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  • 11901.
    Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Hellman, Mats
    UIQ Technology AB.
    Reporting Usability Metrics Experiences2009In: 2009 ICSE WORKSHOP ON COOPERATIVE AND HUMAN ASPECTS OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, IEEE , 2009, p. 108-115Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often claimed that software development is negatively affected by infrequent, incomplete and inconsistent measurements; improving with the help of metrics is an obvious solution. Software testing provides opportunities for measurement that give organizations insight in to processes. Usability testing is part of the testing area, although it is not a commonly addressed area within software engineering, perhaps because of a split between qualitative and quantitative paradigms. We compare a usability testing framework called UTUM with principles for Software Process Improvement, and find areas of close agreement as well as areas where our work illuminates new characteristics. UTUM is found to be a useful vehicle for improvement in software engineering, dealing as it does with both product and process. Our work emphasises the importance of the neglected area of usability testing. Our experience also illustrates how the metrics have been tailored to act as a boundary object between different disciplines.

  • 11902.
    Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rissanen, Mikko
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Identifying organizational barriers: a case study of usability work when developing software in the automation industry2014In: JOURNAL OF SYSTEMS AND SOFTWARE, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 88, p. 54-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates connections between usability efforts and organizational factors. This is an important field of research which so far appears to be insufficiently studied and discussed. It illustrates problems when working with software engineering tasks and usability requirements. It deals with a large company that manufactures industrial robots with an advanced user interface, which wanted to introduce usability KPIs, to improve product quality. The situation in the company makes this difficult, due to a combination of organizational and behavioural factors that led to a "wicked problem" that caused conflicts, breakdowns and barriers. Addressing these problems requires a holistic view that places context in the foreground and technological solutions in the background. Developing the right product requires communication and collaboration between multiple stakeholders. The inclusion of end users, who fully understand their own work context, is vital. Achieving this is dependent on organizational change, and management commitment. One step to beginning this change process may be through studying ways to introduce user-centred design processes. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 11903.
    Winther, Cássandra
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    "Det handlar om att ta tillvara på elevernas frågor och funderingar": pedagogers tankar om sex- och samlevnadsundervisning på högstadiet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When teens develop their views on sexuality and relationships they need adult support and guidance. This period of a person's life is marked by discovery and exploration. Therefore it is important for young people to gain knowledge and develop understanding that contributes to making healthy decisions. The school plays an important role in efforts to try to give all young people the same opportunities for good sexual health education and is an obvious environment for health promotion. The purpose of this study is to take part of educators experiences of teaching in sex education. Data collection was conducted in the form of six semi-structured interviews with teachers in various subjects and at different secondary schools. The results suggest that there is a common perception that sex - and coexistence education in schools is important and assumed to have positive effects on students sexual health. However, it appears that there are differences in teachers' perceptions of being able to work with sex education in a structured , conscious and creative way. The home and the school are described as two important arenas . Parents seem to have a belief in teachers' skills and the teachers themselves take their mission as educators and guides very seriously.

  • 11904.
    Wintélius, Therése
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science.
    Fransson, Johanna
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science.
    Munhälsostatus hos äldre patienter vid inskrivning på ortopedavdelning: En tvärsnittsstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva munstatus, nutritionsstatus, kognitionstatus, antal läkemedel, ålder, kön och boendeform hos äldre patienter vid inskrivning på en ortopedavdelning i Kristianstad. Studien utfördes som en tvärsnittstudie, med data inhämtad från en då pågående studie på Kristianstads Centralsjukhus.Resultatet påvisade en bristande munhygien hos deltagarna. Studiens slutsats är att det finns en utbredd munhälsoproblematik hos en grupp inom den äldre befolkningen och att fortsatt forskning krävs för att identifiera orsakssamband och utveckla ett hälsofrämjande arbetssätt.

  • 11905. Winzell, C
    et al.
    Pendrill, L
    Felin, A
    Melin, J
    Nilsson, E
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Hagqvist, Curt
    Comparisons require quality-assured measurement technology2019In: Rasch Measurement Transactions (RMT), ISSN 1051-0896, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 1721-1723Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11906.
    Winzell, Claes
    et al.
    Rise mätteknik.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    Rise mätteknik.
    Felin, Aslak
    Rise mätteknik.
    Melin, Jeanette
    Rise mätteknik.
    Nilsson, Evalill
    Linköpings universitet.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Hagqvist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet.
    Jämförelser kräver kvalitetssäkrad mätteknik2019In: Dagens Medicin, debattArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11907. Wirsen, A.
    et al.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Rosen, Ingmar
    Ingvar, David H.
    Quantified EEG and cortical evoked responses in patients with chronic traumatic frontal lesions1992In: Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology / Evoked Potentials Section, ISSN 0168-5597, E-ISSN 1872-6224, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol. 84, no 2, p. 127-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eighteen frontal trauma patients and 17 age-matched control subjects had quantified EEGs and measurements of sensory (SEP) and auditory evoked potentials (P300) using a Biologic Brain Atlas III system. The findings were compared to the conventional paper EEG, and to the frontal lesion volumes, severity of head injury, and outcome variables. The quantified EEG confirmed the pathological findings detected by visual inspection, but some regional abnormalities were more easily detected by topographic mapping. The regional distribution of pathological slowing corresponded well with the morphological lesions in most patients. The modal frequency of EEG correlated both with lesion volume and injury severity and with the outcome variables. There were no pathological findings in the SEPs, and all but one patient had clearly distinguishable P300 responses. There was a significant reduction in P300 amplitude in the frontal patients at the anterior, but not at the posterior electrodes. The topographical distribution of the P300 changes corresponded well with the morphological lesions. Our findings indicate that the P300 potential is, in part, dependent upon the prefrontal cortical areas. The present study thus supports P300 investigations which have shown amplitude reduction in other disorders (e.g., schizophrenia) with a presumed prefrontal dysfunction.

  • 11908.
    Wirtén, Håkan
    et al.
    Världsnaturfonden WWF.
    Jonsson, Helena
    Lantbrukarnas Riksförbund LRF.
    Carlberg, Jonas
    LRF Mjölk.
    Jacobsson, Dan
    Färskvaror ICA Sverige.
    Rydén, Harald
    Fazer Food Services.
    Ungerth, Louise
    Konsumentföreningen Stockholm.
    Ståhle, Gunnela
    Vi Konsumenter.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Strid, Ingrid
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro Universitet.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen.
    Kruhsberg, Mikael
    Macklean Strategiutveckling.
    Sverige behöver en ny nationell matstrategi2014In: Göteborgs-PostenArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11909.
    Witaszczyk, Daria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Blomberg, Linn
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Hur fungerar det med företagshälsovården egentligen?: En kvantitativ studie om hur anställda uppfattar att samarbete kring hälsofrämjande insatser fungerar2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The workplace is an arena where there are good opportunities to work health promotive. In the elderly care, there are both challenges and opportunities when it comes to changing the work situation and thereby improve the employees’ health. To facilitate this work, the workplace can take the help of external partners, such as the occupational health service. The purpose of this study was to find out how the employees of the elderly care in a municipality in southern Sweden perceive the cooperation between their workplace and the occupational health service when it comes to working health promotive. The data collection method used in this study was questionnaires distributed to all 345 of the permanently employed. The response rate was 49 percent. The results showed that the employees perceived that the cooperation between managers and the occupational health service was good, but that it was non-existent between themselves and the occupational health service. The staff has the opinion that the cooperation can be developed through better communication and information. The conclusion of this study is that managers should clarify the occupational health service´s role in the health promotive work. Through effective communication and good methods of spreading information, the cooperation between managers, employees and the occupational health service can be improved.

  • 11910.
    Wittzell, Frida
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Nilsson, Hanna
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Lärares arbetssituation: En studie kring hur lärare erfar och uppfattar arbetsuppgifter och arbetstid  2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar att lärares arbetssituation har förändrats och lärare idag är osäkra på vilka arbetsuppgifter som ingår i deras yrke. Lärare ser ökade arbetsuppgifter som ett hinder då elever riskerar att inte få det stöd de är i behov av. Denna studie kommer därför att undersöka hur grundskollärare uppfattar sina arbetsuppgifter i förhållande till sin arbetstid. Studiens fråga har belysts utifrån en fenomenografisk forskningsansats som relaterar till hur människor uppfattar olika situationer, då människor uppfattar och erfar världen olika. Fem intervjuer med grundskollärare ligger till grund för denna studie. Resultatet utifrån intervjuerna visar att lärarna uppfattar sin arbetssituation olika beroende på olika faktorer. Dock var samtliga lärare överens om att de administrativa uppgifterna som lärare idag är ålagda att göra, är de arbetsuppgifter som tar mest tid. Lärarna uppger att dokumentationen tar tid från planering och menar att undervisningens kvalité minskar. Några av de intervjuade lärarna frågar sig i vilken omfattning dokumentationen behöver göras och om den kan förenklas.

  • 11911.
    Wolf, Fredrik
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    Elevinflytandets diskurs - hur talar pedagoger om elevers inflytande?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen intresserar sig för hur pedagoger definierar och talar om fenomenet elevinflytande. Vidare problematiseras begreppet och belyses ur olika aspekter med hjälp av Michel Foucaults teorier kring makt och maktutövning. Makten och dess praktik syftar till att kon-trollera och styra elevers beteenden enligt särskilda normer. Syftet med arbetet är att belysa teknikerna för denna styrning; såsom de framträder i den diskurs som konstituerar och pro-ducerar föreställningar om elevinflytande.

    Arbetets empiriska del består av inspelade kvalitativa djupintervjuer med sex stycken gym-nasielärare verksamma inom skilda ämnen. Analysresultaten visar hur en intrikat väv av pro-duktiva och repressiva makttekniker opererar inom samma diskurs. Därtill diskuteras vilka konsekvenser dessa maktoperationer kan få för elevers möjligheter till inflytande.

  • 11912.
    Wolf-Watz, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Beery, Thomas
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstads universitet.
    Öhman, Johan
    Örebro universitet.
    Friluftsliv och miljöengagemang: sammankopplade men utan enkla samband2014In: Friluftsliv i förändring: studier från svenska upplevelselandskap / [ed] Fredman, P., Stenseke, M., & Sandell, K., Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2014, p. 152-166Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11913.
    Woodward, Guy
    et al.
    Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College Cork.
    Gessner, Mark O.
    Department of Aquatic Ecology, Eawag.
    Giller, Paul S.
    Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College Cork.
    Gulis, Vladislav
    Institute of Marine Research (IMAR) and Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra.
    Hladyz, Sally
    Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College Cork.
    Lecerf, Antoine
    Université de Toulouse.
    Malmqvist, Björn
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    McKie, Brendan G.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Tiegs, Scott D.
    Department of Aquatic Ecology, Eawag.
    Cariss, Helen
    Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University.
    Dobson, Mike
    Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University.
    Elosegi, Arturo
    Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao.
    Ferreira, Verónica
    Institute of Marine Research (IMAR) and Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra.
    Graça, Manuel A.S.
    Institute of Marine Research (IMAR) and Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra.
    Fleituch, Tadeusz
    Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.
    Lacoursière, Jean O.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Nistorescu, Marius
    Department of Systems Ecology and Sustainability, University of Bucharest.
    Pozo, Jesús
    Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao.
    Risnoveanu, Geta
    Department of Systems Ecology and Sustainability, University of Bucharest.
    Schindler, Markus
    Department of Aquatic Ecology, Eawag.
    Vadineanu, Angheluta
    Department of Systems Ecology and Sustainability, University of Bucharest.
    Vought, Lena B. M.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Chauvet, Eric
    Université de Toulouse.
    Continental-scale effects of nutrient pollution on stream ecosystem functioning2012In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 336, no 6087, p. 1438-1440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive nutrient loading is a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide that leads to profound changes in aquatic biodiversity and biogeochemical processes. Systematic quantitative assessment of functional ecosystem measures for river networks is, however, lacking, especially at continental scales. Here, we narrow this gap by means of a pan-European field experiment on a fundamental ecosystem process—leaf-litter breakdown—in 100 streams across a greater than 1000-fold nutrient gradient. Dramatically slowed breakdown at both extremes of the gradient indicated strong nutrient limitation in unaffected systems, potential for strong stimulation in moderately altered systems, and inhibition in highly polluted streams. This large-scale response pattern emphasizes the need to complement established structural approaches (such as water chemistry, hydrogeomorphology, and biological diversity metrics) with functional measures (such as litter-breakdown rate, whole-system metabolism, and nutrient spiraling) for assessing ecosystem health.

  • 11914.
    Wozniak, Rickard
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Söderholm, Håkan
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Hur objektiv är läroboken? - Hur framställs Islam, ”araben” och ”arabvärlden” i ett antal svenska historieläroböcker?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Där här uppsatsens huvudsakliga fokus ligger på att analysera ett litet antal exemplar av svenska historieläroböcker för högstadiet och gymnasiet. Ämnet för analysen är det som kallas för orientalism eller hur Edward Said poängterade hur han tyckte att de västerländska akademiska institutionerna hade gjort den orientaliska världen till en västerländsk diskurs som de använde som medel för att definiera araben och arabvärlden utifrån. Said poängterade det specifika sätt på vilken arabvärlden porträtterades i västvärlden av akademiker, i läroböcker och olika typer av visuell media. Said menade att detta västerländska synsätt var i grunden falskt och hans motivation att föra fram sitt budskap resulterade i hans välkända verk Orientalism. I detta verk poängterade han diskursens makt och hur man genom denna skapade föreställningar som hade arbetat sig in i det västerländska kollektiva minnet. I den här uppsatsen ämnar vi därför ta oss en titt på araben och arabvärlden porträtteras i svenska historieläroböcker och i anslutning till detta diskutera, ur ett lärandeperspektiv, de komplikationer som kan uppstå på grund av hur ett givet ämne, må det vara historia, kultur, religion, folk etcetera, behandlas i ett informationssammanhang.

  • 11915.
    Wu, Linglin
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Gender-Based Different in Compliments: in the American Comedy TV-Series Ugly Betty 2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is to find out how men and women use compliments in English conversations in TV-series. The compliments will be analyzed as to their frequency, form topic and function.

  • 11916.
    Wu, Linglin
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Incidental English Vocabulary Studying in L2 learning: A Study of Learning and Teaching English Vocabulary in a College in China2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate whether incidental methods are used in learning English vocabulary by non-English students at college in China, and in teaching English vocabulary by their oral English teachers. It also finds out what kinds of incidental strategies are used. Then based on the results of the investigation, this study puts forward some pedagogical implications for teachers.

  • 11917.
    Wu, Shiying
    et al.
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University.
    Chen, Yu
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University.
    Mao, Guanzhong
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University.
    Trobro, Stefan
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University.
    Kwiatkowski, Marek
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University.
    Kirsebom, Leif A.
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University.
    Transition-state stabilization in Escherichia coli ribonuclease P RNA-mediated cleavage of model substrates2014In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 631-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used model substrates carrying modified nucleotides at the site immediately 5' of the canonical RNase P cleavage site, the -1 position, to study Escherichia coli RNase P RNA-mediated cleavage. We show that the nucleobase at -1 is not essential but its presence and identity contribute to efficiency, fidelity of cleavage and stabilization of the transition state. When U or C is present at -1, the carbonyl oxygen at C2 on the nucleobase contributes to transition-state stabilization, and thus acts as a positive determinant. For substrates with purines at -1, an exocyclic amine at C2 on the nucleobase promotes cleavage at an alternative site and it has a negative impact on cleavage at the canonical site. We also provide new insights into the interaction between E. coli RNase P RNA and the -1 residue in the substrate. Our findings will be discussed using a model where bacterial RNase P cleavage proceeds through a conformational-assisted mechanism that positions the metal(II)-activated H2O for an in-line attack on the phosphorous atom that leads to breakage of the phosphodiester bond.

  • 11918.
    Wulff, Maria
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Gränsdragning för värdepappershandel2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Köp och försäljning av värdepapper kan, beroende på olika omständigheter, beskattas antingen enligt rörelsereglerna eller enligt reavinstreglerna. Sker klassificeringen enligt rörelsereglerna kan underskott på denna rörelse kvittas mot annan inkomst som den skatteskyldige har samt denne har rätt till avdrag för nedskrivning på varulager eftersom innehavet skattemässigt behandlas som lager. Om värdepappren däremot klassificeras som förvaltningsverksamhet finns inte någon nedskrivningsmöjlighet och förluster får enbart dras av mot vinster i samma förvärvskälla. Syftet med uppsatsen är därför att utreda de kriterier som ställs upp för att handel med värdepapper skall klassficeras som rörelse och därmed beskattas enligt reglerna för rörelse.

    Värdepappersrörelse saknar definition i inkomsskattelagen. Det är istället de allmänna bestämmelserna om avgränsning av inkomstslaget näringsverksamhet som styr.

    I uppsatsen har jag använt mig av sex rättsfall för att göra en problematisering av olika situationer där handel med värdepapper förekommer. Jag har diskuterat varje enskilt fall utifrån domen i målet samt utifrån vad lag och förarbeten säger om problemet. Tyngdpunkten ligger på aktiebolag eftersom denna bolagsform varit dominerande av de rättsfall jag funnit som berör ämnet men även rättsläget för enskilda näringsidkare utreds. Vid ett tillfälle görs också en diskussion angående en delägare i ett handelsbolag.

    Det som framkommit är att avgörande inte alltid är om det varit en betydande omsättning och att ett stort antal transaktioner skett. De saknar kanske inte helt betydelse men de kan inte ensamma avgöra portföljens skatterättsliga karaktär. En helhetsbedömning måste göras av omständigheterna i det enskilda fallet där hänsyn till verksamhetens syfte tas. Om det finns ett syfte med verksamheten att bedriva värdepappershandel kan detta till exempel framgå av en ändring i bolagsordningen.

    I uppsatsen framkommer också att bolagsformen har en mycket avgörande betydelse för hur klassificering ska ske. Möjligheterna till en klassificering enligt rörelsereglerna är större i ett aktiebolag än för en enskild näringsidkare som i princip enbart kan ha bankmedel som tillgångar. Detta eftersom alla inkomster räknas till inkomst av näringsverksamhet enligt 13 kap 2 § IL för juridiska personer.

    Ett ytterligare rekvisit är om verksamheten riktar sig mot allmänheten eller enbart är inriktad på ägarens egna tillgångar. Om verksamheten är riktad mot utomstående kunder ställs lägre krav på omsättning och antal transaktioner. Sker värdepappershandeln enbart för egen räkning är verksamheten inte att se som rörelse i skatterättslig mening och därmed skall redovisningen ske i inkomstslaget kapital. Dessa krav ställs dock inte lika högt för aktiebolag, inte ens för ett enmansaktiebolag, som för enskilda näringsidkare.

  • 11919. Wyatt, C C L
    et al.
    Maupome, G
    Hujoel, P P
    MacEntee, M I
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Persson, Rigmor E.
    Kiyak, H A
    Chlorhexidine and preservation of sound tooth structure in older adults: A placebo-controlled trial2007In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 93-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Trial to Enhance Elderly Teeth Health (TEETH) was designed to test the impact of regular rinsing with a 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) solution on tooth loss, and the causes of tooth loss (caries, periodontal disease and trauma) were also investigated. This paper reports on the effectiveness of a 0.12% CHX solution for controlling caries using a tooth surface (coronal and root) survival analysis. A total of 1,101 low income elders in Seattle (United States) and Vancouver (Canada), aged 60-75 years, were recruited for a double-blind clinical trial and assigned to either a CHX (n = 550) or a placebo (n = 551) mouth rinse. Subjects alternated between daily rinsing for 1 month, followed by weekly rinsing for 5 months. All sound coronal and root surfaces at baseline were followed annually for up to 5 years. At each follow-up examination, those tooth surfaces with caries, restored, or extracted were scored as 'carious'. The hazard ratio associated with CHX for a sound surface to become filled, decayed, or extracted was 0.87 for coronal surfaces (95% confidence interval: 0.71-1.14, p = 0.20) and 0.91 for root surfaces (95% confidence interval: 0.73-1.14, p = 0.41). These findings suggest that regular rinsing with CHX does not have a substantial effect on the preservation of sound tooth structure in older adults.

  • 11920.
    Wällstedt, N
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Grossi, Giuseppe
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Ekonomi och arbetsliv. Kristianstad University, Research environment Governance, Regulation, Internationalization and Performance (GRIP.
    Almqvist, R
    Stockholm University.
    Organisational solutions for financial sustainability: a comparative case study from the Swedish municipalities2014In: Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting and Financial Management, ISSN 1096-3367, E-ISSN 1945-1814, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 181-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore and discuss the solutions municipal organizations employ to achieve financial sustainability. The paper thus aims at providing a theoretical overview on the subject of financial distress and financial sustainability, followed by a review of the New Public Management and New Public Governance discourse; it then uses and refines this framework in the light of empirical evidence from municipal organizations in Sweden to discuss how financial sustainability may be achieved. The empirical evidence is derived from the Swedish national municipality research program that was established to find out how municipalities cope with stressful situations, financial as well as organizational. The research suggests that the solutions for financial sustainability depend upon the size and organizational structure of the municipal organization and changes in the municipality’s political majority. Further, research findings show that the management or governance system of the municipality plays an important role in achieving financial sustainability, and the characteristic of the system, its communicative function, and resource perspective need to cohere with the basic characteristics of the municipal organization in order to be successful

  • 11921.
    Wärnefjord, Gerd
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Drogförebyggande arbete i Sölvesborgs kommun - en utvärdering2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det primära syftet är att få veta vad som skett när det gäller det drogpolitiska programmet i Sölvesborgs kommun. De teoretiska utgångspunkterna är vad forskarna menar behövs för att ett sådant program ska lyckas. Målet med studien är att ta reda på om det drogpolitiska arbetet har vunnit genomslag i kommunen. Den empiriska utgångspunkten är att försöka belysa problemet utifrån den nationella handlingsplanen

    Först gjordes en litteraturgenomgång, angående forskarnas uppfattningar beträffande droger och alkohol samt hur problem förebyggs. Vad som företrädesvis varit av intresse är om programmet lyckats bli förankrat hos alla samt i fall det uppfyller några av de kriterier som forskarna menar är nödvändiga.

    Verksamheter som startats upp i det drogpolitiska programmet nämns. En ansats görs till att förklara varför det är så viktigt med en reflektion över det egna bruket av alkohol och droger. Resultatet påvisar att mycket har gjorts i det drogpolitiska arbetet men mycket återstår att göra. Många satsningar finns, vilka passar bra in på det många forskare anser ger det bästa resultatet. I kommunen finns personer med relevanta yrken, som är mycket insatta i problematiken. Utifrån den tid som var avsatt till projektet anses att den drogpolitiska samordnaren gjort det bästa möjliga utifrån de förutsättningar som fanns.

    Det drogpolitiska programmet är bra men hos de intervjuade ansvariga bör efterlevnaden bli bättre, eftersom det finns brister där. För att arbetet fortsättningsvis ska bli framgångsrikt måste en samordnande funktion finnas, detta kunde ingå i ett större folkhälsofrämjande arbete. Information till ansvariga politiker behövs angående samhällskostnader för missbruk. Alla måste också bli medvetna om att det tar tid innan man kan se resultat.

  • 11922.
    Wärnefjord, Gerd
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Sociologistudier - en börda eller en tillgång? 2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt primära syfte är att få veta vad som hänt med studenterna som studerat sociologi i Kristianstad. Mina teoretiska utgångspunkter är att förklara vad kunskap i sociologi innebär. Målet med studien är att ta reda på om studenterna fått arbete inom området, efter avslutade studier i sociologi. Empiriska utgångspunkten är att försöka belysa problemet utifrån dagens arbetsmarknad och Högskola. Först gjordes en litteraturgenomgång, där söktes information angående sociologernas åsikter beträffande sociologin i samhället. Relevant litteratur från andra högskolor fanns, och två av dessa nämns, en intervjuundersökning har utförts. Ett individperspektiv har använts i analysen av samtalsintervjuerna. Vad som företrädesvis intresserat mig är huruvida sociologerna arbetar inom relevanta yrken. Verksamheter där sociologer har möjlighet till arbete omtalas. Jag gör en ansats till att förklara varför jag anser att sociologin behövs i dagens samhälls- och arbetsliv. Resultatet påvisar att studier i sociologi inte är tillräckligt för att få ett relevant yrke. Det fanns personer med relevanta yrken, men de hade ytterligare utbildning. Jag upptäckte även att ytterst få personer, vilka inte studerat på högskolan, vet vad kunskap i sociologi innebär. Sociologerna är nöjda med sitt val av ämne. Allmänt sett kan sägas att samhället inte har upptäckt behovet av sociologer, vilket de intervjuade sociologerna ansåg märkligt.

  • 11923.
    Wärnefjord, Gerd
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Äras den som äras bör?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats är en litteraturstudie med en mindre intervjuundersökning. Syftet är att ta reda på om kompetensen tillvaratas i arbetslivet. I litteraturgenomgången har olika begrepp angående ämnet sökts. Ett individperspektiv har använts i analysen av ämnet. Vad som i första hand intresserat mig är att se om de organisationsförändringar som skett har medfört någon förändring angående tillvaratagandet av den individuella arbetstagarens kompetens. Jag kallar undersökningen ”Äras den som äras bör?”. Jag har kommit fram till att det inte skett någon förändring som är till det bättre för industriarbetarna. Problemen med individens kompetens i dagens arbetsliv relateras av intervjupersonerna till de omorganisationer som skett. Även en ökning av det sociala avståndet nämns. I stort sett tycks det som om individerna anser att ”det var bättre förr” med ”den gamla sortens” hierarkiska organisationer.

  • 11924.
    Wångmar, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Crim, Arja
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    ÄR FRITIDSAKTIVITETER RELATERAT TILL PSYKISKT VÄLBEFINNANDE BLAND UNGDOMAR2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens huvudsyfte var att se om ungdomars psykiska välbefinnande, definierad som frånvaro av psykosomatiska besvär, varierar med deltagande i fritidsaktiviteter, ålder och kön. Tidigare studier har visat på samband mellan vardagsstress och psykologiska avvikelser, uppdelat i form av externaliserat (t.ex. aggressivitet) och internaliserat (t.ex. somatiska besvär) beteende. Ett urval på 746 elever från årskurs 7, 8 och 9 från en nationell undersökning användes för att undersöka relationen mellan psykosomatiska besvär och deltagande i fritidsaktiviteter. Resultaten av hierarkisk regressionsanalys och t-test för oberoende grupper visade att musikalisk aktivitet, ålder och kön predicerade ett lägre välbefinnande, samt att flickor är mer aktiva i samtliga undersökta aktivitetsvariabler och har signifikant lägre psykiskt välbefinnande än pojkar. Som möjliga orsaker till resultaten diskuterades dels enkätkonstruktionen och validiteten hos mätinstrumenten, dels hur olika aktivitetsmängd och copingstrategier kan förklara skillnaden mellan könen.

  • 11925.
    Xia, Jue
    Kristianstad University, Department of Teacher Education.
    Economical Metaphors  in English Newspapers2009Student thesis
  • 11926.
    Xia, Yan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Efficient reading in standardized tests for EFL learners: a case study of reading strategies used by Chinese English major students in TEM-42011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the reading strategies used by Chinese English major students in the reading component in standardized national tests of TEM-4 with regard to reading efficiency. The research questions include: 1) what strategies are used by the students in TEM-4 test context; 2) whether there is a significant correlation between strategy use and efficient reading in the test; 3) what kinds of reading problems are revealed in the students’ use of processing strategies; 4) what can teachers do to promote efficient reading in classrooms. The data were collected from 25 English major students, including their reading efficiency indicated in the test performance, a reading strategy checklist and a questionnaire about the students’ perception of reading strategy and obstacles to their efficient reading. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were used for comparisons between proficient students and non-proficient students.

    The findings indicate that the students in general rely on metacognitive and test-wiseness strategies in their reading practice. There is no significant relationship between strategy use and test performance. The difference between proficient and non-proficient students lies in the automaticity and fluency at lower-level skills rather than a mere use of metacognitive strategies. The reading problems common students are facing include inadequate language proficiency with limited vocabulary and a lack of automaticity, low reading speed and a lack of background knowledge. Suggestions are given for future reading teaching to promote efficient reading in these aspects.

  • 11927.
    Xia, Yan
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Politeness Strategies in English Adjacency Pairs: A Gender Differentiated Study on Greetings, Compliments and Directives2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11928.
    Xiaoxia, Pan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Xiaoxia, Pan
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Jing, Wu
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Transformational Leadership VS: Transactional Leadership. The Influence of Gender and Culture on Leadership Styles of SMEs in China and Sweden2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transformational and transactional leadership, which focus on the relationship between leaders and employees, are the most recent development of leadership theories. Yet studies on the impact of gender and culture on transformational and transactional leadership styles are limited. This Master Dissertation therefore aims to shed new light on that issue. First, it attempts to compare leadership styles adopted by managers of SMEs in China and Sweden. Second, it tries to evaluate which element - gender or culture - exerts a more important influence upon leadership styles.

    Based on empirical researches, ten hypotheses are formulated and a new model is developed in the dissertation. In addition, the deductive approach is chosen as methodology and quantitative data is gathered with the help of an empirical study of an online questionnaire.

    Eventually, the present research indicates that both Chinese managers and Swedish managers of SMEs are prone to be more transformational than transactional. It also shows that there is no gender influence upon leadership styles. In contrast, culture exerts a little more impact on leadership styles of SMEs in China and Sweden.

    Key words:

  • 11929.
    Xu, Lixia
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    A Correlation Study on Lexical Chunks and Business Correspondence Writing in EFL in China2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11930.
    Xu, Lixia
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    Power Adjustment in Professional Women’s Language: An investigation into the use of directives in the TV-series Cashmere MafiaStudent thesis
  • 11931.
    Xu, Minjie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University. felicia2013xu@hotmail.com.
    Lindén, Louise
    Kristianstad University. louiselinden@live.se.
    Upplevelsen av att vara närstående till en person som drabbats av cancer.: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Statistik visar att var tredje person i Sverige under sin livstid kommer att drabbas av cancer och att antalet cancerfall har ökat under de senast decennierna. Majoriteten av de som får en cancerdiagnos har närstående som sitt närmaste stöd. Detta gör också att rollen som närstående har en stor betydelse för både personen med cancer och dennes vård. Målet med denna studie är därför att sätta närstående i centrum och belysa hur dom påverkas och upplever när någon i deras närhet drabbats av cancer. Syfte: Studiens syfte var att undersöka närståendes upplevelser när någon i nära relation drabbats av cancer. Metod: Byggd på en allmän litteraturstudie med kvalitativ ansats, där 13 vetenskapliga artiklar valdes ut. Analysmetod gjordes i form av en manifest innehållsanalys. Resultat: Studien är uppbyggt på tre kategorier Känslomässig utmaning, Förändrad livsvärld och Upplevelser av sjukvården och följt av två vardera underkategorier. Slutsats: Det framkom att sjuksköterskans bemötande och kunskap har en stor betydelse för närståendes upplevelser inom cancervården. Vården ska också utgå från ett helhetsperspektiv, där hela familjen som en enhet bör inkluderas.

  • 11932. Xu, Xing
    et al.
    Valtonen-André, Camilla
    Sävblom, Charlotta
    Halldén, Christer
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Chemistry, Lund University.
    Lilja, Hans
    Klein, Robert J.
    Polymorphisms at the Microseminoprotein-beta locus associated with physiologic variation in beta-microseminoprotein and prostate-specific antigen levels2010In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 2035-2042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: rs10993994, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the genetic locus encoding β-microseminoprotein (β-MSP), is associated with both prostate cancer risk and levels of blood prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker used in prostate cancer screening. Therefore, we wished to determine the association between SNPs at MSMB, the gene encoding β-MSP, and the levels of prostate-produced biomarkers β-MSP, PSA, and human kallikrein 2 (hK2) in blood and semen.

    Methods: Blood and semen from 304 healthy young Swedish men (ages 18-21) were assayed for β-MSP, PSA, and hK2. SNPs around MSMB were genotyped from matched DNA and analyzed for quantitative association with biomarker levels. Empirical P values were multiple test–corrected and the independence of each SNP's effect was determined.

    Results: rs10993994 was significantly associated with the blood and semen levels of β-MSP (both P < 1.0 × 10−7) and PSA (P = 0.00014 and P = 0.0019), and semen levels of hK2 (P = 0.00027). Additional copies of the prostate cancer risk allele resulted in lower β-MSP but higher PSA levels, and singly explained 23% and 5% of the variation seen in semen β-MSP and PSA, respectively. Additional SNPs at MSMB are associated with β-MSP and PSA independently of rs10993994.

    Conclusions: SNPs at MSMB correlate with physiologic variation in β-MSP and PSA levels in the blood and semen of healthy young Swedish men. In particular, rs10993994 has a strong effect on β-MSP levels.

    Impact: Our results suggest a mechanism by which rs10993994 might predispose to prostate cancer and raise the possibility that genetic variation might need to be considered in interpreting the levels of these biomarkers.

  • 11933.
    Xu, Yingying
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    How male and female characters have been portrayed: An investigation on the use of nouns and adjectives in Pride and Prejudice from the perspective of linguistic sexismIndependent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11934.
    Xu, Yingying
    Kristianstad University, Department of Teacher Education.
    Network-building and Vocabulary Memorization for Beginners2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11935.
    Xu, Youqing
    Kristianstad University, Department of Teacher Education.
    Gender Differences in Mixed-Sex Conversations: A Study of Interruptions2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11936.
    Xu, Youqing
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education. Kristianstad University.
    Test-Taking Processes for Banked Cloze Tests: Implications for Vocabulary Acquisition2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11937.
    Xu, Yuanzhong (Victor)
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    A Study on the Relationship between Public Relations and Brand Strategy2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Brand strategy is a useful way to strengthen competitive competence of products. However, the researches on how to implement a successful brand strategy using public relations were rarely found in the existing literature.

    The main purpose with my dissertation is to investigate the relationship between public relations and brand strategy. In addition, I hope the dissertation can give some suggestions to Chinese companies when they want to implement a brand strategy using public relations.

    A combination of interview and questionnaire was used to find research questions. My sample is a famous enterprise named Lenovo Group in China.

    The research indicated that public relations is a useful tool to implement brand strategy. Public relations plays an important role in the five stages of executing a brand strategy.

  • 11938.
    Yaglikcilar, Håkan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Islam i religionsboken: hur har islam och muslimer skildrats i läroböcker i religionskunskap på gymnasiet?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka hur islam har skildrats och hur muslimer har porträtterats i läroböcker i religionskunskap för gymnasieskolan mellan åren 1994-2010. Vidare är syftet att se hur läromedlen stämmer in med teorin om Eurabien samt de analyser som Edward Said och Samuel Huntington gör. Till detta fogar jag aspekten huruvida skildringarna av islam och muslimer har förändrats över tid, gynnat eller missgynnat islamofobi samt vilka problem som läromedlen skapar för läraren. Metoden som jag använder mig utav är sakorienterad hermeneutik och urvalet är gjort för att få en så stor spridning som möjligt mellan olika författare under de årtal som undersökningen är avgränsad till. Den teoretiska grunden består av dels Edward Saids och Samuel Huntingtons analyser men även av Mattias Gardells, Andreas Malms och Mats Bergenhorns bidrag till vetenskapen. Resultatet av undersökningen visar på att muslimer i de äldre läroböckerna beskrivs som oförnuftiga, samtidigt som det finns beskrivningar av muslimen som en individ vars identitet är helt fylld av Koranen och islam. Vid sidan av detta går det även att se hur Gud görs främmande för kristna och judiska läsare genom en selektiv översättning av den muslimska trosbekännelsen. Kvinnoförtryck och fundamentalism görs i läroböckerna till centrala element av islam, men samtidigt finns det från 1997 och framåt i de undersökta böckerna uttryck av antiislamofobiska, antirasistiska och antikulturalistiska budskap. Läroböckerna kantas även av problematiska generaliseringar som ibland är positiva och ibland är negativa. Läroböckerna bekräftar dels Huntingtons teori samtidigt som de visar tecken på att de kan vara påverkade av Saids analys av orientalismen. Angående föreställningen om ett Eurabien finns det vissa delar av läromedlen som är i samklang med teorin. När det gäller läromedlens roll i skapandet eller motverkande av islamofobi var det en omöjlighet att ge ett svar på var läromedlen vilar då det finns ett flertal olika tendenser som pekar åt olika riktningar, men det är tänkbart att de både kan skapa och motverka islamofobiska åsikter. Vad som dock kan sägas är att de nyare läroböckerna innehåller färre negativa skildringar av islam och muslimer än de äldre läroböckerna.

  • 11939.
    YANG, JIE
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Gender Differences in Advertisements: A Study of Adjectives and Nouns in the Language of Advertisements2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11940.
    Yang, Jie
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Storytelling as a Teaching Method in ESL Classrooms2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Until now, a lot of work has been done to explore methods for teaching English as a Second Language (ESL). Considering the nature of human beings as storytellers, teachers can use storytelling as a teaching method in English classrooms. The aim with this study is to discuss the storytelling teaching method adopted in ESL Classroom. The study is based on class observations on three Internet lessons, namely lessons of English vocabulary, grammar and spoken English. Videos on the Internet are wacthed and the narrative parts in these lessons are recorded. Previous studies related to this subject is on narration in the field of rhetoric and on methods for second language teaching and learning. Some earlier studies concern about  children’s education and military training. The main focus of present study is to analyze stories told by the teacher in the three classes—what they consist of, what effects they would achieve, and how many types of stories are used. In a classroom setting, the teacher is the narrator, students are the audience. Five types of stories are used: stories that are made up by the teacher, cultural backgrounds, stories told with physical responses, personal experiences and everyday life experiences. Anyway, narration is helpful in making the teacher and students closer.

    Hopefully with the help of present study on the selected lessons, one can find out how teachers use narration in general classroom settings.

  • 11941.
    Ye, Zhen
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    A Study of Metaphor in the State of Union Adress, 20102011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11942.
    Ye, Zhen
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Using TPR Method in Teaching English Adjectives2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this study is using Total Physical Response (TPR) in teaching English adjectives to 11-year-old pupils. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the TPR method is effective in teaching English adjectives.

    The researcher used a quasi-experiment to design this study. The population was the pupils aged 11 in a middle school in Kristianstad. 30 pupils were selected as samples and divided into two groups: one experimental group and one control group. The steps of this experiment were: (1) the experimental group was taught by the TPR method; (2) the control group and the experimental group were given the same post-test. In order to investigate whether there is a necessity to adopt new English vocabulary teaching technique for these pupils, two questionnaires were deliberated; the first questionnaire was for all testees and the second questionnaire was just for the experimental group.

    The result of the study showed the pupils’ achievements in the experimental group were improved by the TPR method. The mean score of the experimental group was much higher than that of the control group. The p-value of this test was 0.0002 less than 0.01 which showed strong evidence that the results were not achieved coincidentally. The effect size of this study was 2.59 more than 0.8 which indicated that the TPR method has significant effectiveness in teaching English adjectives. The questionnaires indicated that TPR was the new English vocabulary teaching technique that the pupils need.

  • 11943.
    Yermakovych, Iryna
    et al.
    Ukraina.
    Mårtensson, Lennart
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Svensson, Britt-Marie
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Samoilenko, Natalia
    Ukraina.
    Investigation of Hard Biodegradable Pharmaceuticals Pollutants Treatment of Hospital Wastewaters2014In: Book of abstracts, 2014, p. 173-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the results of the research performed in the different modern research laboratories the remnants of drugs and their derivatives are found in surface waters in France, USA, UK, Germany, Denmark and Sweden. These substances also can be found in sewage sludge, river and ocean sediments and in the municipal landfills filtrates. Some species have been found even in drinking water and ice, grou nd and ocean waters. Many studies confirmed the data of the annual drug releasing into the environment, which counts several hundred of kilograms. Thus, the investigations of negative impact of pharmaceutical substances and their derivatives on aquatic organisms have been performed  during more  than 20 years and showed an extremely negative presence of any drugs in the waters. Now, they are still  considering  as  emerging organic contaminants in the different type of waters. The main sources of water pollution by pharmaceuticals and their derivatives are wastewater from hospitals, clinics, pharmaceutical industries and domestic sewage as well. However, the main percentage of pharmaceuticals dumped into wastewaters is coming from the hospitals. This is typical for large cities, where is situated a great n um ber of hospitals and health care institutions. In the opinion of one study hospital wastewaters have been found in a 15 times higher potential ecotoxicity than the general urban have. The negative effect of pharmaceuticals influence into environment can be decrease due to application of different kinds of additional wastewater treatment as Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs). The main approaches of hospitals wastewater treatment in Ukraine and Sweden by implementation of AOPs method were considered in this study. The main data of this research will be presented. 

  • 11944.
    Yin, Dandan
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Implications of Tests for Building English Speaking Skills: A comparative study of the TOEFL iBT and TOEIC speaking tests2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Oral ability is an embodiment of the ability to communicate in the language. Language researchers pay increasing attention to speaking nowadays. It is well reflected in the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC). This essay employs the speaking sections of TOEFL iBT (internet-based test), the most widely accepted English proficiency test for academic uses, and TOEIC, the much used English proficiency test for commercial uses, as subjects to carry out a comparative study of target skills so as to find implications for English learners. English learners can make use of language tests to learn what skills they should focus on. From this study, it is found that speaking skills are not merely about speaking. It is a combination of listening and reading skills. Thus, English learners should practise listening and reading as well as speaking in order to build their English speaking skills.

  • 11945.
    Yin, Dandan
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    The Embodiment of Racism in Brick Lane by Monica Ali2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11946.
    Yingying, Wang
    Kristianstad University, Department of Teacher Education. Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Can Conceptual Metaphor Awareness Facilitate Chinese College EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Retention? - an Empirical Study: Can Conceptual Metaphor Awareness Facilitate Chinese College EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Retention? - an Empirical Study2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Much research has been made in the vocabulary field (e.g. Meara, 1989; Nation, 1990; Arnaud & Bejoint, 1992). Few researchers, however, have given methodological suggestions on how to improve vocabulary acquisition, The theory of Conceptual Metaphor provides a new proposal to be applied in vocabulary teaching and learning. Many studies have proved that raising EFL learners’ metaphor awareness can facilitate their vocabulary learning, espacially polysemous words and idiomatic expressions (e.g., Lazar 1996; Herrera and White 2000; Kondaiah 2004; Csabi 2004; Boers 2004).

     

    Based on the conceptual metaphor theory and its role on semantic change, the author aims to find out whether the vocabulary teaching strategy which focuses on raising students’ metaphor awareness can facilitate Chinese students’ performance in vocabulary (especially polysemous words and idioms) acquisition and help short-term and long-term vocabulary retention.

     

    An experiment was carried out to check the effect of the application of CMT (conceptual metaphor theory) on vocabulary acquisition and retention. Two parallel classes participated as the EC (the experimental class) and the CC (the controlled class), the EC was taught with conceptual metaphor instruction while the CC was taught in a traditional way, an immediate test and a one- week delayed test were carried out to check the experiment results. The results indicate that the CMT application can facilitate short-term vocabulary understanding, and it has positive influence on the long-term vocabulary retention.

  • 11947.
    Yli Panula, Eija
    et al.
    Finland.
    Persson, Christel
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Sustainable development. Biodiversity and species identification - all are various concepts: I can´t connect them to each other in my mind2017In: Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Australian Association for research in Education in Melbourne, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate what kind of conceptions do the elementary pre-service teachers (EPT) have of the concepts: species identification (SI), biodiversity (BD) and sustainable development (SD) and how well they understand the relationships between these three concepts? The data of this survey has been collected in Finland and Sweden in 2011. The EPTs (186) were asked to describe the three concepts SI, BD and SD and their relationships. Special emphasis was given to use of e.g. mind maps or concept maps to explain the relationships. In inductive content based analysis EPTs´ understanding of the three concepts and their relationships were studied. The results show, firstly, the three concepts were connected to each other via EPTs´ knowledge or understanding, e.g. the importance of conserving the nature and the understanding of its function as well as man´s interest in the nature and understanding of the basic biological phenomena were emphasized as important matters necessary for comprehending the multifaceted concepts. Secondly, the concepts were connected to each other via man´s actions, e.g. when describing the relationships between the concepts man´s actions were repeatedly mentioned. Man´s action and the way of living have an effect on conservation of the BD. Furthermore, people benefit from BD and take this into account when evaluating the importance of SD. Thirdly, the relationships of the concepts was difficult to understand by the students. In this case the connections between the concepts were not identified at all or the connections were not clearly described. Especially the relationships between SI knowledge and BD or SD were difficult to understand.

  • 11948.
    Yli-Panula, Eija
    et al.
    Turku University.
    Eloranta, Varpu
    Turku University.
    Persson, Christel
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Kristianstad University, Research environment Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Finnish and Swedish students' drawings of the landscape they want to conserve and how the drawings reflect their environmental conceptions2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

     

    It is important to find out the children´s and adolescents’ future views of the environment and in this way to listen to their “voices”. This study is part of the bigger projects were children´s, adolescents´ and teacher students´ future views about the landscape and environment worth to conserve have been studied dealing in some European countries and will be studied also worldwide. The theoretical basis lies on human geography, on environmental psychology, on environmental ecology and on education for sustainable development.

    The aim was to analyze the drawings of a group of Finnish (n=311) and Swedish (n=246) students in age of 11-16 years and to identify the landscape they would like to conserve, and also to find out students’ conceptions of the environment.

    In this research the opinions of the Finnish and Swedish students have been studied using a qualitative and phenomenographical approach, while the focus is to study students’ conceptions of a landscape and environment worth preserving as a phenomenon.

    The results show that all three landscape groups; nature, built and social environment were present among Finnish and Swedish drawings in all studied age groups. The landscape most commonly represented environment as a place including living things and very few of them represented relational focus between the drawer and environment. In general, students demonstrated positive relation to the environment and in the written text the worries about the environment were expressed. The Swedish students seemed to focus in their drawn landscapes more into the nature conservation and taking care of the environment, while Finnish students seem to want to conserve an environment which they have experienced.

    The drawings together with the written text can be used as a kind of “teaching tool” to evaluate the students’ future views of the environment. This study gives important information for the teachers in their work for sustainable development education. Teachers are the most influential in educating children and adolescents to be leaders of tomorrow in conserving and protecting our environment.

  • 11949.
    Yli-Panula, Eija
    et al.
    Finland.
    Persson, Christel
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Research environment Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Jeronen, Eila
    Finland.
    Eloranta, Varpu
    Finland.
    Pakula, Heini-Marja
    Finland.
    Landscape as experienced place and worth conserving in the drawings of Finnish and Swedish students2019In: Education sciences, ISSN 2227-7102, Vol. 9, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children explore their environment through experiences and each experience is meaningfulin developing their environmental consciousness and identity. On the basis of the drawn landscape experiences, the present qualitative study set out to find out what landscapes the participating students deemed worth conserving. The data consisted of the drawings of 11- to 16-year-old Finnish (n = 311) and Swedish (n = 246) students. Deductive and inductive content analyses were used to analyse the data. The results showed that all three landscape types; nature, built, and social were presented in the drawings. Nature and built landscapes were the most frequent types, with the proportion of nature landscapes increasing and that of built landscapes decreasing with age. There were gender and cultural preferences: boys drew built landscapes more often than girls; and Finnish students drew summer cottages, a cultural phenomenon typical of Finnish landscapes, which was not found in Swedish drawings. Similarities in Finnish and Swedish data were identified e.g., in forest and water and “cultural landscapes”. Some of the students displayed a more distant, observing role, whereas others adopted an active one in relation to all three landscape types. The results are discussed inconnection to the landscape theories and earlier findings of the drawn environments.

  • 11950. Yli-Panula, Eija
    et al.
    Persson, Christel
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Kristianstad University, Research environment Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Pollari, Heini
    The consciousness of the Finnish and Swedish pre service teachers of the relationships of the concepts – species identification, biodiversity and sustainable development2014Conference paper (Refereed)
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