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  • 201.
    Dessborn, Lisa
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Hessel, Rebecca
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Geese as vectors of nitrogen and phosphorus to freshwater systems2016In: INLAND WATERS, ISSN 2044-2041, E-ISSN 2044-205X, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 111-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many goose populations have increased dramatically over the past decades, which may influence inland waters used as roost sites. We reviewed the role of geese in the influx of nitrogen and phosphorus to freshwater systems. Several methods have been used to estimate guanotrophication impacts of geese. Water and sediment analysis have been conducted in areas of high and low geese presence; however, productive wetlands tend to attract more birds, and the causality is therefore ambiguous. Faecal addition experiments have attempted to estimate the impacts of droppings on water chemistry, sediments, algal growth, or invertebrate densities. The most common method of estimating goose guanotrophication is by extrapolation, usually based on multiplication of faecal production and its nutrient content. Based on such studies and those including information about daily migration patterns, we developed an approach to improve estimates of the nutrient contribution of geese. The relative role of geese in wetland eutrophication is also affected by the influx from alternative sources. The greatest guanotrophication impacts are likely found in areas with few alternative nutrient sources and with large goose flocks. Limited inflow and outflow of a freshwater system or a scarcity of wetland roosts may also increase problems at a local scale. Although several studies have looked at the impacts of geese on, for example, water chemistry or soil sediments, the effects are often smaller than expected, in part because no study to date has assessed the ecosystem response by including impacts on all levels, including water nutrient levels, nutrient sedimentation, chlorophyll content, and zooplankton response.

  • 202.
    Dessborn, Lisa
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Rönkä, M
    Arzel, C
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Sinisorsanpoikaset välttelevät synnynnäisesti erityyppisiä petoja2016In: Soumen Riista, ISSN 0355-0656, Vol. 62, p. 43-54Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 203.
    Dewangga, Brian
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Inspirational Filter Application for Fashion E-Commerce2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic commerce is becoming a growing industry as information technology has been gradually diversifying the business industry. As a result, there is greater competition between online businesses to attract and retain customers. To overcome this challenge, it is proposed that by implementing a new Inspirational Filter Application to a company’s web store’s filter will increase the growth of returning costumers. This new application is based on loose filters, which goes beyond traditional sorting mechanisms based on color and size. This technology expands searches into inspirational categories such as occasion, material and style, allowing the customer to online shop with greater variety and efficiency. By developing this application alongside with Scandinavian web shop, Boozt Fashion AB, the success rate is tracked after the establishment of this application.

  • 204.
    Dittrich, Yvonne
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Jeanette
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Christina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Lindeberg, Olle
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Cooperative method development: combining qualitative empirical research with method, technique and process improvement2008In: EMPIRICAL SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, ISSN 1382-3256, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 231-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call 'cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement. The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development of this approach based on several research projects in cooperation with industrial partners.

  • 205.
    Djerf, Henric
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Can wetlands reduce humic substances in forested streams: combining two approaches to characterize efficiency2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 206.
    Djerf, Henric
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Hagman, David
    Inventeringsfiske i Arkelstorpsviken: 13-17 Augusti 20192019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arkelstorpsviken är en grund och kraftigt övergödd vik. Som efter sjö sänkningen är avskild från Oppmannasjön med en kanal på 1 km. Vid den norra stranden ligger samhället Arkelstorp. Under åren 2018-2020 driver Oppmanna Vånga byggderåd ett LEADER projekt tillsammans med Högskolan Kristianstad. Projektet syftar till att ta reda på varför sjön är kraftigt övergödd och vad som är lämpliga åtgärder för att bättra vatten kvaliteten. Arkelstorpsviken är intressant då miljöövervakningen indikerar att stora mängder näringsämne lämnar vikennedströms. Dessa näringsämnen hamnar först i Ivösjön men sedan i Hanöbukten.  Denna undersökning är gjord som del i LEADER projektet för att få en inblick hur den ekologiska statusen är i Arkelstorpsviken.   

  • 207.
    Djerf, Henric
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Lacoursière, Jean O
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Mårtensson, Lennart
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Can wetlands reduce humic substances in forested streams: combining two approaches to characterize efficiency2018In: Book of abstracts: Linnaeus ECO-TECH '18, 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Establishing statistical significance in assessing wetland performance can be quite challenging when reduction in the monitored substance is very small and temporarily variable. Assessing colour changes associated with humic substances is such a situation. One of the most important parameters of any evaluation of wetland treatment performances is the retention time of the water before it exit the wetland. This can be theoretically estimated, but even better measured directly with the help of a tracing agent. In this research, the approach is based on the simultaneously assessment of hydraulic retention time using conservative tracing (Rhodamine WT) and a mass balance based removal efficiency assessment (regression slope of the summation mass-in vs. summation mass-out).

  • 208.
    Drougge, Diana
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Finns det paleoekologiska spår av en vikingatida storgårdsetablering i Finja, Norra Skåne?: – En pollenanalytisk vegetationsundersökning av Vånga mosse, från yngre järnålder till sen medeltid.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att studera vegetationsutvecklingen och dess förändringar i Finja med hjälp av pollenanalys. De frågor jag önskade få svar på var om det fanns några spår av en vikingatida storgård i Finja, samt eventuella spår av betydande djuruppfödning i området. Finja är rik på fornlämningar från brons-, järnålder och meddeltid, som bekräftar min tes om att Finja/ Mölleröd haft en betydande roll i området runt Finja sjön, troligtvis med odling och handel längs Almaån.

    En paleoekologisk analys genomfördes från en lagerföljd från Vånga mosse, Finja. Totalt togs fyra meter torvprov upp ur mossen. I den översta metern plockades fjorton prover ut till analys. Två 14C dateringar visade vilket tidsspann proven befann sig i. Cirka 600 pollen räknades från varje prov som sedan sammanställdes i olika pollendiagram som visar förändringarna i vegetationen mellan 660 e.Kr. – 1587 e.Kr.

    Vånga mosse visar på kontinuerlig markanvändning under hela den undersökta perioden. Stora förändringar kan ses i pollenkurvorna för odlingsindikatorerna från provets början som ökar till höga värden vid mitten av 700 talet e.Kr. med Secale (råg) som största indikator.  Förändringen visar att området haft en betydande odlingsverksamhet i cirka 150 år under vikingatiden, vilket styrker tesen om en storgårdsetablering i Finja under denna period. Efter odlingsuppgången minskar aktiviteterna i området, dock med fortsatt kontinuitet i både odling- och betesmarker. Området runt Vånga mosse genomgår en kraftig röjning från tidigt 1000 tal e.Kr. till cirka 1200 e.Kr., tillsammans med en expansiv nyodlingsperiod från 1000 e.Kr., som kan ses i båda sädesarterna i diagrammen. Detta resultat tillsammans med andra historiska indikatorer visar på en permanent etablering i Finja vid slutet av 900 e.Kr. Under de nästkommande århundrandena kan ytterligare två nyodlingstoppar ses, en vid mitten av 1000 talet e.Kr. som eventuellt kan kopplas samman med upprättandet av kyrkan, och en vid början av 1200 talet e.Kr.

  • 209.
    Dyba, Tore
    et al.
    Norge.
    Prikladnicki, Rafael
    Brasilien.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Seaman, Carolyn
    USA.
    Sillito, Jonathan
    Canada.
    Qualitative research in software engineering2011In: EMPIRICAL SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, ISSN 1382-3256, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 425-429Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 210.
    Eberson, Lennart
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Chemical Physics, Lund.
    Persson, Ola
    Department of Chemistry, Chemical Physics, Lund.
    Hall Jr, H. K.
    Padias, A. B.
    Steel, P. J.
    Spin trapping of radicals from the reactions between donor and acceptor olefins:  further evidence for the tetramethylene diradical intermediate as the initiator of spontaneous copolymerization2000In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 2021-2029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EPR spectroscopy and product isolation have been used to investigate the initiation of spontaneous copolymerizations of donor and acceptor monomers. The results establish the presence of tetramethylene diradicals as the only experimentally supported intermediates in the initiation for these spontaneous copolymerizations. No evidence supporting a Mayo cycloaddition mechanism, electron transfer, or charge-transfer complex initiation was found. The reaction of an olefin activated by three electron-accepting groups, such as dimethyl cyanofumarate, methyl 3,3-dicyanoacrylate, or trimethyl ethylenetricarboxylate, with a styrene having unsubstituted ortho positions was used in this study. In the presence of the spin trap 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane (t-BuNO), aminoxyls with characteristic EPR spectra of high intensity were detected. Reaction of 4-methoxystyrene and dimethyl cyanofumarate in the presence of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO) led to a diamagnetic 1:1:1 adduct, 4-cyano-6-methoxy-3,4-dimethoxycarbonyl-1-piperidinyloxytetrahydronaphthalene, which was subjected to an X-ray crystallographic study. Treatment of the TEMPO adduct with t-BuNO in chloroform gave a solution containing TEMPO and the same aminoxyl as that formed from 4-methoxystyrene, dimethyl cyanofumarate, and t-BuNO. These aminoxyls were assigned the structure of spin adducts of tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl radicals, formed by initial trapping of the diradical of the donor and acceptor olefin at the more reactive radical center, followed by cyclization into the aromatic ring. This proposed mechanism provides an alternative to the commonly accepted Mayo initiation mechanism.

  • 211.
    Edenius, Lars
    et al.
    Department of Animal Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Game Division, Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki.
    Landscape level effects of modern forestry on bird communities in North Swedish boreal forests1996In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 325-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We address effects of large-scale forestry on landscape structure and the structure and composition of boreal bird communities in North Sweden. Specifically, we ask: after controlling for the effect of patch size, forest age and tree species composition, is there any residual effect attributable to the reduction in area of old forest? Pairs of landscape blocks (25 by 25 km) were selected to maximize area difference in human-induced disturbance, clear-cut as opposed to semi-natural old forest. Median distance to natural edge (wetlands, open water) from randomly selected points in forest was 250 and 200 m in high and low impact landscapes, respectively, indicating a high degree of 'natural' fragmentation of the pristine boreal landscape in the area. By contrast, median distance to clear-cut in uncut forest was 750 and 100 m, respectively. Clear-cuts in high impact landscapes were disproportionally more common in areas with contiguous forest land than in areas with spatially disjunct forest, implicating that forestry increases natural fragmentation of the landscape by subdividing larger forest tracts. Point counts along forestry roads showed that species richness and relative abundance of forest birds were higher in landscapes with low forestry impact. These differences can partly be explained by differences in age composition of forest and composition of tree species. After controlling for patch size, forest age and tree species composition, a significant effect of forestry impact remained for Sibirian species and the Tree pipit Anthus trivialis. Our results thus imply that this group of species and the Tree pipit may be sensitive to forest fragmentation. In contrast to previous Finnish studies, we found relatively small negative effects on relative abundance of species hypothesized to be negatively affected by large-scale clear-cutting forestry. However, our picture of the present does not contradict results from Finnish long-term population studies. Five factors may account for this: 1) clear-cut areas are not permanently transformed into other land use types, 2) planted forests are not completely inhabitable for species preferring older forest, 3) the majority of species in the regional pool are habitat generalists, 4) the region studied is still extensively covered with semi-natural forest, and 5) our study area is relatively close to contiguous boreal forest in Russia, a potential source area for taiga species.

  • 212.
    Ehn Börjesson, Stina-Mina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Kühn, Inger
    Department of Microbiology, Tumour and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institute.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences, Kalmar University.
    Olsen, Björn
    Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Enterococcus spp in wastewater and in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) exposed to wastewater wetland2013In: International Journal of Environmental Protection, ISSN 2226-6437, Vol. 3, no 10, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, twelve Mallards living in an artificial wastewater wetland were exposed to treated wastewater containing 1 x 103- 4 x 103 enterococci 100 ml-1 for a period of 55 days. Faecal samples were collected before, during and after exposure and analysed for Enterococcus spp. The isolates were phenotyped using the PhenePlateTM system. 270 Enterococcus spp. of Mallard origin were analysed, together with 116 Enterococcus spp. isolates from treated wastewater and from incoming raw wastewater. In general, the Mallard and wastewater enterococci isolates belonged to different phenotypes, although several sharing identical phenotypic profiles were found. One E. faecalis phenotype was found in Mallards before, during and after exposure to treated wastewater, as well as in raw and treated wastewater. Our results indicate that there is a common source of enterococci for Mallards and humans. We propose an increased focus on emissions of human bacteria and on systems that mediate their transfer to wild animals.

  • 213.
    Eichholz, Michael W.
    et al.
    USA.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Nest site selection by Holarctic waterfowl: a multi-level review2014In: Wildfowl, ISSN 0954-6324, E-ISSN 2052-6458, no Special Issue 4, p. 86-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of birds’ mobility, behaviour and many species’ migratory nature, they select repeatedly and spatially among habitats and have been central figures in studies of avian breeding habitat selection during the 20th and 21st centuries. The scientific literature on habitat use by breeding waterfowl has origins dating back to the writings of Charles Darwin in The Voyage of the Beagle, wherein he described the distribution and habitat differences of two species of geese on the Falkland Islands. Since that time, waterfowl ecologists have gone from descriptive studies of nest site characteristics used for planning waterfowl conservation and management to comparing nest site use in relation to potential habitat availability and determining selection for a wide array of ecological correlates. Waterfowl ecologists most recently have been investigating the adaptive significance of nest site selection by associating the latter with individual fitness and demographic measurements to assess the birds’ adaptability under environmental conditions at multiple scales of selection. While little direct assessment of 1st and 2nd order nest site selection has occurred (sensu Johnson 1980), available information is most consistent with the hypothesis that selection at these scales is driven by food availability. At the 3rd and 4th order of selection, data are consistent with hypotheses that both food availability and predator avoidance drive nest site selection, depending on the species and type of nesting aggregation. We also identify understudied areas of nest site selection important for the conservation and management of waterfowl and suggest that the large-scale influence of current anthropogenic and natural effects on the environment indicates that greater emphasis should be directed toward understanding waterfowl nest site selection at the 1st and 2nd orders of selection and how nesting habitat selection interfaces with community ecology of sympatric breeding waterfowl. Moreover, because habitat selection of prefledging waterfowl is inherently linked to breeding habitat selection, we suggest an updated review of brood habitat selection should ensue from our synthesis here.

  • 214.
    Einarson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment of Computer science (RECS).
    A communication framework in a multi-threaded environment2000In: Proceedings of NWPER'2000, 2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 215.
    Einarson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment of Computer science (RECS).
    Active vs passive entities2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 216.
    Einarson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Approaching CMM to an educational CDIO based software engineering process2012In: Proceedings of the 8th International CDIO Conference, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, July 1 - 4, 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software Engineering is probably one of the most recent engineering disciplines. As such there have been major requirements put on that discipline to undergo appropriate transformations from immaturity to higher levels of maturity. This does not only relate to matters of evolution of techniques, and usability, but also the process of developing the software of concern.

    The ability to succeed in a large scaled Software Engineering project is probably highly dependent on the ways of working, that is, on the working process that fulfils the project. The Capability Maturity Model aims to assess the maturity of a software process, and serves as a guidance to improve such processes. Maturity here relates to degrees of formality and optimization, from ad hoc driven processes, via defined process structures, to active process optimization.

    Seen in a perspective of Software Engineering education we can see that it is of high importance that students get exhaustive practice in project based work. Several working process models of that are proposed in the context of Software Engineering research. Following such models may increase the probability of project success, both in industry and in educational projects. Still, a process with inherent self-reflecting mechanisms may increase such probability even further, with effect on quality of both work and product.

    This contribution will shed light on the working process of students, where self-reflection, self-motivation, and process improvement are put in focus. A model for this has been the Capability Maturity Model where reflecting over working processes aims to increase grades of process maturity and quality.

  • 217.
    Einarson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment of Computer science (RECS).
    Aspects of transparent time concepts2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 218.
    Einarson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment of Computer science (RECS).
    Aspects on communication and models vs processes in a model oriented language1997In: Proceedings of the 23rd conference of the ASU, 1997Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 219.
    Einarson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment of Computer science (RECS).
    Communication and hierarchical modelling in Model Oriented Programming1999In: Proceedings of the 25th conference of the ASU, 1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 220.
    Einarson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment of Computer science (RECS).
    Discussion on "An exercise for SIMULA users"1997In: ASU Newsletter, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 221.
    Einarson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Ethics and responsibilities in a CDIO based software engineering process2013In: Proceedings of the 9th International CDIO Conference, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 9 – 13, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The great impact that Software Engineering has had on society during the latest decades has put demands on that discipline to become a mature, as well as a trustworthy engineering discipline. Here, the so called, software engineering Code of Ethics has been introduced to encourage such development.

    The Code of Ethics has a prime focus on the Public, and a secondary focus on co-operation and development. While the Code of Ethics in first place concerns Software Engineers in professional work, it is interesting to see how this concept influences maturity and trustworthiness also to students in educational project based work.

    This contribution will cover on-going experiments in project based courses where students reflect on the Code of Ethics. Such reflections should have impact on team work, as well as on views on Software Engineering for the common public. The main question concerns how student’s project work may be improved through such reflections, to meet previously observed cases of low self-responsibility and effort. The contribution covers case studies of CDIO based projects, as well as the concept of the Code of Ethics of Software Engineering in itself.

    According CDIO, using the Code of Ethics in education should have relevance to several points of the CDIO syllabus, such as, 2.4 Attitudes, Thought and Learning, and 2.5 Ethics, Equity and Other responsibilities. The case studies as such, furthermore relate to aspects such as team work and communication, besides the core of the CDIO intension of driving student projects.

  • 222.
    Einarson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Hierarchical concurrent systems from a model-oriented perspective2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Real world systems are normally considered as hierarchically organized, for example, we see those as hierarchies of systems including subsystems. Examples on this can be seen in organizations where people act in environments and carry within themselves their own internal subsystem of thinking processes. Another example relates to robotics where robots may be seen as hierarchical constructions, both physically and logically. As in the case of human actors, we can see robots as autonomous entities that need to perform internal reasoning and planning to conform well to the environment in which they act. Furthermore, actions on different levels are often inherently parallel and may be more or less independent. Object-Oriented (OO) technologies have proved to be appropriate tools in software development. Programming these kinds of hierarchical concurrent systems should therefore be gained by suitable Object-Oriented software support that reflects system level-dependent behavior. For instance, actions in a robot control system should relate to real time, while a robotÕs planning system actions relate to simulated time. However, existing OO software support mainly reflects one-level sequential systems which only by exhaustive work may conform to such hierarchically organized systems. Existing architectural design proposals that address hierarchical compositions often cover ways of collecting objects, but do normally not address issues such as concurrency and different time semantics. We have developed concepts and software support to meet the need for modeling and implementing hierarchically organized systems with concurrent level-dependent autonomous entities. We have approached the problem from two directions, i.e., on one hand from a conceptual and principle perspective, and on the other hand from a software engineering perspective. Concepts and principles are mainly treated in the context of the, so called, Model-Orientated Programming project. Model-Orientation (MO), can be seen as an extension to Object-Orientation to support concurrent models especially. We use the term model for a software representation of an autonomous entity. A model may define its own view upon matters such as time and communication, and may furthermore include further models to represent hierarchical system compositions. Within the project of Model-Oriented Programming we also develop programming language elements relating to the developed concepts. Software engineering aspects are mainly studied within the project of Hierarchical Concurrent Systems. A developed Java-based framework especially reflects hierarchical properties of systems. A general concept of timebase may be specified as either based on a real time or a simulated time concept. This implies that software of one hierarchical level may act in real-time in a control system, while an internal hierarchical level may reason about future state based on a simulated time axis. Furthermore, within the framework we also regard communication, distribution and process management as hierarchical level-dependent properties. This impels ways of software components to flexibly adjust themselves to the context they are intended to act within. Our approach, based on investigations on both modeling and implementation, has been experimented on in several case studies. Those show that encapsulating our concepts and solutions within well defined software units provide software that is both flexible and scalable.

  • 223.
    Einarson, Daniel
    Lunds universitet.
    Hierarchical models of anticipation2002In: Computing anticipatory systems: CASYS 2001, fifth international conference, Liège, Belgium, 13-18 August 2001 / [ed] Daniel M. Dubois, Melville, N.Y.: American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2002, p. 533-542Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several architectural patterns have been proposed for the purpose of modeling autonomous robots. They do, however, lack support on anticipatory behavior. Anticipatory systems typically consist of hierarchical levels of units with similar structures but with different semantics. Close mapping between units of a reference system and components of software models put high demands on component independency, with respect to hierarchy. A concept of hierarchical modeling is proposed to provide support on anticipatory modeling and fills the gap on these matters. The concept has been developed in a context of industrial automation software and successful experiments have been based on a Java‐based framework.

  • 224.
    Einarson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment of Computer science (RECS).
    Inheritance and coroutines1998In: ASU Newsletter, Vol. 24, no 3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 225.
    Einarson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment of Computer science (RECS).
    Model Oriented Programming: progress in concepts and implementation issues1998In: Proceedings of the 24th conference of the ASU, 1998Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 226.
    Einarson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment of Computer science (RECS).
    On bounds between time flow of hierarchically organized bases of time2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 227.
    Einarson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment of Computer science (RECS).
    On transparent distributed systems2001In: Proceedings of the 27th conference of the ASU, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 228.
    Einarson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment of Computer science (RECS).
    Passing control over nested quasi-parallel systems1997In: ASU Newsletter, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 229.
    Einarson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Progressioner inom en projekt-baserad kurs baserad på principer från Software Engineering och CDIO2013In: Lärarlärdom: högskolepedagogisk konferens 2013 i Kristianstad / [ed] Stefan Larsson, Kristianstad: Kristianstad University Press , 2013, p. 6-25Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att möta kraven hos anställda inom industrin för moderna datorbaserade produkter behöver utbildningsanstalterna ge studenter möjlighet att ta till sig av såväl fundamentala och långlivade teorier som de  senaste teknikerna. Detta är dock inte tillräckligt. Storskaliga produkter kräver samverkan mellan grupper av  utvecklare och detta faktum i sig självt sätter fokus på ytterligare utmaningar.  Själva arbetsprocessen måste  synkroniseras, kommunikationen mellan utvecklare måste vara effektiv, osv. För att förbereda studenter på även  sådana utmaningar måste således utbildningsanstalterna dessutom anpassa undervisningen så att även arbeten i  projektgrupper, kommunikation inom dessa, styrning av arbetsprocesser, förhållningssätt, mm,  ges lämpliga utrymmen.

    CDIO är ett världsomspännande innovativt utbildningsramverk för att producera nästa generation av ingenjörer. I fokus för detta står projektbaserade undervisningsformer. Speciellt bejakar man arbetsfaserna Concieve (C), Design (D), Implement (I) och Operate (O), där man via dessa utvecklar en produkt som ska ha tillräckliga inslag av svårighet och komplexitet för att efterlikna de utmaningar man har i utveckling av verkliga produkter. Bakgrunden till detta initiativ ligger en identifiering av ett signifikant problem i teknikindustrin där man sett att utbildning av ingenjörer mestadels utgår från teoretiserade problem. Man har alltså ett gap mellan utbildningen och  teknikindustrins krav. Vidare kräver reell produktutveckling samarbeten i arbetsteam, där även detta poängteras som CDIO-synvinkel.

    Detta bidrag har tre huvudsyften. Dels kommer det att presentera CDIO och begrepp som förekommer inom detta. Dels kommer exempel ges på en kurs i Software Engineering, som kan ses som särskilt CDIO- inspirerad. Kursen har i sin form tre år bakom sig, där stegvis utveckling gjorts speciellt med fokus på att förbättra arbetsprocessen.  Inspiration för progression av kursen har tagits såväl från CDIO som från området för Software Engineering. Inspiration från Software Engineering bör ses utifrån de barnsjukdomar och mognadsprocesser denna fortfarande tämligen nya disciplin har bakom sig. Därför kommer även detta att belysas. Vidare kan materialet bakom detta bidrag även delvis ses som en sammanställning  av tre på varandra följande konferensbidrag till internationellt hållna CDIO-konferenser.

  • 230.
    Einarson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment of Computer science (RECS).
    Separately compiled nested classes1999In: ASU Newsletter, Vol. 25, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 231.
    Einarson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment of Computer science (RECS).
    Towards consistent concepts of hierarchical modeling2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 232.
    Einarson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Working- vs. educational processes in software engineering vs. CDIO2011In: 7th International CDIO Conference 2011, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, DTU, 2011, p. 438-452Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relatively short history of IT can unfortunately point out a number of failing projects concerning missing deadlines, functionalities, low quality, etc. Theories and techniques have been developed, to meet inherent problems and challenges. But also software process models, that is ways of working, where several typical activities within software processes have been emphasized. Still, the use of software also seems to bring even further requirements on new techniques. A conclusion is therefore that, besides from some core fundaments, inherent parts of IT are, by necessity, evolving in themselves.

    When it comes to educational systems, an appropriate set of theories, techniques, and principles should be taught to prepare for working in software industry. Still, this is not enough. A software engineer actually needs to be able to handle all the steps of a software process. That is, educational systems have to find ways to support teachings, not only in theories, techniques, and principles, but also in ways of working that hopefully should correspond well to the practices of software industry. Furthermore, students should be gained by getting educational support to meet and handle the ever changing future.

    This contribution presents project based approaches where the process of developing the project result should have several benefits. First, it should provide a basis for training core practices of Computer Science, second it should prepare for software processes, i.e., ways of working in software industry, and third, it should aim for students being responsible for self learning. Especially, the third point is significantly important in a discipline of ever changing techniques. Inspiration is taken from well known Software Process Models. Such are models are shown to lie close to the CDIO initiative. Software Process Models are discussed, comparisons with CDIO are provided, as well as a case study on a project based course.

  • 233.
    Einarson, Daniel
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Saplacan, Diana
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    A participatory action research approach to developing assistive technologies for people suffering from cognitive disorders2014In: Abstract book: 6th Living Knowledge Conference April 9-11, 2014 / [ed] Søsser Brodersen, Jens Dorland and Michael Søgaard Jørgensen, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive disorders, such as disorders on the autistic spectrum, Downs’s syndrome, etc. often imply significant constraints on communication between persons suffering from those, and the environment where they act. Meanwhile, governmental propositions on human rights emphasize equality concerning information, where overcoming such interaction challenges should be considered as strongly encouraged. This contribution discusses studies that have been performed towards municipalities, public institutions, and non-profit organizations, in southern Sweden. The studies aim to involve users throughout the development of an innovative concept of communication assistive software technology, by involving multiple types of users, such as: persons with disabilities, personal assistants, teachers for students with special needs, academics, and others. The studies and the resulted findings are discussed in regard to the participatory action research framework.

  • 234.
    Einarson, Daniel
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Saplacan, Diana
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    The Active Ageing approach to quality of life for elderly people through order and distribution chains2016In: 2016 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTATION SYSTEM AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS (CSITSS), 2016, p. 220-225Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important aspect of elderly people's habits can be connected to food and meal. To be able to make your own choices according good, and healthy food, even in situations of high age, and functional disabilities adds to quality of life. This contribution covers outcomes of the Active Ageing project, dealing with studies of elderly people's food situation, to be able to find suitable computer based support systems in order to provide appropriate food. Especially, background investigations will be covered, and prototype support systems will be outlined.

  • 235.
    Einarson, Daniel
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Sommarlund, Petra
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Segelstrom, Fabian
    Usify Sweden.
    IoT-support systems for parents with ADHD and autism2016In: 2016 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTATION SYSTEM AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS (CSITSS), 2016, p. 198-202Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the outcomes of a one year long research project aimed at identifying and prototyping ideas for Internet of Things-based products which can help parents with ADHD or autism in their everyday life. The project was conducted according to user-centered design principles to identify ideas, which were later prototyped and made technical proof-of-concepts of. This paper focuses on the process of making the technical proof-of-concept, after initially describing the process of arriving at the ideas which were prototyped.

  • 236.
    Einarson, Daniel
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut SP.
    Saplacan, Diana
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Learning structures of CDIO based projects in contexts of Demola2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Academia plays a main role in knowledge discovery and dissemination of knowledge. Amongst the fundamental reasons behind university education lies preparing students to use and contribute with that knowledge within contexts of industry, as well as society in large. We here see three types of actors, i.e., universities, students, and industry, which by several reasons all are gained by close cooperation already in university education. Quite often though we see a gap between education and possible student recruitment. Here, the value of being employable increases through work based projects supported by education. Even though we can see willingness according such kind of cooperation from both academia and industry, experiences show that there are barriers towards actually implementing this. That may in turn depend on common lack of knowledge on how to establish university-industry connections, and how to negotiate on student involvement, ownership of work, etc. Conclusions therefore show a need for an established organization that mediates between academia and industry, and that have well developed structures for project workflow, project result ownership, etc. Demola may here have that role as an award winning platform for industry driven projects with focus on students. Demola provides a win-win-win relationship between university, students, and industry, and has clear structures for cooperation between those. Experiences have shown that Demola is promising as a mediator, as well as a provider of multi-disciplinary industry close projects, where those may be plugged into educational programs in suitable ways. This contribution will provide an overview of Demola as a platform for industry close student projects. Demola may furthermore be used as a platform for research projects. Experiences will here be covered as a concrete example on a Demola student project. Moreover, learning outcomes in contexts of CDIO Syllabus, evaluations, and corresponding CDIO-standards, will be presented.

  • 237.
    Einarsson, Daniel
    Lunds universitet.
    Model-oriented programming1999Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 238.
    Einarsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Hedin, Görel
    Lunds universitet.
    Using inner classes in design patterns2002Report (Other academic)
  • 239.
    Einarsson, Elisabeth
    Lund University.
    A mid-campanian marine extinction event: evidence from Kristianstad Basin, Southern Sweden2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 240.
    Einarsson, Elisabeth
    Lund University.
    Bland havssköldpaddor, hajar och havsmonster: en faunabeskrivning över Kristianstadstrakten för 80 miljoner år sedan2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 241.
    Einarsson, Elisabeth
    Lund University.
    Dinosaurier och andra fossil2010In: Bladet, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 242.
    Einarsson, Elisabeth
    Lund University.
    Dinosaurier på schemat!2008In: Bladet, Vol. 08, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 243.
    Einarsson, Elisabeth
    Lund University.
    I dinosauriernas fotspår: förhistorisk utgrävning på Åsen2011In: Näsums hembygds- och fornminnesförenings årsbok, ISSN 1104-1498, p. 60-66Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 244.
    Einarsson, Elisabeth
    Lund University.
    Mosasaur bite marks on a plesiosaur propodial from the Kristianstad basin, southern Sweden (Campanian, Late Cretaceous)2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 245.
    Einarsson, Elisabeth
    Lund University.
    Paleoenvironments, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography of late cretaceous (campanian) faunas from the Kristianstad basin, southern Sweden, with applications for science education2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is thematically divided into two sections: Part1 presents studies related to the palaeoenvironments,palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography of the LateCretaceous (Campanian) faunas from the KristianstadBasin of southern Sweden; Part 2 reports on applicationsof palaeontological research for science education inschools.Part 1 was based on personally conducted fieldworkand biostratigraphical analysis at various Santonian-Campanian localities throughout Skåne. However, themost complete section at Åsen provided the primary datasource and was systematically excavated with a team ofvolunteers, who employed wet-sieving methods to extractbulk fossil material from each bed within the sequence. Aseries of globally correlated temperature-induced changeswas detected in the stepwise declining abundanceand disappearance of rudists, sclerorhynchids and therajiforms Rhinobatos and Squatirhina, as well as marinecrocodilians, various mosasaurid lizard taxa. A rangeof local palaeoenvironments were also reconstructed,including estuaries, rocky coastlines, sandy beaches,drowned river valleys, shallow neritic settings, anddeeper offshore conditions. An archipelago bordering theFennoscandian landmasses also supported continentalecosystems comprising ferns, conifers and early floweringplants, with dinosaurs, pterosaurs and non-marine turtles.Trophic levels within the marine system incorporatedred algae and dinoflagellates as primary producers, withcorals, brachiopods, bivalves, echinoids, barnacles anddecapod crustaceans as benthos, and belemnites withinthe water column. Actinopterygian fish, sharks, rays andchimaeroids, chelonioid sea turtles, marine crocodilians,polycotylid and elasmosaurid plesiosaurians, variousmosasaurids and aquatic hesperornithiform birdscollectively represented middle level and apex predators.Herbivorous and carnivorous dinosaurs, lizards and softshelledtryonichid turtles evidence elements of terrestrialisland communities. The palaeobiogeographicalrelationships and dispersal of these local assemblageswas probably influenced by marine transgressions andregressions. These would have affected habitat availabilityand connectivity via changing water depths.Part 2 presents three school education projects aimed atincreasing awareness of geoscience and natural history inschools. The better integration of geological time conceptsand geosciences into the Swedish school curriculum isalso discussed. The first study described a project wherebyfossils were found in the sandboxes in preschools, andtheir use as a tool for learning about dinosaurs, fossilsand natural history. A survey of teachers and childrenfound that both increased their knowledge base throughthis approach, and that the local context of the fossilsin particular generated interest about the subject. Theconcepts of geological time was similarly addressed in thesecond study, which utilized timescale projects and otherhands-on activities to create memory triggers for childrenand students, and to demonstrate how the perspective of‘deep time’ is relevant for understanding large-scale Earthprocesses, such as evolution and environmental change.The integration of geosciences into the Swedish schoolcurriculum is currently inadequate. Therefore, the finalpaper in this sequence discusses how geosciences forman interdisciplinary bridge between school subjects andcan be used to teach geography and biology at all schoollevels.

  • 246.
    Einarsson, Elisabeth
    Lund University.
    The Cretaceous world: fauna, flora and climate2013In: LUCCI Annual Report 2013/2014, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 247.
    Einarsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Lindgren, Johan
    Lund University.
    Kear, Benjamin P.
    Uppsala University.
    Siverson, Mikael
    Australia.
    Mosasaur bite marks on a plesiosaur propodial from the Campanian (Late Cretaceous) of southern Sweden2010In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 132, no 2, p. 123-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although plesiosaurs and mosasaurs co-existed for about 35 million years at the end of the Cretaceous, the fossil record documenting interactions between these two groups of marine reptiles is meagre. The discovery of deeply incised scars on a limb bone of an immature polycotylid plesiosaur from the latest early Campanian (in the European two-fold division of the Campanian Stage) of the Kristianstad Basin, southern Sweden, is thus significant because it represents a rare example of predation or scavenging on an immature polycotylid plesiosaur by a large mosasaur.

  • 248.
    Einarsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Praszkier, Aron
    Vajda, Vivi
    First evidence of the Cretaceous decapod crustacean Protocallianassa from Sweden2016In: Geological Society, London, Special Publications, Vol. 434, p. 241-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An assemblage of the burrowing ghost shrimp, Protocallianassa faujasi, is described, providing the first evidence of this decapod species from Sweden. The fossils occur in successions of the informal earliest late Campanian Belemnellocamax balsvikensis zone at Åsen and the latest early Campanian B. mammillatus zone at Ivö Klack, both in the Kristianstad Basin of NE Skåne. Numerous, heavily calcified chelipeds were found within a restricted bed at Å sen that was rich in carbonate-cemented nodules. Based on the burrowing lifestyle of modern mud shrimps, we interpret these nodules as infilled burrow chambers. The low abundance of molluscs within the Protocallianassa beds is also consistent with analogous extant communities, indicating that a similar ecologically exclusive relationship ruled within the Late Cretaceous shallowmarine ecosystems.

  • 249.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Statistik för hälsovetenskaperna2012 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här boken har under flera decennier tillsammans med sin föregångare ”Grundläggande statistik” varit en uppskattad och flitigt använd kursbok vid många hälsovetenskapliga universitets- och högskoleutbildningar.

    Nu har boken i sin andra upplaga ytterligare moderniserats. Statistikämnet introduceras på ett enkelt, begripligt sätt och logiken förklaras resonemangsvis. Syftet är att alla som vill ska kunna lära sig statistik.

    Boken tar upp de viktigaste begreppen och metoderna att beskriva material och att genomföra analyser. Det finns kapitel om studiedesign och om viktiga grundbegrepp. Olika metoder för att presentera material med hjälp av tabeller och diagram samt olika genomsnitts- och spridningsmått redovisas. De mest använda metoderna för statistisk analys beskrivs. Därutöver ingår en del centrala epidemiologiska begrepp och ett kapitel om regression och korrelation. I den här utökade upplagan finns nyskrivna avsnitt om multivariat analys, sannolikhet och regression samt om etik.

    Antalet övningsuppgifter med förklarande svar har utökats betydligt, vilket underlättar för självstudier. Exemplen har hämtats från hälsovetenskaperna, dvs de kan beröra yrkesgrupper som folkhälsovetare, sjuksköterskor, sjukgymnaster, arbetsterapeuter, socialarbetare, läkare m fl. Boken lämpar sig därför speciellt för högskole- och universitetsstuderande och yrkesverksamma inom dessa områden. För den som vill arbeta med hjälp av dator finns ett omfattande övningsmaterial på webben.

  • 250.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Statistik för hälsovetenskaperna2003Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här boken ersätter den uppskattade och under nästan två decennier mycket använda boken “Grundläggande statistik – med tillämpningar inom sjukvården”. Förutom att innehållet omarbetats, ligger tillämpningarna nu inom ett bredare hälsovetenskapligt fält. Här introduceras statistikämnet på ett modernt men samtidigt enkelt och begripligt sätt. Logiken förklaras resonemangsvis. Syftet är att alla som vill skall kunna lära sig statistik.

    Boken tar upp de viktigaste begreppen och metoderna, såväl när det gäller att beskriva material som att genomföra analyser. Inledningsvis finns ett kapitel om undersökningsmetodik och ett om viktiga grundbegrepp. Därpå följer olika metoder för att presentera material med hjälp av tabeller och diagram samt olika genomsnitts- och spridningsmått. Ett kapitel behandlar linjär regression och korrelation. De mest använda metoderna för statistisk analys beskrivs, och avslutningsvis redovisas några centrala epidemiologiska begrepp.

    Exemplen har hämtats från hälsovetenskaperna generellt, dvs. de kan beröra yrkesgrupper som folkhälsovetare, sjuksköterskor, sjukgymnaster, arbetsterapeuter, socialarbetare, läkare m.fl. Boken lämpar sig därför speciellt för högskole- och universitetsstuderande och yrkesverksamma inom dessa områden. Det finns ett stort antal övningsuppgifter, vilka har anpassats för såväl manuell hantering som datorbearbetning. För den som vill arbeta med hjälp av dator har boken en egen webbplats med ett omfattande övningsmaterial.

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