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  • 151. Ek, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Lindell, Lisbeth
    Nilsson, Marie
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Formativ utvärdering av Projekt neuropsykiatri i närsjukvård, Nordöstra Skånes sjukvårdsdistrikt: tentativa resultat2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med utvärderingen har varit att beskriva hur Projekt neuropsykiatri i närsjukvård har genomförts under dess första två år. I arbetet med utvärderingen har speciellt fokus lagts på en del av projektet; endagarsutbildningarna. Hur har dessa upplevts av deltagarna? Har de fått de önskade effekterna? Vad kunde ha gjorts annorlunda? Projektets andra delar har mer indirekt berörts i utvärderingen.

    Som grund för insamling av data har observationer i samband med endagarsutbildningarna använts, liksom kursutvärderingar och informella samtal med såväl kursdeltagare som personal från Minnesmottagningen. Dessutom har strukturerade intervjuer genomförts med tre sjuksköterskor.

    Nyckelinformanter är personalen på Minnesmottagningen, distriktsläkare, sjuksköterskor samt biståndshandläggare. Dessa upplever utbildningarna som positiva och lärorika och att de kan leda till en ökad kunskap om demens. Samverkan mellan kommun och Region Skåne upplevs ha ökat till följd av utbildningarna. En ursprunglig förhoppning fanns att utbildningarna skulle leda till att kunskapen sprids vidare ut i organisationerna. Resultatet av utvärderingen tyder emellertid på att detta inte har skett, åtminstone inte i den utsträckningen som önskats av Minnesmottagningens personal. En orsak till den begränsade kunskapsspridningen kan vara att utbildningsdeltagarna ej har någon pedagogisk grund att stå på. En annan faktor som kan ha verkat hindrande för kunskapsspridningen är att det inom huvudmannaorganisationerna saknas en gemensam värdegrund för synen på demens.

    De tentativa resultaten av utvärderingen tyder på att projektet i stort har fått en rad positiva följder för vårdpersonalen. Förutom en ökad samverkan mellan kommun och Region Skåne har samverkan med olika enheter inom Centralsjukhuset Kristianstad ökat, liksom med Neuropsykiatriska kliniken i Malmö. I studien framkommer att personal från såväl hälso- och sjukvården som från den kommunala omsorgen vet att de med förtroende kan vända sig till Minnesmottagningen, något som visar sig ha lett till en ökad trygghet. Projektet har även fått till följd att antalet diagnoser samt användningen av bromsmediciner har ökat.

    Utvärderingen identifierar ett antal möjliga hinder för en god demensvård, bland annat vårdens hierarkiska struktur, bristen på gemensamt förhållningssätt gentemot demenssjuka samt att tilliten till experterna på Minnesmottagningen riskerar att öka deras arbetsbörda i stället för den önskade motsatta utvecklingen.

    Denna utvärdering har fokuserat på hur vårdpersonalen upplever projektets verksamhet. I en eventuell fortsatt utvärdering av verksamheten föreslås att fokus läggs på hur kunskap och erfarenheter sprids i verksamheterna samt hur projektet påverkar patienterna och deras anhöriga. 

  • 152.
    Ek, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Karlsson, Pontus
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Kvinnors och mäns sexualliv efter förvärvad ryggmärgsskada2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Spinal Cord Injuries impacts sexuality. In a healthcare environment sexual issues are complicated and not allways easy to answer. Purpose: The purpose has been to highlight how the patient experiences sexuality after sustaining spinal cord injury. Method: A literature study through systematic review of scientific articles. Result: Five main categories were identified: Relationship, Physical problems, Emotional experiences, Coping, Counselling and information. During the first period after the injury sexuality was of less importance, but after time information from the nurse according sexual issues became important. Some patients found the information to be inadequate, and some found that the healthcare personal had an asexual attitude towards them. Conclusion: To be able to meet the needs of people with spinal cord injuries the nurse can have great help using the PLISSIT model.

  • 153.
    Ek, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Socialsekreterares upplevelser av möten med klienter Social welfare secreteries experience of meetings with clients2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose with this study was to get a deeper understanding of how the social welfare secretaries experience the meeting with clients.

    Our main questions were how the social welfare secretaries thinks about their own way to behave in the meeting with clients, which difficulties/obstacles there can be a and which factors they think affect the meeting. What is it that makes the social welfare secretaries experience a meeting as good or less good.

    Theory used: “naive theory” and “theory of communication”.

    The social welfare secretaries emphasised the importance of respect and clarity in their relations with the clients. By contrast with literature, the hover between power and support was not found difficult.

    The goal is that the social welfare secretaries and the clients understand each other and that they reach the purpose with the meeting.

  • 154.
    Ekdahl, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Splittorff, Stina
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att vårda barn palliativt2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Children’s death is unexpected and unnatural irrespective of a long time of illness or a sudden death. Nurses working with palliative care of children experience a range of different emotions during the care. Palliative care is health promoting even though the purpose no longer is to cure. According to the nursing theorist Katie Eriksson health is possible to achieve even though the patient has got a deadly disease. Nurses’ experience of palliative care continues despite the death of the child. Aim: The aim was to describe nurses’ experiences of palliative care of children. Method: A literature study was done where seven scientific articles where found. Keywords were identified, interpretated and then rebuilt. Findings: The nurses’ experiences were affected by relations, nursing work and by managing their feelings. Education, experience and organisation were also significant. Conclusion: Education, experience, self-knowledge and good self-confidence made the experience of giving palliative care to children more positive. The studie could be useful as a inspiration source to further studies. All this to be able to see what kind of support nurses need to cope with their experiences of palliative care of children.

  • 155.
    Ekelin, Najah
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Eliasson, Pär
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Stigmatisering av barn med övervikt och fetma – Litteraturstudie2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Obesity is one of the fastest growing medical conditions both for children and adults. Children with overweight/obesity risk to be exposed to social discrimination and stigmatization from peers. Stigmatization is when the society labels an individual that deviates from what is considered normal behaviour. Purpose: The aim of this literature review was to describe potential stigmatization of children with overweight/obesity. Method: The study was carried out as a general literature review study. The search was performed in the following databases: Pubmed, Cinahl, Elin@Kristianstad and obesityresearch.org. Results: The analysis of the articles included in this study resulted in four categories; the importance of parents' influence, the obese child’s own responsibility, self-esteem of overweight/obese children and selection of overweight/obese children as playmates. Discussion: Parents behaviour and own stereotypes influence children's attitudes towards obese people. Knowledge has a limited effect on counteracting stigmatization. Self-esteem of overweight/obese children is not necessarily lowered because of the stigmatization they meet. Children do not want overweight/bold peers as friends. Nurses must be conscious about their own biases and stereotypes towards overweight/obese patients.

  • 156.
    Eklund, Anette
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Holmgren, Anna-Lena
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Glansk, Henrik
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Äldre vårdtagares måltidssituation2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    To become old and live in an institution could mean that the habits and routines they have obtained during their lifetime and are used to may become changed. There are fixed norms and rules which the elderly more or less have to adjust to. The aim of this study was to describe how nursing staff attitudes influence on elderly care takers meal situation. The method of this study was a literature review. The result showed that norms and rules not always are adjusted to caretakers’ wishes and needs. The work situation influenced the elderly in such ways that they saw that the staff were stressed and therefore withheld to express their wishes. The result showed that the nursing staff tried to effective their work which lead to inadequate nursing. The nursing staff attitudes may depend on stress and stressful work situations. The nursing staff may not have the time to obtain the knowledge they should have about every caretaker’s wishes and habits.

  • 157.
    Eklund, Annette
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Herremo, GunBritt
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Påverkar omorganisation den psykosociala arbetsmiljön för chefer inom kommunal omsorg?2005Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    The main question of this study is about how reorganizations influence on the mental social working environment for chiefs in municipal care. We want to find out how chiefs experience their mental social working environment in a reorganization. The method we used was a qualitative method. We interviewed eight chiefs in municipal care. The interview was done in two different municipalities, where we interviewed four in each municipality. We have also searched for relevant literature for the area, to get knowledge as much as possible. The theories we used were McGregor's theory X and Y. We also used Fiedler's leadership theory. It appeared in our study that the influence on the mental social working environment was varying, it depended on which structure the reorganization had. Were the reorganization structured was the mental social working environment less influenced. It appeared in our study that the most important on a reorganization were three words, clear, honest and straight.

  • 158.
    Ekstrand, Linda
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Engström, Anette
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Fabian, Orsolya
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Behov av stöd hos närstående till kvinnor som har drabbats av bröstcancer: En litteraturstudie2005Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Bröstcancer är den dominerande cancersjukdomen bland kvinnor i Sverige. Närstående påverkas nästan lika mycket som de drabbade kvinnorna och behöver olika former av stöd. Syfte: Att beskriva behoven av stöd hos närstående till kvinnor som har drabbats av bröstcancer. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en systematisk litteraturstudie där vetenskapliga artiklar söktes genom databaser på Intenet och manuellt. Studien inkluderade 16 vetenskapliga artiklar som analyserades och utformades till studiens resultat. Resultat: Det framkom att behovet av informativt och känslomässigt stöd kunde kopplas till närståendes olika åldrar och kön. Vuxna närstående uppgav sig behöva olika former av informativt stöd medan barn och ungdomar behövde känslomässigt stöd. Det fanns också en klar skillnad mellan män och kvinnors behov av stöd. Kvinnor har en tendens att söka efter mer djupgående stöd om de själva ligger i riskzonen för att utveckla bröstcancer. Slutsats: Vidare studier av närstående respektive sjuksköterskeperspektivet kring behov av stödinsatser skulle kunna vara grund för en utformning av fasta rutiner som skulle kunna fungera som ett stöd för sjuksköterskor i deras omvårdnad av närstående till kvinnor med bröstcancer.

  • 159.
    Ekstrand, Margareta
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Erovic, Seida
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Vilken arbetssituation, ingångslön och upplevelse har den nyutexaminerade tandhygienisten av sitt arbete som legitimerad tandhygienist -En enkätstudie2005Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of the study was to describe how hygienist`s receiving their certificate during 2003 and 2004, perceive their working situation, salary and impression of their first employment as a registered dental hygienist. A questionnaire was sent out to new dental hygienist`s examined year 2003 and 2004 in Sweden. Most of the new examined dental hygienist`s found the education adequate or more than adequate. A few individuals found it inadequate. The ones finding the education inadequate wanted more clinical practice and more training in administrative work. Theoretical subjects that were suggested to be increate were stomatognathic physiology, orthodontic and pedodontic. Most of the dental hygienist´s were pleased with their first job and they experienced a positive treatment from the personnel and varied working situation. There was a significant difference between national dental service and the private practice regarding the salary. The mean value at the private practice was 20 022 and at the national dental service 18 522. The conclusion of the study is that newly examined dental hygienist´s like their job and that they feel that the education make them well prepared for their first experience in the "real life". However there are some areas that needs to be developed in the education.

  • 160.
    Emsfors, Åsa
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Kjellander, Charlotte
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Patienters upplevelser av att leva med åldersförändringar i gula fläcken - en litteraturstudie: Living with age-related macular degeneration from the patient’s perspective2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Elderly people with visual impairment increases in the society. To measure vision with visual acuity charts doesn’t indicate how patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) experience their disease. Aim: The aim of the literature review was to describe patients’ experiences of living with age-related macular degeneration. Method: A literature review based on qualitative and quantitative articles was performed. Findings: Eleven articles were examined and the analysis resulted in four main categories; personally experiences of the disease, emotional reactions, strategies to cope with the disease and thoughts about the future. Conclusion: Living with age-related macular degeneration affects the individuals both physical and emotional. Nurses have an important role to increase the understanding and knowledge to persons with AMD. To support patient and family, patient with AMD can easier cope with the disorder.

  • 161.
    Engdahl, Heidi
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Kvist, Caroline
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Sjuksköterskans preventiva arbete mot uppkomsten av trycksår på sjukhus - en litteraturstudie2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers are unpleasant and painful and causes anxiety not only patient but also for the relatives. It also results in longer hospital stay and increased costs for health care sector and because of this it’s important to identify and survery the origin and what preventive measures there are to prevent pressure ulcer. AIM: To illustrate the nurses´ work to prevent the origin of pressure ulcers. METHOD: A general literary study where scientific articles were searched and found in electronic databases and through manual searches. RESULT: Ten scientific articles were analyzed and main categories were identified; nurses´ documentation, risk assessment of the patient, nutrition, use of repositioning, use of aid and skin care. CONCLUSION: Nurses knowledge about pressure ulcers is satisfactory but the knowledge is not always put in to practice, maybe it’s due to lack of staff and lack of time. The preventive interventions to prevent pressure ulcers must have a higher priority in the nurses´ practical work.

  • 162.
    Engfors, Jan
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Wessberg, Mats
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Ungdomar och Riskbeteende - Youth and hazardous behavior2005Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of our essay is to investigate the social services work for youth with hazardous behavior. To aquire relevant information we decided to us the qualitative method. We made five interviews with social workers from different sections to get a full view of the situation. The main conclutions we came up with is the importance of the family structure, and a safe home environment with good values. Another important part is a daily meaningful occupation, for the main part in this age it is school attendance. The schoolsystem today doesn´t fit everybody, because of this some get excluded and the goverment doesn´t provide any alternative occupation. The time between elementary school and adult life leaves a gap with increased responsibility and less control from the society. The youths search for identity can without family support and or lack of daily structure lead to identification with youths in their own age. This can lead to different problems, like alcohol, drug abuse or criminal behavior. Limited resources leads to compromises in the social work for youth with hazardous behavior and sometimes the lack of attention to smaller problems increase the risks and problems for the youth.

  • 163.
    Ericsson, Emma
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Naraha, Mio
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Svensson, Carita
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Att leva med venösa bensår- ur ett holistiskt perspektiv En litteraturstudie2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Venous leg ulcers are a chronic disease mostly among elderly individuals. The leg ulcers are often painful and interfere with the individual’s daily life. The aim of this literature review was to describe individuals’ experiences of living with venous leg ulcers. The nursing staffs often focus on the ulcer and its treatment. To be able to handle individuals with a chronic disease in a professional way it is important to recognise and understand the whole individual behind the disease. 13 scientific articles were found in the databases; Cinahl, Elin@kristianstad, PubMed, SveMed+. An analyse resulted in three central categories; living with pain, a restricted life, a changed self-esteem. The result showed that individuals with venous leg ulcers have different experiences. The conclusion showed the importance of recognising the individuals’ lives with leg ulcers in a holistic perspective.

  • 164.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    et al.
    Nordiska högskolan för folkhälsvetenskap.
    Lindencrona, Fredrik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Olsson, Ingela
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Puskeppeleit, Monika
    Intersektoriell samverkan i utvecklingsprojekt: en jämförande analys2007Ingår i: Axelsson, R., Bihari Axelsson, S. (red), Folkhälsa i samverkan mellan professioner, organisationer och samhällssektorer, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2007, s. 87-121Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 165.
    Eriksson, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Andersson, Jenny
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Patienters upplevelser och attityder till tandhygienistbehandling, samt ett reliabilitetstest av mätinstrumenten Corah Dental Anxiety Scale och Dental Hygienist Beliefs Survey 2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of the study was to examine experiences and attitudes to dental hygienist treatment in a group of patients by using the assessment tools Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and Dental Hygienist Beliefs Survey (DHBS) at the dental hygienist clinic, the university of Kristianstad. Another aim of the study was to test the reliability of the assessment tools. Methods: Fifteen respondents answered the two questionnaires at two different occasions before dental hygienist treatment. The results showed that nine respondents reported that they are absolutely calm when their dental hygienist is going to remove tartar, while six are a little bit worried or tensed. The categories ethics, communication, trust and control in DHBS had a positive agreement (mean value 1.1 and 1.2). The reliability showed a percent agreement between 100% and 80% and the Kappa coefficients were between 1.0 and 0.29. Eight categories had “very good agreement”, four “good agreement”, three “moderate agreement” and one “fair agreement”. Conclusion: The respondents’ experiences are affected by the dental hygienists. The respondents experienced dental hygienists and their treatment generally positive. More control over the dental care situation was however desired. Due to the low number of respondents it is not possible to judge the reliability.

  • 166.
    Eriksson, Birgitte
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Kollath Sjölin, Marie
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Arbetsställningars inverkan på muskel- och ledbesvär hos Skånes tandhygienister2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of this study was to examine musculoskeletal disorders among dental hygienists in

    relation to work postures (sitting, standing, and altering) and to study differences in the

    groups regarding numbers of disorders, locations and degrees. A mail questionnaire was

    distributed among 200 dental hygienists in the region of Skåne. The response rate was 79 %.

    The majority of the dental hygienists were working in a sitting position. Only

    43 dental hygienists were altering their working position and two were working in a standing

    position. The results showed that 85 % of the dental hygienists have experienced

    musculoskeletal disorders in the last 12 months. Seven different complaint areas were

    described and multiple complaints from two-three areas were most common. Numbers and

    locations of disorders were similar between the sitting and altering groups. Most of the dental

    hygienist has a low degree of pain but the numbers of dental hygienists in per cent with severe

    pain is most common in the sitting group. No significant differences can bee seen but the

    tendency in per cent shows that the dental hygienists in the altering group has less number of

    disorders and in a lower degree than the dental hygienists in the sitting group.

  • 167.
    Eriksson, Lina
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Regnell, Alexandra
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Arbetshälsa en helhet - En kvalitativ studie om delaktighet 2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Background/Literature: Workplace environment has a significant influence on the livelihood of many in today’s world. In Sweden one million employees feel the effects of ill-health due to a dissatisfactory workplace environment. Consequently there has been a recent focus on the promotion of health in the workplace with an emphasis on physical activities. However scientific research has shown that psychological and social aspects need to be addressed in addition to the physical aspects. A new perspective within the health sector is emerging; Salutogenics, whereby the determinants that promote health are observed (health factors) rather than determinates of ill-health. One theme in Salutogenics is participation; and its significance as a health factor. Aim: Increase comprehension of participation as a health factor. Method: Qualitative research interviews were prepared. A structured interview guide was used as a foundation for the interviews. Result: Different determinants were revealed on how participation can promote health in the workplace. Relationships and communication were the most overall meaningful health factors. Organisation, leadership and workgroups were further contributing health factors in promoting healthy workplace environments. Discussion: Occupational health is related to the employee’s opportunity to participate in shaping their workplace environment and functional relationships. The conclusion takes focus on the future development of psychological and social aspects, and their respective health factors.

  • 168.
    Eriksson, Rasmus
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Munthe, Pernilla
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Omvårdnadsaspekter för att förhindra viktnedgång hos äldre personer med Alzheimers sjukdom Litteraturstudie2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Alzheimers sjukdom (AD) är den vanligaste demenssjukdomen i Sverige och dess konsekvenser kan göra att dagliga aktiviteter som bl.a. ätande påverkas. Sjuksköterskan har omvårdnadsansvaret när det gäller den drabbades näring, även om personen kan gå ner i vikt som en naturlig del av sjukdomen.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att belysa omvårdnadsaspekter som kan förhindra viktnedgång hos äldre personer med AD.

    Metod: Metoden som användes var en litteraturstudie där tio stycken vetenskapliga artiklar systematiskt analyserats enligt kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Resultatet av studien visar att de drabbades självständighet kan komma i konflikt med vårdgivarnas önskan att främja fysiskt välmående och deras ansvar att ge vård. När patientcentrerad omvårdnad användes ökade samspelet mellan de båda parterna och personen åt bättre. Matkonsumtion och viktnedgång kan påverkas av beteendestörningar samt av både fysisk och social miljö.

    Diskussion: Etisk medvetenhet, patientcentrerad omvårdnad, samspel mellan den drabbade och vårdgivaren samt miljö runt den drabbade diskuterades. Slutsats: De viktigaste fynden i denna studie var samspelet mellan vårdgivare och personer med AD, miljöns betydelse för den drabbade och eventuell viktnedgång.

  • 169.
    Eriksson, Therese
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Ovander, Mia
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Familjens livssituation när ett barn i familjen har cancer - en litteraturstudie2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: When a child gets cancer it involves the whole family. The view of family focused care has change over the years. It has been shown that the family needs support to manage their life situation, when their child is ill. Aim: The aim of this study was to illustrate the family’s life situation, when a child gets cancer. Method: 12 scientific, both qualitative and quantitative articles, were used to reach the result. The articles were critically examined concerning their method and result Results: The result showed that many families lacked psychosocial support. There were both similarities and differences between mothers’, fathers’ and siblings’ experiences, but they also had specific experiences. The result is reflected by Travelbees nursing theory. Discussion: When a child is diagnosed with cancer it affects the whole family. Nurses need to take care of the whole family and not just focus on the child that’s ill. During the entire time we need to have family focused care in mind.

    Keywords: Child, cancer, life situation, families, caring.

  • 170.
    Evergren, Emelie
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Olsson, Sofie
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av vardagslivet efter hjärtinfarkt2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Hjärtinfarkt är den vanligaste dödsorsaken bland kvinnor i världen. Män och kvinnor har i regel inte samma

    symtom, kvinnor får oftast ont i höger skuldra, känner illamående samt åtstramning vid käkarna. Eftersom hjärtat är starkt förknippat med livet upplever många kvinnor olika känslomässiga upplevelser. Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva kvinnors upplevelser av vardagslivet efter hjärtinfarkt.

    Metod: En allmän litteraturstudie som grundades på kvalitativa vetenskapliga artiklar gjordes. Resultatet baserades på elva artiklar som söktes fram via elektroniska databaser och därefter granskades och analyserades. Resultat: Det som framkom var att kvinnorna upplevde kroppsliga förändringar, inverkan på det sociala livet och känslomässiga upplevelser. Kvinnorna upplevde symtom även efter hjärtinfarkten och det sociala nätverket var en viktig del i återhämtningsprocessen. Rädsla var en återkommande upplevelse, bland annat upplevde de rädsla för döden, framtiden samt för återinsjuknande. Diskussion: Information och samtalsstöd är viktiga faktorer som hade kunnat underlätta återhämtningsprocessen för kvinnorna. Sådana åtgärder är en del i sjuksköterskans ansvarsområde. Slutsats: Existentiella behov förbises ofta i sjukvården, därför är det viktigt att uppmärksamma detta.

    Background: Myocardial infarction is the most common cause of death among women in the world. Men and women are not having the same symptom, women are more likely to have pain in their right shoulder, feeling nausea as well as discomfort in the jaw. Because the heart is associated with life many women experience emotional experiences. Aim: The aim was to describe women’s experiences of daily life after myocardial infarction. Method: A common literature review based on qualitative scientific articles was made. The result were based on eleven articles which was searched and retrieved in electronic databases, examined and analysed.

    Results: The women’s experiences were related to bodily changes, influences on the social life and emotional experiences. The women experienced symptoms even after the myocardial infarction and the social network was an important part in the recovery process. Fear was a recurrent feeling, they experienced fear of death, for the future and relapse. Discussion: Information and conversation support is important to make the recovery process easier for the women. This is a part of the nurse’s responsibility. Conclusion: Existential needs are often overlooked in the medical care, that’s why it is important to notice this.

  • 171.
    Fagerström, Martina
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Petersson, Isabelle
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Omvårdnadspersonalens upplevelser av att möta patienter inom palliativ vård2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    En god vård i livets slutskede ställer stora krav på personalen. Det krävs kompetens på flera områden och en kreativ förmåga för att kunna möta enskilda patienters behov utifrån ett holistiskt perspektiv. Dessa särskilda omständigheter kan ge upphov till mycket tankar och känslor hos omvårdnadspersonalen. Syftet med studien var att beskriva omvårdnadspersonalens upplevelser av att möta patienter inom palliativ vård. En litteraturstudie genomfördes. Via databassökning hittades vetenskapliga artiklar som granskades systematiskt. Resultatet visade att omvårdnadspersonalen hade både negativa och positiva upplevelser i mötet med patienten. De negativa upplevelserna speglades främst av otillräcklighet, frustration, osäkerhet, skuld, utsatthet, upplevelse av oetiskt handlande och emotionell påfrestning hos omvårdnadspersonalen. De positiva upplevelserna i mötet med patienten karaktäriserades av omvårdnadspersonalens känsla av närhet, tillfredställelse och ett berikat liv. De negativa upplevelserna som var mest framstående hos omvårdnadspersonalen kan i längden leda till utbrändhet. Klinisk handledning är en åtgärd som har visat gott resultat med ökat samarbete inom omvårdnadsteamet och därmed positiva upplevelser i mötet med patienten.

  • 172.
    Fagrell, Tobias G.
    et al.
    Specialist Clinic of Pedodontics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital Mölndal.
    Dietz, Wolfram
    University of Jena.
    Lingström, Peter
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Steiniger, Frank
    University of Jena.
    Norén, Jörgen G.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Effect of ozone treatment on different cariogenic microorganisms in vitro2008Ingår i: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 139-147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ozone treatment has been presented and discussed in the literature, as one of the "new" ways to treat dental caries. The aim of this paper was to study the in vitro effect of ozone on some common oral microorganisms related to dental caries using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of ozone was tested on three different strains of mutans streptococci and one Lactobacillus strain. After exposure of bacteria to ozone treatment for 0 to 60 sec, cultivation on different chair side strips and agar plates took place. Preparation and performance of scanning electron analyses in a field emission scanning electron microscope at 10 kV was then carried out. It was found that gaseous ozone treatment for 20 seconds or more was effective to kill the different microorganisms in vitro. Treatment of 20, 40 and 60 seconds of ozone prevented the bacteria to grow on the different media. Treatment times shorter than 20 seconds resulted in varying results with a limited effect on bacterial growth for treatments of 5-10 sec, respectively. The difference between ozone-treated and untreated specimens was macroscopically readily discernable. None of the strains treated with ozone for 60 seconds showed any bacterial growth. Only samples with untreated bacteria could be found in the SEM analyses in form of large and high colonies. This study presents a clear result of the bactericide effect of ozon (in vitro) on four different strains of bacteria associated with dental caries.

  • 173.
    Fagrell, Tobias G.
    et al.
    Pediatric Dentistry Special Dental Service, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal.
    Lingström, Peter
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Olsson, Stina
    Department of Oral Pathology, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University.
    Steiniger, Frank
    Centre of Electron Microscopy, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena.
    Norén, Jörgen G
    Department of Pedodontics, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University.
    Bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules beneath apparently intact but hypomineralized enamel in molar teeth with molar incisor hypomineralization2008Ingår i: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, ISSN 0960-7439, E-ISSN 1365-263X, Vol. 18, nr 5, s. 333-340Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The most common problems for a patient with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) are the collapse of enamel and cavitations, loss of fillings, and secondary caries, but most of all, severe hypersensitivity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was therefore to histologically study possible bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules beneath apparently intact, but hypomineralized enamel in permanent molars with MIH. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five extracted permanent first molars diagnosed with MIH were fixated, demineralized, and sagittally serially sectioned in a bucco-lingual direction in a microtome with a thickness of 4-5 microm. Sections were stained with a modified Brown and Benn staining for bacteria, unstained sections were analysed in field emission SEM. RESULTS: Stained sections from the cuspal areas, below the hypomineralized enamel, the staining indicated the presence of bacteria in the dentinal tubules. The HTX staining showed that the pulp in sections without any findings was normal and free from bacteria or infiltrates from inflammatory cells. In sections where bacteria were found in the cuspal areas or deeper in the dentin, a zone of reparative dentin was found, and in sections from one tooth, the coronal pulp showed an inflammatory reaction with inflammatory cells. In sections adjacent to those without any bacterial staining, the SEM analyses revealed empty dentinal tubules without any odontoblast processes or signs of bacteria. When odontoblast processes were found, the dentinal tubules were filled with bacteria located on the surface of the odontoblast processes. In some areas, a large number of tubules were found with bacteria. No bacteria were found close to the pulp. The odontoblast processes appeared larger in areas where bacteria were found. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of bacteria in the dentinal tubules and inflammatory reactions in the pulp indicate that oral bacteria may penetrate through the hypomineralized enamel into the dentin, thus possibly contribute to hypersensitivity of teeth with MIH.

  • 174.
    Fischer, Lina
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Jönsson, Rebecka
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Synligt- och osynligt stöd: Anhörigas upplevelser av stöd när en familjemedlem vårdas i sen palliativ fas.2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    When a family member is being cared for in palliative care relatives often need support to be able to support their family member. The purpose of the literature review was to illuminate the nursing staff’s support from the relatives’ perspective when a family member is being cared in a late palliative phase. The study is a literature review, there already existing research are surveyed. The findings were structured into two parts, tangible- and the intangible support. Tangible support is a one-way support; to receive information and that someone takes over. Intangible support is support within an interpersonal relation, when the nursing staff in one way or another respond to the relatives needs; that someone shows consideration, to be met with honesty, someone who gives time and to be given opportunity to feel hope. The support could make relatives feel secure and in control. Tangible- and intangible support are connected and form wholeness, but it is important to notice that there are two kinds of support and the relatives are in need of both.

  • 175.
    Folkesson, Agneta
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Petersen, Karin Anna
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Petersson, Pia
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Pajalic, Zada
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lindskov, Cecilia
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Johansson, Yvonne
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Participatory practice in a Non Participatory world experiences and challenges of working in the health and social care sector in Sweden and elsewhere2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 176.
    Forsberg, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Johansson, Ola
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    "Aktivitet Äldre" - Ett sätt för personalen att uppmuntra de äldre till ett aktivare liv2005Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens Sverige är ca 17 procent av befolkningen 65 år och äldre. Andelen äldre i befolkning ökar allt mer. Grundläggande för en bibehållen hälsa och livskvalitet hos äldre, är att de har en hög fysisk, psykisk och social aktivitetsnivå. Projekt ”Aktivitet äldre” i Eslövs kommun har som mål att erbjuda de boende på äldreboenden i kommunen möjlighet till ett större och bredare utbud av aktiviteter samt att varje enskild individ, som är delaktig i projektet, ska få tänka, tala och gå varje dag.

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur den anställda personalen på äldreboenden i Eslövs kommun, genom projektet ”Aktivitet äldre”, anser att de har blivit påverkade av projektet samt hur de har klarat att implementera projektets tankar i sitt arbete. Datainsamlingen har skett genom en enkätundersökning på samtliga äldreboenden i Eslövs kommun. I resultatet framkom det att personalen på äldreboenden vill vara, men ej har varit, delaktiga i projekt som genomförs på äldreboenden. Det fanns ett samband mellan bra information och förståelse av syftet med projektet. Ett samband fanns även mellan en känsla av meningsfullhet och god arbetsgemenskap. Slutsatserna, visade att det krävs ett kontinuerligt samarbete mellan aktörerna inom projektet, samt att personalen utvecklar en stark KASAM och den kompetens som krävs för att etablera projektet. Vi anser att folkhälsopedagogen har en viktig roll i ett förändringsarbete, med syfte att genomföra projekt inriktade mot förbättrad hälsa och meningsfull tillvaro för äldre på äldreboende och personal inom äldreomsorgen. Det krävs ett effektivt samarbete mellan delaktiga aktörer och oss folkhälsopedagoger.

    Nyckelord: Hälsa, äldre, personal, aktivering, kompetens, lärande, KASAM, empowerment

  • 177.
    Franzen Ewaldz, Lena
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Sjögren, Mikael
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Beteendeproblematik utifrån ett klientperspektiv "Behavioural problems from a clients perspective"2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    ABSTRACT

    Behavioural problems are a compound conception for emotional difficulties at different levels. Individuals with behavioural problems could have difficulties with social relations, low self-esteem, anxiety and worry.

    The purpose with the examination was to describe how clients apprehend their behavioural problems and what they consider could be the causes of it.

    The examination was based on the qualitative interviews with 5 clients and a professional helper. We came in contact with our clients through our practice. The results showed that the clients experienced their behavioural problems as a hidden handicap in various ways. Our clients were aware of their problems but they kept it to themselves.

    One of the difficulties that behavioural problems can lead to are problems in the social relations. The clients consider them selves to have succeeded in dealing with their situation in a satisfying way and believe their future to be positive.

    Keywords: Behavioural problems, growth, mental health, future prospect, parent/child relation, substance abuse, a parent psychological illness, low self-esteem, emotional difficulties, attachment theory.

  • 178.
    Franzén, Kristofer
    et al.
    Department of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University.
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Department of Health and Behavioural Science, University of Kalmar.
    Impact of chronic heart failure on elderly persons' daily life: a validation study2006Ingår i: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 137-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge about how elderly persons perceive the impact of chronic heart failure (CHF) on daily life is important when planning nursing care. For this purpose, disease specific instruments are needed. However, few instruments have been developed or tested specifically on elderly persons. AIM: To validate a Swedish version of the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (LHFQ) on elderly persons with CHF, and use it to describe the impact of CHF on daily life in the same population. METHODS: The sample comprised of 357 persons, aged between 65 and 99, diagnosed with CHF. A questionnaire including background data, the LHFQ and the SF-12 was used. RESULTS: A factor analysis resulted in four dimensions: physical, emotional, treatment and pleasure. LHFQ showed convergent validity and ability to discriminate between known groups. Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was 0.94. Impairments in the physical dimension were most common, especially fatigue (88%) and shortness of breath (87%). CONCLUSIONS: The LHFQ showed satisfying psychometric properties in an elderly Swedish population with CHF and can, with minor alterations, be recommended for research and clinical use. The impact of chronic heart failure on daily life was mostly physical, but other impairments were also common.

  • 179.
    Franzén, Kristofer
    et al.
    Department of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Department of Health and Behavioural Science, University of Kalmar.
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Predictors for health related quality of life in persons 65 years or older with chronic heart failure2007Ingår i: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 112-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    A main goal in nursing care of persons with chronic heart failure (HF) is to strengthen their health related quality of life (HRQoL). This presupposes knowledge about the relation between heart failure and HRQoL. Existing studies have shown incongruent results about whether HRQoL is affected differently depending on age or sex of elderly persons with chronic HF.

    Aim

    This study aimed to investigate if age, sex, disease severity, comorbidity and living conditions predict health related quality of life among persons 65 years or older with chronic HF.

    Methods

    The study included a sample of 357 persons. HRQoL was measured by the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire and the Short Form-12 Health Survey Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses were performed to analyse the relation between the predictors and HRQoL.

    Results

    The main finding was that self-rated disease severity was strongly associated with HRQoL, but also age, sex, diabetes and respiratory diseases was associated with some of the dimensions of HRQoL.

    Conclusions

    Interventions aimed at delaying the progress of the disease, assist persons' to cope with the disease and maintain the domains of HRQoL that are still feasible could be important to improve HRQoL in elderly persons with chronic HF.

  • 180.
    Friberg, Elin
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Sjöholm, Ulrika
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Trycksårsprevention - en litteraturstudie/Prevention of pressure ulcers - a literature review2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Pressure ulcers are a common problem and cause great suffering for those who develop it, and are also an expensive cost to the society. Aim: To describe nursing measures for prevention of pressure ulcers among elderly people in ordinary and nursing homes. Method: A literature review by structured analyze of scientific articles. Result: The analyze resulted in six subjects for prevention of pressure ulcers. These subjects were; risk assesment, nutrition, repositioning, skin/hygiene, nurse knowledge and documentation. Conclusion: Repositioning more often did not prevent pressure ulcers better than repositioning less frequent, nursing staff should offer patient´s pads with high absorption for peaceful rest and documentation should be improved.

  • 181.
    Friggestad, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Landgren, Åsa
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Kan vi rädda världen? Några folkhälsopedagogers syn på mötet mellan utbildning och arbetsliv2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    The state of health in Sweden demonstrates a high average length of life at the same time as diseases, due to luxurious living, grew into more and more widespread public health problems. Finding out that information is not enough to get man to live healthy has been conducive to a pedagogic based health education. An illustration of such an education is Public health pedagogy at the University of Kristianstad. The question is, does this education correspond to the new claims that society lays to health work? Our purpose was to throw light upon how individuals, qualified as public health pedagogues, look upon their work on one hand and how different clusters of thought from their study programme are conceived as activated in their professional exercise on the other. Our method was qualitative and we employed semistructured interviews with eleven ex-healthstudents. Our results demonstrate the idea of the health pedagogue as an all-embracing co-ordinator with a vision of saving the world. Our study also disclose that concepts from the study programme, such as salutogenic, holistic, participation, health promoting and pedagogic competence, were employed in the speech of the pedagogues. A question of great interest to us is whether this state of affairs indicates more than just knowledge acquired at school. We consider it very important that the educational programme appears to be relevant to the intended labour-market and we wish our results to be used in developing the study programme as well as health promoting areas.

  • 182.
    Fristedt, Petra
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Johansson, Lotten
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Pop, Jenica
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Child diabetes – parents’ experience Barndiabetes - föräldrars upplevelser2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 is increasing among children on large parts of the world. The disease strikes not only the child but affects the whole family. The parents are those who are responsible for the child’s treatment and well being. Purpose: The purpose of the literature review was to describe how parents to children with Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 experience and handle the situation around the child’s disease. Method: A literature review has been done using scientific articles. The articles were reviewed and analysed and five themes emerged. Result: Many parents experienced a constant fear for hypoglycaemia witch resulted in psychic stress. The result showed that the younger the child was when diagnosed the more stressed and worried the parents were. Precise and satisfactory information about the child’s disease was appreciated by the parents and made the coping with the disease easier. Conclusion: It is important that the nurse find out about the parents experiences and coping strategies in order to be able to give them a good care. In this way the nurse can try to support the parents and give them essential information about the disease so the parents can give confidence to the sick child.

  • 183.
    Gadd Andersson, Sara
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Sofie
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Hälsoinspiratören - en del av en källa till fysisk, psykisk och social hälsa 2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är viktigt att se hälsa ur ett helhetsperspektiv där den sociala, fysiska samt psykiska hälsan ingår. Människan tillbringar en stor del av sitt liv på arbetsplatsen, det är därför en viktig arena att arbeta hälsofrämjande med. Hälsofrämjande sjukhus är ett exempel på en sådan arena. För hälsofrämjande sjukhus är det bland annat viktigt att främja den egna personalens hälsoutveckling i en positiv riktning, med hjälp av en aktiv kunskapsförmedling. På arbetsplatsen är det viktigt med nyckelpersoner som kan förmedla kunskap om hälsans villkor till övriga anställda. En sådan nyckelperson kan vara hälsoinspiratören. Syftet var att på Centralsjukhuset Kristianstad undersöka de anställdas syn på hälsoinspiratörens roll, om de motiverade till sundare levnadsvanor samt synen på hälsoinspiratörernas kunskapsförmedling. En kvantitativ metod valdes och en enkätundersökning genomfördes bland 794 anställda.

    Resultatet visade att hälften av respondenterna visste vem hälsoinspiratören var. Majoriteten av de anställda såg hälsoinspiratören som källa till inspiration. Resultatet visade även att tre fjärdedelar av respondenterna var positivt inställda till hälsoinspiratörens roll och såg hälsoinspiratören som bland annat källa till inspiration. En tiondel ansåg sig ha blivit motiverade till hälsosammare val av hälsoinspiratören. Majoriteten av respondenterna ställde sig neutrala till hälsoinspiratören gällande kunskapsförmedling. Slutsatsen av studien är att hälsoinspiratören kan fungera som en nyckelperson gällande socialt stöd och som källa till motivation för hälsosammare val. För att hälsoinspiratörens roll ska utvecklas och fungera på bästa sätt behövs mer tid och utbildning.

    It is very important to see health from an overall view where the social, physical and psychological healths are included. The human being spends a great part of their lives at work. Because of that it is an important arena in which to work with health promotion. The Health promoting Hospital is an example of such an arena. It is important in The Health promoting Hospital to promote the staff’s own health in a constructive aim, taking help from active mediation of knowledge. At a workplace it is important to have key persons who can mediate knowledge about the health conditions to the employees. “The inspirerer of health” is an example of such a key person. The aim was to examine the employees view on the role of “the inspirerer of health”, whether they motivate to healthier way of living and the view on their knowledge mediation. A quantitative method was chosen and a questionnaire took place among 794 employees. The result revealed that half of the respondents had knowledge about who “the inspirerer of health” was. The majority of the employees saw “the inspirerer of health” as a source to inspiration. The result revealed that three out of four were positive to the role of “the inspirerer of health” and saw them as a source of inspiration. One out of ten said they had been motivated to healthier choices by “the inspirerer of health”. The majority of the respondents was taking a neutral point of view about knowledge mediation by the “the inspirerer of health”. The final scene of the study is that “the inspirerer of health” can work as a key person regarding social support and as a source to motivate persons to healthier choices. To insure that the role of “the inspirerer of health” will develop and work for the best there needs to be more time and education for all parts involved.

  • 184.
    Galbe, Anjé
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Svensson, Emma
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Vikten av att vara en stödjande medarbetare: en enkätstudie om hälsa och arbetsrelaterade upplevelser inom privat närsjukvård2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsplatsen har kommit att bli en viktigt arena där hälsan och förutsättningarna för hälsan kan påverkas. De senaste åren har det skett en positiv utveckling gällande den fysiska arbetsmiljön men inte gällande den psykosociala arbetsmiljön där speciellt anställda inom hälso- och sjukvården upplever en allt mer pressad arbetssituation. Litteraturgenomgången kring psykosociala arbetsförhållanden visar att det finns lite forskning gjord kring positiva aspekter av socialt stöd och hälsa. Detta ses som ett problem då det i arbetsmiljön ligger en avsevärd potential i främjandet av hälsa och att fokus bör förflyttas från det patogena till det salutogena synsättet. Syftet var att ur ett salutogent perspektiv se det sociala stödets betydelse på arbetsplatser inom privat hälso- och sjukvård samt undersöka medarbetarnas självuppskattade hälsa och upplevelser av arbetsplatsen och arbetssituationen. Metoden var en kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie. En strukturerad webenkät användes för att samla in data. Totalt deltog 91 medarbetare inom närsjukvården på ett privat hälso- och sjukvårdsföretag, vilket innebar en svarsfrekvens på 43 %. Resultaten visar ett direkt positivt samband mellan socialt stöd och olika arbetsrelaterade faktorer samt hälsa. Socialt stöd medierar även effekterna av kontroll på nivån av den självuppskattade hälsan. Dock fanns det inget underlag för att socialt stöd har en större betydelse än andra arbetsrelaterade faktorer i relation till hälsa. Konklusionerna var att ett gott emotionellt klimat bidrar till gynnsamma hälsoeffekter. Ett viktigt perspektiv i det hälsofrämjande arbetet är att skapa och främja goda relationer på arbetsplatsen. Exempelvis är formella samtalsgrupper effektiva vid främjandet av goda relationer, samt bidragande till minskningen av stressupplevelser vilket även fångar in den preventiva tillämpningen. Hälsa berör flera aspekter och bör ses så holistiskt som möjligt.

  • 185.
    Giertz, Gunilla
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lindgard, Marie
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Förekomst och lokalisation av gingivala retraktioner hos patinter mellan 20-29 år som behandlas på Tandhygienistprogrammet i Kristianstad2005Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    ABSTRACT

    The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and the location as well as the registration of gingival recessions among patients between 20-29 years of age, who are treated on the Dental Hygienist Programme at the University of Kristianstad. The study was performed as a recording study, where the first page of the base record paper was examined. We examined 295 base records. The result showed that gingival recessions only were registered on 3 % (n=10). Most of the injuries, 53 % (n=157), had been registered as toothbrush trauma. The premolars were the group of teeth who had the highest percent of injuries, 36 %. Our result also showed that it was the buccal surfaces, 58 %, which had the most gingival recessions. There were no registrations on 38 % of the base record papers regarding tooth surfaces. The conclusion of our study is that there are lacks in the recording of gingival recessions and these ought to be improved and refined.

  • 186. Glimelius Petersson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Jakobsson, Liselotte
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Persson, Lena
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Sjuksköterskors registrering ochupplevelser av vårdtyngd på en intensivvårdsavdelning2002Ingår i: Vård i Norden, ISSN 0107-4083, E-ISSN 1890-4238, Vol. 63, nr 22, s. 25-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 187.
    Glimelius Petersson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Centralsjukhuset, Kristianstad.
    Persson, Lena
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Sjuksköterskors registrering av vårdtyngd på en intensivvårdsavdelning - en undersökning av instrumentets validitet och reliabilitet2005Ingår i: Vård i Norden, ISSN 0107-4083, E-ISSN 1890-4238, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 25-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nursing workload according to Vårdtyngd Lund (VTL) has been registered at the unite since 1992. An earlier study showed that nurses interpreted the indicators of the instrument and the general outlines for using it differently. The aims of this study were to investigate the ability of VTL to discriminate among different patients, the internal consistency of the indicators of the instrument and the inter-rater reliability. Thirty-one nurses independently rated the workload of six patients earlier cared for at the unite. The results indicate that the instrument may have a low discriminative power. Cronbach`s alpha was 0.7. A high percentage of agreement (> 90 %) was found in 26 % of the measurements. In 10 % the agreement was very low (< 50%). The correlation measured as weighted kappa varied between 0.18 – 0.64. The results indicate that the indicators and the manual need to be developed further and more clearly defined so that the nurses can use them in a congruent way.

  • 188.
    Gren, Andreas
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Juklen, Anis
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Sjuksköterskestudenters kunskap om oral hälsa: En jämförelse mellan studenter i årskurs 1 och årskurs 32010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kunskaper i oral hälsa har betydelse för att sjuksköterskor på ett tidigt stadium ska kunna upptäcka olika sjukdomstillstånd i munhålan. Bristande kunskap i oral hälsa har rapporterats vara ett problem inom vården och därför behövs det ökad utbildning inom oral hälsa hos sjuksköterskor. Syftet med studien var att jämföra kunskaper inom oral hälsa mellan sjuksköterskestudenter i årskurs 1 och årskurs 3. Undersökningen skedde med användning av en strukturerad enkät som delades ut av studiens författare till sjuksköterskestudenter som gick årskurs 1 (n= 95) och årskurs 3 (n= 57) vid Högskolan Kristianstad. Studenterna ansåg sig ha bra teoretiska och praktiska kunskaper medan det i resultatet av kunskapsfrågorna framkom att det fanns brister. Resultatet visade också att statistiskt signifikanta skillnader fanns i kunskap mellan studenterna i årskurs 1 och årskurs 3 på frågor om svampinfektion, muntorrhet, protes och bedömning av munstatus. I denna studie var kunskaperna låga i flera områden inom oral hälsa hos sjuksköterskestudenterna. Ökad utbildning är önskvärt för att vårdtagare ska få de åtgärder som de är i behov av i munhålan.

  • 189.
    Gunnarsson, Marja-Leena
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Linda
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Vardag på ett särskilt boende för en äldre invandrare som inte kan det svenska språket: En observationsstudie An observation study of the everyday life of an immigrant unable to speak swedish and living in a home for elderly2005Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 190.
    Gunnarsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Tobias
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Att främja goda matvanor – en intervjustudie med förskolepersonal i fokus2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Folkhälsan i Sverige beror till viss del på befolkningens matvanor. Matvanor grundläggs i de tidiga åren vilket ger den offentliga miljön, exempelvis förskolor, stora möjligheter att skapa goda förutsättningar för barnens matvanor. På såväl global som nationell nivå finns flera styrdokument som berör barns matvanor och hälsa. Det debatteras ofta vilka risker befolkningens matvanor innebär. Vi ville öka förståelsen för matens möjligheter genom ett salutogent perspektiv. Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka förskolepersonals uppfattningar om hur goda matvanor kan främjas bland barn på förskolor. Material och metod: Med kvalitativ ansats genomfördes sju halvstrukturerade intervjuer med förskolepersonal på två förskolor i södra Sverige. Materialet analyserades med inspiration från innehållsanalys. Resultat: Informanterna uppfattade att förskolan har ett stort ansvar för barns matvanor. Förskolan ansågs ha stora möjligheter att främja goda matvanor bland barn, exempelvis genom att förebilder fungerar som gott exempel, att skapa en trevlig stämning vid matbordet samt att utesluta tvång i matsituationen. Informanterna nämnde även betydelsen av att personal på förskolan agerar samspelt. Slutsatser: Att arbeta hälsofrämjande med barn är av betydelse för folkhälsan i Sverige. Genom att använda förskolan som arena för hälsofrämjande insatser nås en stor andel barn i förskoleåldern. Vår studie ger exempel på arbetssätt för att främja goda matvanor och kan fungera som inspirationskälla för de som arbetar med barn på förskolor.

    Introduction: Public health in Sweden depends partly on the population’s food habits. Food habits are formed early on in life, which provides the public sector, for example preschools, with good opportunities for creating positive food habits among children. On a global as well as on a national level there are several documents concerning food habits and the health of children. There is a continuing debate about the risks of the population’s food habits. We wanted to increase the understanding regarding the opportunities of food, through a salutogenetic perspective. Aim: The aim was to examine preschool staff’s perceptions regarding the promotion of healthy food habits among children. Methods: Using a qualitative method we carried out seven semi-structured interviews with preschool staff from two preschools in southern Sweden. The interviews were analysed with inspiration from content analysis. Results: The interviewees thought that schools have a great responsibility for children’s food habits. It was said that schools have great scope when it comes to promoting healthy food habits among children, for example through role-models serving as good examples, creating a pleasant atmosphere at table, and excluding coercion from the food situation. The interviewees also mentioned the importance of teamwork within the preschool staff. Conclusions: The promotion of health among children is of great value for the public health in Sweden. By using preschool as a setting, a large number of children are included in health-promotion efforts. Our study provides examples of how to work in creating positive food habits among children. It may also serve as a source of inspiration for people working with children in preschools.

  • 191.
    Gustafsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Larsson, Emma
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Vården av äldre med delirium kan förbättras- en litteraturstudie i omvårdnad/ The care for elder with delirium can be improved- a literature review in nursing science2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Delirium is a serious condition that often affects hospitalized elder. The condition can be described as an overstrain of the brain which results in a disturbed consciousness. Elder people are particularly vulnerable since many of the risk factors develops with old age. The treatment aims to find and treat the underlying cause. Purpose: The purpose of this literature review was to illuminate factors beneficial for the nursing care of hospitalized elder with delirium. Method: A general literature review based on eleven scientific studies. Result: Factors that proved beneficial to change in order to improve care were organisation of care, educating the staff, pharmaceutical, environment and the encounter with the patient. Conclusion: There are measures that can improve the care of elder with delirium. The difficulty is to get the information out to care providers in the field. There is a need for developing guidelines for education and routine changes and to implicate these in nursing care.

  • 192.
    Gustafsson, Sylvia
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Sjuksköterskors preventionsarbete inom primärvården till familjer med atopi - en litteraturstudie med fokus på atopiskt eksem hos barn Nurses´ prevention work in primary care to families with atopi - a literature study with focus on atopic eczema among children2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Atopic eczema has increased in the last decade among children. The nurse can have a major role to prevent the disease. Aim: the aim of this study as to describe the nurses´ work in primary care with prevention to families with atopi with focus on atopic eczema among children. Method: A literature review based on analysis of fifteen scientific articles was done. Results: If the child was breastfed both positive and negative effects were evident. Exposure to smoking lead to increased development of the eczema. Studies showed that if the child is exposed to animals, the developing eczema declined. Increased education, information and demonstration of the medical treatment lead to less flares of eczema outbreak and increased quality of life for the family. Discussion: Whether the Swedish guidelines of allergy studies should be followed or not needs more research. Improved information about the effects of smoking is important to reduce the risk of developing eczema. Conclusion: The Calgary Family Models can be efficent tools to help the nurse educate the family from their perspective. By involving the family in the education, the child may not develop further in this disease or can become a manageable condition.

  • 193.
    Gustavsson, Ewa
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lanner, Sara
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Egenvårdskapacitetens inverkan på välbefinnandet hos personer som lever med stomi / Self-care agencies affect on the well-being for people living with a stoma2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Most of the stoma-operated persons must work themselves through difficult feelings. The task for the nurse is to deliver a care that promotes as much independence as possible. The aim of this literature review was to illuminate how the self-care agencies affect the well-being for the persons who are operated for stoma. A systematic literature study was done based on eleven scientific studies. Three categories, which describe how self-care agencies affect the physical, psychological and social well-being, are presented in the result. When a person who is operated for a stoma has problems to handle their self-care the caregivers need to offer a care that strengthens the self-care agency of the person. Most of these persons learn by time to handle bodily problems to achieve a physical well-being. However, a lot of persons experience larger difficulties to handle feelings such as fear, anxiety and reduced sexual self-confidence. If the caregivers become more conscious about how they can help persons to handle this problems the total well-being will increase. The caregivers must be aware on that this is a slow process and that their treatment and availability play an important part in achieving this.

  • 194.
    Gustavsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Susanne
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Silkesvante eller piska - Socialtjänstens och polisens insatser och samverkan kring kriminella ungdomsgäng2005Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of this essay was to study social workers´ and polices contributions with criminal youth gangs and get an insight in how co-operation in the contributions between these governments comes to rank and works.

    To find out, we carried out a study with a qualitative design based on document studies and interviews with social workers´ and polices who were meeting youths in their work.

    Our findings were that it's hard to define a criminal youth gang. The social workers´ and polices have both individual and common contributions with criminal youth gangs. One of their most important lining is to prevent new recruitment of young people to criminality. The social workers´ and polices both have an intention to cooperate but they can’t agree about the method of work they shall use, “the kid-glove or the whip”.

  • 195.
    Göransson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Roberts, Ann-Charlotte
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Söderstedt, Sara
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Omvårdnad vid diagnos borderline personlighetsstörning2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Borderline personality disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis that one to two percent of the population and at least every fourth patient that have received treatment at a psychiatric clinic has been diagnosed with. BPD is most common in women between teenage and early adulthood. Purpose: The aim of this literature study was to emphasize the nursing care of patients diagnosed with BPD within different perspectives. Method: A literature study was conducted to get a deeper understanding for the nursing care of patients with BPD. The search for pertinent articles, answering to the aim of the study, was done in different databases. The data has been analysed with content analysis and main categories were developed. Results: The two main categories that were formed throughout the data were; care givers perspective of the nursing care and the patient’s perspective of the nursing care. The results show, that the most important supporting variable for the patients were the establishment of a trustworthy nurse-patient relationship, gained on trust, seeing as trust is an important component in the patient’s recovery. Conclusions: Patient’s diagnosed with BPD is a complicated patient group since the patient is in a “black or white” state of mind. Trust and maintaining relationships is components that are of enormous importance for these patients recovery process.

  • 196.
    Hagberg, Linda
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Sjödahl, Janna
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Knowledge and experience of oral health among secondary school students in Zambia2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge about oral health and the experience of

    personal and professional oral care among secondary school students. The study consisted of

    201 students in eleventh grade from one urban and one rural school in Livingstone and

    Sesheke, Zambia. A questionnaire with 34 questions was handed out and collected by the

    authors. The study showed a higher knowledge among the students from the urban area

    compared to the rural. Most students had received information about oral diseases and oral

    care, but a lower number was seen at the rural school. Parents and teachers were the principal

    informants. A majority of the students used toothbrush and toothpaste on a daily basis, but

    only a minor part of the group brushed at bedtime which is commonly recommended. Many

    students had a daily intake of one to five meals, the study showed that females and urban

    students had more frequent intakes compared to males and rural students. Almost half of the

    students had visited a dentist, but a large number had experienced problems without seeking

    care. The most common oral problem among the study population was toothache. Overall,

    though the students had good oral habits and rather good knowledge a need for further

    information was seen.

  • 197.
    Hallberg, Agneta
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lindberg, Jessica
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Barns upplevelser av att vårdas på sjukhus2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: When children are admitted to the hospital most of them experience a new and unknown world. The staff’s most important task is to reach out to the child in the best way possible. To give good nursing, knowledge has to be gathered of how the child thinks, feels and what the child wants. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe children’s experience of hospitalization on the basis of the four nursing concepts person, health, environment and nursing. Method: The study is based on a systematic literature review. Eleven articles were included in the study. A content analysis was made with a deductive method were the result was categorised into the four main categories on the basis of Travelbees nursing theory. Findings: The presence of parents, fears and anxiety in the child, the importance of the physical environment and the staff’s way of treating the child were all important factors that emerged in the findings, based on the theory. Conclusion: Children must be invited to dialogue and to the teamwork with the healthcare personnel after their own ability and development. It is important to listen to what the individual child wants. To care for patients after the four nursing concepts covers the emotional and physical needs that the patient has.

  • 198.
    Hallin, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Kuqi, Ujkan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Vårdpersonalens åtgärder för att förebygga suicid hos deprimerade barn och ungdomar2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Självmord är den vanligaste dödsorsaken bland unga, en tonåring tar sitt liv varje vecka. 30-70% av dem som tar livet av sig är deprimerade, 90-95% har haft någon psykisk sjukdom. Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att belysa vårdpersonalens åtgärder för att förebygga suicid hos deprimerade barn och ungdomar. Metod: En allmän litteratur studie genom sökning av kvalitativa och kvantitativa artiklar i elektroniska databaser och genom manuell sökning. Sammanlagt 10 artiklar granskades och analyserades. Resultat: Det framkom att det var viktigt att identifiera riskfaktorer, ge stöd och behandling, att skapa en god dialog med patienten och anhöriga, samt att ha kunskap kring omhändertagandet av deprimerade barn och ungdomar med självmordstankar. En god relation mellan vårdpersonal och patient var centralt i omhändertagandet. Slutsats: År 2020 beräknas omkring 1,53 miljoner människor begå självmord i världen, ett självmordsförsök skulle göras varje sekund. Ökad kunskap om riskfaktorer och omhändertagande är viktigt för att minska antalet självmord. Därför behövs mer resurser till forskning och förebyggande åtgärder kring suicid bland barn och ungdomar.

    Background: Suicide is the most common cause of death among children and adolescents. For each minute that passes one person commit suicide in the world. 30-70% of those who commit suicide suffer from depression and 90-95% have some kind of psychiatric disease. Aim: The aim was to describe nursing care in children and adolescents with depression to prevent suicide. Method: A literature review based on qualitative and quantitative articles was carried through. Ten scientific articles were examined and analysed. Result: Five categories were identified: Support, treatment, risk factor identification, keeping a dialogue with the patient and their relatives and having knowledge about how to take care appears to be important factors in dealing with depressed and suicidal children and adolescents. A good relationship between the nursing staff and the patient is crucial. Conclusion: It’s estimated that in 2020 about 1, 53 million people will commit suicide in the world, for each second that passes one suicide attempt will be committed. This shows a great need of research and strategies to prevent suicide among children and adolescents.

  • 199.
    Halling, Anders
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute for Research and Development, Karlshamn.
    Halling, Arne
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Unell, Lennart
    Department of Dentistry, Örebro County Council.
    General health and tobacco habits among middle-aged Swedes2007Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 151-154Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Convincing scientific evidence exists that smoking has devastating effects on health. The use of smokeless tobacco (snuff) as a tobacco habit has been reported to be considerably less harmful, and has been suggested as an aid to smoking cessation, among other things. Methods: Cross-sectional data on general health and tobacco habits were obtained through a self-administered mail questionnaire in 2002 representing 50-year-old (n = 6236) and 60-year-old (n = 6232) Swedes in two counties. Participation rates were 70.2 and 75.7% in the both age cohorts, respectively. Of all participants 46.2% were male and 53.8% female. A general health index encompassing five items (score 0-5) was designed, with the best general health attributed to those scoring 5. Results: Male daily smokers accounted for 15.6% of the 50-year-olds and 18.7% of the 60-years-olds compared with 21.1 and 16.6%, respectively, for females. Corresponding figures for daily snuffing were 21.1 and 11.9% for men and 1.7 and 0.4% for women. When adjusting for age, sex, place of living, social network, education, and marital status, and related to subjects who never used tobacco, 'best general health' score 5, significant differences were found for ex-smokers (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.74-0.90; P < 0.001) and ex-snuffers (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.61-0.90; P < 0.01). Conclusion: Those who have stopped smoking or snuffing seem to be in a vulnerable condition with respect to general health and in need of extra support and health-promoting activities.

  • 200.
    Hallén, Sara
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Henning, Annica
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Salmi, Carina
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Anhörigvårdare - kommunens stöd till anhörigvårdare och deras behov av stöd och hjälp Family caregivers - the municipality's support to family caregivers and their needs of help and support 2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    The family and relatives caring for older people in Sweden lies on an old tradition. The responsibility to care for older family members has gone from family to the society. The aim of this study was to examine the needs of family caregivers and their experience of municipality support. This study includes only the family caregivers who have the main responsibility for the care of relatives and have support from the municipality. The caregivers were not allowed to work more than 50 percent in another job. A qualitative and quantitative method was chosen. We interviewed ten family caregivers, and handed out a questionnaire in three municipalities for the caregivers. The result was divided into seven categories. 1. How /why did I become a caregiver? 2. Which support has the most value for me as a care giver? 3. How did I get the information about the municipality support? 4. What is positive for me as a caregiver? 5. And what is negative for me as a caregiver? 6. How do I experience the support from the municipality? 7. Do I have the opportunity to go to caregiver meetings or other activities? Our study shows that the caregivers were satisfied with the support from the municipality. The most valuable support was often the support they already had, but they felt that they needed more relief from the caregiving. The support that they felt that they lacked from the municipality was for example assistance with; gardening, window cleaning and help to exchange a light bulb.

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