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  • 151.
    Isberg, Julia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Åkers, Anna
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Utanverken - en oas mitt i staden: en enkätundersökning om upplevelsekaraktärer, kulturella ekosystemtjänster och utveckling i Utanverken, Kristianstad2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagsläget finns ett stort behov av exploatering för nya bostäder och förtätning i många svenska städer. Bra boende - och livsmiljöer innefattar ofta en närhet till grönområden. Utanverken i Kristianstad, Skåne län, är ett grönområde med höga natur - och kulturvärden. Omkring området planeras en stor exploatering av bostäder vilket betyder att grönområdet är viktigt för staden. Genom grönområden kan olika upplevelsekaraktärer upplevas och olika kulturella ekosystemtjänster tas ut. Dessa karaktärer och tjänster är en viktig hälsoaspekt för människan. För att ta reda på vilka upplevelsekaraktärer och kulturella ekosystemtjänster som upplevs och utnyttjas av de boende omkring undersökningsområdet idag genomfördes en enkätundersökning. Resultatet visar att det finns karaktärer och tjänster som upplevs och utnyttjas mer än andra. Däremot finns det meningsskiljaktigheter kring utveckling av undersökningsområdet mellan olika grupper av de boende. För att tillgodose dagens och framtidens invånares önskningar bör det alltid föras en dialog mellan beslutsfattare och invånare. Vid planering av grönområden bör det även tas i beaktande över vilka funktioner dessa bör innehålla för att främja speciella upplevelsekaraktärer och kulturella ekosystemtjänster för skapandet av bra boendemiljöer i urbana områden. 

  • 152.
    Ivarsson, Sebastian
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Slaget om talldungen: om informationen och kommunikationens betydelse i utvecklingen av Haväng och Vitemölla strandbackars naturreservat, 2011–20182018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although nature conservation is supposed to benefit all of us, the work is rarely trouble-free. My concern for these problems is the starting point for this candidacy. The study intends to investigate how information and communication has influenced the residents' attitude to Sand Life, in connection with the development of Haväng and Vitemölla nature reserve. The case study also examines the conflict that arose in the process. The investigation was made possible in three steps: interviews with the county administrative board and Sand Life staff members; questionnaire and interviews with residents around Vitemölla. The result indicates that the residents as a group initially were negative in their attitude to Sand Life. The attitude seemed to be caused by the experience that the county administrative board and Sand Lifes' original plans for the nature reserve was too extensive and not sufficiently anchored, from a local perspective. It was also found that the information about the project had been inadequate, which could possibly be linked to the initial attitude. Today the results indicate that the residents as a group are neutral to cautiously positive in their attitude to Sand Life. Possibly due to the fact that the measures taken in the nature reserve became appealing; the attitude can perhaps also be linked to the authorities revising the care plan and showing greater openness towards the residents. Proactive information, clear intentions and the willingness to develop different plans and projects in a continuous dialogue with locals, can possibly limit the extent of conflicts.

  • 153.
    Jismark, Sofia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Ragnarsson, Sofia
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Mat och dryck i kombination: Betydelsen av gemensamma grundsmaker och aromatisk likhet för balans och harmoni2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Combining food and drink is foremost about achieving balance and harmony. To reach balance and harmony in food and beverage combinations taste, texture and flavour need to be considered. Contrasts and similarities need to be considered as well.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to explore if similar basic tastes and aromatic similarity has an impact on balance and harmony in food and beverage pairing.

    Method: Based on subjective estimation of Calientes drinks Blueberry/Lemongrass and Lime/Ginger and with the help of aromatic similarity, four dishes were developed. The dishes in combination with the drinks were tested in a consumer test where 38 respondents were asked to answer questions about liking and perceived harmony.

    Result: The result shows that the majority of respondents experienced balance and harmony in the food and drink combinations and indicate that not only one aspect but several must be taken into consideration when combining food and drink.

    Conclusion: Similar basic tastes, aromatic similarity and the individual's subjective taste experience are important for perceived balance and harmony in food and drink combinations.

  • 154.
    Johannesson, Julie
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    University of Gothenburg.
    Slinde, Frode
    University of Gothenburg.
    Meal frequency and vegetable intake does not predict the development of frailty in older adults2019In: Nutrition and health, ISSN 0260-1060, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:: Frailty is considered highly prevalent among the aging population. Fruit and vegetable intake is associated with positive health outcomes across the life-span; however, the relationship with health benefits among older adults has received little attention.

    AIM:: The aim was to examine if a relationship exists between meal frequency or frequency of vegetable intake and the development of frailty in a population of older adults.

    METHODS:: A total of 371 individuals, 80 years or older, from the study 'Elderly Persons in the Risk Zone' were included. Data was collected in the participants' home by face-to-face interviews up to 24 months after the intervention. Baseline data were calculated using Chi2-test; statistical significance was accepted at the 5% level. Binary logistic regression was used for the relationship between meal frequency or vegetable intake and frailty.

    RESULTS:: Mean meal frequency was 4.2 ± 0.9 meals per day; women seem to have a somewhat higher meal frequency than men (p=0.02); 57% of the participants had vegetables with at least one meal per day. No significant relationship was found between meal frequency or vegetable intake and frailty at 12 or 24 months follow-ups.

    CONCLUSIONS:: Among this group of older adults (80+), meal frequency was slightly higher among women than men, and just over half of the participants had vegetables with at least one meal a day. The risk of developing frailty was not associated with meal frequency or vegetable intake. The questions in this study were meant as indicators for healthy food habits.

  • 155.
    Johansson, Agneta
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Naturens bästa: enkätundersökning av svenska naturarrangörers förhållande till natur och kultur2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Turismen är idag en av världens största industrier, där naturturismen är en av de fortast växande. Ekoturismen faller inom naturturism och står för ansvarsfullt resande och skapandet av hållbara naturoch kulturupplevelser. Naturens Bästa är en kvalitetsmärkning som tagits fram av Svenska Ekoturismföreningen och Visit Sweden för naturarrangörer i Sverige med god kunskap om hållbar turism. En enkätundersökning gjordes med syftet att få en djupare förståelse för Naturen Bästa samt se vilket förhållande de har till de sex grundkriterierna och även undersöka samspelet mellan natur och kultur i verksamheterna. Resultatet av enkätundersökningen visar att medlemmarna helst vill bidra till naturvärden i närområdet men även kvalitet och trygghet är viktigt. Det som medlemmarna minst vill bidra till är att skydda kulturvärdena samt gynna den lokala ekonomin. För att kunna driva sin verksamhet anser medlemmarna att respektera resmålets begränsningar, naturvärden, kvalitet och trygghet, miljömedvetenhet samt upptäckarglädje, kunskap och respekt är de grundkriterierna som spelar störst roll. Kulturvärden spelar minst roll i de flesta Naturens Bästa verksamheter. Av de arrangörer som svarade på enkäten tänker alla på hur viktigt ett samspel mellan natur och kultur är och de allra flesta visar ett samspel i sina verksamheter på något vis. Att samspel får ett så positivt resultat är överraskande då alla kulturpåståenden i enkäten fått svaga resultat. Samtidigt är det arrangörer som arbetar med kultur som är de bästa på att visa ett samspel i verksamheten. Sammanfattande kan sägas att om Naturens Bästa vill utveckla samspelet mellan natur och kultur ska man göra det med hjälp av arrangörer med ett kulturintresse.

  • 156.
    Johansson, Kjell
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Mohlin, Camilla
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    On microglia and synaptic integrity of the outer plexiform layer2019In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 60, no 9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 157.
    Johnsen, Kent
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Kulturmiljöns roll i kommunal planering: En fallstudie av landskapet i översiktsplaner över sex skånska kommuner för att utreda hur kulturmiljöbegreppet används i en planeringsdiskurs.2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kulturmiljöer finns överallt runt om oss. Planerad påverkan av vår omvärld påbörjades redan under medeltiden och har genom historien varit uttryck för både säkerhetsfrågor och makt. Kulturmiljövårdens riksintresse etableras på 1970-talet och skyddas av miljöbalken. Plan- och bygglagen infördes 1987 och ställde krav på att kommuner ska producera en översiktsplan som tar ställning till långsiktiga markanvändnings- och byggfrågor.

    I översiktsplaner behandlas även kulturmiljövärden i kommunerna och syftet med detta arbete är att utreda hur detta begrepp tolkas och arbetas med i kommunal planering. Detta görs genom en diskursanalytisk fallstudie över sex skånska kommuner. Dessa är Burlöv, Eslöv, Höör, Simrishamn, Trelleborg och Ängelholm. Översiktsplanerna har valts utifrån deras aktualitet. Varje översiktsplan presenteras för sig i resultatdelen och jämförs och analyseras i diskussionen.

    Värdeord och förekommande begrepp presenteras i en matris. Det framkommer att kulturmiljöerna presenteras som något som ger karaktär och identitet till kommunerna men används främst som en resurs för rekreation och näringslivet. Det framkommer också att kommunerna vill öka kunskapen om kulturmiljövärden generellt.

    När kulturmiljöer ses som en resurs kan värdefrågor uppstå och synlighet och påtaglighet blir värdehöjande. Många svårtolkade kulturmiljöer riskerar att försvinna. Ett par kommuner nämner skapandet av nya kulturmiljövärden. Diskussionen avslutas med att konstatera att saker måste försvinna för att nya saker ska få plats.

  • 158.
    Jovanovic, Aleksandar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Vu, Cong
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Triggningskriterier i triggningsmodul för trådlösa dataloggern DL141E2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the data logger DL141E it’s possible to continuously log measurement data from sensors up to 30k samples per second, and then transferring them to a mobile phone with Bluetooth technology. But this is by far too much sample data in a small time for a mobile phone with technical limitations to receive. That’s why only relevant measurement data should be mass logged to reduce the unnecessary data amount. Int his study a new approach is proposed where a specific and smaller amount of discrete pre-samples are logged in sequence. Every set of pre-samples is processed by comparing them to the user pre-defined trigger criterias. Met criterias will trigger logging of a massive set of samples on basis of only interesting signal deviations. The following trigger criterias are used: a specific signal level to cross, a specific signal direction, and both of these in combination with an amount of consecutive samples. The study provides an examination on how the signal processing method ”Lebesgue sampling” can be applied with the above criterias to achieve a god accuracy with reasonable processing time on mobile phones. This is observed using sensors with the most common signal types ramp and pulse in an environment where small noises and transients occur. The accuracy and the processing load are taken into account when estimating the efficiency of Lebesgue method and when estimating how many pre-samples per set might be sufficient. The implementation is written in Java Android platform and then integrated into a digital triggering module with Graphical User Interface (GUI).

  • 159.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Radiation tolerance in tardigrades: current knowledge and potential applications in medicine2019In: Cancers, ISSN 2072-6694, Vol. 11, no 9Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades represent a phylum of very small aquatic animals in which many species have evolved adaptations to survive under extreme environmental conditions, such as desiccation and freezing. Studies on several species have documented that tardigrades also belong to the most radiation-tolerant animals on Earth. This paper gives an overview of our current knowledge on radiation tolerance of tardigrades, with respect to dose-responses, developmental stages, and different radiation sources. The molecular mechanisms behind radiation tolerance in tardigrades are still largely unknown, but omics studies suggest that both mechanisms related to the avoidance of DNA damage and mechanisms of DNA repair are involved. The potential of tardigrades to provide knowledge of importance for medical sciences has long been recognized, but it is not until recently that more apparent evidence of such potential has appeared. Recent studies show that stress-related tardigrade genes may be transfected to human cells and provide increased tolerance to osmotic stress and ionizing radiation. With the recent sequencing of the tardigrade genome, more studies applying tardigrade omics to relevant aspects of human medicine are expected. In particular, the cancer research field has potential to learn from studies on tardigrades about molecular mechanisms evolved to maintain genome integrity.

  • 160.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Transdisciplinär forskning visar vägen mot en hållbar ekologisk utveckling2018In: Man and Biosphere Health: en komplett akademisk miljö / [ed] Ann-Sofi Rehnstam-Holm, Kristianstad: Högskolan Kristianstad , 2018, p. 48-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 161.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Beery, Thomas H.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    Bengtsson, Fredrik
    Helsingborg municipality .
    Björn, Helena
    Lomma municipality.
    Boström, Marja
    Skåne Association of Local Authorities.
    Cole, Scott
    EnviroEconomics Sweden.
    Ersborg, Johanna
    Ecogain AB.
    Franzén, Frida
    Tyréns AB.
    Hasselström, Linus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jephson, Therese
    Skåne Association of Local Authorities.
    Lindblom, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mellin, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Pettersson, Ida
    Ecogain AB.
    Scharin, Henrik
    Formas Research Council for Sustainable Development, Sweden..
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Anthesis Enveco AB.
    Environmental compensation as a policy tool in Swedish municipal planning2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the struggle to reach the national environmental policy objectives, environmental compensation has emerged as a possible policy tool that may contribute to achieving the objectives. In Sweden, environmental compensation is legally mandated mainly in cases of exploitation within Natura 2000 areas and nature reserves, which is handled through the Swedish Environmental Code. In contrast, regulatory support is weak when it comes to compensation for impacts arising from municipal development (e.g., housing, schools, hospitals, local roads, etc), even though detailed development planning is required through the Planning and Building Act. Despite this, some municipalities have voluntarily mainstreamed environmental compensation into their planning processes. In the research project ”MuniComp” (2018-2020) we investigate the more progressive use of environmental compensation in planning in two Southern Swedish municipalities, Lomma and Helsingborg (in the province of Skåne). We analyze the models and processes of compensation used, and planning cases where compensation have been applied, in terms of general aspects and criteria for environmental compensation and in light of the constraints of the Swedish legislative context. In the presentation, the compensation models and some of the results from the compensation cases will be presented.

  • 162.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Holm, Ingvar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Tassidis, Helena
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Cell biology of the tardigrades: current knowledge and perspectives2019In: Evo-Devo: Non-model species in cell and developmental biology / [ed] Tworzydlo W., Bilinski S., Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 231-249Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The invertebrate phylum Tardigrada has received much attention for containing species adapted to the most challenging environmental conditions where an ability to survive complete desiccation or freezing in a cryptobiotic state is necessary for persistence. Although research on tardigrades has a long history, the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in molecular biological (“omics”) studies, most of them with the aim to reveal the biochemical mechanisms behind desiccation tolerance of tardigrades. Several other aspects of tardigrade cell biology have been studied, and we review some of them, including karyology, embryology, the role of storage cells, and the question of whether tardigrades are eutelic animals. We also review some of the theories about how anhydrobiotic organisms are able to maintain cell integrity under dry conditions, and our current knowledge on the role of vitrification and DNA protection and repair. Many aspects of tardigrade stress tolerance have relevance for human medicine, and the first transfers of tardigrade stress genes to human cells have now appeared. We expect this field to develop rapidly in the coming years, as more genomic information becomes available. However, many basic cell biological aspects remain to be investigated, such as immunology, cell cycle kinetics, cell metabolism, and culturing of tardigrade cells. Such development will be necessary to allow tardigrades to move from a nonmodel organism position to a true model organism with interesting associations with the current models C. elegans and D. melanogaster.

  • 163.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Levin, Eliana B
    USA & Colombia.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholm University.
    Haghdoost, Siamak
    Stockholm University & France.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Mats
    Stockholm University.
    Environmental adaptations: radiation tolerance2019In: Water bears: the biology of tardigrades / [ed] Ralph O Schill, Springer, 2019, p. 311-330Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies in different species have documented that tardigrades are among the most radiation-tolerant animals on Earth, surviving doses of ionizing radiation on the order of kGy. Both low-LET and high-LET radiation have been used with no apparent differences in the tolerance of the animals. Tolerance to ionizing radiation in tardigrades also seems to be independent of whether the animal has entered a dry anhydrobiotic state or is hydrated with normal activity. However, when exposed to UV radiation, desiccated tardigrades show a higher tolerance than hydrated animals. Recent studies in several species have shown that tardigrade embryos have considerably lower tolerance to ionizing radiation compared to adults, and embryos in the early stage of development are clearly more sensitive to radiation than those in the late developmental stage. The molecular mechanisms behind radiation tolerance in tardigrades are still largely unclear, but available evidence suggests that mechanisms related to both the avoidance of DNA damage and the repair of damage are involved.

  • 164.
    Karim Ali, Hussein
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Mätning av kluven Kaspas-3 och kluven PARP i manganbehandlade prostatacancerceller2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Prostate cancer is the sixth most common cancer type in the world, and the third most common cancer type among men. The different types of treatments that are available today do not usually cure the disease. It is therefore important to develop better treatment methods. It has previously been stated that manganese can cause apoptosis in different cell types. It provides an opportunity to use manganese to inhibit cancer and it is therefore important to know which apoptotic markers that are involved. The purpose of the project was to investigate whether an increase in the apoptotic markers cleaved Kaspas-3 and cleaved PARP after manganese treatment of prostate cancer cells. Thereafter, it can determine whether manganese treatment has caused cell death by inducing apoptosis. During the project prostate cancer cells (PC3-cells) were cultivated, then treated with 200 µM manganese for 6, 24 and 48 hours. The amount of the proteins cleaved Kaspas-3 and cleaved PARP was measured by using a sandwich ELISA kit. A clear gradual increase of apoptotic markers with incubation time was expected. The expected result was not obtained, for cleaved Kaspase-3 manganese treatment even decreased the concentrations. There may have been problems with the performance of the analysis such as poor lysis of the cells or uneven growth of the cells. More studies are required to investigate this and other potential apoptotic markers.

  • 165.
    Kling, Erik
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Sänkningen av Ivösjön: en studie av markanvändningen på den nyvunna marken, samt sänkningens konsekvenser2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I början av 1800-talet, i samband med befolkningsökningen, började man sänka sjöar för att få fram ny mark att odla på. Syftet med denna uppsats är att utröna hur väl man lyckades med syftet att få fram ny odlingsbar mark efter sänkningen av Ivösjön, hur den nyvunna marken användes över tid, samt vilka konsekvenser sänkningen kan ha haft på sjön och den kringliggande naturen. Mellan åren 1871 och 1874 sänktes Ivösjön med cirka 1,8 meter, efter långa förberedelser. Det är svårt att veta hur man använde den torrlagda marken under de närmsta åren efter sjösänkningen, då den närmaste kartan tidsmässigt var den Häradsekonomiska kartan från 1926-1934. Denna karta tillsammans med den nutida Fastighetskartan har använts för att få ett resultat över hur markanvändningen såg ut på den nyvunna marken från 20-talet och framåt. Resultatet tillsammans med bakgrundsinformationen visar att den nya marken förmodligen var hyfsat odlingsbar i början, för att sedan bli mindre användbar ju längre tiden gick på grund av marksättningen. På Häradsekonomiska kartans tid användes enbart 4 % av den nyvunna marken som åker, medan 73 % bestod av skog. På fastighetskartan kunde man se att åkerarealen minskat ytterligare, samtidigt som skogsarealen hade ökat. Slutsatsen av detta är att sjösänkningen får anses ha misslyckats med sitt syfte. Sänkningen kan även anses ha varit negativ för själva sjön, bland annat på grund av att dess föråldringsprocess accelererades. Något som dock kan ha påverkats positivt är den biologiska mångfalden runt sjön. 

  • 166.
    Kumar, Sanjeev
    et al.
    India.
    Bhavya, P S
    India.
    Ramesh, R
    India.
    Gupta, G V M
    India.
    Chiriboga, Fidel
    University of Gothenburg.
    Singh, Arvind
    India.
    Karunasagar, Indrani
    India.
    Rai, Ashwin
    India.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Edler, Lars
    WEAQ Lab.
    Godhe, Anna
    University of Gothenburg.
    Nitrogen uptake potential under different temperature-salinity conditions: implications for nitrogen cycling under climate change scenarios2018In: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 141, p. 196-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As projected by climate change models, increase in sea surface temperature and precipitation in the future may alter nutrient cycling in the coastal regions due to potential changes in phytoplankton community structure and their ability to assimilate nitrogen (N) and carbon (C). An experiment simulating different temperature and salinity conditions (28°C-35 ambient conditions, 28ºC-31, 31ºC-35 and 31ºC-31) in mesocosms containing 1000 L of coastal water from the Arabian Sea was performed and N uptake rates were measured using 15N tracer technique on 2nd, 5th, 7th and 10th day of the experiment. The results show that, under all conditions, the total N (NO3- + NH4+) uptake rates were lower in the beginning and on the final day of the tracer experiment, while it peaked during middle, consistent with chlorophyll a concentrations. Total N uptake rate was significantly lower (p = 0.003) under ambient temperature-lower salinity condition (28ºC-31) than the others. This indicates that lowering of salinity in coastal regions due to excessive rainfall in the future may affect the N uptake potential of the phytoplankton, which may change the regional C and N budget.

  • 167.
    Kurashova, Elena
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Utvärdering av en ny metod för utredning av stabil kranskärlssjukdom baserad på akustisk fonokardiografi2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases and one of the dominant causes of death in older people worldwide. In order to confirm diagnosis and assess the severity of the disease, several diagnostic strategies are being used today. Increased health costs and long queues for investigations raise concerns among patients, medical doctors and authorities. A simple, safe and cost-effective method that can assist in the investigation of CAD is of major importance. The Danish company Acarix developed a new device, CADScor® system, which uses a non-invasive and radiation-free method to exclude stable CAD based on acoustic phonocardiography. The device records intracoronary murmurs, resulting from coronary stenosis, and calculates the patient's risk of CAD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the method, test CADScor® and calculate the device's sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV). Twenty patients with suspected stable CAD were examined with CADScor® systems, and their CAD results were compared to the result after myocardial perfusion scan. Calculations showed that the device's sensitivity is 80 %, specificity 60 %, PPV 40 % and NPV 90 %. The result means that the probability is 90 % that a patient who has a CAD score ≤ 20 is healthy. It is high enough to use CADScor® in clinical practice for patients with low risk for CAD.

  • 168.
    Kämstad, Carl-Fredrik
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Askåterföring i Blekinge: är hundra stora skogsägare informerade gällande askåterföring, en enkät2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige pågår en strukturell omställning från att vara ett fossilberoende samhälle till att bli fossilfritt. Detta gör att trycket på klimatneutrala bränslen från exempelvis skogen ökat. Skogsbränslen i form av grot är ett bränsle som görs av de avverkningsrester som uppstår vid konventionell avverkning. Det går bra att ta bort groten från hygget om det utförs en så kallad askåterföring. Det betyder att askan förs tillbaka till skogen efter att den bildats vid värmeverk. Askåterföring görs på landskapsnivå för att återbörda de näringsämnen som var bundna i groten blivit aska. Askan innehåller alla näringsämnen utom kväve, och hjälper också till att höja pH värdet tack vare de baskatjoner som trädet bundit under levnadscyclen. Blekinge är ett av de län som tar ut mycket grot men där askåterföring sker i låg omfattning. Studien syftar till att undersöka inställningen bland skogsägarna är en enkätundersökning som skickats ut till hundra av Blekinges största skogsägare. Skogsägarnas svar på enkäten behandlas helt anonymt. De som svarade på enkäten ägde skogsfastigheter mellan 175-900 hektar. Denna undersökning tittar på vilka faktorer som styr eller begränsar utförandet av askåterföring i Blekinge. Undersökningen visar på att många skogsägare känner att de har fått otillräcklig information gällande askåterföring. Studien visar även att miljöfaktorer är de motivationsfaktorer som skogsägarna tycker är viktigaste skälet till askåterföring. Som faktorer vilka begränsar askåterföringen anger många skogsägare att de känner att de saknar tillräcklig kunskap men även att de känner oro kring askans innehåll, dessutom anger flera att de är rädda för körskador i skogen.

  • 169.
    Kärrstedt, Amanda
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Rydiander, Martin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Flygsanden mellan 1700 och 1821 i det historiska kartmaterialet: en kartläggning över Kristianstadsslätten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På Kristianstadsslättens sandiga marker finns ett flertal imponerande inlandsdyner vilka är bildade genom sandflykt under historisk tid. Tidigare forskning kring sandflyktens mönster och processer har ofta använt historiska kartor som komplement till fältstudier, men det saknas ett helhetsgrepp på detta omfattande källmaterial. I denna undersökning har 68 stycken kartor med tillhörande akter analyserats motsvarande ett undersökningsområde om 784 km2. I 5 stycken kartor finns flygsandsfält markerade och i 15 stycken akter finns flygsand belagda. Samtliga flygsandsfält har digitaliserats i GIS och deras samlade areal beräknats till 13 km2. Efter analys av de storskaliga kartorna vilka sträckte sig mellan 1694–1828 visade det sig att sandflykten troligtvis var på uppgång i slutet av 1600-talet, når sin kulmen på andra hälften av 1700-talet för att sedan avta och dämpas med hjälp av furuplanteringar under sent 1700-tal och tidigt 1800-tal. Slutligen stödjer analysen av kartor och akter att det är åkerbruk i kombination med sydvästliga vindar som är huvudorsakerna till sandflykten. Vid jämförelse med tidigare forskning konstaterades följande; i dagsläget finns inget konkret svar på varför sandflykten anträder. Snarare kan det likna en kedja av olika händelser, både kultur- och naturbetingade, som trycker på startknappen samtidigt.

  • 170.
    Landegren, Sara
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    En restaurangs uppgång eller fall: En komparativ studie mellan anonyma och offentliga matrecensioner och dess inverkan på restauranger2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the grammatical and linguistic differences between anonymous and public food critics and to study how restaurant reviews affect restaurant owners. The three questions that have examined the aim was: How does the language differ in the anonymous reviews in comparison to the public and is the language in a review affected by the anonymity? How is a review perceived by a restaurant owner and does it matter if the review is written by an anonymous or public critic? How does the language differ depending on if the review is positive or negative?

    The study has used a quantitative method where text analysis as a tool for the examination was chosen. The analyses have been conducted on 60 reviews in total, written by three anonymous critics and three public critics. 

    The second aim was to investigate what influence food reviews have on restaurants. This part of the study was qualitative where interviews have been conducted with two restaurant owners.

    The outcome of this study shows that there were linguistical differences between anonymous and public food critics reviews. It also demonstrated in its qualitative section that food reviews have major impact on restaurants. Consequently, restaurants are greatly affected by reviews published regarding their restaurants. The conclusion of the study was that restaurant reviews differentiate between anonymous and public writers and that restaurants are affected by both negative and positive reviews. This opens a debate regarding the culture about having anonymous critics in Sweden.

  • 171.
    Lassen, Anne Dahl
    et al.
    Denmark.
    Fagt, Sisse
    Denmark.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    University of Gävle.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Haapalar, Irja
    Finland.
    Thorsen, Anne V
    Denmark.
    Møbjerg, Anna C M
    Denmark.
    Beck, Anne M
    Denmark.
    The impact of worksite interventions promoting healthier food and/or physical activity habits among employees working 'around the clock' hours: a systematic review2018In: Food & nutrition research, ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a systematic review of randomised studies on the impact of worksite interventions to promote healthier food and/or physical activity among people who work irregular hours 'around the clock', that is, outside of ordinary daytime working hours. The population-intervention-comparator-outcomes-study (PICOS) design format was used. Data sources were PubMed and CINAHL. An updated search was conducted on October 2017 using Google Scholar and the related articles function in PubMed on initially included studies to identify additional studies. Risk of bias was used to assess study quality. A total of seven studies (reports published in 14 papers) were included in the systematic review: Two interventions with a broader lifestyle approach, three focusing on physical exercise and two on providing healthier food or meal options. The studies had sample sizes from 30 to 1,000 and targeted a mixture of occupations, including both male- and female-dominated occupational groups. The interventions lasted from 2 to 12 months. Only one had an extended follow-up. In general, the studies showed small-to-moderate effect sizes on several measures, including dietary and/or physical activity measures, suggesting acceptable effectiveness for interventions involving community-level behaviour change. Our findings highlight a need to further develop and implement well-designed health promotion interventions with comparable outcome measures and effect size reports. A mixture of health promotion strategies is recommended for future practice in this target population, including individually tailored programmes, improving the food and physical activity environment and using broader lifestyle approaches including the use of participatory and empowerment strategies. While more research is needed in this field, the existing knowledge base on effective approaches awaits translation into practice.

  • 172.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Einarson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment of Computer science (RECS).
    Wählby, Urban
    Electrolux.
    Platbardis, Janis
    SensiNet.
    Glasö, Sissi
    Thermo King.
    Bäckström, Kristin
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Wendin, Karin
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Aktivt Åldrande – individuellt anpassade måltidslösningar för hälsa och livskvalitet hos äldre: beställning och distribution av mat för den äldre2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ”Active Ageing – Personalised food and meal solutions for health and quality of life” (Aktivt åldrande – individuellt anpassade måltidslösningar för hälsa och livskvalitet hos äldre. Diarienr 2013-02780) is a project that aims to maintain the quality of life and autonomy of older persons, through individual and personalised meal solutions that fit their needs and requirements. The target group are primarily the age 75 or older. Five work packages are included in the project. This report describes the work package that had the scope of developing a concept for the ordering, distribution and delivery of meal to the elderly. Refrigeration technology and the cold-chain will play an important role in the concept by preserving the safety and quality of foods during its transportation to the elderly. Refrigeration technology and the cold-chain will also make it possible to prepare specific types of foods that meet the demand of the elderly. In particular for the elderly consumers that would like to eat at home and decrease their independency and overall quality of life. It is also important the value chain and concept for the business model must be flexible and taking into account needs from the elderly consumers at all stages, starting from ordering the meal, handling in the household and disposing of the packaging material. An interdisciplinary approach – combining knowledge of ICT (information and communications technology) – Technology, food quality, packaging, logistic, sensory, and waste/return systems for the food that is distributed is increasingly necessary. As the demand for food for the elderly is on the rise, the development of new products, models and services might be facilitated by collaborating with SMEs (micro, small and mediumsized enterprises) and other business partners interested in delivering solutions for the elderly consumers. The concept for the ordering, distribution and delivery of meal to the elderly developed in the project can be used by other end users and/or for other products and services.

  • 173. Lindblad, Amanda
    et al.
    Johannesson, Julie
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
    Höglund, Evelina
    Ekman, Susanne
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Mat, måltid, hälsa i 24-timmarsperspektivet. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Preferences, needs and attitudes regarding food habits and meal patterns among community-dwelling older adults: a cross-sectional survey2017In: Exploring Future Foodscapes: 10th International Conference on Culinary Arts and Sciences / [ed] Bent Egberg Mikkelsen m.fl, AAU Captive Food Studies Group , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore preferences, needs and attitudes regarding food habits and meal patterns among community-dwelling older adults. 164 community-dwelling, 87-100-years old, 73 % women. Cross-sectional questionnaires based survey distributed by postal service. Approved by the Regional Ethical Review board in Gothenburg T231-14, addition to Dnr ref nr: 650-07. Results were, meanage 90.6 ± 2.84 yrs, mean BMI 23.7 ± 3.70 kg/m2, ♀71, ♂31 had no medical difficulties. More women than men lived alone, ♀102 ♂21 (p<0.01). ♀75 ♂28 would not consider home delivered convenience meals and ♀101 ♂23 cooked alone. Top three important practicalities when buying or receiving convenience meals were easy-open package (♀64 ♂23), easy to get food out (♀34 ♂13) and easily read (♀31 ♂16). This very old population shows good health evident by nutritional status and meal patterns. Subject characteristics indicated better condition than average Swedish nonagenarian, a minority reporting medical difficulties. Very few would consider convenience meals home delivered and would never use the computer. The conclusion is that an majority of both sexes preferred and managed planning, acquiring and cooking food independently although gender differences were apparent with women taking a greater responsibility. A great proportion was interested in testing new flavors. An urgent need concerned accessible containers with readable labels showing the importance for industry to acknowledge needs of older adults and accordingly adapt packaging for this age group.

  • 174.
    Lind-Halldén, Christina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Dahlen, Anna
    Section of Clinical Genetics, Lund University Hospital.
    Hillarp, Andreas
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry, Lund University.
    Zöller, Bengt
    Center for Primary Health Care Research, Malmö University Hospital.
    Dahlbäck, Björn
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry, Lund University.
    Halldén, Christer
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Small and large PROS1 deletions but no other types of rearrangements detected in patients with protein S deficiency2012In: Thrombosis and Haemostasis, ISSN 0340-6245, Vol. 108, no 1, p. 94-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protein S deficiency is a dominantly inherited disorder that results from mutations in the PROS1 gene. Previous sequencing of the gene failed to detect mutations in eight out of 18 investigated Swedish families, whereas segregation analyses detected large deletions in three out of the eight families. The present study investigates more thoroughly for the presence of deletions but also for other types of rearrangements. FISH analysis confirmed the existence of the three previously identified large deletions, but failed to identify any other type of rearrangement among the eight analysed families. MLPA analysis of the PROS1 gene revealed two smaller deletions covering two and four exons, respectively. Thus, deletions could be found in five out of eight families where no point mutations could be found despite sequencing of the gene. Twelve additional, not previously analysed, families were subsequently analysed using MLPA. The analysis identified two smaller deletions (3 and 4 exons). Including all PS-deficient families, i.e. also the 10 families where sequencing found a causative point mutation, deletions were identified in seven out of 30 PS-deficient families. A strategy of sequencing followed by MLPA analysis in mutation-negative families identified the causative mutation in 15 out of 18 of Swedish PS-deficient families. Most deletions were different as determined by their sizes, locations and flanking haplotypes. FISH (8 families) and MLPA analysis (20 families) failed to identify other types of rearrangements.

  • 175.
    Lind-Halldén, Christina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Manderstedt, Eric
    Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Carlberg, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Lethagen, Stefan
    Skåne University Hospital in Malmö.
    Halldén, Christer
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Genetic variation in the syntaxin-binding protein STXBP5 in type 1 von Willebrand disease patients2018In: Thrombosis and haemostasis, ISSN 2567-689X, Vol. 118, no 8, p. 1382-1389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels in healthy individuals and in patients with type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD) are influenced by genetic variation in several genes, for example, VWF, ABO and STXBP5. Here, we comprehensively screen for STXBP5 variants and investigate their association with type 1 VWD in Swedish patients and controls. The coding region of the STXBP5 gene was re-sequenced in 107 type 1 VWD patients and the detected variants were genotyped in the type 1 VWD population and a Swedish control population (464 individuals). The functional effects of missense alleles were predicted in silico and the pattern of genetic variation in STXBP5 was analysed. Re-sequencing of 107 type 1 VWD patients identified three missense and three synonymous variants in the coding sequence of STXBP5. The low-frequency missense variants rs144099092 (0.005) and rs148830578 (0.029) were predicted to be damaging, but were not accumulated in patients. No other rare candidate mutations were detected. STXBP5 showed a high level of linkage disequilibrium and a low overall nucleotide diversity of π = 3.2 × 10-4 indicating intolerance to variants affecting protein function. Three previously type 1 VWD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms were located on one haplotype that showed an increased frequency in patients versus controls. No differences in messenger ribonucleic acid abundance among haplotypes could be found using Genotype-Tissue Expression project data. In conclusion, a haplotype containing the STXBP5 Asn436Ser (rs1039084) mutation is associated with type 1 VWD and no rare STXBP5 mutations contribute to type 1 VWD in the Swedish population.

  • 176.
    Lund, Karolina
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Nutritional quality of children’s diet and associations with parental cooking skills and nutritional awareness2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Child overweight and obesity are increasing public health problems and food habitsamong children are concerning. Healthy family food habits and basic parental nutrition and cooking skills are important for ensuring children receive an adequate diet.

    Objective: To explore the nutritional quality of 5-10-year-old Swedish children’s diets and associations with parental self-perceived cooking skills, awareness of nutrition guidelines, family cooking practices and demographic variables.

    Methods: A cross sectional online survey was responded by 72 parents. Nutritional quality was measured using The National Board of Health and Wellness’ Dietary Index. The survey also measured parental self-perceived cooking skills, awareness of nutrition guidelines, family cooking practices and demographic variables. Associations were tested with independent t-tests and Spearman rank correlations.

    Results: Mean Dietary Index score was 8.11, which indicates an unsatisfactory adherence to Nutrition Guidelines. Children’s food habits in this sample were better than in the national survey Riksmaten barn 2003, but intake levels of fruit, vegetables and fish was still below recommendations. Associations were found between children’s Dietary Index scores and parental cooking skills, nutritional awareness and frequency of child participating in cooking. No associations with demographic variables were found.

    Conclusions: Children’s diets are not in line with recommendations for 46 % of the participants, but appears to have improved since the latest national survey. Parental cooking skills, nutritional awareness and children participating in cooking more often was associated with better nutritional quality in children.The small sample size, participant heterogeneity and the recruitment method limits the generalizability of the results. 

  • 177.
    Lundström, Malin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Normalvärden och F-waves vid registrering på tibialis anterior vid undersökning av peroneus communis med elektroneurografi2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electroneurography is used to examine a suspected entrapmentneuropathy in peroneus communis (PC), where an electric stimulus enables the evaluation of nerve conduction velocity, muscle response amplitude and latency. If registration from the extensor digitorum brevis (EDB) provides unreliable results, the registration can be made from tibialis anterior (TA). Currently there are no normal values available in our laboratory and no standard method regarding the registration on TA. The purpose of this study was therefore to retrieve normal values for this registration and to develop and establish a method, and also compare the different registration sites, to examine the side differences from the registrations on TA, and how the height affected the latency. It was also examined if so called F-waves could be recorded from TA, and if so, determine the response rate and latency. 22 participants between 23-59 years an 154-190 cm were examined. TA was examined with the active registration electrode on the site where the muscle was the largest and the reference electrode on the ankle. Stimulations were made on lateral poplitea fossa and 110 mm lower on distal caput fibula. EDB were examined according to established methods. Normal values for the registration on TA were 2,2-5,4 mV regarding amplitude, 55-73 m/s regarding nerve conduction velocity and 3,8-5,9 ms regarding latency. Side differences were 0-1,4 mV regarding amplitude, 0-8 m/s regarding nerve conduction velocity and 0-0,8 ms regarding latency. The calculated limits show that it only takes small side differences to have a clinical significance. The method gave equivalent results to previous studies. 23 % of the latency could be explained by height. The comparing of the nerve conduction velocity from the different registrations showed a significant statistical, but not necessarily clinical, difference, with the bias 5 m/s. F-waves were retrieved from all participants with a response rate of 94-100 %. 41 % of the F-wave latency could be explained by height.

  • 178.
    Manderstedt, Eric
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Lind-Halldén, Christina
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Lethagen, Stefan
    Danmark & Lund University.
    Halldén, Christer
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Genetic variation in the C-type lectin receptor CLEC4M in type 1 von Willebrand Disease patients2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels in healthy individuals and in patients with type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD) are influenced by genetic variation in several genes, e.g. VWF, ABO, STXBP5 and CLEC4M. This study aims to screen comprehensively for CLEC4M variants and investigate their association with type 1 VWD in the Swedish population. In order to screen for CLEC4M variants, the CLEC4M gene region was re-sequenced and the polymorphic neck region was genotyped in 106 type 1 VWD patients from unrelated type 1 VWD families. Single nucleotide variants (SNV) and variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) allele and genotype frequencies were then compared with 294 individuals from the 1000Genomes project and 436 Swedish control individuals. Re-sequencing identified a total of 42 SNVs. Rare variants showed no accumulation in type 1 VWD patients and are not thought to contribute substantially to type 1 VWD. The only missense mutation (rs2277998, NP_001138379.1:p.Asp224Asn) had a higher frequency in type 1 VWD patients than in controls (4.9%). The VNTR genotypes 57 and 67 were observed at higher frequencies than expected in type 1 VWD patients (6.4% and 6.2%) and showed an increase in patients compared with controls (7.4% and 3.1%). Strong linkage disequilibrium in the CLEC4M region makes it difficult to distinguish between the effect of the missense mutation and the VNTR genotypes. In conclusion, heterozygous VNTR genotypes 57 and 67 of CLEC4M were highly enriched and are the most likely mechanism through which CLEC4M contributes to disease in the Swedish type 1 VWD population.

  • 179.
    Manderstedt, Eric
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Lind-Halldén, Christina
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Lethagen, Stefan
    Danmark.
    Halldén, Christer
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Genetic variation in the von Willebrand factor gene in Swedish von Willebrand disease patients2018In: TH Open, ISSN 2512-9465, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 39-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    von Willebrand factor (VWF) level and function are influenced by genetic variation in VWF and several other genes in von Willebrand disease type 1 (VWD1) patients. This study comprehensively screened for VWF variants and investigated the presence of ABO genotypes and common and rare VWF variants in Swedish VWD1 patients. The VWF gene was resequenced using Ion Torrent and Sanger sequencing in 126 index cases historically diagnosed with VWD. Exon 7 of the ABO gene was resequenced using Sanger sequencing. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis was used to investigate for copy number variants. Genotyping of 98 single nucleotide variants allowed allele frequency comparisons with public databases. Seven VWD2 mutations and 36 candidate VWD1 mutations (5 deletions, 4 nonsense, 21 missense, 1 splice, and 5 synonymous mutations) were identified. Nine mutations were found in more than one family and nine VWD1 index cases carried more than one candidate mutation. The T-allele of rs1063857 (c.2385T > C, p.Y795 = ) and blood group O were both frequent findings and contributed to disease in the Swedish VWD1 population. VWD2 mutations were found in 20 and candidate VWD1 mutations in 51 index cases out of 106 (48%). VWF mutations, a VWF haplotype, and blood group O all contributed to explain disease in Swedish VWD1 patients.

  • 180.
    Manderstedt, Eric
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Lind-Halldén, Christina
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Svensson, Peter
    Lund University.
    Zöller, Bengt
    Lund University.
    Halldén, C
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Next-generation sequencing of 17 genes associated with venous thromboembolism reveals a deficit of non-synonymous variants in procoagulant genes2019In: Thrombosis and haemostasis, ISSN 2567-689X, Vol. 119, no 9, p. 1441-1450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:  The heritability of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is only partially explained by variants in 17 previously VTE-associated genes.

    OBJECTIVE:  This article screens for additional rare variants in the 17 genes and investigates the relative contributions of pro- and anticoagulant genes to VTE.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS:  Ninety-six VTE patients from the population-based Malmö Thrombophilia Study were analysed using an AmpliSeq strategy and Ion Torrent sequencing and the variant data were compared with data from public databases.

    RESULTS:  A total of 102 non-synonymous and 76 synonymous variants were identified. Forty-six non-synonymous variants were present in the human gene mutation database. Anticoagulant and procoagulant genes showed 14 and 22 rare non-synonymous variants, respectively. Individual patients showed varying numbers of risk factors; 13 patients had non-synonymous mutations in SERPINC1, PROC and PROS1 genes and 42 had factor V Leiden or prothrombin mutations generating a total of 47 patients with at least one of these risk factors. Ten common VTE-associated variants showed low level enrichments and no correlation to the other risk factors. The enrichment of previously identified risk factors was similar to previous studies. Determination of the nsyn/syn ratio (number of non-synonymous variants per non-synonymous site, nsyn, to the number of synonymous variants per synonymous site, syn) showed, as expected in patients, an increase of non-synonymous relative to synonymous anticoagulant variants compared with controls (nsyn/syn, 0.95 vs. 0.68). In contrast, non-synonymous procoagulant variants (nsyn/syn, 0.31 vs. 0.63) showed a decrease. We suggest that the deficit of non-synonymous variants in procoagulant genes is a novel mechanism contributing to VTE.

  • 181.
    Manderstedt, Eric
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Nilsson, Rosanna
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. rosanna.nilsson@hkr.se .
    Lind-Halldén, Christina
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Ljung, Rolf
    Skåne University Hospital.
    Astermark, Jan
    Skåne University Hospital.
    Halldén, Christer
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Targeted re-sequencing of F8, F9 and VWF: characterization of Ion Torrent data and clinical implications for mutation screening.2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutations are not identified in ~5% of hemophilia A and 10-35% of type 1 VWD patients. The bleeding tendency also varies among patients carrying the same causative mutation, potentially indicating variants in additional genes modifying the phenotype that cannot be identified by routine single-gene analysis. The F8, F9 and VWF genes were analyzed in parallel using an AmpliSeq strategy and Ion Torrent sequencing. Targeting all exonic positions showed an average read depth of >2000X and coverage close to 100% in 24 male patients with known disease-causing mutations. Discrimination between reference alleles and alternative/indel alleles was adequate at a 25% frequency threshold. In F8, F9 and VWF there was an absolute majority of all reference alleles at allele frequencies >95% and the average alternative allele and indel frequencies never reached above 10% and 15%, respectively. In VWF, 4-5 regions showed lower reference allele frequencies; in two regions covered by the pseudogene close to the 25% cut-off for reference alleles. All known mutations, including indels, gross deletions and substitutions, were identified. Additional VWF variants were identified in three hemophilia patients. The presence of additional mutations in 2 out of 16 (12%) randomly selected hemophilia patients indicates a potential mutational contribution that may affect the disease phenotype and counseling in these patients. Parallel identification of disease-causing mutations in all three genes not only confirms the deficiency, but differentiates phenotypic overlaps and allows for correct genetic counseling.

  • 182. Martin, Lena
    et al.
    Laurenius, Anna
    Palm, Sara
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Mat, måltid, hälsa i 24-timmarsperspektivet. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Anderhov Eriksson, Christin
    Stark inför kirurgi – stark för livet2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hälsosamma matvanor och god nutrition har stor betydelse för patientens autonomi, vårdbehov och rehabilitering och är grundläggande för övrig behandling. Att säkerställa att patienten har bästa möjliga nutritionsstatus inför planerad kirurgi, i det akuta efterförloppet och under sin rehabilitering har stor betydelse i omvårdnads- och läkningsprocessen. Rätt mat och näring är en viktig patientsäkerhetsfråga.Undernäring leder till sämre resultat av medicinsk och kirurgisk behandling, förlängd vårdtid och ökad risk för komplikationer, lidande och död. Säker vård avseende nutrition baseras på̊ bedömning av undernäring eller risk för undernäring, utredning av orsak samt adekvat näringsbehandling.God och säker vård är personcentrerad och evidensbaserad. Den bedrivs i team och bygger på kommunikation mellan alla inblandade. Ett strukturerat arbete med ohälsosamma matvanor och nutritionsbehandling inför kirurgi bygger på att olika professioner arbetar tillsammans med patienten i centrum. Dietisten kan erbjuda nutritionsbehandling på̊ individnivå̊.Vi hoppas att denna broschyr kan bidra till ett strukturerat nutritionsarbete inför planerad kirurgi och göra vården kring mat och näring i samband med kirurgi bättre och säkrare för alla som den berör.

  • 183.
    Massa, Edoardo
    et al.
    Italy.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Guidetti, Roberto
    Italy.
    A faunistic survey of tardigrades in Kristianstad Vattenrike biosphere reserve (Sweden)2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 184.
    Mattsson, Malin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Potential för användning av restströmmar på ett musteri: Energibalans och klimatpåverkan vid produktion av etanol respektive biodiesel2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett svenskt musteri eftersträvar att öka potentialen för användning av företagets reningsslam. Musteriets övriga restströmmar är äppelrester och koncentrat. Syftet med studien är att undersöka energibalans och klimatnytta vid etanol- respektive biodieselproduktion av musteriets restströmmar. Även utbytet av biobränsle samt behov av tillsatser analyseras. Biodiesel produceras i studien av lipider från oljebildande jästsvampar. Studien baseras på litteratur samt personliga informanter. Resultatet visar att 87,5 kubikmeter motsvarande 1 859 gigajoule etanol alternativt 7,4 kubikmeter motsvarande 243 gigajoule biodiesel kan produceras. Nettoenergibalansen med biogasproduktion av restprodukter inräknad blir 1 454 gigajoule vid etanolproduktion och 734 gigajoule vid biodieselproduktion. Biogasproduktion av restprodukter ger störst bidrag till nettoenergiutbytet vid biodieselproduktion. Per år minskar klimatutsläppen med 103 ton koldioxidekvivalenter i systemet med etanolproduktion och med 23 ton koldioxidekvivalenter i systemet med biodieselproduktion med avdrag för ersatt fossilt bränsle. Vid fermenteringen behöver 8,6 ton ammoniumkväve och 16,8 ton svavel tillsättas. Vid odling av oljebildande jästsvamp behöver 1,2 ton ammoniumkväve, 11,7 ton fosfor och 0,1 ton magnesium tillsättas. pH-värdet behöver sänkas till 5,5 respektive 5,7 vid etanol- respektive biodieselproduktion. Etanolproduktion bedöms vara lämpligast på musteriet. Både etanol- och biodieselproduktion är generellt effektivare på Företaget både klimat- och energimässigt än vid biobränsleproduktion av odlade råvaror. Biobränsleproduktionen på Företaget skulle kunna effektiviseras genom inblandning av andra lokala aktörers restprodukter. Experimentella studier samt forskning kring kostnader, behov av arbetsinsatser och komplexitet är betydelsefullt i vidare analys av restströmmarnas potential. Det skulle även vara värdefullt med en utredning om möjligheten att återcirkulera koldioxid som utsöndras av jästsvamparna till algodling i vattenreningen.

  • 185.
    Max, Pilbäck
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Terese, Berglund
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Från våta marker till våtmarker: en studie i våtmarkernas förändringar mellan tidigt 1800-tal och 2017 vid Ivösjön i nordöstra Skåne2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Våta marker utgjorde tillsammans med andra miljöer en variation i det historiska landskapet. När människor behövde den våta marken för odling betraktades den som ogynnsam och marken avvattnades. Endast 10 % av den ursprungliga våtmarksarealen finns idag kvar i Skåne. Våta marker blev begreppet våtmarker när människan förstod dess värden. I uppsatsen studeras våtmarksförändringar och markanvändningsutveckling mellan tidigt 1800-tal och 2017 vid Ivösjön i nordöstra Skåne. Uppsatsen kartlägger också hur dikningsföretag har påverkat våtmarkernas förändring.  Utifrån historiskt kartmaterial och Lantmäteriets höjddata har GIS-analyser utförts och jämförts med relevant litteratur. Våtmarkernas kvarvarande areal är mellan 9 % och 14 % och samstämmer med de generella siffrorna över Skåne, dock finns avvikelser vid ett område (43 %). Markanvändningens utveckling följer de allmänna trenderna. Hur dikningsföretagen påverkat markanvändningen kräver vidare undersökningar.

  • 186.
    Mikkelä, Marcus
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Hallgren, Joel
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Fruktodlingsarealens utveckling i socknarna Västra Karup och Södra Mellby mellan åren 1926 och 20142019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har under lång tid odlats frukt i Sverige. Fruktodlingen var länge knuten till herrgårdar och slott. Sedan slutet av 1800-talet började fruktodlingar anläggas i områdena runt Vånga, Kivik och Båstad i Skåne. Det växer fram en ny typ av näring som är mer industriellt präglad än den tidigare herrgårds- och slottsodlingen. Syftet med studien är att undersöka industrifruktodlingsarealens utveckling mellan åren 1926 och 2014 i socknarna Västra Karup vid Båstad och Södra Mellby vid Kivik. Socknarna valdes som undersökningsområden för att de ligger i två fruktodlingsdistrikt i Skåne. Metoden som används är digitalisering av fruktodlingarna i kartmaterialet och beräkning av arealen i GIS-programmet ArcMap.

     

    Fruktodlingsarealen ökade i båda socknarna under första hälften av undersökningsperioden och minskade under den andra. I Västra Karup är arealen minst i slutet av undersökningsperioden och i Södra Mellby i början, arealen var störst i båda socknarna i mitten av perioden. Ökningen beror bland annat på avskärmningen från världsmarknaden under andra världskriget samt ett importstopp på utländsk frukt och minskningen på tullar och ett borttaget importstopp.

  • 187.
    Mohammad, Sara
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Monteiro, Amarildo
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Diffusa rum i stadslandskapet: En fallstudie i Tomelilla tätort2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay deals with diffuse spaces in Tomelilla town center. Diffuse spaces are found everywhere as enclaves between buildings or in the well-defined urban landscape. They are usually located in areas that have been over after planning projects or in empty spaces andwithout a specific function. Our background study is based on previous studies on the subject that have shown that diffuse spaces have a variety of values. The values depend on the way people want to mark these diffuse spaces in the city that give us different definitions such as self-organization, spontaneity, creativity or just a simple and temporary use. Diffuse spaces are usually associated with negative social activities and are in contrast to many public spaces that contain rules and controls. On the other hand, diffuse spaces are open to different types of social groups without rules, limitations and can serve as an alternative to public space. Observations have been performed in Tomelilla town center where the observations help us understand the values diffuse rooms have for the residents. Generally speaking during sex-day observations, two in January, two in March and another two days in April, we discovered that communication and recreation values are the dominant values for these diffuse spaces. Also that these diffuse rooms firstly are used as passages in different ways.

  • 188.
    Mohlin, Camilla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University.
    Delbro, Dick
    Örebro University.
    Kvanta, Anders
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Johansson, Kjell
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. kjell.johansson@hkr.se .
    Evaluation of Congo red staining in degenerating porcine photoreceptors in vitro: protective effects by structural and trophic support2018In: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry, ISSN 0022-1554, E-ISSN 1551-5044, Vol. 66, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Congo red (CR) is a histological stain used for the detection of extracellular amyloids mediating various neurodegenerative diseases. Given that damaged photoreceptors appear to degenerate similarly to other nerve cells, CR staining was evaluated in experimentally injured porcine retina. CR staining appeared mostly as discrete cytosolic deposits with no obvious plaque formation during the investigated time period. Increases of CR labeling coincided temporally with the known accumulation of mislocalized opsins and increases of cell death. Coculture, either with human retinal pigment epithelium (ARPE) or human neural progenitor (ReN) cells, was accompanied by a significant reduction of CR labeling. Of particular interest was the reduction of CR labeling in cone photoreceptors, which are important for the perception of color and fine details and afflicted in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Electron microscopy revealed inclusions in the inner segment, cell body, and occasionally synaptic terminals of photoreceptor cells in cultured specimens. Closer examinations indicated the presence of different types of inclusions resembling protein aggregates as well as inclusion bodies. The current results indicate that injury-related response resulted in accumulation of CR deposits in photoreceptor cells, and that trophic and/or structural support attenuated this response.

  • 189.
    Mufti, Ahmad H
    et al.
    England.
    Ogiwara, Kenichi
    Canada.
    Swystun, Laura L
    Canada.
    Eikenboom, Jeroen C J
    Nederländerna.
    Budde, Ulrich
    Germany.
    Hopman, Wilma M
    Canada.
    Halldén, C
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Goudemand, Jenny
    France.
    Peake, Ian R
    England.
    Goodeve, Anne C
    England.
    Lillicrap, David
    Canada.
    Hampshire, Daniel J
    England.
    The common VWF single nucleotide variants c.2365A>G and c.2385T>C modify VWF biosynthesis and clearance2018In: Blood advances, ISSN 2473-9537, Vol. 2, no 13, p. 1585-1594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) vary considerably in the general population and this variation has been linked to several genetic and environmental factors. Genetic factors include 2 common single nucleotide variants (SNVs) located in VWF, rs1063856 (c.2365A>G) and rs1063857 (c.2385T>C), although to date the mechanistic basis for their association with VWF level is unknown. Using genotypic/phenotypic information from a European healthy control population, in vitro analyses of recombinant VWF expressing both SNVs, and in vivo murine models, this study determined the precise nature of their association with VWF level and investigated the mechanism(s) involved. Possession of either SNV corresponded with a significant increase in plasma VWF in healthy controls (P < .0001). In vitro expression confirmed this observation and highlighted an independent effect for each SNV (P < .0001 and P < .01, respectively), despite close proximity and strong linkage disequilibrium between them both. The influence of c.2365A>G on VWF levels was also confirmed in vivo. This increase in VWF protein corresponded to an increase in VWF messenger RNA (mRNA) resulting, in part, from prolonged mRNA half-life. In addition, coinheritance of both SNVs was associated with a lower VWF propeptide-to-VWF antigen ratio in healthy controls (P < .05) and a longer VWF half-life in VWF knockout mice (P < .0001). Both SNVs therefore directly increase VWF plasma levels through a combined influence on VWF biosynthesis and clearance, and may have an impact on disease phenotype in both hemostatic and thrombotic disorders.

  • 190.
    Månsson, Nikolaj
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Algoritmen som hjälper vid tidsplanering: ett stöd för personer med ADHD2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie avhandlar vilka behov som personer med ADHD har av digitala hjälpmedel, vilka hjälpmedel som finns tillgängliga på marknaden, samt vilka råd som finns att tillgå vid utveckling. Då studien syftar bidra med en utformning av ett digitalt verktyg som stödjer dessa individer i tidsplanering, så utförs även en litteraturstudie över hur sannolikhetsberäkning kan användas för att planera och förutsäga utgång av aktiviteter. En enkätstudie genomförs där personer diagnosticerade med ADHD får svara på frågor om vilka problem som de upplever vid planering, vilken erfarenhet som de har av planering med digitala hjälpmedel, samt vilka önskemål som de har på funktioner hos en applikation som stödjer planering. Studiens metoddel utreder även om det finns möjlighet att använda sig av tidigare insamlade dataset över en populations arbete med aktiviteter, samt metod för att samla in ny data. I studiens resultatdel presenteras en applikation för tidsplanering för den målgrupp som personer med en ADHD-diagnos utgör. Denna applikation är baserad på studiens litteraturstudie och resultatet av dess enkätstudie. I studiens del för diskussion avhandlas vilket behov som målgruppen beskriver, ett förslag på utformning av digitalt verktyg, vilka uträkningar som har varit aktuella för att användare ska få ut så mycket som möjligt av ett planerat arbetspass, samt hur långt ett produktivt arbetspass kan vara.

  • 191.
    Mårtensson, Ida
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Nordström, Therese
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Nedfrysning av nötkött – ett sätt att minska matsvinn?: Konsumenters inställning till att köpa nötkött som frysts ner dagen innan bäst före datum har passerat kopplat till food literacy.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: food waste contributes to a negative climate impact and the meat wastage, especially beef, generates large amounts of greenhouse gas emissions per kilogram beef. Reducing animal wastage should be a priority in order to quickly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    Aim: The aim is to investigate consumers' attitude to buying beef that has been frozen the day before the best before date has passed in an attempt to reduce the meat wastage.

    The study also investigates whether food-related knowledge, skills and behaviors, summarized in the concept food literacy, affect the attitude of buying beef that has been frozen the day before the best before date has passed.

    Method: Data was collected using a web-questionnaire and a focus group. The processing and the analysis of the data was performed in Excel using Chi-Square tests. The qualitative data was transcribed and analyzed using coding and thematization.

    Results: The quantitative data shows a positive trend where the majority of consumers can see themselves buying beef that has been frozen the day before the best before date has passed. The results show that the level of food literacy increases with age. Factors that prove to be important for consumers are price, quality, packaging and origin.

    Conclusion: The majority of respondents regardless of age are positive about buying beef. The result indicates that the proportion of respondents with a high degree of food literacy increases with age and factors that prove to be important for consumers when buying beef are price, quality, packaging and origin.

  • 192.
    Nardi, Paolo
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Human Activity Recognition: Deep learning techniques for an upper body exercise classification system2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most research behind the use of Machine Learning models in the field of Human Activity Recognition focuses mainly on the classification of daily human activities and aerobic exercises. In this study, we focus on the use of 1 accelerometer and 2 gyroscope sensors to build a Deep Learning classifier to recognise 5 different strength exercises, as well as a null class. The strength exercises tested in this research are as followed: Bench press, bent row, deadlift, lateral rises and overhead press. The null class contains recordings of daily activities, such as sitting or walking around the house. The model used in this paper consists on the creation of consecutive overlapping fixed length sliding windows for each exercise, which are processed separately and act as the input for a Deep Convolutional Neural Network. In this study we compare different sliding windows lengths and overlap percentages (step sizes) to obtain the optimal window length and overlap percentage combination. Furthermore, we explore the accuracy results between 1D and 2D Convolutional Neural Networks. Cross validation is also used to check the overall accuracy of the classifiers, where the database used in this paper contains 5 exercises performed by 3 different users and a null class. Overall the models were found to perform accurately for window’s with length of 0.5 seconds or greater and provided a solid foundation to move forward in the creation of a more robust fully integrated model that can recognize a wider variety of exercises.

  • 193.
    Neff, Madeleine
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Food Allergy in Hospital from the Patient Perspective: taking a Mixed Methods approach to understand Foodservice Management2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Foodservice is integral to safe, adequate and satisfactory food allergy management in the hospital setting. To date, research focused on objective measures of energy and protein provision, implementation and evaluation of food allergy guidelines and assessment of process failures leading to allergen exposure. There is a lack of focus on taking a person-centred approach to understanding the barriers and enablers to optimal food allergy management.

    A mixed methods phenomenological approach was espoused at a tertiary acute care hospital in Melbourne, Victoria. Data collection techniques included 24-hr diet recall, foodservice satisfaction questionnaires and semi-structured qualitative interviews, all delivered by an Accredited Dietitian. Statistical and thematic analysis was conducted, followed by convergence of the results from each phase of the study.

    Mean energy intake indicated 64% of requirements and 81% of protein requirements were met; which included external food intake to supplement the hospital diet for around half of the patients. Most patients rated their overall food service satisfaction as ‘Good’, with food quality being the lowest rated foodservice dimension. Addressing sensory, variety and communications aspects of foodservice were focus areas identified by the study patients. These included improving bland flavours and plain appearance, restricted menu choices and automated allergen interface between systems.

    With a person-centred care focus, the study identified new findings on the views and attitudes of patients with a food allergy on foodservice management in hospital. Within the Food and Meal Science field, the study may be seen as an initial exploratory enquiry for future research on food allergy.

  • 194.
    Nielsen, Frederik Knud
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Hansen, Cecilie Hurup
    Danmark.
    Fey, Jennifer Anna
    Danmark.
    Hansen, Martin
    USA.
    Halling-Sørensen, Bent
    Danmark.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment MoLab.
    Styrishave, Bjarne
    Danmark.
    Mixture effects of 3 mechanistically different steroidogenic disruptors (prochloraz, genistein, and ketoconazole) in the H295R cell assay2015In: International journal of toxicology, ISSN 1091-5818, E-ISSN 1092-874X, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 534-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixture effects of 3 model endocrine disruptors, prochloraz, ketoconazole, and genistein, on steroidogenesis were tested in the adrenocortical H295R cell line. Seven key steroid hormones (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, estrone, and 17β-estradiol) were analyzed using gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) to investigate the effects throughout the steroidogenic pathway. Current modeling approaches often rely on models assuming compounds acting independently and that the individual effects in some way can be summarized to predict a mixture effect. In H295R cells with an intact steroidogenic pathway, such assumptions may not be feasible. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate whether effects of a mixture with differing modes of action followed or deviated from additivity (concentration addition) and whether the H295R cell line was suitable for evaluating mixture toxicity of endocrine disruptors with different modes of action. The compounds were chosen because they interfere with steroidogenesis in different ways. They all individually decrease the concentrations of the main sex steroids downstream but exert different effects upstream in the steroidogenic pathway. Throughout the study, we observed lowest observed effect concentrations of mixtures at levels 2 to 10 times higher than the predicted EC50, strongly indicating antagonistic effects. The results demonstrate that chemical analysis combined with the H295R cell assay is a useful tool also for studying how mixtures of endocrine disruptors with differing modes of action interfere with the steroidogenic pathway and that existing models like concentration addition are insufficient in such cases. Furthermore, for end points where compounds exert opposite effects, no relevant models are available.

  • 195.
    Nilsson, Johanna
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Detection of plasmid families carrying ESBL genes in clinical and environmental E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs) are produced by the Enterobacteriaceae bacterial family, mainly by E. coli and K. pneumoniae. As these species are some of the main causes of urinary tract infections and sepsis, ESBL-production is of major concern.

    Occurrence of ESBLs also gives rise to concern as it is increasing epidemically. This because the genes coding for ESBLs (i.e. bla-genes) are located on plasmids replicating and spreading the replicated copies independently. Plasmids replicate by replicons. Plasmids with the same replicon variant are grouped into the same plasmid family.

    The aim of this study was to detect plasmid families carrying bla-genes in E. coli and K. pneumoniae from clinical (n = 6) and environmental water (n = 22) isolates. Plasmid family prevalence was examined. Association between plasmid families and bla-genes was also examined.

    Plasmid families were detected by a PBRT kit (PCR Based Replicon Typing), a multiplex PCR kit that detected 30 replicons, whereof 27 replicons representing the 27 plasmid families in Enterobacteriaceae, and three novel replicons.

    The IncF plasmid family was the most prevalent for both species in both clinical and environmental isolates. IncF seemed to be prevalent for all examined ESBLs, but it was difficult to associate one bla-gene with one plasmid family as most isolates carried several bla-genes and several plasmid families.

  • 196.
    Normann, Anne
    et al.
    RISE.
    Röding, Magnus
    RISE.
    Bolos, Andrea
    SLU.
    Lagerkvist, Carl-Johan
    SLU.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Influence of color, shape and damages on consumer preferences and perceived sensory attributes on sub-optimal apples2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable food production and consumption are key elements today. About one third of food produced for human consumption is wasted. Consumers are responsible for the largest amount of food waste throughout the supply chain; part of this is indirect by e.g. discarding food products already in the store. The unwillingness to purchase and consume sub-optimal food products is thought to be an important cause of food waste; however, the reasons behind it are still insufficiently studied. Our research addresses the question of how combinations of color, shape and damage of apples influence consumer preferences and perceived sensory attributes.

    Based on a cubic design of visual appearance (color (red-to-green); shape (normal-to-odd); damage (none-to-damage) with a total of eight combinations ranging from optimal to suboptimal in all three dimensions, a total of 130 participants (68% women and 32% men), participated in a laboratory study where an image for each apple type from the design was presented in a blind tasting session (peeled and sliced apples). Sensory perception was evaluated by thirteen flavor and texture attributes on a 7-point scale. Liking was evaluated on a 7-point hedonic scale.

    The results showed a significant difference between the optimal apple and apples with shape and damage imperfections. Further, the optimal apple was perceived sweeter, crispier and less bitter than all other apples. The optimal apple had higher liking score, significantly different from the apples which all had a sub-optimal shape. This means that an odd shape had a negative effect on liking. A linear regression analysis showed that odd shaped apples were perceived as mainly earthy and bitter. Hence, visual sub-optimality, even presented to consumers in images, have an effect on how an apple is perceived and liked where an odd shape has larger negative impact than color and damage. 

  • 197.
    Normann, Anne
    et al.
    RISE.
    Röding, Magnus
    RISE.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Danmark.
    Sustainable fruit consumption: the influence of color, shape and damage on consumer sensory perception and liking of different apples2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 17, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable food production and consumption are currently key issues. About one third of food produced for human consumption is wasted. In developed countries, consumers are responsible for the largest amount of food waste throughout the supply chain. The unwillingness to purchase and consume suboptimal food products is an important cause of food waste, however, the reasons behind this are still insufficiently studied. Our research addresses the question of how combinations of color, shape and damage of apples influence consumer liking and perceived sensory attributes. In a laboratory study based on factorial design of visual appearance (color, shape and damage varied from optimal to suboptimal) a total of 130 consumers evaluated sensory perception of flavor and texture attributes in apple samples. Liking was also evaluated. The results showed a significant difference in liking between an optimal apple and all apple categories with at least two out of three suboptimal properties. Further, it was a clear trend that the optimal apple was perceived as sweeter, crispier, less bitter, and less earthy than all the other apples by the participating consumers, however, the results were not statistically significant. A suboptimal appearance, therefore, had a negative effect on both perception and liking.

  • 198.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Children's pictures of a good and desirable meal in kindergarten: a participatory visual approach2019In: Children & society, ISSN 0951-0605, E-ISSN 1099-0860, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 471-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In kindergarten, meals are framed and regulated by the adults and ideas within the institution. However, by inviting children to visualise their ideas, they can be included when trying to understand as well as develop the meals. The purpose was to explore children's pictures of good and desirable meals in kindergarten by using a visual, participatory approach together with children four to six years. The children related to various aspects of the meal, emphasising the importance of food, table artefacts and context, defined as platescape, tablescape and roomscape. The result further highlighted the complexity of listening to the plurality of children's voices.

  • 199.
    Nyberg, Maria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Sylow, Mine
    Danmark.
    Exploring food  choice and flexibility practices among staff and residents at care homes in Denmark2019In: Ageing & Society, ISSN 0144-686X, E-ISSN 1469-1779, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a growing number of people reaching older age, the need for care provided in long-term care institutions is increasing. Although the goal is to deliver person-centred care that includes choice and flexibility opportunities, pre-scheduled mealtimes and set menus are still used. The aim was to explore how food choice and flexibility practices were perceived and performed by residents and staff at three care homes in Denmark. Three food journey interviews with eight residents (aged 83 to 96 years) and three focus groups with twelve people from the care and kitchen staff were conducted. Food choice and flexibility practices were mainly performed informally and selectively by the staff, and through personal practices by the residents, implying that many residents were excluded from food choice and flexibility opportunities. However, food choice and flexibility practices were also inhibited by the staff’s time pressure and unfamiliarity with choice possibilities, and by the politeness of the residents, which often resulted in an acceptance of pre-defined mealtimes and the food served. Our findings suggest that food choice and flexibility practices must be understood and performed broadly, and include various ways of relating, listening and responding to the residents’ needs and preferences. Moreover, the study highlighted the importance of incorporating the essential embodied knowledge and emotional know-how, inherent in food choice and flexibility practices, into formal and more inclusive strategies concerning how to think and act in relation to the food and meal situation.

  • 200.
    Nygren, Elin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Eriksson, Lina
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Sjuk mat?: styrande faktorer och utmaningar för sjukhusmåltidens kvalitet ur kostchefers perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Debatten om sjukhusmåltidens kvalitet är aktuell och kritiseras idag i press och sociala medier. Bloggen Food Pharmacy (2018) har startat uppropet #Sjukmat, där privatpersoner uppmanas att dela med sig av bilder och berättelser om den mat de blivit serverade i sjukhusmiljö, för att belysa problemet. Genom att intervjua kostchefer gällande deras uppfattning om sjukhusmatens kvalitet och de bakomliggande faktorer som inverkar på kvaliteten, hoppas författarna kunna visa en mer komplex bild av sjukhusmaten än den som presenteras idag.

       Syftet är att undersöka kostchefers uppfattningar gällande vilka faktorer som styr kvaliteten på sjukhusmåltiden, samt att studera vilka utmaningar som kan påverka sjukhusmåltidens kvalitet.

       En deskriptiv studiedesign användes. Sammanlagt deltog 16 kostchefer i Sverige från 12 olika län i telefonintervjuer, vilka transkriberades och tolkades med hjälp av en tematisk analys.

       Resultatet visar att flera faktorer samverkar för god måltidskvalitet på sjukhus; vilka råvaror som används, hur maten hanteras, patienters möjlighet att välja vad och när de ska äta, vilka resurser som finns tillgängliga för sjukhusen samt kompetens och samarbete mellan vård- och kökspersonal. De främsta utmaningarna som lyfts är möjlighet att individanpassa måltidslösningar, större valfrihet för patienter, kunskap hos personal, samarbete och kommunikation med vården samt resurser i form av tid och pengar.

       Slutsatsen är att arbetet bakom sjukhusmåltiden är komplext. Flera faktorer är avgörande för om maten äts upp och uppskattas av patienterna, och dessa faktorer samverkar i mycket stor utsträckning. Dock framlägger dessa utmaningar konkreta förbättringsområden. De engagerade kostcheferna vill visa att problem är till för att lösas, och att #sjukmat kan bli #friskmat.

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