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  • 201.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Rahm Hallberg, Ingalill
    Department of Nursing, Medical Faculty, Lund University.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Inter-rater reliability of an oral assessment guide för elderly patients residing in a rehabilitation ward2002In: Special Care in Dentistry, ISSN 0275-1879, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 181-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to test the inter-rater reliability of a revised oral assessment guide (ROAG) for patients residing in a geriatric rehabilitation ward. A consecutive sample of 140 patients was recruited for the study. Oral assessments were performed for 133 newly admitted patients by one registered nurse (RN) during a period of six months. A dental hygienist (DH) carried out 103 oral assessments during the same half-year. For 66 patients, the RN and the DH performed independent assessments. There was an agreement between the RN and the DH in the majority of the independent assessments, except for tongue and teeth/dentures. The percentage agreement exceeded 80 percent. Inter-rater agreement measured by Cohen's Kappa coefficient ranged from moderate to very good and percentage agreement had a range of 58 to 91 percent. The agreement was highest in assessment of voice and swallowing (91%). Assessments of teeth and dentures seemed to be most difficult for the RN to evaluate. ROAG was found to be a clinically useful assessment tool. Additional education and training is needed to improve the reliability of the oral assessments and should include continuous support from a dental hygienist as well as a pictorial manual on how to use the ROAG.

  • 202.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Rejnefelt, Ingrid
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Munhälsa hos äldre med demenssjukdom2005In: Tandhygienisttidningen. 25(3), 2005, Vol. 25, p. 64-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 203.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL). Blekinge Institute of Thechology & Trinity College, Dublin.
    Sjögren, P
    Oral Care.
    Zimmerman, M
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Dental status in nursing home residents with domiciliary dental care in Sweden2017In: Community Dental Health, ISSN 0265-539X, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 203-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the dental health status of elderly people in nursing homes receiving domiciliary dental care.

    DESIGN: Case note review.

    CLINICAL SETTING: Nursing homes in 8 Swedish counties.

    PARTICIPANTS: Care dependent elderly people (≥65 years).

    METHODS: Clinical data, including the number of remaining natural teeth, missing and decayed teeth (manifest dental caries) and root remnants, recorded by dentists according to standard practices. Medical and dental risk assessments were performed.

    RESULTS: Data were available for 20,664 patients. Most were women (69.1%), with a mean age of 87.1 years (SD 7.42, range 65-109). The mean age for men was 83.5 years (SD 8.12, range 65-105). Two or more medical conditions were present in most of the population. A total of 16,210 individuals had existing teeth of whom 10,974 (67.7%) had manifest caries. The mean number of teeth with caries was 5.0 (SD 5.93) corresponding to 22.8% of existing teeth. One in four individuals were considered to have a very high risk in at least one professional dental risk assessment category.

    CONCLUSIONS: Care dependent elderly in nursing homes have very poor oral health. There is a need to focus on the oral health-related quality of life for this group of frail elderly during their final period of life.

  • 204.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön PRO-CARE.
    Johannsen, A.
    Division of Periodontology and Dental Hygiene, Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge.
    The invisible work with tobacco cessation: strategies among dental hygienists2012In: International Journal of Dental Hygiene, ISSN 1601-5029, E-ISSN 1601-5037, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 54-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:  This study elucidates dental hygienists’ experiences of work with tobacco cessation among patients who smoke or use snuff.

    Methods:  Data were obtained and categorized by interviewing 12 dental hygienists, who worked actively with tobacco cessation interventions. Qualitative content analysis was used for analysis.

    Results:  The latent content was formulated into the core category ‘the invisible oral health promotion work’. The informants thought that they had a responsibility to work with tobacco cessation. They perceived the financial system in which they perform the activity as frustrating, because tobacco cessation has no treatment code in the dental care insurance. This was one of several reasons why they had to integrate it in other treatment procedures. The results identified three categories: ‘balance in the meeting’, ‘possibilities and hindrance’ and ‘procedures’. In the narratives, both positive and negative aspects were displayed.

    Conclusions:  The financial conditions for tobacco cessation interventions need to be reformed and the activity has to be given a higher priority in the organization of dental care. Practical training in performing tobacco cessation interventions is important during the dental hygiene education; otherwise, tobacco cessation interventions will remain invisible in oral health promotion in the future.

  • 205.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Johannsen, Annsofi
    Karolinska institutet.
    Strategier för tobaksavvänjning: det osynliga munhälsoarbetet2011In: Tandhygienisttidningen, ISSN 1102-6146, no 3, p. 26-27Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 206.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Westergren, Albert
    Department of Nursing, Medical Faculty, Lund University.
    Karlsson, Siv
    North-east Skåne Health Care District, Central Hospital, Kristianstad.
    Rahm Hallberg, Ingalill
    Department of Nursing, Medical Faculty, Lund University.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Oral health and nutritional status in a group of geriatric rehabilitation patients2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 311-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the oral health status and nutritional status in a group of geriatric rehabilitation patients, and to analyse the relationship between these two parameters. Nurses at the ward performed structured assessments of oral and nutritional status using the Revised Oral Assessment Guide and the Subjective Global Assessment form in 223 newly admitted patients. Most oral health problems were found among patients who stayed longer at the hospital and were more dependent on help as compared with the healthier patients. Thirty-four per cent of the patients were either severely undernourished, at risk or suspected to be undernourished (UN). Oral health problems were more common among UN patients (p < 0.0005) compared with well-nourished patients. The most frequent oral health problem was found on teeth or dentures (48%). Problems related to the tongue and lips were also common among UN patients (56 and 44%, respectively). Oral health status was correlated (r = 0.32) to nutritional status. Problems with swallowing had the strongest association to the nutritional status (OR 6.05; 95% CI 2.41-15.18). This study demonstrated that poor oral health status was related to undernourishment.

  • 207.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Wickholm, Seppo
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Johannsen, Annsofi
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svenska tandhygienisters arbete med tobaksavvänjning2010In: Tandhygienisttidningen, ISSN 1102-6146, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 45-Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 208.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Öhrn, KerstinHögskolan Dalarna.
    Munvård inom vård och omsorg2006Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Munvård är en viktig men ofta eftersatt del av vård och omsorg. Allt fler människor behåller sina naturliga tänder långt upp i åldrarna, vilket medför att behovet av hjälp med munvård ser annorlunda ut idag jämfört med för ett par decennier sedan.

    Boken ger kunskap om den friska munhålan, de vanligaste sjukdomarna samt hur man kan förebygga och behandla dessa. Den beskriver också undersökning av munnen och hur fynden dokumenteras. Andra ämnen som tas upp är munhälsa och nutrition, munvård för patienter med cancer och andra sjukdomstillstånd samt etik och bemötande.

    Munvård ger en god teoretisk grund och lämpar sig särskilt väl för sjuksköterskestudenter och andra inom vård- och omsorgsutbildningarna samt för redan yrkesverksamma inom området.

  • 209.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Association between oral health and oral healthrelated quality of life2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 210.
    Andersson, Rebecka
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Smajli, Dorentina
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Självupplevd oral hälsa hos patienter som strålats mot huvud- och halscancer2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate how patients radiated against head and neck cancer, experience their oral health after ending radiotherapy. The study is qualitative and considers interviews with eight informants. The interviews were conducted using an interview guide. The interviews were recorded on a tape recorder and lasted about 10-20 minutes. The interview data were then analysed using a qualitative content analysis. The results of this study show that a majority of the respondents experience their oral health negatively after ending radiotherapy; these are mentioned in physical effect and mental limitation. The informants experienced pain and dry mouth after completing radiotherapy. The results also showed that they had trouble eating, including swallowing and chewing difficult and that they were forced to make dietary changes. The informants experienced generally it was hard to eat at large surroundings because the fear of choking occurred. Radiotherapy had also affected the informants psychologically, as they often was in low mood. The conclusion of the study shows that these patients experience pain, have trouble eating and that they are affected psychologically as well as inhibited socially.

  • 211.
    Andersson, Sandra
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Friberg, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Stickrädsla och nålfobi hos vuxna: En litteraturstudie utifrån ett patientperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: 25% av den vuxna befolkningen lider av stickrädsla. Hos vissa är rädslan så påtaglig att de väljer att undvika medicinsk behandling. Rädsla är en naturlig reaktion på ett hot som man vill fly ifrån. En starkare typ av rädsla kallas fobi. Sjuksköterskans skyldighet är att bemöta patienters upplevelser med respekt samt att ta hänsyn till dessa i samband med kontakt med stickrädda patienter. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva vuxna patienters upplevelser av stickrädsla och nålfobi. Metod: En allmän litteraturstudie baserad på sju kvantitativa och två kvalitativa vetenskapliga artiklar har genomförts. Från analysen av artiklarna sammanställdes tre huvudkategorier. Resultat: De vanligaste förekommande upplevelserna i samband med nålstick hos patienter med stickrädsla och nålfobi är rädsla, ångest, avsky och skam. Det som påverkar dessa upplevelser är bland annat vårdmiljön och hur vårdpersonalen talar till dem. Distraktion och olika strategier kan vara till hjälp för att lindra patienters upplevelser av stickrädsla och nålfobi. Slutsats: Det framkom att stickrädsla och nålfobi är ett relativt vanligt problem inom sjukvården som medför negativa upplevelser och onödigt lidande för patienter. Mer forskning om vuxnas upplevelser kring stickrädsla och nålfobi behövs för att öka medvetenheten hos vårdpersonal. 

  • 212.
    Andersson, Sebastian
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Lipemi-interferens vid mätning av Hb på Sysmex XN-10 och HemoCue Hb 201+2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Anemia can arise from either loss of erythrocytes or impaired production of new erythrocytes. In order to discover and evaluate the treatment of anemic patients, correct Hb measurements are important. A common method to measure Hb concentration is photometry in combination with chemical conversion of the Hb. Like all light-dependent methods this suffers from a vulnerability to turbidity that scatters light. Lipemia is a common cause of turbidity caused by e.g. recent intake of high fat foods, diabetes mellitus, liver or kidney disease, alcoholism and some drugs. Manufacturers of Hb analyzers use different methods to counter the influence of interference from lipemia on measurements. Sysmex XN-10 analyzers use a fat dissolving sheath fluid in its photometric channel (HGB) and HemoCue measures absorbance at a second wavelength to compensate for turbidity. Sysmex XN-10 also has an optic channel (HGB-O) for counting reticulocytes by measuring their nucleic acid and Hb content. At the same time this channel measures Hb equivalents of erythrocytes and gives a calculated value of Hb content in the entire sample. The aim of this study was to compare the photometric and the optical channels for measuring Hb concentration in whole blood. Both the Sysmex XN-10 channels were compared with HemoCue Hb 201+ when measuring Hb concentrations in lipemic samples. Plasma Hb concentration was determined for the corresponding samples in order to investigate correlation between elevation in Hb concentration with and without simulated lipemia and in the plasma after centrifugation. Samples analyzed at Skånes University Hospital in Lund during the month of November 2018 (n = 392) using both HGB and HGB-O on XN-10 were compared using Spearman's signed correlations coefficient. Lipemia was simulated by using the fat emulsion Intralipid in a total of 32 samples. Samples collected and analyzed on the previous day was used for the study. Each sample was split into one part with added Intralipid to form a lipemic sample and one part with NaCl-solution of the same volume as Intralipid in the lipemic sample. The differences between lipemic and non lipemic samples was tested for significance by the non-parametric Wilcoxons signed ranks test for each of the methods. Significance between the three methods was tested by using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. Level of significance was set to p < 0.05. The results showed good correlation between earlier test run on both HGB and HGB-O with a Spearman correlation score of 0,982.  A significant difference was found between lipemic and non lipemic samples with the photometric method (p < 0,001) but not the optical method (p = 0,11) on XN10. HemoCue Hb 201+ also showed a significant difference (p < 0,001) between lipemic and non lipemic samples but a lower median than HGB and less deviation than HGB-O. The median of HGB-O indicated that it was influenced the least by lipemia of the three methods but had the greatest deviation of the differences. The greater deviation of HGB-O values may have been caused by hemolysis since the method measures intra cellular Hb. HemoCue shows according to this study the slightest deviation of the three methods and a less heightened median value compared to HGB which confirms the methods suitability as complement to HGB when dealing with lipemic samples.

  • 213.
    Andersson, Simon
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Lagerqvist, Nelly
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av kommunikation vid språkbarriärer hos patienter med invandrarbakgrund2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sverige är ett mångkulturellt samhälle där många olika språk talas och det är vanligt att människor som inte kan svenska söker vård. Det kan då vara svårt som sjuksköterska att utföra sitt arbete när en språkbarriär skapas. Syfte: Att undersöka sjuksköterskors upplevelser av kommunikation vid språkbarriärer hos patienter med invandrarbakgrund. Metod: En litteraturöversikt användes som metod baserad på 14 vetenskapliga originalartiklar. Resultat: Upplevelser av otillräckligt informationsutbyte, missförstånd, bristande omvårdnad samt att använda tolk framkom av sjuksköterskor utifrån insamlad data. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskan har ett ansvar för att patienten får den information som behövs så att båda parter kan känna bekräftelse och trygghet. Tolkning är förslagsvis det mest effektiva tillvägagångssättet att bryta en språkbarriär för god omvårdnad.

  • 214.
    Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Appelquist, Amanda
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Fast-Bremberg, Emelia
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Att vara beroende av hjälp vid ALS: En studie av bloggar och biografier2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease that breaks down the muscles of the body. This debilitates the functions of the body. In order to get through everyday life the dependence on help from both aids and people increases. Aim: The aim is to elucidate experiences of being dependent on help because of ALS. Method: A qualitative content analysis was used and the data was gathered from blogs and biographies describing persons living with ALS. Results: The result describes following categories: Being dependent on help from aids, relatives, formal helpers and the community. Discussion: The main findings were that persons could feel powerlessness and as if they no longer were involved in their own lives. There was a fear that strangers would involve and take care of the personal needs and because of that feelings of inferiority could occur. Several persons were dissatisfied with the lack of help from the community and the feeling of being questioned often came up.

  • 215.
    Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Kuqi, Nepe
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Skolan - himmel eller helvete: en studie om elevers upplevelser av mobbning2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka elevers upplevelser av förekomsten avmobbning i skolan. Eftersom vi studerar till idrottslärare är därför ett delsyfte attundersöka elevers upplevelser av förekomsten av mobbning i omklädningsrumföre och efter en idrottslektion. Utöver detta undersöktes även skillnader mellanpojkar och flickors upplevelser av förekomsten av mobbning och kränkningarsamt elevers upplevelser om lärare agerade för att förebygga, åtgärda ochmotverka mobbning. Studien grundade sig på en enkätundersökning somgenomfördes på tre högstadieskolor där 221 elever i årskurs nio deltog varav 124var pojkar och 97 var flickor. Resultatet av studien visade att 7 % av elevernaupplevde sig vara utsatta för mobbning i omklädningsrummet och 7 % aveleverna upplevde sig vara utsatta för mobbning i andra situationer i skolan.Pojkar upplevde sig oftare vara utsatta och utsätta andra elever för fysiskakränkningar och mobbning än flickor, medan flickor upplevde sig oftare varautsatta för social mobbning än pojkar. Hälften av respondenterna i studien ansågatt det förekom mobbning i stort sett alltid eller ibland på deras skola medanhälften menade att mobbning förekom sällan eller aldrig på deras skola.Resultatet visade även att ungefär hälften av respondenterna ansåg att lärarna påskolorna i stort sett alltid eller ibland agerade mot mobbning och ungefär likamånga ansåg att lärarna aldrig eller sällan agerade mot mobbning.

  • 216.
    Andersson, Tove
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna.
    Molin, Kajsa
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna.
    Långvarig smärta: personers erfarenheter av smärtbehandling2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Smärta kan göra att personer upplever en helt annorlunda livsvärld när de lider av långvarig smärta. Långvarig smärta skiljer sig från den akuta smärtan genom att den ska ha varat i minst 3-6 månader. Långvarig smärta kan förekomma både inom öppen- och slutenvård. Behandling av detta tillstånd förklaras genom fem pelare som belyser personen som helhet och att behandling ska ske därefter. De fem pelarna tar upp en ökad kunskap kring sitt smärttillstånd, fysisk aktivitet, social aktivitet, läkemedel och fysioterapi. Pelarna kan kombineras samt varieras för bästa effekt. Syfte: Beskriva vuxna personers erfarenheter av smärtbehandling inom sjukvården och på smärtkliniker vid långvarig smärta. Metod: En allmän litteraturstudie som är baserad på kvalitativa vetenskapliga artiklar. Resultat: I resultatet framkom tre huvudkategorier och nio subkategorier. Den första huvudrubriken var erfarenheter av möten vid smärtbehandling och tar upp hur personerna upplevde omvårdnadspersonalens bemötande och upplevelsen av mötet med andra personer i samma situation. Den andra huvudrubriken var att hantera smärtan i vardagen som beskriver personernas nya copingstrategier och deras attityd till läkemedel. Den tredje och sista huvudkategorin var betydelsen av förståelse kring långvarig smärta som tar upp personernas erfarenhet av informationsbrist gällande sitt tillstånd, samt att personerna i samband med behandlingen börjat ta mer ansvar för dem själv. Diskussion: I metoddiskussionen kommer litteraturstudiens genomförande att diskuteras utifrån Shentons (2004) trovärdighetsbegrepp. Litteraturstudien anses hålla en hög kvalité. I resultatdiskussionen tas de tre huvudfynden att inte bli lyssnad på/att bli lyssnad på, att hjälp varandra och känna gemenskap samt motvilja till läkemedel upp.

  • 217.
    Andertoft, Betty
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Paulsson, Helena
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Respekterad eller ifrågasatt?: om bemötande av personer med psykisk ohälsa2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När sjukvårdspersonal inte kan skapa en relation i mötet med patienten får han/hon svårt att identifiera, bedöma och ta ställning till vilka behov som bör tillgodose patienten. Innehållet i en relation bygger på kommunikation och kommunikativa brister kan bero på stress, osäkerhet och rädsla. Det kan i sin tur leda till att patienten inte uppskattar den givna vården, alternativt inte vågar söka vård. Syftet med denna studie var att belysa hur personer med psykisk ohälsa upplever mötet med sjukvårdspersonal. Studien är gjord utifrån en kvalitativ ansats som bygger på fem självbiografier. I resultatet framkom att patienterna inte alltid kände sig delaktiga i sin behandling. Patienterna upplevde dessutom att de inte möttes med empati, vilket innefattar medkänsla och förståelse, från sjukvårdpersonal. Det framkom också att patienterna hade svårt att skapa tillit när det brast i kontinuiteten med sjukvården, och det var svårt för patienterna att känna trygghet när de ständigt konfronterades med nya människor. Oavsett vilken diagnos på psykisk ohälsa som patienterna har, är uppfattningen om hur de vill bli bemötta densamma. Genom att sträva efter kontinuitet och empati kan maktförhållanden utjämnas och patienterna slipper känna sig som brickor i ett spel.

  • 218.
    Andrisan, Loredana
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science.
    Molin, Klara
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science.
    Beck, Ingela
    Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Att uppmärksamma och tillgodose äldre personers behov utifrån ett palliativt förhållningssätt på vård och omsorgsboende: omvårdnadspersonals perspektiv2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Äldre personer som bor på vård- och omsorgsboende befinner sig i livetsslut och är ofta svårt sjuka. Palliativ vård är ett förhållningssätt som syftar till att förbättralivskvaliteten för patienter och deras familjer i samband med livshotande sjukdom.Förhållningssättet lämpar sig väl att använda vid vård- och omsorgsboende. Syfte:Syftet med studien var att beskriva omvårdnadspersonalens uppfattningar om vad de gör och kan göra för att uppmärksamma och tillgodose äldres behov på vård- ochomsorgsboende utifrån ett palliativt förhållningssätt. Metod: Sju fokusgruppdiskussioner som representerades av omvårdnadspersonal på fyra olika vård- och omsorgsboende genomfördes, sex fokusgruppdiskussioner genomfördes 2010 och en 2017. Intervjuerna analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys med induktiv ansats. Resultat:Genom analysen framträdde ett övergripande tema Att möta den äldre utifrån dennes tankar, känslor och värderingar och tre huvudkategorier Att lära känna den äldre, Att sörja för den äldres angelägenheter och Att den äldre ges valmöjligheter. Slutsats: Föratt kunna tillgodose äldre personers behov utifrån ett palliativt förhållningssätt behöver omvårdnadspersonal möta den äldre personen utifrån dennes tankar, känslor och värderingar vilket kräver resurser i form av tid men också handledning i att samtala omexistentiella frågor.

  • 219.
    Andruskiene, Jurgita
    et al.
    Klaipeda Unversity, Lithuania.
    Kirveliene, Deimante
    Klaipeda Unversity, Lithuania.
    Martinkenas, Arvydas
    Klaipeda Unversity, Lithuania.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Work experience and school worker's health evaluated by salutogenic health indicators2011In: Acta Medica Lituanica, ISSN 1392-0138, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 86-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The aim of the study was to establish relations between work experience and health, evaluated by salutogenic health indicators, among school workers.

    Materials and methods. Teachers (n = 180) and other school workers (n = 154) from randomly selected Panevėžys district schools were questioned using instruments developed by scientists of the Kristianstad University: the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS) and Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS). The questionnaire of personal data contained questions about sociodemographic and work-related characteristics.

    The differences among the mean values were tested by the independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to check the internal consistency. The significance level was accepted at p = 0.05.

    Results. In the teachers’ group, 86.7% were females (75.3% among others), 20.4%were older than 55 years (30.7% in other goups), 18.9% held an executive position(8.5% among others). Teachers, as compared with other school workers, scored higher the domain of internal work experience, (76.9 vs. 62.8, respectively), while other school workers gave higher standardized scores for the time experience domain (71.9 vs. 63.7, p < 0.001 respectively). The SHIS scores among teachers varied from 54.7 (worst experience) to 78.0 (best experience), p < 0.001. In the group of other school workers, the SHIS mean scores varied from 51.9 to 80.0, p < 0.001.

    Conclusions. Teachers more positively evaluated the domain of internal working

    experience, while other school workers were more satisfied with time experience at the workplace. The established strong correlation between work experience and health, measured by salutogenic health indicators, encouraged the idea to implement workrelated health promotion at school.

  • 220.
    Andruškienė, Jurgita
    et al.
    Litauen.
    Kuzmienė, Ala
    Litauen.
    Martinkėnas, Arvydas
    Litauen.
    Jurgutis, Arnoldas
    Litauen.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Psychosocial work experiences related to health: a study of Lithuanian hospital employees2015In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 669-677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Research in the area of workplace health promotion from a salutogenic perspective is lacking in Eastern Europe.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between psychosocial work environment and health from a salutogenic perspective among Lithuanian hospital workers.

    METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design a questionnaire was distributed to staff in a large hospital in Lithuania. Out of 811 employees, 714 completed the survey: 151 physicians, 449 nurses and 114 other staff members (e.g., psychologists, technicians, therapists). A response rate of 88.0% was achieved. The Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS) and the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS) were linguistically adapted and used for the first time in a Lithuanian context. Logistic and multiple linear regression models were used for the analyses.

    RESULTS: Supportive working conditions, positive internal work experiences and time experience contributed the most to good health, defined as a high SHIS index. Having an executive post was significantly related to good work experiences, i.e. a high WEMS score, while being at the age of 40-54 years was associated with a low WEMS score. Physicians had the highest score on supportive working conditions; while nurses had the lowest scores on autonomy.

    CONCLUSIONS: A salutogenic approach enables an organisation to identify how to improve working conditions for the employees by focusing on possibilities and resources. Individual activities for workplace health promotion among different work groups seem necessary.

  • 221.
    Andrén, Martin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Gustafsson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    "Folk kommer att dö": Framtida krigsveteraner och hur samhället ska kunna möta deras behov2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of our study is to research what the future help-needs and expectations on the civilian society are among Swedish soldiers before they are sent on their first deployment abroad, especially to Afghanistan. The fact that Sweden sends soldiers to a warzone is something that is new nd research according the help-needs from the returning soldiers are missing.

    This study is based on a qualitative method where the data consists of four focus group interviews with at least two participants in each focus group from three different military bases in Sweden. The results indicate that the soldiers´expectations on the civilian society are low but that they would like to have more support from the civilian society. An important notice during the study, we encountered the fact that the participants in some way feel stigmatized. The results also show that they want the Swedish armed forces to be in charge and provide the care for the soldiers where health professionals involved have som military background. In the results found we also see that they are in different extent thinking and aware of the risks with deployment in Afghanistan and that they are thinking more on the physical risks rather than the psychological.

    One of the final conclusions is that if they really are stigmatized this might be a new group of people for the Swedish social services to work with.

  • 222.
    Angelin, Malin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Skolsköterskors erfarenheter av hälsofrämjande arbete med övervikt hos elever: en kvalitativ intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight increases among Swedish children and school nurses have an important part to reduce overweight among children. Aim: Describe school nurses experiences of their health promotion for overweight in students. Method: Nine school nurses were interviewed individually by semi-structured interviews. The interviews were analyzed based on a content analysis, categories and subcategories were designed to provide an overview of the school nurses experiences. Results: School nurses usually meet students during a health conversation, this meeting is usually the foundation of their health work. The school nurses strive to individualize the support they give the students and they often use the method of motivational interviewing to motivate students to make a change. They can also assist with various diet and exercise advice. The school nurses explain that there is often a need for collaboration in order to get students to become active and lose weight. Both within their own profession but especially inter professional collaboration in the school environment. The parents get involved in this work by some of the school nurses while others believe that the student needs to feel independent. Conclusion: This study thus suggests both differences and similarities in health promotion for overweight among student. To develop a united strategy and guidelines for their work can therefore be a part of the improvement of their health promotion against overweight among students.

  • 223.
    Anghel Maurer, Roxana
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Distriktssköterskans hälsofrämjande och förebyggande arbete relaterat till stress: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of people suffering from stress-related mental and physical health problems increase. The basis of district nurses work is to prevent illness and promote health. Aim: The purpose of this paper was to describe how the district nurses experience their health promotion and preventive work related to stress. Method: A qualitative study was conducted through interviews with 16 district nurses, working in nine different health care centers in Skåne. Data analysis was carried out with qualitative content analysis based on an inductive approach. Results: The results showed that the district nurses worked with health promotion and prevention related to stress either by providing "self-help" or as a result of lack of time, opportunity and guidelines, handed over responsibility for stress management of patients by referring them to a more suitable healthcare provider. District nurses worked actively by providing self-care advice, encouraged and gave the patient tools to change their situation. Conclusion: To strengthen the district nurses' health promotion and preventive role and encourage more stress prevention requires to make the district nurses' work visible. National guidelines and recommendations that support the stress prevention, and the time and training to broaden their knowledge is also necessary. If not, patients suffering from stress will be referred to colleagues in other disciplines to a greater extent than is necessary.

  • 224.
    Angrén Nyborg, Carin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Henriksson, Sara
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Sjuksköterskans stöd vid smärtbehandling av patienter med cancerrelaterad smärta: En litteraturstudie om sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsåtgärder2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En otillräcklig smärtbehandling ger patienter en försämrad livskvalitet och orsakar ett lidande som innefattar såväl ångest som oro. Många cancerpatienter anser att de inte får någon smärtbehandling och de upplever dessutom bristfälliga kunskaper i bemötandet av dem som ansvarar för deras behandling. Syftet med studien är att belysa på vilket sätt sjuksköterskan kan stödja patienter med cancerrelaterad smärta, för att möjliggöra adekvat smärtbehandling. Studien var en litteraturstudie och bygger på en integrerad analys av 13 artiklar. Resultatet presenteras utifrån olika kategorier. Strategier som hjälper patienten att hantera smärtan, medvetna och omedvetna hinder (barriärer) som påverkar smärtbehandlingen, kommunikation mellan patienter, närstående och sjuksköterskor samt utbildning som innefattar både personal, patient och anhörig. En väsentlig uppgift för sjuksköterskan är att bygga upp en god relation till patient och skapa trygghet för att möjliggöra kommunikation, vilket är grunden för att ge information och undervisa patienten i smärta och smärthantering. För att kunna göra det krävs att sjuksköterskan har god sakkunskap i ämnet.

  • 225.
    Anna, Martinsson
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Lunds universitet .
    Att ta sig uppför livets bergstoppar på äldre dar2019In: Vetenskap & hälsaArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 226.
    Annerén, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Hedov, Gerth
    Uppsala universitet.
    Wester, Ulrika
    Uppsala universitet.
    Downs syndrom: ny kunskap ställer höga krav på medicinsk vård och habilitering1999In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 227.
    Antonsson, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Engvall, Marie
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Malmberg, Carina
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Närståendes upplevelser att närvara under hjärt-lungräddning på sjukhus2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A difference of opinion exists regarding the issue of relatives being present during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in hospital. Despite international guidelines from the Emergency Nursing Association stating that relatives should be offered the opportunity to be present during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, this is generally not the case. The aim: of this study was to describe relatives' experiences of being present during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in hospital. Method: A literature review in which 13 scientific papers have been reviewed. Results: Relatives preferred to be given the option to attend the cardiopulmonary resuscitation or not. Most relatives were satisfied with their decision to attend and would do it again even though the situation was perceived as difficult. Relatives experienced an emotional connection with the patient and felt that they handled the situation better if they were given continuous information on the events and had a support person at their side. Relatives also felt it easier to cope with the grieving process when they had shared their loved ones last moment. Conclusion: The attendance of relatives during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is still a relatively unexplored area. To be given the option to attend or not is important, as is continuous information during the resuscitation as well as a support person throughout the process. Relatives who were present during resuscitation showed lower tendency to experience negative psychological effects, and that the grieving process felt easier to go through.

  • 228.
    Antonsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Lina
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Musik som omvårdnadsåtgärd i pre-, peri- och postoperativ vård2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the effects of music in pre-, peri-, and postoperative care. This study is a systematic literature study based on 22 scientific articles with quantitative methods. Music is an alternative treatment used in nursing care. Nurses could as a complement to routine pre-, peri-, and postoperative nursing have music interventions in mind, because an operation involves anxiety, fear and pain for many patients. The result of the study shows that music can reduce patients’ anxiety, pain and improving their wellbeing and recovery. Music is also used as a tool for distraction. Some negative effects of the music could be seen as well. Something that nurses should have in mind is that music should be voluntary and that patients should have as big influence as possible regarding the music intervention. In order to improve positive effects the patients´ should choose their own type of music.

  • 229.
    Appelgren, Emma
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Henningsson, Josefin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Icke-kirurgisk behandling vid tandimplantat: allmän litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe non-surgical treatment options for the diseases mucositis and peri-implantitis found in present literature. The literature review also illustrates the effect of the treatment opptions on soft tissue with mucositis and peri-implantitis surrounding dental implants. The study reviews twelve scientific articles that have been processed from the aim of the study. The result shows six therapy options, Er:YAG laser, air abrasive, ultrasonic device, hand instruments, hand instruments in combination with antibiotics and hand instruments in combination with clorhexidin. The following methods are described according to how they are used and how they affect the soft tissue surrounding dental implants. The therapy options showed some improvements with reduced pocket depth, bleeding on probing (BOP) and gain in clinical attachment level (CAL). Several studies accentuate the importance of good self-care and regular visits for supportive care which have an impact on the survival of the implants and in avoiding progress of disease. All of the therapy options have positive effects but to different extent and it is not concluded how long the positive effect remains in the soft tissue. 

  • 230. Appelgren, Louise
    et al.
    Mladin Radosavlevici, Silvana
    Personers upplevelser av att leva med urininkontinens: en allmän litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Urininkontinens beskrivs som ett stort folkhälsoproblem eftersom över 50 miljoner personer i världen är berörda, varav en halv miljon är svenskar. Urininkontinens kan ses som tabubelagt där många med besvär väljer att inte söka hjälp och har svårt att prata om det. Syftet med denna studie var att belysa personers upplevelser av att leva med urininkontinens. Metoden som användes var en allmän litteraturstudie baserad på 13 kvalitativa och kvantitativa vetenskapliga originalartiklar. Sökorden som användes var incontinence, urinary incontinence, experience*, nurse*, quality of life*, life purpose* och grounded theory. Databaserna som användes var Cinahl och PubMed. I resultatet framkom fyra huvudkategorier: upplevelsen av levd kropp, upplevelsen av levd tid, upplevelsen av levt rum och upplevelsen av levda relationer. Sju subkategorier framkom: ett begränsat liv, en förlorad kroppskontroll, en förlorad spontanitet, den förgångna tiden/nutiden/framtiden, någon att räkna med och upplevelser i möten med vården. Att leva med urininkontinens kan innebära begränsningar i vardagen så som fysiskt, socialt som sexuellt vilket vårdpersonal bör ha förståelse för eftersom det är ett stort problem för personer.

  • 231.
    Appé, Caroline
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelse av närståendes närvaro vid hjärt-lungräddning på akutmottagningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Among nurses in emergency department is a difference of opinion regarding the issue of relatives being present during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This can depend on the nurse have positive or negative experience of the situation. Since several years international guidelines are written to recommend relatives being present but in general they are not used. The aim: Of this study was to explain nurse’s experiences of relative’s presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in emergency department. Method: A literature review in which 12 qualitative and quantitative scientific papers have been reviewed. Results: During the last years most parts of the nurses changed their opinion from negative to positive regarding to relatives being present at CPR. If relatives been present when CPR wasn´t successful the nurses believed could help the coming grieving process. Nurses believed that relatives easier could accept the sudden death if they were able to touch, to say goodbye and share the last moments in life with their family member. Conclusion: To maintain the nurse positive experience of relative presence during CPR in emergency department needs development- and improvement work. This work needs both theoretical and practical education. And also there are needs to establish the international guidelines to local guidelines.

  • 232.
    Araujo de Pina Cabral, DB
    et al.
    Brasilien.
    Dantas, JR
    Brasilien.
    Skärstrand, H
    Lund University.
    Barone, B
    Brasilien.
    Carvalho, F
    Brasilien.
    Tortora, R
    Brasilien.
    Milech, A
    Brasilien.
    Vaziri-Sani, Fariba
    Lunds universitet.
    Oliveira, JE
    Brasilien.
    Zajdenverg, L
    Brasilien.
    Rodacki, M
    Brasilien.
    Prospective evaluation of glutamine and phospholipids levels in first degree relatives of patients with Type 1 Diabetes from a multiethnic population2015In: Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome, ISSN 1758-5996, E-ISSN 1758-5996, Vol. 7, no 52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A dysregulation in the metabolism of lipids may be an early marker of autoimmunity in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). It would be of general importance to identify metabolic patterns that would predict the risk for T1D later in life. The aim of this study was to perform a prospective evaluation of glutamine and phospholipids levels in Brazilian first degree relatives (FDR) of patients with T1D in a mean interval of 5 years.

    FINDINGS: Brazilian FDR (n = 30) of patients with T1D were evaluated and blood was sampled to measure the levels of glutamine and phospholipids in the fasting serum by quantitative colorimetric method. The tests were repeated after a mean interval of 5 years and compared to a control group (n = 20). The FDR presented lower levels of phospholipids than controls (p = 0.028), but not of glutamine (p = 0.075). Phospholipids levels decreased over time (p = 0.028) in FDR and were associated with Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody (GADA) titers (p = 0.045), autoantibody positivity (p = 0.008) and PTPN22 polymorphisms (p = 0.014).

    CONCLUSIONS: In this Brazilian multiethnic population, there was a significant decrease in phospholipids levels in FDR in patients with T1D during a 5-year prospective follow-up, as well as a significant association between these metabolite, GADA and PTPN22 polymorphisms. For Glutamine no difference was found. These findings suggest that a dysregulation in the metabolism of lipids may precede the onset of the autoimmunity in T1D.

  • 233.
    Araujo, Débora Batista
    et al.
    Brasilien.
    Skärstrand, Hanna
    Lund University.
    Barone, Bianca
    Brasilien.
    Dantas, Joana Rodrigues
    Brasilien.
    Kupfer, Rosane
    Brasilien.
    Zajdenverg, Lenita
    Brasilien.
    Milech, Adolpho
    Brasilien.
    Vaziri-Sani, Fariba
    Brasilien.
    Oliveira, José Egídio Paulo de
    Brasilien.
    Rodacki, Melanie
    Brasilien.
    Zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies in patients with type 1 diabetes from a multiethnic population and their first degree relatives2014In: Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia, ISSN 0004-2730, E-ISSN 1677-9487, Vol. 58, no 7, p. 737-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies (ZnT8A) have been poorly studied in non-Caucasian individuals. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of ZnT8 autoantibodies in patients with T1D and their first degree relatives (FDR) from a multiethnic population, as well as its relation with the insulin (INS) or the protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22) gene polymorphisms.

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: ZnT8A were analyzed in sera from T1D patients (n = 72, mean age of 30.3 ± 11.4 years) of variable duration (15.7 ± 11.8 years) and their FDR (n = 78, mean age of 18.3 ± 9.1 years) by a triple mix Radioligand Binding Assay (RBA) for the ZnT8 autoantibody (ZnT8-RWQ) variants. SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) for INS and PTPN22 were genotyped.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of ZnT8A was higher in T1D patients than FDR, for ZnT8TripleA (24% vs. 4%,p = 0.001), ZnT8RA (24% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) and ZnT8QA (15% vs. 3%, p = 0.004). All FDR with ZnT8A (n = 3) had at least another positive antibody. Heterozygosis for PTPN22 was associated with a higher frequency of ZnT8TripleA (p = 0.039) and ZnT8RA (p = 0.038).

    CONCLUSIONS: ZnT8A is observed in non-Caucasian patients with T1D, even years after the disease onset, as well as in their FDR. In those, there was an overlap between ZnT8A and other T1D antibodies. ZnT8A was associated with PTPN22 polymorphisms. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to elucidate the importance of these findings in the natural history of T1D patients with multiethnic background.

  • 234.
    Arcombe, Pernilla
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelse kring aktiv dödshjälp i länder där det numera är tillåtet: en litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Active death help is today a current matter. As a nurse, she will, in her career meet dying patients who want active death help. The nurse's main task is to prevent disease, promote health, restore health and alleviate suffering. Aim: The aim was to elucidate the nurse's experience around active euthanasia in countries where it is now allowed, as in the Netherlands and Belgium. Method: The work is structured as a literature study, which a systematic selection of ten scientific articles selected from the databases Cinahl, PubMed and PsykINFO. These were analyzed and presented in three categories. Results: Three categories emerged from the articles' results that became this study's results. The nurses' experience from active euthanasia was an individual experience. The experience varied depending on the patient and the situation. While the nurses experienced conflict with their moral values and laws around active euthanasia, she wanted to at the same time do a good job by ensuring that the patient experienced a good and dignified death as possible. Some nurses felt that the meeting with the patient's relative was not always so easy; however, they felt that it was their duty to take care of them. Conclusion: When the nurse put her personal views to the side, it creates a sense of security in her profession. A good relationship between the two parts is created by open communication. If discussions about the current matter of death and the death process start already in the nurse education, this can cause the knowledge and understanding increases.

  • 235.
    Arfvidsson Isaksson, Josefin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science.
    Stiberg, Zara
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science.
    Emotionellt stöd inom palliativ slutenvård: närståendes erfarenheter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I Sverige avlider varje år cirka 90.000-100.000 personer. Trettiofem till fyrtio procent av svårt sjuka avlider inne på sjukhus och 40–50% på någon form av hospice. Att vara närstående till någon som är svårt sjuk medför många emotionella svårigheter såsom oro, stress och ovisshet. Sjuksköterskan har en viktig roll då hen genom emotionellt stöd kan lindra onödigt lidande hos närstående.Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva närståendes erfarenheter av emotionellt stöd från sjuksköterskan vid den sena palliativa fasen inom slutenvård samt beskriva skillnader mellan palliativ vård på sjukhus och specialiserad palliativ vård.Metod: Designen var en allmän litteraturstudie med systematisk sökning efter empiriska vetenskapliga artiklar.Resultat: Närståendes erfarenheter delades upp i sex olika kategorier: tydlig och ärlig information gav känsla av lättnad och trygghet, tillgängligheten till sjuksköterska gav känsla av närhet och minskad ensamhet, samtalet gav känsla av att vara sedd och betydelsefull, praktiskt stöd gav känsla av tacksamhet och att bli omhändertagen, egentid och tillgång till privat utrymme gav känsla av ro och bevarad integritet, skillnader mellan palliativ vård på sjukhus och specialiserad palliativ vård.Slutsats: Närståendes erfarenheter visade att sjuksköterskan gav emotionellt stöd då hen gav tydlig och ärlig information, fanns tillgänglig, samtalade med närstående, gav praktiskt stöd samt möjliggjorde egentid och privat utrymme för närstående. Det visade sig att på hospice och liknande palliativa vårdenheter var erfarenheterna övervägande positiva medan erfarenheterna från sjukhus var både positiva och negativa.

  • 236.
    Ariche, Haifa
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Trifkovic, Jelena
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Leva livet efter mastektomi: Kvinnornas upplevelser efter mastektomi2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Breast cancer is themost common cancer among women in Sweden. Thetreatment of breastcancer may lead to women being forcedto surgery remove her breast. Women’s breasthas always been a symbol of the very feminine. Aim: The aim was to highlight theaffected women's experiences after a mastectomy. Method: The study was a literature review based on qualitative, scientificarticles. Results: The results showed thatmany women experiencechanges in their body.Through the loss ofthe breast, they lost femininity, sexuality and identity.They experienced theirbodies’ mutilated, causing grief. Their relationshipfor their partner was affected, positively or negatively depending on if thewomen considered themselves to besexually accepted or not. The scarsymbolizes both the loss, fear of new cancer and victory to having beencured. Conclusion: It is important that thenurse has the healthpromotion forethought when meeting with women who have undergone a mastectomy.To help themovercome their experiencesand encourage themto achieve a highfeeling of life connection.

  • 237.
    Arkoazi, Nadia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Rantzow, Veronica
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Oral hälsa hos barn med och utan astma2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease which is common in all ages. Over 300 million people worldwide are estimated to have the disease.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the oral health differs between children with and without asthma.

    Method: The method used was a literature review and the literature searches were made in the medical database PubMed. The results were based on a compilation of 13 clinical scientific studies and 11 of these compared children with and without asthma. The remaining articles studied either how the oral health was affected by the combination treatment with specific drugs or compared the oral health of children with different duration and medication for asthma.

    Results: Some of the included studies found that children with asthma had an increased cariesprevalence compared with children without asthma, while other studies showed that there was no difference between the groups. Regarding the plaque, bleeding and caries-related bacteria, the results were also conflicting. Medication with β2-agonist combined with corticosteroids contributed to a reduced salivary flow and an increased level of caries-related bacteria among children with asthma.

    Conclusion: There are conflicting results regarding whether the oral health differs between children with and without asthma. Combination treatment with β2-agonists and corticosteroids contributed to a reduced salivary flow and an increased level of caries-related bacteria.

  • 238.
    Arnarsson, Arsaell
    et al.
    Iceland.
    Nygren, Jens
    Halmstad University.
    Nyholm, Maria
    Halmstad University.
    Torsheim, Torbjorn
    Norway.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Bjereld, Ylva
    University of Gothenburg.
    Markkanen, Ilona
    Finland.
    Schnohr, Christina W
    Denmark.
    Rasmussen, Mette
    Denmark.
    Nielsen, Line
    Denmark.
    Bendtsen, Pernille
    Denmark.
    Cyberbullying and traditional bullying among Nordic adolescents and their impact on life satisfaction2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cybervictimization in the six Nordic countries and to assess its overlap with traditional bullying. A further aim was to examine potential associations between life satisfaction, on the one hand, and traditional bullying and cyberbullying on the other.

    METHODS: Analyses were based on data from the 2013⁄2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. It included 32,210 boys and girls, aged 11, 13, and 15, living in the six Nordic countries.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of cyberbullying by both pictures and by messages was around 2% in all the Nordic countries except Greenland. There it was considerably higher. The prevalence of being bullied in a traditional manner varied widely by country. For boys, this type of bullying was most frequent in the youngest age group and then decreased steadily in the older age groups. Girls were on average more likely to be cyberbullied. Cyberbullying was more common among 13- and 15-year-olds than 11-year-olds. Higher family affluence was unrelated to the risk of cyberbullying. However, it was related to traditional bullying and combined forms of bullying. Compared with intact families, cybervictimization was commoner among single-parent families and stepfamilies. Adjusting for age, gender, family affluence, and family structure, those subjected to cyberbullying had lower life satisfaction than those who were not bullied.

    CONCLUSIONS: We found relatively little overlap between cyberbullying and traditional bullying, indicating that the two may be separate phenomena stemming from different mechanisms, at least in the Nordic context.

  • 239.
    Arnoldi, Michelle
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Leidzén, Emma
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Vårdpersonalens uppfattningar av patienter med substansbrukssyndrom2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Missbruk och beroende av alkohol och narkotikapreparat är ett utbrett problem och en stor riskfaktor för såväl fysisk som psykisk ohälsa. Människor med missbruk eller beroendeproblematik riskerar att bli stigmatiserade då det förekommer fördomar mot denna patientgrupp. Enligt Hälso- och sjukvårdslagen ska vården vara lika för alla samt ges med respekt för allas lika värde. Trots detta förekommer det ojämlikheter i vården för vissa utsatta grupper vilket kan leda till ökat lidande och sämre hälsa och välbefinnande. Således finns det ett behov av att belysa uppfattningarna om patientgruppen för att kunna förbättra behandlingssituationer och på så sätt främja en bättre vård. Syfte: Syftet var att belysa vårdpersonalens uppfattningar av patienter med substansbrukssyndrom som kan påverka mötet i den somatiska vården. Metod: En litteraturöversikt som baseras på elva empiriska studier. Resultat: Det framkom att negativa uppfattningar om patientgruppen är vanligt förekommande, men även att empati visades för patientgruppen då vårdpersonal såg personen bakom sjukdomen. I resultatet tas det också upp vad dessa uppfattningar fick för konsekvenser för patienterna. Slutsats: En ökad medvetenhet kring substansbrukssyndrom och vårdpersonalens uppfattningar kan leda till ett mer förstående förhållningssätt inom sjukvården och således ett ökat välbefinnande hos patienten. För att säkerställa god vård för patientgruppen är det emellertid väsentligt att stödja, handleda och utbilda vårdpersonal. Vidare forskning om huruvida svensk vårdpersonal uppfattar patientgruppen hade varit att föredra då det finns en kunskapslucka inom området. 

  • 240.
    Arnoldsson, Edyta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ernstsson, Maria
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Att låta hoppet leva - en litteraturstudie om hur hoppet kan påverkas hos vuxna patienter med cancer2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Att drabbas av cancer kan innebära en chock och många hamnar i en tillfällig kris. Diagnosen kan väcka många känslor som kan vara svåra att hantera. Känslan av hopp kan hos en svårt sjuk människa bli försvagad men genom att ge den näring kan hoppet återvända. Hopp har många olika dimensioner och instrument har utvecklats för att objektivt kunna mäta begreppet. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva hur hoppet kan påverkas hos vuxna patienter med cancer. Metod: En allmän litteraturstudie som utgick från vetenskapliga studier. Resultat: Nio olika kategorier som påverkar hoppet kunde identifieras: Hopp genom andlighet, relationer, tillit, bekräftelse, att vara delaktig, förväntan på att bli frisk, att leva i nuet, att sätta upp mål samt inre resurser. Diskussion: Hoppet påverkas av både inre och yttre faktorer. Sjuksköterskor har en viktig roll i att främja hoppet. Sjuksköterskan kan dock inte påverka hoppet hos en patient som inte är mottaglig för det. Omvårdnaden måste främst baseras på respekt och lyhördhet för patientens önskningar och integritet.

  • 241.
    Aronsen Torp, Jenny
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education.
    Berggren, Vanja
    Erlandsson, Lena-Karin
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Weight status among Somali immigrants in Sweden in relation to sociodemographic characteristics, dietary habits and physical activity2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 242.
    Aronsen Torp, Jenny
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Berggren, Vanja
    Lund university.
    Erlandsson, Lena-Karin
    Lund university.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Weight status among Somali immigrants in Sweden in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, dietary habits and physical activity2015In: Open Public Health Journal, ISSN 1874-9445, Vol. 8, p. 10-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Immigrants are considered globally to be a vulnerable subpopulation. Vulnerable population groups have a higher prevalence of obesity than the general population. Despite increased immigration of people from Somalia to Sweden in recent years, little research has been undertaken about obesity and obesity-related health risks among Somali immigrants. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, as well as possible relationships between weight status and socio-demographic characteristics, dietary habits and physical activity (PA) among Somali immigrants in Sweden.

    Methods:This quantitative cross-sectional study included 114 respondents. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire covering socio-demographic factors, PA and dietary habits. Weight and height were also measured.

    Results:Of the 114 respondents, 50.9% had a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or above.In bi-variate analysis, there were no statistically significant differences between those with a BMI below 25 and those with a BMI of 25 or more regarding PA or dietary habits. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that female gender and being married were associated with having a BMI of 25 or above.

    Conclusion: Socio-demographic factors may be more strongly associated with high BMI than PA or dietary habits among the targeted group and should be taken into account as an issue affecting Somali immigrants in Sweden that warrants further research.

  • 243.
    Aronsson, Karina
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Patientens förståelse för egenvård vid nyligen diagnostiserad typ 2 diabetes2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In today's society, information flowing from many different directions. Knowledge communicated to patients and families of different professions, without coordination, which can lead to misunderstandings. For patients with diabetes type 2, it is important to get information that is understandable and relevant to their illness. Through patient education, the patient may then engage in self-care and take control of the disease. Aim: The purpose of this study was to see how patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes understand self-care after visiting the nurse. Method: An empirical, qualitative interviews were carried out and contents were analyzed using qualitative content analysis inspired by Granheim and Lundman. Results: It emerged during the interviews that about half of the participants expected to suffer from diabetes, when there was a family history. Diabetes was natural to get at a certain age, with or without self-care. Most patients had made changes in diet and smoking during the first months after being diagnosed and confirmed that self-care was useful. Many felt concerned about not being able to continue with the changes, but was not worried about the future. Others had continued very confident and knew that the outcome depended on themselfs. Conclusion: With or without early self-care the disease would had come anyway. The first time after beeing diagnosed, change and self-care feelt important. When the sense of "feel good" reappeared, the motivation faded. With frequent visits to the nurse, the patients were motivated to continue.

  • 244.
    Aronsson, Karina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hörberg, Ulrika
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Liljegren, Gunilla
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vård i livets slut: Faktorer som stödjer sjuksköterskor i omvårdnadsarbetet.2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    BAKGRUND: En av de mest krävande uppgifter sjuksköterskor har, är omvårdnad av personer som befinner sig i livets slut. Förr var döden en del av livet och fanns dagligen i människors närhet. Idag betonas ungdom, hälsa och en kultur som är dödsförnekande. Detta är ett problem som även speglar vården och en kärnkompetens i omvårdnad i livets slutskede bör efterfrågas hos alla sjuksköterskor. SYFTE: Syftet var att belysa vilka faktorer som kan vara stöd för sjuksköterskor i omvårdnadsarbetet vid livets slutskede. METOD: En allmän litteraturstudie är gjord. Analys har genomförts av 17 artiklar med hjälp av innehållsanalys. RESULTAT: Att vara mogen som människa kan innebära att ha erfarenhet, ha mod och ha förmåga till empati. Att få kraft i mötet kan vara att få lära känna, få ta sig tid, få uppskattning och få förtroende. Förutsättningar för att ge en god omvårdnad kan innebära lindring genom beröring, miljö, kommunikation och kunskap.

    SLUTSATS: Ömsesidig relation ger sjuksköterskor stöd i arbetet och patienterna stöd i sjukdomen. Är patienterna nöjda känner sig även sjuksköterskorna tillfreds. Utbildning inom palliativ vård är viktigt och flera studier visar att extra utbildning är nödvändigt för att ge en god omvårdnad vid livets slut.

  • 245.
    Arponen, Omar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Realtids-PCR för påvisande av plasmidburen ampicillinresistens: Kartläggning av förekomst i vattenisolat från Helge Å, Kristianstad2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The antibiotic class β-lactams include drugs such as penicillins, cephalosporines, carbapenems and monobactams which mechanism of action is to inhibit cell-wall synthesis. Bacteria have developed several mechanisms to counter β-lactams. Bacteria can defend themselves from antibiotics by releasing enzymes that attack the antibiotic compound itself by hydrolysis, target alteration or redox reactions. Presence of antibiotics can also trigger a downregulation of genes coding for antibiotic binding proteins, as well as upregulation of proteins that serves as channel and pump proteins that ensure no accumulation of antibiotics occurs in the cytosol. The aim with the study was to investigate the presence of three plasmid-mediated genes (blaFOX, blaCIT(CMY-2) and blaMOX) coding for ampicillin resistance (pAmpC) in water isolates sampled from Helge River, Kristianstad. The detection of genes was done according to a previous optimized protocol for Real-Time PCR with SYBR™Green chemistry (duplex blaCIT(CMY-2)/blaMOX and singleplex blaFOX). The method proved not to be robust for multiplex PCR, only the singelplex for the gene blaFOX could produce valid results. 30 of 96 isolates were deemed as positive for the gene, whereas 27 of 79 were considered clinical relevant. Among the 27 isolates, 16 also harbored other genes for resistance (13 blaCTX-M, 2 blaOXA, 1 blaTEM and 1 blaSHV). One isolate carried on three resistancegenes (blaFOX, blaCTX-M och blaTEM). A majority of the positive isolates, 20 out of 27, were sampled near the pumpstation. The findings indicate that Helge river might be a reservoir for dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes.

  • 246.
    Artursson Kjell, Frida
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Varför slutar flickor att idrotta inom organiserad lagidrott?: en kvalitativ studie bland flickor i åldern 13 till 16 år2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2007 the Swedish government has allocated 500 millions SEK per annum, for a project named “Idrottslyftet”, the aim is to enhance the child and youth sport within five years. Despite this, it seems that more young girls choose to stop participating in organized sport clubs. The aim with this study was to find out why girls stop participating in organized sport clubs. The method that was used was focus groups, and 13 focus groups interviews (n=118) was performed in northeast Skåne. Qualitative content analysis was used as the analysis method. The result showed that there were several factors that influenced the girls to stop participating in organized sport clubs. The factors were friends and family and sport clubs. The physical education was also pointed out as a negative factor. The discussion was divided into two health perspectives; pathogenesis and salutogenesis. In pathogenesis the focus was to find out why young girls choose to dropout of organized sport clubs, and the interviewees perspective on the physical education curriculum. In salutogenesis, the discussion focus on, how sport clubs and physical education in schools can prevent dropouts and pursue more physical activity by young females in their spare time and in their future. The conclusions were that sport clubs that perform child and youth sports should perform their activities conforming with the Swedish Idrotten vill ideology and club education, but also a touch of competition education. A sport club that can balance these three factors will probably reach success in different ways. Schools should oversee the curriculum in physical education and make it more variable and stimulating for the students. But also the society and the families should cooperate to pursue a better and more positive attitude towards physical activity among young people.     

  • 247.
    Arvidsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Osby kommun.
    Palmquist, Eva-Lott
    Kristianstads kommun.
    Skog, Therese
    Kostenheten Kristianstads kommun.
    Pajalic, Zada
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Förebyggande hälsoarbete med Senior alert2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 248.
    Arvidsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Osby kommun.
    Skog, Therese
    Region Skåne Hässleholm.
    Palmquist, Eva-Lott
    Kristianstads Kommun.
    Pajalic, Zada
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    ”Risk för undernäring”2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 249.
    Arvidsson, Emil
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Buchholtz, Kristina
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    “En ytlig bransch”: en kvalitativ studie om upplevd hälsa och kroppsuppfattning bland träningsinstruktörer som arbetar på gym2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A poor body perception can affect well being in a negative way and lead to detrimental results for both physical and mental health. Previous research about the phenomenon body perception is limited, especially work related, which makes it harder to understand how work can affect body perception. Purpose: To study body perception and the existence of well being amongst training instructors working at the gym. The objective is to increase the understanding of potential factors that may affect body perception and well being. Method: The study was implemented by using a qualitative methodology in the form of individual semi-structured interviews with a total of ten participants. Results: In summary the result shows that most of the participants experienced both negative and positive thoughts about their own body, although the positive thoughts were more common. A well conditioned body was considered a valuable asset in attracting clients since this was preferred. Some of the participants also competed in bodybuilding; however, this tended to have a negative impact on their well being. In a social setting there is a greater expectation about a women’s appearance than it is for men. The participants view on health can be summarized as a holistic approach where several components contributed. Conclusion: Due to the existence of limited research, there is a need for further studies about body perception from a qualitative and quantitative point of view to give a better picture of possible additional factors that affect it.

  • 250.
    Arvidsson, Ida
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Tv-reklam för söta drycker: En studie av hur antalet reklaminslag förändrats under åren 1999-20142016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: TV commercials for sweetened drinks may result in an increased consumption of unhealthy and energy dense drinks with a high content of sugar. In 2014 the swedes purchased an average of 92 litres of soft drinks per consumer, which is an increase by ten litres compared to the year 2000. Regular consumption of sugary drinks increases the risk of developing overweight, obesity and caries.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate whether the number of commercials for sweetened drinks on TV has changed during the years 1999-2014 and if there are any differences between various TV channels regarding the number of commercials.

    Material and method: The study examines TV commercials for sweetened drinks such as juice and soft drinks (with and without carbonic acid) using an Excel document based on data from TvChecks database. By filtering the data by different food numbers and year various tables and graphs were created to show what changes occurred in the number of commercials for sweetened drinks during the years 1999-2014.

    Results: TV commercials for sweetened drinks has increased largely between the years 2013 and 2014. The TV channels that in average showed the most commercials for sweetened drinks are the Swedish Channel 5 and TV3, while TV4 and TV7 showed the least commercials in average during the years 1999-2014. Moreover, the TV commercials for drinks sweetened with sweeteners shows a clear increase during the years 1999-2014 from 586 to 8716 commercials.

    Conclusion: The number of TV commercials for sweetened drinks has increased considerably over the years 2013-2014, while the number of commercials during the years 1999-2009 was relatively constant.

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