  2004Inngår i: Kirurgiska sjukdomar: patofysiologi, behandling, specifik omvårdnad / [ed] Roland Andersson m. fl, Lund: Studentlittertur , 2004, s. 240-242Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 232.
    Jakobsson, Liselotte
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Everyday problems in men with prostate cancer: aspects of micturition, indwelling urinary catheter treatment and sexual life2000Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 233.
    Jakobsson, Liselotte
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Indwelling catheter treatment and health-related quality of life in men with prostate cancer in comparison with men with benign prostate hyperplasia2002Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 264-271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiences from indwelling urinary catheter treatment periods were studied. Little is known of what is felt from a male perspective although catheter treatment is a common pre- and postoperative measure for men with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Also studied were health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and sense of coherence (SOC). Men with catheter experience (prostate cancer n = 71, BPH n = 37) were selected from a larger questionnaire study. Assessment was made with study-specific questions together with the QLQ C-30 assessing HRQOL and the SOC questionnaire measuring sense of coherence. Data reduction method was applied to study specific variables to determine problem patterns. Correlation between HRQOL and SOC was determined. Results showed similar problem patterns in men with prostate cancer and BPH: discomfort in wearing catheter (e.g. uneasiness 48.2%), practical and psychosocial difficulties in handling and wearing catheter (e.g. attaching catheter 32.4%) and discomfort at installation (e.g. pain 29.7%). There was lack of knowledge about wearing and practical handling of the catheter. Having a cancer diagnosis did not add to uneasiness or practical problems. Life quality was correlated to SOC (p ≤ 0.001).

  • 234.
    Jakobsson, Liselotte
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lovén, Lars
    The Surgical Clinic, Central Hospital, Kristianstad.
    Rahm Hallberg, Ingalill
    Unit for Caring Sciences, Lund University.
    Micturition problems in relation to quality of life in men with prostate cancer or benign hyperplasia: comparison with men from the general population2004Inngår i: Cancer Nursing, ISSN 0162-220X, E-ISSN 1538-9804, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 218-229Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate men with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in comparison with men from the general population in aspects of presence and frequency of micturition problems in remembrance of prior to treatment and currently. Further, the aim was to investigate the impact of micturition problems on quality of life and the association with micturition problems, and quality of life and sense of coherence (SOC). The samples consisted of 155 men with prostate cancer, 131 with BPH, and 129 from the general population. Micturition problems were assessed with study-specific questions, modified International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life questionnare (QLQ C-30), and SOC questionnaires. Parametric and nonparametric statistics were applied. Most troublesome urinary problems were leakage, feelings of discomfort, and disrupted urinary function and frequency. Men with urological diagnosis had more micturition problems, fatigue, and sleeping difficulties than men from the general population, but the cancer diagnosis did not add to the problems. Role and social functioning (prostate cancer), emotional functioning (BPH), and grade of fatigue (general population) showed itself vital for overall quality of life. Thus, help in solving issues of micturition problems, fatigue, and sleeping disturbances may contribute to maintenance of role, social, and emotional aspects of life.

  • 235.
    Jakobsson, Liselotte
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lovén, Lars
    Rahm Hallberg, Ingalill
    Sexual problems in men with prostate cancer in comparison with men with benign prostatic hyperplasia and men from the general population2001Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 573-582Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    • In a questionnaire study, men with prostate cancer (n=155) or benign prostatic hyperplasia (n=131) identified more sexual problems than did men from the general population (n=129). Sexual dysfunction was acknowledged regarding sexual pleasure and attraction, erectile function and sexual satisfaction and sexual performance.

    • Lowered rates of sexual desire, pleasure and attraction were found when comparing their situation in recollection of pre-treatment situation to the current situation. Lower intercourse frequency and sexual satisfaction were also found.

    • Medication, masturbation and artificial aids to achieve erection were not used as substitutes for shortcomings of erectile function either by men with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia nor by their partners.

    • There seemed to be a lack of information about the illness and treatment consequences for sexual life, including what physical dysfunction to expect after surgery and also what possible help to expect to compensate for the shortcomings.

  • 236.
    Jakobsson, Liselotte
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Persson, Lena
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Increased nursing and medical care information improved patients’ satisfaction: user-friendly data outcome : CANO International Society of Nurses in Cancer Care. Paper presented at the 14th International Conference on Cancer Nursing, ,Toronto, Canada2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 237.
    Jakobsson, Liselotte
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Rahm Hallberg, Ingalill
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lovén, Lars
    Department of Surgery, North Eastern Skane County Hospital, Kristianstad.
    Experiences of daily life and life quality in men with prostate cancer: an explorative study. Part I1997Inngår i: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 108-116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Eleven men with prostate cancer were randomly chosen and interviewed during an in-patient period at a southern Swedish hospital. The interview focused on functional health status in relation to daily life and life quality. In addition the sense of coherence scale was used, as well as the European Organization or Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ C-30 questionnaire. The interview findings were analysed from a phenomenological-hermeneutic perspective and interpreted within the concept of transition. The entry to transition was marked by the men when experiencing an altered life continuum in terms of physical and existential fatigue, pain, micturition problems and an altered sex life. The passage phase was marked by descriptions of a new lifestyle where hope was a central internal resource, creating a positive illusion of life in order to endure. Their external resources were wives and family who supported physically (household matters, gardening) and psychologically (comfort, encouragement). The exit phase meant continuously adapting to a new life style, living with a slowly deteriorating functional health status, a new sense of dependency on others, daily life routine broken by in-patient hospital periods and contacts with primary health care. Thus the findings pointed more at continously facing new passages than a stable exit, i.e. an ongoing transition. The areas of life imbalance described may serve as a basis for care assessment and intervention as well as supplying support of the transitional process.

  • 238.
    Jakobsson, Liselotte
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Hälsa och Samhälle.
    Rahm Hallberg, Ingalill
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lovén, Lars
    Department of Surgery, North Eastern Skåne County Hospital, Kristianstad.
    Met and unmet nursing care needs in men with prostate cancer: an explorative study. Part II1997Inngår i: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 117-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Men with prostate cancer (n = 11) were interviewed during an in-patient period at a urological clinic, about their experiences of met and unmet needs from health professionals. Their perception of quality of life and sense of coherence were also assessed. The findings were analysed from a phenemenological-hermeneutic perspective and interpreted within the concept of transition. It was interpreted that objective functional health needs were mostly met by health professionals and subjective existential needs were mostly not met. The analysis revealed patients as passive or active receivers of care. Passive receivers were explicitly and implicitly stating unmet needs, or explicitly stating satisfaction with nursing care at the same time as implicitly contradicting, referring to their needs as bagatelles, unimportant, whereas active receivers talked about their needs explicitly with the staff and did not state implicit unmet needs. This suggests that nurses need to be aware of and have sensitive ears to undertones in statements and actively seek for patients' needs. The most important nursing care areas seemed to be to provide solutions to physical problems together with staff support including information, and acting to increase confidence in staff and staff availability. This encourages patient, wives and families, in cooperation, towards a healthy exit of transition.

  • 239.
    Jannesson, Lillemor
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Ingredients in dentifrices and their effects on plaque, gingivitis and utans streptococci2003Inngår i: Tandhygienisttidningen, ISSN 1102-6146, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 26-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 240.
    Jansson, Susanne
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Opinions, knowledge and attitudes about sexual and reproductive health - A quantitative study among girls in Zambia2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Socialisation is a life long process in which people acquire the knowledge, rules, opinions and attitudes they need to adjust into a culture and a society. The cultural and traditional beliefs in a society influence gender roles in a society. Women in Zambia are subordinated men and suffer more from sexual and reproductive ill-health. Previous research show that females engage in more risk behaviors even though they have more positive attitudes towards safe sex which makes them more vulnerable when it comes to sexual and reproductive health. The aim of this study was to study the opinions about sex related information, and knowledge and attitudes about sexual and reproductive health among young girls. To get these answers a quantitative study was made in Kitwe in Zambia. The result showed that most of the respondents believe it to be important to get information about sex but almost half of them thought that they had got too little information. It also showed that the respondents believe themselves to have good knowledge about HIV/AIDS but a lower knowledge about contraceptives. To reduce the inequalities in health between women and men empowering women is of great importance.

  • 241.
    Joelsson, Anita
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lennartsson, Monica
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Upplevelser av information givna av distriktssköterska till personer med dubbeldiagnos diabetes mellitus typ 2 och KOL2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are two of the most common diseases in the world and the amount are increasing. The treatments of these diseases are self care and a change of lifestyle. For this to be successful there is a need for the person to have knowledge about the diseases and a motivation for making changes in his or her lifestyle. Most of this information is given by the district nurse at the health centre. It is important to get a better knowledge of these persons experiences and how they used the information given to them. The purpose of this study was to describe how persons, with both diabetes mellitus type 2 and COPD, think about the information given by the nurse at the health centre. Eleven persons were interviewed and the transcripts were analysed using content analysis. The results where separated into different categories: trust, involvation, increase in their belief in their own efforts, lack of individualising and continuity, insufficient and left out information. The result indicated that the district nurses need to develop their ability to a more active listening to the persons. This could lead to better motivation and strength in their ability to self care.

  • 242.
    Joelsson, Jeannette
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Jönsson, Sara
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Ungdomars kunskaper och attityder till solexponering2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Every year, 2000 persons in Sweden are diagnosed with malignant melanoma, the most alarming form of skincancer. Sunexposure, sunburns and tanningbed use are the most appearing causes in the development of this disease. The skin of young people is sensitive to UV-radiation and their sunbehaviour could be determinant to their future health. Purpose: To illuminate the knowledge and attitudes of adolescents towards sunexposure in the meaning to avoid the development of malignant melanoma. Method: The study was designed to be a literature review, containing scientific articles of both qualitative and quantitative approach. Results: The knowledge of young people towards sunexposure and its consequences are not reflected in their attitudes. During adolescence, a tan is associated with beauty. The appearance and the social approval of friends and peergroups are appreciated values. Sunburns are common, despite the usage of different sunscreens. The personal riskbehaviour is underestimated. Parents and school establish the cooperation, increasing knowledge and contributing changes in attitudes towards sunexposure. Conclusions: The knowledge of adolescents towards sunexposure could be improved, but the attitudes are more complicated to change during adolescence. The prevention of the nursing profession ought to make improvements regarding adolescents to change the future development of malignant melanoma.

  • 243.
    Johansson, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Oral Sciences - Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Bergen.
    Unell, Lennart
    Department of Oral Public Health, Malm University, Malmö.
    Carlsson, Gunnar E.
    Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Göteborg University.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Department of Oral Public Health, Malmö University.
    Halling, Arne
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Differences in four reported symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders in a cohort of 50-year-old subjects followed up after 10 years2008Inngår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 66, nr 1, s. 50-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess possible changes in the prevalence of four temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms reported by subjects at age 50 and again 10 years later. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Identical questionnaires were sent out in 1992 and in 2002 to all subjects born in 1942 and living in two Swedish counties. Of those who answered the four questions on TMD symptoms in 1992, 74% responded in 2002 (n=4639). The response alternatives were dichotomized into two groups: 1) No problems and 2) some, rather severe and severe problems. RESULTS: The mean prevalence of TMD-related symptoms reflected small and mainly non-significant changes, whereas the prevalence of reported bruxism was significantly greater at age 60 than at age 50. Among those with no TMD symptoms at age 50, 5-7% of the men and 8-9% of the women reported symptoms at age 60. Of those reporting one or more TMD symptoms at age 50, 47-65% of the men and 40-48% of the women had no symptoms 10 years later. There was a significant and markedly increased risk of reporting TMD symptoms and bruxism (OR>10) at age 60 among those who had symptoms at age 50. CONCLUSIONS: The mean prevalence of reported TMD symptoms was relatively consistent from age 50 to age 60. The group reporting symptoms at the first examination were highly likely still to have the symptoms 10 years later. However, approximately half of the subjects with TMD symptoms at age 50 reported no symptoms at age 60.

  • 244.
    Johansson, Ann-Katrin
    et al.
    Department of Oral Sciences - Cariology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Bergen.
    Lingström, Peter
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Birkhed, Dowen
    Department of Cariology, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University.
    Effect of soft drinks on proximal plaque pH at normal and low salivary secretion rates2007Inngår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 65, nr 6, s. 352-356Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different types of drinks on plaque pH during normal and drug-induced low salivary secretion rates.

    Material and methods. Three drinks were tested in 10 healthy adult subjects: 1) Coca-Cola regular, 2) Coca-Cola light, and 3) fresh orange juice. pH was measured in the maxillary incisor and premolar region with the microtouch method. The area under the pH curve (AUC) was calculated.

    Results . During normal salivary condition, mouth-rinsing with Coca-Cola regular resulted in a slightly more pronounced drop in pH during the first few minutes than it did with orange juice. After this initial phase, both products showed similar and relatively slow pH recovery. Coca-Cola light also resulted in low pH values during the very first minutes, but thereafter in a rapid recovery back to baseline. During dry mouth conditions, the regular Cola drink showed a large initial drop in pH, and slightly more pronounced than for orange juice. After the initial phase, both products had a similar and slow recovery back to baseline. At most time-points, AUC was significantly greater in dry conditions compared to normal conditions for Coca-Cola regular and orange juice, but not for Coca-Cola light. Coca-Cola light generally showed a significantly smaller AUC than Coca-Cola regular and orange juice.

    Conclusions. The main conclusion from this study is that a low salivary secretion rate may accentuate the fall in pH in dental plaque after gentle mouth-rinsing with soft drinks.

  • 245.
    Johansson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Ulander, Kerstin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Klinisk slutexamination i sjuksköterskeprogrammet 2006: en rapport från Högskolan Kristianstad2007Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 246.
    Johansson, Gunvi
    et al.
    Kalmar County Council and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg.
    Gerdin, Elisabeth Wärnberg
    School of Human Sciences, Kalmar University.
    Halling, Arne
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Axtelius, Björn
    School of Human Sciences, Kalmar University.
    Ostberg, Anna-Lena
    University of Karlstad.
    Measuring oral health from a public health perspective2008Inngår i: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 125-137Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims to analyse measures of oral health-related quality of life (OHQOL) from a Public Health perspective. Twenty-two measures were analysed conceptually as to their mirroring of the Public Health principles: empowerment, participation, holism and equity. Elements of empowerment were found in connection with application of the measures. Participation was found in using lay opinions during development in 12 measures. All measures analysed had elements of a holistic approach so far that they were not wholly biological. Two measures captured positive health effects. Measures were available for all ages, various languages and populations, an element of equity. No measure was wholly compatible with Public Health. They were based on a utilitarian theory not in full accordance with modern health promotion. There is a need to develop measures that more obviously capture the positive aspects of health and health as a process, as well as the personal perspective of oral health.

  • 247.
    Johansson, Linda
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Sorgens två ansikten: En litteraturstudie om män och kvinnors sorg vid förlust av ett barn2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: To lose a child describes as the most painful loss that a human being can experience. The grief can be experienced individual depending on several factors such as culture and life experience. Being a man or woman is another factor that may influence the experience of grief. The nurse´s role is to support both parents in their role as mother and father. Aim: The aim was to describe men’s and women’s experiences of the loss of a child. Method: The study was made as a general literature review and based on nine qualitative original scientific articles that have been reviewed. Result: The study resulted in four main categories: Mourning expressions, Dealing with grief, Experiences of the relationship with the other parent and Experiences of the meaning of life. The result revealed differences in how men and women expressed and dealt with grief such as the women often felt alone in mourning and that men rather mourned in solitude. Similarities were also found when men and women in many cases expressed grief in a similar way. Conclusion: The understanding that the grief can be experienced differently depending on sex is an aspect, which should not be overlooked in the nursing work to help grieving parents. A nurse to have knowledge about grief, crisis and gender is of importance when meeting with bereaved parents.

  • 248.
    Johansson, Linus Somsak
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lindqvist, Josefin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Experience of quality of life among women who have undergone breast reconstruction after mastectomy 2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: In Sweden around 6500 women suffer each year from breast cancer and during lifetime every tenth women is affected. Mastectomy (removal of part of or the whole breast) is carried out mostly in purpose to remove malign tumours or in prophylactic purpose. The breast can be rebuilt through breast reconstruction. Method: The result analysis was based on nine articles. A Manifest content analysis was used and data from the articles where divided into themes and patterns, on the basis of these categories were created. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe women’s experience of quality of life which has undergone breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Results: The result is presented in categories: psychic, social, physical, body image and sexual. After breast reconstruction women can suffer from psychological, social, physical, body image and sexual dysfunctions. Women’s quality of life after breast reconstruction varies. Women should in right time receive support from medical staff. Body image, body reality and self-image are affected by illness. A good body image can improve self-confidence which can improve quality of life. Conclusion: Participations and awareness can be linked to good quality of life after breast reconstruction. Therefore information is an important foundation stone in the care.

  • 249.
    Johansson, Louise
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Sara
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Ökad fysisk aktivitet med hjälp av FaR-en enkätstudie om verksamheten vid ett fysiotek2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    The physical inactivity and other diseases related to ways of living in Sweden, affects a big part of Swedes, simultaneously as the society is more defined and marked by health promoting and by views that affects many people to actively make a difference in their lives. Physical activity on prescription is such an example of health promoting, which enlarges the conditions for a healthy life. Physical activity on prescription is also about that the individual should take the decision by herself to increase her physical activity or to get motivated to start a healthy life style alternative reduce the risk of getting sicker. The purpose of our study was to illustrate what the participants of “fysioteket” thought about the work of fysioteket and if the physical activity on prescription has affected their motivation towards physical activity and their experienced health. The method we chose to accomplish the investigation was a cross-sectional survey, an inquiry delivered by mail, to all of the customers at “fysioteket”, totally 90 people from which 63 participated in our study. From a general point of view, our results are to advantage for “fysioteket” because a majority of the prescription-receivers thought that they got enough with information, motivation and guiding to manage the change in life style, which it means to increase the physical activity or to become physical active. The advantage is also that a majority (about 67 %) of the prescription-receivers´ health has become better after the receiving of such a prescription, which is reflected by the results that their physical activity also has increased since the prescription. The negatively aspects of the respondents´ answers are that the communication didn’t function as good as expected and should be better to avoid future misunderstandings about the role and work tasks of “fysioteket”. We consider that the activity of “fysioteket”, after accomplishing the study, is a part of the positively development towards a more health promoting social structure, where physical activity hopefully will be more implemented in people’s attitudes and life style.

  • 250.
    Johansson, Paula
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Holmberg, Linda
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Omvårdnadsåtgärder som kan minska patienters preoperativa oro 2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Patienter som ska genomgå elektiva operationer kan uppleva preoperativ oro och ångest. Preoperativ oro kan grundas i bristande information, tanken på att mista kontrollen samt vistelse i okänd miljö. Det vilar ett stort ansvar på sjuksköterskan då hon ska möjliggöra optimal delaktighet i vård och behandling för patienten samt uppmärksamma patienter som inte själva uttrycker ett omvårdnadsbehov. Syfte: Att sammanställa kunskap om vilka omvårdnadsåtgärder som kan minska patienters preoperativa oro vid elektiva operationer. Metod: Litteraturstudie, baserad på två kvalitativa och åtta kvantitativa artiklar. Tidsbegränsning mellan år 2000-2007. Resultat: Fyra huvudkategorier med omvårdnadsåtgärder framkom; bemötande, information, kognitiv distraktion och musik. Alla dessa omvårdnadsåtgärder kan leda till att preoperativ oro och ångest samt postoperativ smärta minskas.

    Diskussion och slutsats: För att genom omvårdnadsåtgärder lindra preoperativ oro och ångest är utbildning av sjuksköterskor av stor betydelse. Kunskapen krävs i alla omvårdnadsåtgärder som presenterats i litteratursammanställningens resultat. Detta medför att alla sjuksköterskor har samma möjlighet att ge likvärdig omvårdnad preoperativt för att på så sätt öka patienternas förtroende för vården. Om sjuksköterskor blir bättre på att förebygga preoperativ oro kan vinster ses så som ökad delaktighet i sin vård, kortare sjukhusvistelser men framförallt nöjdare patienter.

    Nyckelord: preoperativ, oro, omvårdnadsåtgärder, bemötande, information

    Patients about to undergo elective surgery may experience preoperative anxiety. The reasons for preoperative anxiety may be based on a lack of information, the idea of losing control and being in an unfamiliar environment. A great responsibility lies with the nurse as she needs the ability to give patients the means to enable optimal participation in care and treatment procedures and also to pay attention to patients who not themselves are able to express their needs. Aim: To compile knowledge about nursing interventions that may reduce patients’ preoperative anxiety before elective surgery. Method: Literature study, based on two qualitative and eight quantitative articles. The time frame is between the years 2000-2007. Results: Four main categories of nursing interventions have emerged; treatment, information, cognitive distraction and music. All these interventions may lead to the reduction of preoperative anxiety as well as postoperative pain. Discussion and conclusion: In order to alleviate patient’s preoperative anxiety through nursing interventions, education of nurses is of significant importance. Acquaintance with all the nursing measures that have been presented in the results section of the literature study is necessary. This gives all nurses the same opportunity to provide similar preoperative care and thereby enhances patients' confidence in health care. If nurses become better at preventing pre-operative anxiety, an increase in patient participation and shorter hospital stays will be gained, as well as the reduction of preoperative sedation and postoperative analgesia consumption. The most important gain however, will be more satisfied patients.

    Keywords: preoperative, anxiety, nursing interventions, nurse-patient meeting, information

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