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  • 11701.
    Wallerstedt, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linnaeus University.
    Behm, Lina
    Lund University.
    Alftberg, Åsa
    Malmö University.
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linnaeus University.
    Benzein, Eva
    Linnaeus University.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University.
    Ahlström, Gerd
    Lund University.
    Striking a Balance: a qualitative study of next of kin participation in the care of older persons in nursing homes in Sweden2018In: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), ISSN 2227-9032, Vol. 6, no 2, article id E46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the care in nursing homes is palliative in nature, as it is the oldest and the frailest people who live in nursing homes. The aim of this study was to explore next of kin's experiences of participating in the care of older persons at nursing homes. A qualitative design was used, based on semi-structured interviews with 40 next of kin, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. An overarching theme emerged, a balancing act consisting of three categories: (1) visiting the nursing home; (2) building and maintaining relationships; and (3) gathering and conveying information. The next of kin have to balance their own responsibility for the older person's wellbeing by taking part in their care and their need to leave the responsibility to the staff due to critical health conditions. The next of kin wanted to participate in care meetings and conversations, not only in practical issues. The findings indicate the need to improve the next of kin's participation in the care as an equal partner. Increased knowledge about palliative care and decision-making of limiting life-prolonging treatment may lead to a higher quality of care.

  • 11702.
    Wallgren, Lisette
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    The complex service field-Is it possible to standardize? 2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The field of complex services contains several actors. First it is the complex service companies that supply a professional service supplier. The professional service provider acts in many cases as a consultant. Secondly, the professional service provider works together with the client to reach a more efficient marketing. That marketing is then directed towards the customer. The customer is the client’s client and the end result.

    The purpose with this dissertation is to investigate if it is possible to standardize the working procedure in order to make it as efficient as possible. We choose to investigate this based on interviews with two firms: Marklyss, a domestically operating firm, and GFK, an internationally operating firm. Our limitation is due to the ability to find participating firms.

    Based on the interviews, we analysed the collected information through different theories such as 7K and standardization versus adaptation model. This was done to find similarities and differences between the companies. We found that there were some similarities that could be used to create a standardized platform for the working procedure. Also we found some differences that could be investigated further if there is any possibility to find out why and if it is possible to transform it into a similarity.

  • 11703.
    Wallin Andersson, Nathalie
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Etiska dilemman i mötet med personer med demenssjukdom: en litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Demenssjukdomar innebär kognitiva nedsättningar som ofta bidrar till svårigheter i omvårdnaden av personer med demenssjukdom. Ofta möter vårdpersonalen problematik av etisk karaktär då personer med demenssjukdom ej kan se konsekvenserna av sitt handlande. Tvångsåtgärder är i Sverige olagligt och kan ej tillämpas i omvårdnaden då personer med demenssjukdom motsätter sig omvårdnaden. Att få personer med demenssjukdom att samverka i omvårdnaden kräver således andra åtgärder för att kringgå dessa dilemman. Syfte: Att belysa vårdpersonalens erfarenheter kring etiska dilemman i mötet med personer med demenssjukdom. Metod: En litteraturöversikt där 11 artiklar granskades. Analysmetoden inspirerades av Forsberg och Wengströms tidigare etablerade modell. Resultat: Två huvudkategorier med två underkategorier under vardera. Erfarenheter av svårigheter i etiska dilemman samt erfarenheter av möjligheter vid etiska dilemman. Det utkristalliserades i resultatet att tvång faktiskt förekommer i omvårdnaden av personer med demenssjukdom trots att de faller utanför befintliga lagrum. Det framkom dock i resultatet att ett personcentrerat förhållningssätt i omvårdnaden av personer med demenssjukdom var en av nycklarna till att kringgå etiska dilemman. Vårdpersonalens utbildningsgrad påverkade i vilken utsträckning en personcentrerad vård utövades. Slutsats: Mer utbildning krävs för att öka vårdpersonalens kunskap i hur en personcentrerad omvårdnad skall bedrivas för att undvika att etiska dilemman uppstår. Därtill behöver vårdpersonal i större utsträckning beakta de etiska värdegrunderna för omvårdnad. Det leder till en förbättrad omvårdnad samt livskvaliteten för personer med demenssjukdom. Personcentrerad omvårdnad bör således ingå redan i grundutbildningen för all vårdpersonal.

  • 11704.
    Wallin, Angelica
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Didaktiska strategier inom naturvetenskap: en kvalitativ studie om förskollärares uppfattningar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att utveckla kunskap om förskollärares didaktiska strategier vid arbete med naturvetenskap. Hur förskollärare motiverar val av metod vid lärandesituationer. Studien är kvalitativ med en teoretisk utgångspunkt i fenomenografin. Den kvalitativa metoden i studien är semistrukturerade intervjuer där svaren analyserats i olika kategorier för att försöka se olika samband för att sedan koppla till litteratur som har anknytning till studien. Via kategorierna synliggörs resultaten att intresse, engagemang och samtal med barnen anses som betydelsefulla delar vid barns lärande om naturvetenskap samt att barnens intresse står i fokus för val av lärandeobjekt och metod.

  • 11705.
    Wallin, Anna
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Yrkeselevers lärande inom Energi och Miljö: En jämförelse mellan olika undervisningssätt på Fordonsprogrammet2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen var att undersöka kunskapsmässiga skillnader inom ett avgränsat avsnitt inom Naturkunskap A mellan två grupper av gymnasieelever som undervisades utefter olika pedagogiska synsätt. Vidare undersöktes elevernas egna reflektioner kring sitt lärande och vilka övriga färdigheter de upplevde sig ha utvecklat och om det framkom någon skillnad mellan grupperna. Metoden för studien var att dela upp eleverna i grupper varav en undervisades genom katederundervisning och en arbetade projektbaserat och ämnesintegrerat. Enkäter genomfördes för att belysa vilka förkunskaper som fanns initialt och sedan för att undersöka hur kunskapsutvecklingen såg ut ur ett kortsiktigt och ett långsiktigt perspektiv. Intervjuer med ett urval av eleverna genomfördes också för att få information om elevernas upplevelser av sitt eget lärande samt vilka färdigheter de ansåg sig ha utvecklat. Sammanfattningsvis så visar min studie att projektbaserad och ämnesintegrerad undervisning är en god metod att höja motivationen, öka engagemanget, utveckla helhetssyn, samarbetsförmåga, reflektions- och analysförmåga och därmed få ett djup i lärandet med bestående kunskaper. Katederundervisning är inte uteslutet som undervisningsform utan snarare pekar studien på att en kombination är det mest produktiva.

  • 11706.
    Wallin, Anna
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Ämnesintegration på Fordons- och transportprogrammet: Några yrkesämneslärares perspektiv på ämnesintegration mellan yrkesämnen och gymnasiegemensamma ämnen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen var att undersöka och analysera de möjligheter och hinder som några yrkesämneslärare på Fordons- och transportprogrammet upplevde med ämnesintegrerad undervisning. Fokus låg på för- och nackdelar för elevernas lärande och förberedelse inför yrkeslivet. Vidare undersöktes hur ämnesintegrationen, som yrkesämneslärarna hade erfarenhet av, var strukturerad och vilka utvecklingsmöjligheter yrkesämneslärarna ansåg att ämnesintegration hade. Ämnesintegration definierades här som ett medvetet arbetssätt, där mer än en kurs och en lärare var involverad och kursmål från flera kurser bedömdes. Undersökningen genomfördes som en kvalitativ studie med intervjuer av sex yrkesämneslärare på Fordons- och transportprogrammet som arbetade på samma gymnasieskola. Sammanfattningsvis visade studien att deltagande yrkesämneslärare ansåg att ämnesintegration var ett bra arbetssätt för att ge eleverna möjligheter att utvecklas kunskapsmässigt och förberedas inför yrkeslivet. Dock var deltagande yrkesämneslärare tveksamma beträffande den struktur skolan arbetade efter, en struktur som var baserad på de gymnasiegemensamma ämnena. De upplevde att detta medförde att eleverna eventuellt inte tillgodogjorde sig de fördelar som brukar lyftas fram med ämnesintegration. De såg en positiv utvecklingspotential för skolan med en genomarbetad ämnesintegrerad profil. Studien visade även att det fanns områden som skolan behövde utveckla för att ämnesintegration skulle bli ett framgångsrikt koncept, exempelvis att överbrygga olikheter mellan yrkesämneslärare och ämneslärare samt satsa på kompetensutveckling. 

  • 11707.
    Wallin Bengtsson, Viveca
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Berglund, Johan
    Institute of Technology, Karlskrona.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    A cross-sectional study of the associations between periodontitis and carotid arterial calcifications in an elderly population2015In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 74, no 2, p. 115-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the presence of periodontitis is associated with carotid arterial calcifications diagnosed on panoramic radiographs in an elderly population.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study individuals were randomly selected from the Swedish civil registration database representing the aging population (60-96 years) in Karlskrona, Sweden. Bleeding on probing (BOP) and the deepest probing measurement at each tooth were registered. The proportions of teeth with a probing depth ≥5 mm and the proportion of teeth with bleeding on probing were calculated. Analog panoramic radiographs were taken and the proportion of sites with a distance ≥5 mm between the alveolar bone level and the cement-enamel junction (CEJ) were assessed. A diagnosis of periodontitis was declared if a distance between the alveolar bone level and the CEJ ≥5 mm could be identified from the panoramic radiographs at >10% of sites, probing depth of ≥5 mm at one tooth or more and with BOP at >20% of teeth.

    RESULTS: Readable radiographs were obtained from 499 individuals. Carotid calcification was identified in 39.1%. Individuals were diagnosed with periodontitis in 18.4%. Data analysis demonstrated that individuals with periodontitis had a higher prevalence of carotid calcifications (Pearson χ (2) = 4.05 p < 0.05) and with a likelihood of 1.5 (95% CI = 1.0, 2.3, p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Data analysis demonstrated a significant association between periodontitis and carotid calcification.

  • 11708.
    Wallin Bengtsson, Viveca
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Assessment of carotid calcifications on panoramic radiographs in relation to other used methods and relationship to periodontitis and stroke: a literature review2014In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 72, no 6, p. 401-412Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To assess the literature on carotid calcifications defined from panoramic radiographs (PMX) and concurrent diagnosis of stroke and periodontitis.

    Materials and methods. A literature search screening for publications using search terms such as PMX and carotid calcification, stroke and periodontitis was performed in November 2012.

    Results. A total of 189 articles were retrieved, among which 30 were included in the review. The sensitivity for PMX findings of carotid calcifications (CC) compared to a diagnosis by Doppler sonography varied between 31.1–100%. The specificity for PMX findings of carotid calcifications compared to a diagnosis by Doppler sonography varied between 21.4–87.5%. Individuals with CC findings from PMX have more periodontitis and risk for stroke.

    Conclusions. There is a shortage of well-designed studies in older dentate individuals assessing the associations between periodontitis and radiographic evidence of CC and in relation to stroke or other cardiovascular diseases.

    Statement of Clinical Relevance. Carotid calcifications are prevalent in patients with periodontitis and such individuals may have an increased risk for stroke. The absence of signs of carotid calcification on panoramic radiographs is indicative of no calcification of carotid arteries.

  • 11709.
    Wallin Bengtsson, Viveca
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för oral hälsa.
    Persson, Rutger G
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för oral hälsa. USA.
    Berglund, Johan
    Institute of Technology.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för oral hälsa.
    Carotid calcifications in panoramic radiographs are associated with future stroke or ischemic heart diseases: a long-term follow-up study2019In: Clinical Oral Investigations, ISSN 1432-6981, E-ISSN 1436-3771, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 1171-1179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess if carotid calcifications detected in panoramic radiographs are associated with future events of stroke, and/or ischemic heart diseases over 10-13 years in individuals between 60 and 96 years.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Baseline (2001-2004) panoramic radiographs were assessed for evidence of carotid calcifications from individuals with no previous history of stroke and/or ischemic heart diseases. A radiopaque nodular mass adjacent to the cervical vertebrae, at or below the intervertebral space C3-C4, was interpreted as carotid calcification. Annual medical records were searched for ICD 10 codes through 2014.

    RESULTS: Signs of carotid calcification was demonstrated in 238/635 (37.5%) of the study individuals. Signs of carotid calcification was associated with future stroke and/or ischemic heart diseases (χ2 = 9.1, OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2, 2.2, p < 0.002). In individuals 60-72 years, a significant association between radiographic signs of carotid calcification and stroke and/or ischemic heart diseases (χ2 = 12.4, OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.5, 4.0, p < 0.000) (adjusted for high blood pressure, diabetes type 2, BMI; OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1, 3.5, p = 0.03). Individuals (60-72 years) with radiographic evidence of carotid calcifications had a mean cumulative stroke and/or ischemic heart diseases survival time of 12.1 years compared to those without such evidence (13.0 years) (log rank Mantel-Cox χ2 = 10.7, p = 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of carotid calcifications in panoramic radiographs is associated with an event of stroke and/or ischemic heart diseases in 60-96-year-old individuals.

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Radiographic evidence of carotid calcifications is associated with stroke and/or ischemic heart diseases. Patients with signs of carotid calcifications should therefore be referred for medical examination.

  • 11710.
    Wallin Bengtsson, Viveka
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för oral hälsa.
    Periodontitis, carotid calcifications and future cardiovascular diseases in older individuals2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a microbiological etiology affecting the supporting tissues of the tooth. The disease affects approximately 50% of the adult population. The prevalence of periodontitis increases with age. The complex bacterial infection, as well as an exaggerated host inflammatory reaction, may trigger subclinical atherosclerosis. Aims. The overall aim of the present thesis was to study the associations between periodontitis, cardiovascular diseases and mortality. The specific aims were: I) to evaluate the use and value of panoramic radiographs in assessing carotid calcifications in relation to other used methods (gold standards) and to assess the literature on carotid calcifications defined from panoramic radiographs and concurrent diagnosis of stroke and periodontitis, II) to evaluate if periodontitis is associated with the presence of carotid arterial calcifications diagnosed on panoramic radiographs in an elderly population, III) to assess if carotid calcifications detected on panoramic radiographs are associated with future events of stroke, and/or ischemic heart diseases over 10–13 years in individuals between 60 and 96 years, IV) to assess if individuals ≥ 60 years of age with periodontitis are more likely to develop stroke or ischemic heart diseases or are at higher risk of death over a period of 17 years. Methods: A literature review based on peer-reviewed studies was performed evaluating the use of panoramic radiographs in assessing carotid calcifications compared to other methods. In study II, III, IV older individuals, 60 years and older participating in the Swedish National Study of Aging and Care (SNAC) were included in the studies. A dental hygienist performed a dental clinical and radiographic examination. Probing depths (PD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) was registered. From radiographic panoramic images, the distances between the alveolar bone level and the cement enamel junction (CEJ) were measured. In study II, a diagnosis of periodontitis was declared, using a composite definition; if a distance between the alveolar bone level and the CEJ ≥5 mm on panoramic radiographs at >10% of sites and PD ≥5 mm at one or more teeth and with BOP >20% of teeth. In study IV, an indicator of a history of periodontal disease was declared if a distance between the alveolar bone level and the CEJ ≥5 mm on panoramic radiographs at ≥30% of sites. Evidence of a radiopaque nodular mass in the intervertebral space at or below the vertebrae C3-C4 was identified as carotid calcification. In addition, a medical research team performed the medical examinations, and a medical doctor (JB) reviewed all medical records for information about events of stroke and ischemic heart diseases. Stroke and ischemic heart diseases were registered according to the ICD 10 codes: ICD 60-69 for stroke and ICD: 20-25 for ischemic heart diseases. Study I was a review of the literature, in study II, a cross-sectional study design was employed. In studies III and IV, a longitudinal prospective study design was used. Results: On the use of panoramic radiographs in assessing carotid calcifications in relation to other used methods, the sensitivity and specificity varied between studies published. Furthermore, only a small number of studies were found concerning carotid calcifications and stroke. These studies were primarily retrospective. Four studies were found on the association between periodontitis and carotid calcification. Study II identified that older individuals with periodontitis had a significantly higher prevalence of carotid calcifications than individuals who did not have a diagnosis of periodontitis. In study III, a significant association was found between carotid calcifications on panoramic radiographs and 13- year incidence of stroke using a logistic regression analysis adjusted for confounders (BMI, diabetes type 2, hypertension) in the 60-72 years. A statistically significant crude association between radiographic evidence of carotid calcifications and incidence of ischemic heart diseases was found in individuals between 60-72 years. Such an association was, however, not identified among individuals older than 72 years. In study IV, Cox regression analysis was used, adjusted for confounders (age group, BMI >30, diabetes type 2, gender, hypertension, history of AMI, history of stroke, periodontitis, smoking) and with a definition of periodontitis as having a distance between the alveolar bone level and the CEJ ≥5 mm in panoramic radiographs at ≥ 30% of sites. Periodontitis increased the risk for ischemic heart diseases in all individuals, in women and in the 78-96 years age group (OO). Associations between periodontitis, and mortality were found in all individuals, in men and in the 60-72 years age group (YO) in the long term follow-up. Conclusions: 1. 1. Study I identified that there are studies which have assessed the value of panoramic radiographs in relation to other used methods (gold standards). The sensitivity and the specificity varied, with the specificity being more often higher. Few studies have considered the relationship between radiographic evidence of carotid calcifications and stroke. Four studies identified a relationship between a diagnosis of periodontitis and carotid calcifications on panoramic radiographs. 2. Study II identified a significant association between periodontitis and carotid calcification in individuals 60-96 years. 3. Study III identified that signs of carotid calcifications assessed from panoramic radiographs from the 60-96-year-old individuals were consistent with an incident of stroke and/or ischemic heart diseases over 13 years follow-up. 4. Study IV identified that periodontitis was associated with future ischemic heart diseases in all individuals, in women and in the 78- 96 years age group. Periodontitis was associated with mortality in all indviduals, in men and in the 60-72 years age group.

  • 11711.
    Wallin, Jani
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    Det vidgade textbegreppet i skolans verklighet - en studie om hur det vidgade textbegreppet används i skolan2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien undersöker hur det vidgade textbegreppet, som breddar synen på text från att enbart gälla skriven text till att även innefatta bild, musik, film och andra medier, de facto används och fungerar i skolans verklighet.

    I studien tecknas först en bild av det forskningsläge som ligger till grund för hela studien och som samtidigt anknyter till undersökningsämnet.

    Den metod som används är en kvalitativ semistrukturerad intervjumetod där åtta respondenter, fyra lärare och fyra elever, intervjuas.

    Resultatet visar att det tycks finnas ett glapp mellan styrdokumentens tankar om det vidgade textbegreppet i skolan och hur det faktiskt ser ut i skolan.

    Uppsatsen avslutas med en diskussion där det i två teman, Textbegreppet i en vid definition och Olika syn på olika medier, diskuteras kring de empiriska resultaten i anknytning till den forskning som lyfts upp i studien. I studiens avslutande del, Avslutande reflektioner, poängteras glappet mellan styrdokumenten och verkligheten och en mer vid syn på textbegreppet uppmuntras.

  • 11712.
    Wallin, Nils
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    "Vatten gifver gräs": Ängsvattning i Sverige och i synnerhet i Malmöhus län2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ängsvattning kan ha förekommit i Sverige under medeltiden men blev vanligare först efter 1800. Föreliggande arbete visar dock att omfattande kunskap om, och faktiska vattningsängar fanns redan på 1760-talet.

    Tidigare studier rörande den senare utbredningen har främst rört Skåne under perioden 1865-1911 och baserats på Hushållningssällskapens statistik. Denna statistik är problematisk och till stora delar felaktig på grund av återkommande felrapporteringar, varför ängsvattningens omfattning under perioden måste revideras.

    För Malmöhus län reduceras de tidigare uppgifterna med 75 % vilket får konsekvenser även för anläggningstrenden över tid. Efter reduceringen återfinns ingen dominerande topp i anläggningstakten och hela ängsvattningsperioden kan förlängas in i tidigt 1900-tal. Ängsvattningens roll i den agrara revolutionen var således troligen mindre än vad som tidigare antagits. Samtidigt måste uppfattningen om ängsvattningssystemens storlekar och geografiska spridning revideras: systemen var många, små – ofta endast ett par hektar – och spridda över hela Malmöhus län, mellan 1865 och 1911 hade 172 socknar av 253 ängsvattning.

  • 11713.
    Wallin, Sandra
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Mellblom, Jeanette
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Nyckeln till naturvetenskap: En studie av pedagogers arbete med naturvetenskap tillsammans med barn i förskolan2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur pedagoger arbetar med naturvetenskap tillsammans med barn i förskolan. Skolverket (2009) framhåller en problematik som är att målen i den nuvarande läroplanen anses vara otydliga och pedagogers kunskaper kan behöva utvecklas när det gäller naturvetenskap. Det nya läroplansförslaget ska förtydliga och lyfta fram naturvetenskap samt höja ambitionsnivån för pedagoger i förskolan. Litteraturgenomgången visar vikten av att pedagoger är medvetna om kunskaps-, lärande- och barnsyn för att kunna möta uppdraget och den pekar på vikten av material och miljö för att stimulera barns upptäckande. Den teoretiska utgångspunkten baseras på ett sociokulturellt perspektiv där samspel, kommunikation, språk och artefakter är viktiga delar. I studien används observationer och intervjuer som verktyg för att undersöka hur pedagoger arbetar med naturvetenskap samt hur de ser på sitt arbetssätt. Teori och praktik kan komplettera varandra i arbetet med naturvetenskap och resultatet av undersökningen visar att pedagogernas kunskaper inom ämnet har stor betydelse. Slutsatsen av undersökningen är att pedagogernas kunskaper syns i arbetet genom kommunikation, samspel och användandet av fysiska och språkliga artefakter. I sammanhanget innebär det att vidareutbildning inom det naturvetenskapliga området är av stor vikt för att kunna möta läroplanen. Pedagogers kunskaper blir nyckeln till naturvetenskap.

  • 11714.
    Wallnäs, Kristina
    Kristianstad University College.
    En jämförelse av fytoplankton vid kust och utomskärs i Pukaviksbukten2006In: Tsunami, ISSN 1651-5803, no 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Östersjön är ett av jordens största bräckvattenhav, med stora skillnader i salthalten från norr till syd. Den speciella topologin gör havet känsligt för variationer i syrehalten samt för olika typer av föroreningar, genom att vattenutbytet med omgivande hav är liten. Detta resulterar i att det förekommer skillnader i artsammansättingen med mindre antal olika arter. Området som undersökts i detta arbete är en del av Pukaviksbukten. Denna bukt har blivit ett Ramsar område och omfattas av Natura 2000. Området kännetecknas av en speciell natur med känsliga arter och våtmarker. Iden bakom dessa projekt är att skydda och bibehålla speciella naturtyper för framtiden. Detta studien behandlar algförekomsten samt dom kemiska och fysiska parametrarna vid två stationer i Pukaviksbukten, utanför Blekingekusten. Dom två stationerna ansågs vara olika genom sina avstånd från kustlinjen, vattenturbulensen och näringshalten. Hypotesen var att en skillnad i artförekomsten skulle finnas mellan stationerna beroende på djup och provtagningsdagar. Proven tog vid två tillfällen med en veckas mellanrum. Det första stationen var nära Mörrumsåns mynning och den andra nära Hanö.

  • 11715.
    Wallstedt, Johan
    Kristianstad University College, School of Engineering.
    Maskinskydd på rullriktverk2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ESAB is a world leader in production of welding consumables and equipment. The company manufactures, among other things, welding electrodes. A roller straightening unit is used in the cutting process to straighten the wire, which the welding electrode consists of, by adjusting some of the rollers during operation. According to ESAB’s standard and the European machinery directives, moving parts of machinery, such as rollers of the roller straightening unit, must be out of the operator’s reach. Guards and protective devices should achieve their safety function with minimal downtime and the least reduction in productivity. The main purpose with this project is to draw up protection device proposals for roller straightening units and based on drawings implement one suitable concept.

  • 11716.
    Waltersson, Ida
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    Pedagogers förhållningssätt i klassrummet till elever med ADHD2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mot bakgrund av tidigare forskning kring ADHD är syftet med denna studie att få en djupare inblick i hur pedagoger på en organisatorisk nivå bemöter ADHD elever i undervisningen. Detta görs genom att synliggöra de erfarenheter pedagoger i grundskolans senare år har inom området. Kunskap om att hantera elever med ADHD är värdefull eftersom det blir lättare att bemöta och undervisa elever med denna diagnos. Detta val gjordes för att diagnosen ADHD ofta förekommer i dagens skolor och i flera elevgrupper. Detta ställer stora krav på pedagogen att besitta tillräckliga kunskaper, såväl organisatoriskt som pedagogiskt, för att kunna hantera och bemöta dessa elever i olika undervisningssituationer. Arbetet ger en översikt över tidigare forskning samt pedagogens roll kring ADHD. Undersökningen genomfördes på två olika högstadieskolor i södra Sverige. Eftersom detta ämne behandlas utifrån pedagogens synvinkel, har undersökningsgruppen bestått utav fyra olika pedagoger. Intervjumetoden som valdes var den kvalitativa, som spelades in på mobiltelefon och därefter transkriberades och sammanfattades. I resultatet framgick att bemötandet av ADHD elever på organisatorisk nivå är av stor betydelse för det både eleven och pedagogen. I diskussionen belyses de olika undervisningsmetoder, med tyngdpunkt på organisationen i klassrummet, som pedagogerna använde kopplat till litteratur och syfte.

  • 11717.
    Wamsler, Christine
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Niven, Lisa
    Lund University.
    Beery, Thomas H.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Bramryd, Torleif
    Lund University.
    Ekelund, Nils
    Malmö University.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Osmani, Adelina
    Lund University.
    Palo, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Stålhammar, Sanna
    Lund University.
    Operationalizing ecosystem-based adaptation: harnessing ecosystem services to buffer communities against climate change2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem-based approaches for climate change adaptation are promoted at international, national, and local levels by both scholars and practitioners. However, local planning practices that support these approaches are scattered, and measures are neither systematically implemented nor comprehensively reviewed. Against this background, this paper advances the operationalization of ecosystem-based adaptation by improving our knowledge of how ecosystem-based approaches can be considered in local planning (operational governance level). We review current research on ecosystem services in urban areas and examine four Swedish coastal municipalities to identify the key characteristics of both implemented and planned measures that support ecosystem-based adaptation. The results show that many of the measures that have been implemented focus on biodiversity rather than climate change adaptation, which is an important factor in only around half of all measures. Furthermore, existing measures are limited in their focus regarding the ecological structures and the ecosystem services they support, and the hazards and risk factors they address. We conclude that a more comprehensive approach to sustainable ecosystem-based adaptation planning and its systematic mainstreaming is required. Our framework for the analysis of ecosystem-based adaptation measures proved to be useful in identifying how ecosystem-related matters are addressed in current practice and strategic planning, and in providing knowledge on how ecosystem-based adaptation can further be considered in urban planning practice. Such a systematic analysis framework can reveal the ecological structures, related ecosystem services, and risk-reducing approaches that are missing and why. This informs the discussion about why specific measures are not considered and provides pathways for alternate measures/designs, related operations, and policy processes at different scales that can foster sustainable adaptation and transformation in municipal governance and planning.

  • 11718.
    Wang, Chenghong (Roger)
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Wang, Guocheng (Peter)
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Wang, Mingliang (Leo)
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Analysis of the Competitiveness of the Ningbo Garment Industry2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation focuses on the topic of competitiveness of the Ningbo garment industry. The purpose is to find out the strengths and weaknesses of the Ningbo garment industry by applying different theories assessing its competitiveness. The theoretical framework discussion is based on a literature review about competitiveness and its assessment theories and relevant garment theories. We analyzed the case in a qualitative and a quantitative way. The Porter’s “diamond” model and the Tim Padmorre & Hervey Gibson’s GEM model are our theoretical frameworks. In the process of quantification in the analysis of the GEM model, the authors of this dissertation conducted questionnaires addressed to 22 specialists and 173 garment company’s managers in Ningbo. We came to the conclusion that the Ningbo garment industry has competitiveness at a national level. Since the documentary data are based on past material and the process of scoring is subjective, the results of this study are valid to some extent and may not entirely reflect its status quo. The paper concluded with the criticism of methodology and authors’ implications of how to improve the competitiveness of the Ningbo garment industry.

  • 11719.
    Wang, Chin-Wei
    et al.
    USA.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för oral hälsa.
    Wang, Hom-Lay,
    USA.
    Nonsurgical treatment of periimplantitis2019In: Implant Dentistry, ISSN 1056-6163, E-ISSN 1538-2982, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 155-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Periimplantitis has become an emerging challenge faced by practicing dentists worldwide. When treating periimplantitis, we should attempt to manage this problem via nonsurgical therapies that include addressing all modifiable systemic risk factors and local contributing factors. Hence, the aim of this narrative review was to examine published studies on nonsurgical treatment of periimplantitis and evaluate their effectiveness and limitations.

    Materials and Methods: A literature search was performed in MEDLINE via PubMed database up to December 31, 2017. Current published clinical approaches focused on mechanical debridement, adjunctive antiseptictherapy, adjunctive antibiotic therapy, laser-assisted therapy, and combination approaches were included in this analysis.

    Results: Nonsurgical therapy of periimplantitis may result in complete healing of the disease and the patient is then placed on a supportive maintenance program. If the disease is not resolved and surgical intervention is not an option, active nonsurgical retreatment may be considered. In many cases where disease is not resolved, surgical therapy or implant removal could be considered.

    Conclusions: Nonsurgical treatment of periimplantitis usually provides clinical improvements in reducing bleeding tendency and in some cases pocket reduction. Early diagnosis, detection, and intervention remain the key for managing periimplantitis.

  • 11720.
    Wang, Fangfang
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    English Article Acquisition : An Investigation among Chinese Students2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11721.
    Wang, Jiaoli (Lily)
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Jiang, Xiaodong (Jack)
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Motivation Mechanism for Chinese Public Departments2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problems: The problem is that there is a lack of an academically reliable motivation theory originating from public organizations. However, there are motivation theories that have been tested on a variety of organizations. The fact that many public organizations have performance problems indicates that there is a need for a motivation theory which is applicable to public organization.

    Purpose: The prime practical purpose is to compare the perceived conditions within the Chinese civil servant system with western theories of what constitutes satisfying work conditions. A further purpose is to suggest normative hypotheses about how these theories might be used to increase work satisfaction in the Chinese civil servant organization.

    Methodology: To test our suggested motivation mechanism we conducted a survey using questionnaire and interview. Our research area is Ningbo and our case is a Ningbo Personnel Department.

    Conclusions: The research showed that the modified motivation theories could be used in the Chinese public departments and our created motivation mechanism could be used to improve the working efficiency in Chinese public departments at least in advanced areas.

  • 11722.
    Wang, Libo (Michael)
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Zhu, Bo (Pritt)
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Competitors' Cluster - A Phenomenon in the Field of Retail Locating2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cluster is a common phenomenon in developed countries. Horizontal clusters and vertical clusters are often seen in these countries. In the domestic retailing, a particular type of cluster—competitors’ cluster plays an important role in the past, nowadays and in the future. Though many researchers have investigated into clusters and talked a lot about the benefits firms could share by clustering together, few of them explained directly why the competitors of the same trade cluster together for competition. This dissertation tried to find explanatory factors that lead competitors to clusters by taking the electronics stores in Kristianstad as an example. Based on the cluster theory, the imitative behavior theory, Huff ’s model, the 4C theory, five underlying factors (the rivals, the costs, the traveling distance, the shopping area and the purchase volume) were put forward. Six propositions were set up to testify these five factors existing in formation of the cluster. A survey was conducted by using face-to-face interview on retailers and questionnaire on consumers. The results of the survey indicated that the propositions were valuable when it came to explain why the phenomenon of the competitors’ cluster emerged. The survey implied that when firms chose to locate the stores, from their own perspective, they wanted to constrain rivals and reduce costs by clustering. Meanwhile, firms also took the consumers’ attractiveness into their consideration. Shopping area and traveling distance were exact explanatory factors, which can reveal incentives of the retailing competitors’ cluster. The research will do help to the future retailing development in China and also can be helpful for the governments in China to plan the commerce distribution.

  • 11723.
    Wang, Qinghua
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    A practice of using research seminars in teaching advanced students2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research seminar, as a teaching form, is excellent in helping students achieve active learning. This work presents the author's experience on the using of research seminars at Kristianstad University.

  • 11724.
    Wang, Qinghua
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Kvalitetssäkring i högre utbildning2016In: Lärarlärdom 2016: Högskolan Kristianstad / [ed] Claes Dahlqvist & Stefan Larsson, Högskolan Kristianstad: Kristianstad University Press , 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kvalitetssäkring är ganska viktigt i högre utbildning. Som den sista kursen i ett utbildningsprogram, självständig examensarbete har en tung roll. I de flesta lärosäten, har ett examensarbete en handledare och en examinator. Examinatorn bestämmer vilket betyg ett arbete ska få eller om det ska bli underkänd. Jag har upptäckt två problem i systemet: 1. Bedömning från en individuell examinator är subjektiv och detta har flera konsekvenser, bl.a. icke-förtroendefulla relationer mellan lärare och elev, orättvisa för studenter, och även ojämna kvalité hos universiteten och högskolor; 2. Handledare och examinatorer får en schablon resurstilldelning för varje student och faktiskt blir straffad när en student blir underkänd.

    Medan det första problemet är en allmän fråga, det andra kan vara ett specialfall för oss. Båda problemen undergräver kvalitetssäkringssystemet. Diskussioner här gäller att hitta en lösning till problemen. Bland annat, peer-review, grupp examinering, och arbetsbelastning baserad resursfördelning ska diskuteras.

  • 11725.
    Wang, Qinghua
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Lightweight session: key establishment for the internet of things2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11726.
    Wang, Qinghua
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Using secret spreading codes to enhance physical layer security in wireless communication2017In: ICC 2017: 3rd International Workshop on Advanced PHY and MAC Technology for Super Dense Wireless Networks, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The broadcast nature of wireless communication make it intrinsically vulnerable to jamming and eavesdropping attacks. Spread-spectrum techniques spread narrowband signals over a wide bandwidth, and provide good resistance to noise and jamming attacks. However, spread-spectrum signals can still be intercepted if their used spreading codes are known. To tackle this issue, this paper proposes a lightweight design on generating secret spreading codes. A secret spreading code has all the desired properties of an ordinary spreading code, plus its unpredictability. Our method on generating secret spreading codes is shown to be resistant to cryptanalysis, and has little requirement on memory and computing resources.

  • 11727.
    Wang, Qinghua
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Huang, Xin
    England.
    Mengistu, Dawit
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. dawit.mengistu@hkr.se .
    Session key agreement for end-to-end security in time-synchronized networks2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11728.
    Wang, Qinghua
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Yigitler, Huseyin
    Finland.
    Huang, Xin
    Kina.
    Jäntti, Riku
    Finland.
    Localizing multiple objects using radio tomographic imaging technology2016In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 65, no 5, p. 3641-3656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low data rate wireless networks can be deployed for physical intrusion detection and localization purposes. The intrusion of a physical object (or human) will disrupt the radio frequency magnetic field, and can be detected by observing the change of radio attenuation. This gives the basis for the radio tomographic imaging technology which has been recently developed for passively monitoring and tracking objects. Due to noise and the lack of knowledge about the number and the sizes of intruding objects, multi-object intrusion detection and localization is a challenging issue. This article proposes an extended VB-GMM (i.e. variational Bayesian Gaussian mixture model) algorithm in treating this problem. The extended VBGMM algorithm applies a Gaussian mixture model to model the changed radio attenuation in a monitored field due to the intrusion of an unknown number of objects, and uses a modified version of the variational Bayesian approach for model estimation. Real world data from both outdoor and indoor experiments (using the radio tomographic imaging technology) have been used to verify the high accuracy and the robustness of the proposed multi-object localization algorithm.

  • 11729.
    Wang, Qinghua
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap. Aalto University, Finland.
    Yigitler, Huseyin
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Jäntti, Riku
    Aalto University, Finland.
    System monitoring and fault diagnosis in wireless sensor systems2012In: Aalto University Workshop on Wireless Sensor Systems, WoWSS 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss fault diagnosis for wireless sensor systems. Fault diagnosis is only possible if comprehensive system monitoring is in place. We thus also present architecture for in-depth system monitoring.

  • 11730.
    Wang, Shuang
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Xiang, Linjing
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Xing, Fei
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Green food development in China: focus on the east2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose/aim

    The aim of our dissertation is to increase consumers’ buying awareness of green food and promote green food consumption in eastern China.

    Approach

    We collect data through a questionnaire and present hypotheses through reading related scientific articles. The data analysis includes description of samples and statistical tests in the form of cross tabulations, chi squares and frequency tables.

    Findings

    The questionnaire researches consumers’ income and education levels, ages and price of green food, etc. We find ages and education levels have a significant influence on frequency of buying green food, while income levels and price have no strong influence.

    Originality/value

    An original idea is to research the current green food market, and based on it to increase the consumers’ buying awareness and promote green food consumption. Further, the empirical data is collected from different cities in the east where there is a higher demand of green food. The study has value for the debate concerning the group of people who are older and have lower education levels as our great target consumers. The result of income levels and price means consumers are more lay attention to green food quality.

  • 11731.
    Wang, T.
    et al.
    Kina.
    Jiang, H.
    Kina.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Wang, JK.
    Kina.
    Wang, L.
    Kina.
    The Minimal Eating Observation Form-II (MEOF-II): cross-cultural validation of the Chinese version for people with stroke2016In: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, ISSN 1356-1294, E-ISSN 1365-2753, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 207-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale, Aims and Objectives: Eating difficulties are common among patients affected by stroke. A valid, reliable instrument for assessing eating difficulties in people with stroke is needed. The aim of this study was to translate the Minimal Eating Observation Form - version II (MEOF-II) for patients with stroke into Chinese and to comprehensively evaluate its reliability and validity.Methods: The scale of the original MEOF-II form was translated into Chinese using the cross-culture translation method, and 125 participants with stroke were assessed. Data were analysed by content validity index, Cronbach's alpha, correlations and exploratory factor analysis (EFA).Results: Reliability and validity were demonstrated for the scale. A three-factor structure was illustrated by EFA, and construct validity was demonstrated by good convergent and discriminant validity.Conclusions: The Chinese version (Ch-MEOF-II) shows good reliability and validity in this study and can be applicable to assess eating difficulties in people with stroke; The Ch-MEOF-II allows the early recognition of eating difficulties and thus provides guidance of proper clinical interventions. For future study, a confirmatory factor analysis may need to confirm the three-factor structure identified in this study. Furthermore, a cross-cultural comparison can be conducted with the availability of the three different validated language versions of the MEOF-II form.

  • 11732.
    Wang, Yu
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Zhu, Gang
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Hu, Zhiang
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Headquarters relocation of Chinese domestic firms within China——case study of a fashion firm in Ningbo 2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Headquarters relocation of Chinese domestic firms within China is a new economic phenomenon in recent years. Domestic firms’ headquarters relocation has a tremendous influence on the economy of the cities and these firms. We believe this phenomenon can be explained by the classical economic rules. The purpose of this dissertation is to find the factors explaining headquarters relocation from the perspectives of internal and external areas of the Chinese firms. On the basis of relevant literature review and our case study of headquarters relocation, a model, which can be used to evaluate the situation of firms that plan to relocate their headquarters, is developed. Two types, seven internal factors and seven external ones, are integrated in our model. To test this model, we have developed two hypotheses, made a questionnaire within Zhejiang province of China and interviewed two managers. The result from the survey indicates that the thirteen factors listed in the questionnaire were considered important. Four factors are the core factors. Meanwhile, the result also shows that, “the different wishes of the most staff to the headquarters relocation”(the staff’s opinions toward relocation differed), need not to be considered to most firms when they make a decision of headquarters relocation. This is a weak factor. Hence, we revise our model to remove this factor. On the other hand, we can see the general analysis of the four core factors in headquarters relocation available still in firms of different industries.

  • 11733.
    Wanlu, Song
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Bobbie in the Railway Children: The Harmony Seeker2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11734.
    Wann-Hansson, Christine
    et al.
    Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University.
    Hagell, Peter
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Willman, A.
    School of Health Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Risk factors and prevention among patients with hospital-acquired and pre-existing pressure ulcers in an acute care hospital2008In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 17, no 13, p. 1718-1727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe and identify risk factors associated with hospital-acquired pressure ulcers among adults in an acute care hospital compared with patients with pre-existing pressure ulcers present on admission. A further aim was to identify the preventive measures performed with both groups respectively.

    BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers occur most often in older and immobile persons with severe acute illness and neurological deficits. However, few studies have addressed risk factors that are associated with hospital-acquired pressure ulcers compared with patients with pre-existing pressure ulcers.

    DESIGN: A point prevalence study with a cross-sectional survey design was conducted at a Swedish university hospital.

    METHOD: Data on 535 patients were recorded using a modified version of the protocol developed and tested by the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, including the Braden scale for risk assessment.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of pressure ulcers was 27% (95% confidence interval, 23-31%). Higher age and a total Braden score below 17 were significantly associated with the presence of pressure ulcers. Among individual risk factors higher age, limited activity level and friction and shear while seated or lying down were associated with hospital-acquired pressure ulcers, whereas only higher age and friction and shear were associated with the presence of pressure ulcers in the overall sample. There was an overall sparse use of preventive measures to relieve pressure.

    CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study revealed that pressure ulcers and the insufficient use of preventive measure to relieve pressure is still a problem in acute care settings. A continued focus must be placed on staff training in identifying patients at risk for pressure ulcers development.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Increasing the ability to identify patients who are at risk for pressure ulcer development can assist in preventing unnecessary complications and suffering as well as reduce costs.

  • 11735.
    Wann-Hansson, Christine
    et al.
    Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University.
    Klevsgård, Rosemarie
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Hagell, Peter
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Cross-diagnostic validity of the Nottingham Health Profile Index of Distress (NHPD)2008In: Health and quality of life outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 6, p. 47-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Nottingham Health Profile index of Distress (NHPD) has been proposed as a generic undimensional 24-item measure of illness-related distress that is embedded in the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Data indicate that the NHPD may have psychometric advantages to the 6-dimensional NHP profile scores. Detailed psychometric evaluations are, however, lacking. Furthermore, to support the validity of the generic property of outcome measures evidence that scores can be interpreted in the same manner in different diagnostic groups are needed. It is currently unknown if NHPD scores have the same meaning across patient populations. This study evaluated the measurement properties and cross-diagnostic validity of the NHPD as a survey instrument among people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD).

    METHODS: Data from 215 (PD) and 258 (PAD) people were Rasch analyzed regarding model fit, reliability, differential item functioning (DIF), unidimensionality and targeting. In cases of cross-diagnostic DIF this was adjusted for and the impact of DIF on the total score and person measures was assessed.

    RESULTS: The NHPD was found to have good overall and individual item fit in both disorders as well as in the pooled sample, but seven items displayed signs of cross-diagnostic DIF. Following adjustment for DIF some aspects of model fit were slightly compromised, whereas others improved somewhat. DIF did not impact total NHPD scores or resulting person measures, but the unadjusted scale displayed minor signs of multidimensionality. Reliability was > 0.8 in all within- and cross-diagnostic analyses. Items tended to represent more distress (mean, 0 logits) than that experienced by the sample (mean, -1.6 logits).

    CONCLUSION: This study supports the within- and cross-diagnostic validity of the NHPD as a survey tool among people with PD and PAD. We encourage others to reassess available NHP data within the NHPD framework to further evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of this simple patient-reported index of illness-related distress.

  • 11736.
    Wanstadius, Maria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Katarina
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Att motivera ungdomar till fysisk aktivitet och bra kostvanor2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Övervikt och fetma är i dag ett snabbt ökande hälsoproblem i Sverige och övriga världen, framförallt bland barn och ungdomar. En betydande orsak till att övervikten i Sverige ökat är en felaktigt sammansatt kost och att vi blivit fysiskt inaktiva i allt större omfattning. Genom att motivera barn och ungdomar att delta i fysiska aktiviteter och äta hälsosammare kan positiva hälsokonsekvenser uppnås. Syftet var att undersöka kost- och motionsvanor bland elever i skolår 9, samt jämföra hur flickor respektive pojkar kan motiveras till bra kost- och motionsvanor. Vi valde att genomföra en enkätundersökning på elever i skolår 9 i Kristianstads kommun, där sammanlagt 235 elever besvarade enkäten. Resultatet visade att eleverna i skolan skulle kunna motiveras av fler idrottslektioner, gratis frukt på rasterna samt att få möjlighet att påverka såväl skollunchen som idrottslektionernas innehåll. En könsskillnad som framkom var att inom skolidrotten motiverades flickor i högre grad än pojkar av prova-på-dagar utan tävlingsmoment, medan pojkarna främst motiverades av idrottsturneringar som skolan anordnar. Slutsatsen av denna studie är att skolan är en viktig arena för att motivera barn och ungdomar till bra kost- och motionsvanor. Genom att utveckla undervisningen i idrott och hälsa och främja hälsosamma kostvanor i skolmiljön, kan skolan bidra till att skapa bestående motivation och intresse för kost och motion hos eleverna.

  • 11737.
    Ward, Anna
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    Bör fantasylitteratur bli en verklighet i svenskundervisningen?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen handlar om fantasylitteraturens plats i svenskundervisningen och nyttan med fantasyromaner. Min undersökning utgår ifrån en enkätundersökning med 56 deltagande elever och intervjuer, tre enskilda och tre via mail. Syftet med undersökningen är att få reda på om fantasylitteraturen har sin plats i svenskundervisningen enligt eleverna och om de ser någon nytta med att läsa fantasyromaner. Enkätundersökningen visade att majoriteten var negativ till att plocka in fantasy i undervisningen. Intervjuerna visade att de ungdomar som läser fantasyromaner ser fantasylitteraturen som en självklar del av svenskundervisningen och litteraturen ställde sig i de flesta fall positiv till fantasygenren.

  • 11738.
    Warvsten, Anna
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Björnfors, Martin
    Lund University.
    Arvidsson, Michael
    Lund University.
    Vaziri-Sani, Fariba
    Lunds universitet.
    Jönsson, Ida
    Lund University.
    Olsson, Gert E
    SLU, Umeå.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University.
    Elding Larsson, Helena
    Lund University.
    Lernmark, Åke
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Lund University.
    Islet autoantibodies present in association with Ljungan virus infection in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in northern Sweden2017In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 24-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bank voles are known reservoirs for Puumala hantavirus and probably also for Ljungan virus (LV), a suggested candidate parechovirus in type 1 diabetes etiology and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether wild bank voles had been exposed to LV and if exposure associated to autoantibodies against insulin (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GADA) or islet autoantigen-2 (IA-2A). Serum samples from bank voles (Myodes glareolus) captured in early summer or early winter of 1997 and 1998, respectively, were analyzed in radiobinding assays for antibodies against Ljungan virus (LVA) and Puumala virus (PUUVA) as well as for IAA, GADA and IA-2A. LVA was found in 25% (189/752), IAA in 2.5% (18/723), GADA in 2.6% (15/615) and IA-2A in 2.5% (11/461) of available bank vole samples. LVA correlated with both IAA (p = 0.007) and GADA (p < 0.001) but not with IA-2A (p = 0.999). There were no correlations with PUUVA, detected in 17% of the bank voles. Compared to LVA negative bank voles, LVA positive animals had higher levels of both IAA (p = 0.002) and GADA (p < 0.001) but not of IA-2A (p = 0.205). Levels of LVA as well as IAA and GADA were higher in samples from bank voles captured in early summer.

    IN CONCLUSION: LVA was detected in bank voles and correlated with both IAA and GADA but not with IA-2A. These observations suggest that exposure to LV may be associated with islet autoimmunity. It remains to be determined if islet autoantibody positive bank voles may develop diabetes in the wild. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 11739.
    Wastring, Emma
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    En ny teknikkultur: äkthet i sociala medier2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis gives increased knowledge of how a digital artifact in social media might encourage genuineness, as an antithesis to profiling in order to create a balance between profiling and genuineness. The thesis treats the area of “ how and why we present ourselves in a certain way in social media”. This is understood and discussed with the help of two endpoints; profiling and genuinness in social media. The study also discusses the role of the designer in this context.

    The thesis explores the area through a literature, but also conduct its own study in the form of semi-structured group interviews. The study shows that stakeholders feels pressure to profiling from social media. Public areas seems to benefit profiling, while smaller context favors genuinness. When it comes to the form of communication it seems that profiling is favored from the forms of communication that come as far from the physically real meeting as possible, while the communicatonforms that provide the experiences similar to a physically real meeting is perceived to be the most genuine.

    The thesis suggests that an digital artefact in social media that aim to encourage genuinness should create a safe environment, where everything is not always for everyone and where the forms of communication that promotes genuinness is encouraged.

  • 11740.
    Wayele, Ban
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Nezami, Rashida
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Förekomst av parodontit och karies hos typ 2 – diabetiker2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of gingivitis, periodontitis and dental caries in individuals with type 2 – diabetes. The study was conducted in a form of a general literature review with the restricted to the following conditions: human studies, English, and articles published between 2007 - 2012. Articles lacking a control group were excluded. The data were collected through searches of the medical database PubMed. A compilation of 11 scientific articles was examined.

    In individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2, the presence of gingivitis was identified in 3 articles, periodontitis in 10, and dental caries in 3 articles. The 3 articles that showed presence of gingivitis demonstrated that individuals with type 2 – diabetes had a higher prevalence of gingivitis compared to non-diabetic individuals. A higher prevalence of periodontitis in individuals with type 2 – diabetes mellitus was found in 10/10 publications. Theses studies demonstrated in individuals with type 2 – a significantly higher incidence of deep pocket depths, attachment loss, recession defects and with higher plaque and gingival index scores. The three articles that showed the presence of dental caries also demonstrated a higher prevalence of dental caries in individuals with type 2 – diabetes mellitus. 

    The articles included in the literature study showed statistically significant higher prevalence of gingivitis, periodontitis, and dental caries in individuals with type 2 – diabetes mellitus than in individuals without a diagnosis of diabetes.

    Keywords: Type 2 – Diabetes, Gingivitis, Periodontitis and Dental Caries

  • 11741.
    Waylen, A.
    et al.
    England.
    Ness, A. R.
    England.
    Wills, A. K.
    England.
    Persson, Martin
    England.
    Rumsey, N.
    England.
    Sandy, J. R.
    England.
    Cleft Care UK study. Part 5: child psychosocial outcomes and satisfaction with cleft services2015In: Orthod Craniofac Res, Vol. 18 Suppl 2, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the impact of cleft service centralization on parental perceptions of child outcomes and satisfaction with care from the Cleft Care UK (CCUK) study and compare them to the Clinical Standards Advisory Group (CSAG) study that took place 15 years earlier. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: A subgroup of respondents from a UK multicentre cross-sectional study (CCUK) of 5-year-olds born with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on parents' perceptions of child self-confidence and their satisfaction with treatment outcomes and service provision were collected via self-report questionnaires. Data were compared with findings from the 1998 CSAG study. RESULTS: Fewer parents in the CCUK study perceived their children as having poor self-confidence than in the 1998 CSAG study (8 and 19%, respectively). At least 81% of parents report satisfaction with the child's facial features after surgery and 98% report being satisfied with the care received. These results are similar to those reported in 1998. There is no evidence of an adverse impact on families' ability to attend appointments at the cleft clinic following centralization. Levels of reported problems (around 30%) with attendance were similar to those reported by CSAG. CONCLUSION: Centralization of cleft services appears to have improved parental perceptions of some child outcomes but has made little difference to already high levels of parental satisfaction with cleft care services. Centralization is not associated with an increase in the proportion of families who find it difficult to attend appointments.

  • 11742.
    Weihao, Du
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Ji, Qin
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Liaoming, Wang
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    The Relationship Between Human Resources and Urban Competitiveness A case study of Ningbo city 2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays the competitiveness is a hot subject being studied all over the China. This dissertation is dedicated to analyzing the relationships between human resources and economic development, innovation and technology, and industrial cluster. The main purpose of this dissertation is to find out the extent to which human resource plays an important role in the competitiveness of one city, one economic region, even one state, and also to give some insight in how to accelerate the competitiveness enhancement by adjusting the quantity, quality, collocation, and structure of human resources, and so on.

    Literature review was conducted in the context of our theoretical framework discussion. Theories of Porter from USA and theory of competitiveness of Ni Pengfei from China were discussed. Then, a new model was created and, a deductive method was adopted. From different angles, three aspects associated with competitiveness were analyzed respectively. An in-depth case study of the city Ningbo, China was conducted. Our theoretical framework and model were tested in the case study.

    We came to conclusion that human resources has significant effect on the economic development, innovation and technology and industrial cluster. It is apparent that human resources is one of the crucial variables prompting competitiveness. Finally, further researches and practical implications of our study were discussed.

  • 11743.
    Weisser, Johan J.
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Hansen, Martin
    Danmark.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment MoLab.
    Sonne, Christian
    Danmark.
    Dietz, Rune
    Danmark.
    Styrishave, Bjarne
    Danmark.
    A novel method for analysing key corticosteroids in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) hair using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry2016In: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 1017, p. 45-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the development and evaluation of a methodology for extraction, clean-up and analysis of three key corticosteroids (aldosterone, cortisol and corticosterone) in polar bear hair. Such a methodology can be used to monitor stress biomarkers in polar bears and may provide as a useful tool for long-term and retrospective information. We developed a combined pressurized liquid extraction (PLE)-solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure for corticosteroid extraction and clean-up followed by high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) analysis. This procedure allows for the simultaneous determination of multiple steroids, which is in contrast to previous polar bear studies based on ELISA techniques. Absolute method recoveries were 81%, 75% and 60% for cortisol, corticosterone and aldosterone, respectively. We applied the developed method on a hair sample pooled from four East Greenland polar bears. Herein cortisol and corticosterone were successfully determined in levels of 0.32 +/- 0.02 ng/g hair and 0.13 +/- 0.02 ng/g hair, respectively. Aldosterone was below limit of detection (LOD<0.17 ng/g). The cortisol hair concentration found in these East Greenland polar bears was consistent with cortisol levels previously determined in the Southern Hudson Bay and James Bay in Canada using ELISA kits. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 11744.
    Welander-Vatn, Audun
    et al.
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, Section of Psychiatry, University of Oslo.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Otnaess, Mona K
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, Section of Psychiatry, University of Oslo.
    Agartz, Ingrid
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, Section of Psychiatry, University of Oslo.
    Server, Andres
    Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Section of Neuroradiology, Oslo University Hospital.
    Melle, Ingrid
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, Section of Psychiatry, University of Oslo.
    Andreassen, Ole A
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, Section of Psychiatry, University of Oslo.
    The neural correlates of cognitive control in bipolar I disorder: an fMRI study of medial frontal cortex activation during a Go/No-go task2013In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 549, p. 51-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to dysregulation of mood, bipolar I disorder (BD I) is characterized by abnormalities in the execution of cognitive control. Hypoactivation of a specific sub-region in the cognitive control network, located in the medial frontal cortex, has been described among BD I patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with BD I showed decreased activation in this brain region as compared to healthy controls when performing a cognitive control task. Twenty-four BD I patients and 24 healthy controls performed a Go/No-go task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. Performance and response times were recorded. The BD I subjects had significantly slower response times and more patients made errors of omission compared to the healthy controls during the task. Both BD I subjects and healthy controls demonstrated activations in the brain region of interest during the task, but analyses revealed no statistically significant differences between groups. Although the patients display some deviances in behavioural measures, this study reveals no significant differences between BD I subjects and healthy controls in recruitment of the medial frontal cortex during a Go/No-go task.

  • 11745. Welander-Vatn, Audun S
    et al.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Institute of Psychiatry, University of Oslo & Department of Psychiatry, Ulleval University Hospital, Oslo.
    Lycke, Christine
    Agartz, Ingrid
    Server, Andres
    Gadmar, Øystein Bech
    Melle, Ingrid
    Nakstad, Per Hjalmar
    Andreassen, Ole A
    No altered dorsal anterior cingulate activation in bipolar II disorder patients during a Go/No-go task: an fMRI study.2009In: Bipolar Disorders, ISSN 1398-5647, E-ISSN 1399-5618, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 270-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: It has been reported that one of the core features in patients with bipolar disorder II (BD II) is increased impulsivity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with BD II showed decreased activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as compared to healthy controls when performing a task sensitive to impulsivity.

    METHODS: Twenty-seven BD II patients and 28 healthy controls performed a Go/No-go task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. Eleven of the patients were unmedicated, and possible group differences between medicated and unmedicated patients were also assessed. Results: The groups did not differ in behavioral performance on the Go/No-go task. Both BD II subjects and healthy controls demonstrated dACC activity during the task, and analyses revealed no statistically significant group differences. Medicated and unmedicated patients also did not differ in the degree of fMRI activation.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings do not support the hypothesis of abnormal dACC activity during a Go/No-go task in BD II patients.

  • 11746.
    Welff Nantas, Christina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    Persson, Sofia
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    En jämförelse mellan ett engelskspråkigt klassrum i Sverige respektive Litauen2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete jämförs två engelskspråkiga klassrum som bygger på två olika samhällssystem, ett litauiskt och ett svenskt. Syftet är att upptäcka skillnader och likheter genom att se olika existerande kulturer i klassrummen. Avsikten är att tydliggöra vilka faktorer som skapar förutsättningar för en gynnsam språkutveckling i engelska. Två fallstudier och två intervjuer med en engelsklärare från respektive land har genomförts. Studiens resultat visar att det litauiska klassrummet tryckte mer än det svenska på kortare lektioner, mindre grupper och hög aktivitet av målspråket. Det svenska klassrummet betonade elevens personliga utveckling och möjligheter till inflytande, men samtidigt blev användningen av målspråket inte kontinuerligt eftersom de svenska eleverna ofta saknade relevant ordförråd.

  • 11747.
    Welin, Diana
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    "Man blir opererad i magen men det sitter egentligen i huvet": En kvalitativ studie kring livskvalitet hos magsäcksopererade kvinnor i viktminskningssyfte2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Obesity and overweight leads to complications and problems with secondary diseases is increasing every year. A method for the treatment of obesity and obesity is becoming more common is gastric banding that restricting food intake.

    Objective: The aim of the study was to find out how gastric surgery informants themselves reason about their experiences in dealing with their quality of life in relation to gastric banding as a method for weight loss. How to get the knowledge to deal with her ​​new life and how they feel that they can handle their new lifestyle?

    Method: The study was qualitative and was based on semi-structured interviews with five women who have undergone stomach surgery to lose weight. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The interviews revealed that an operation is the last resort when other options for weight loss have failed. Living with obesity means being exposed to stigma and a low quality of life. The knowledge they need to manage their new lifestyle are not from health care, but it provides on the internet in forums with other gastric surgery.

    Conclusion: The quality of life improved after a gastric surgery, but information about how the new life and what can be expected and any problems that arise are up to the individual to learn. An increased understanding and coordinated methods needs to be developed for more health promotion work in the public health system.

  • 11748.
    Welin, Josefine
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Communities - Nätgemenskap ut ett sociologiskt perspektiv 2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en kvalitativ, kvantitativ och teoretisk studie om människor och communities.

    Utifrån bland annat teoretiker som Giddens belyses ämnen som postmodernism och vart den har först oss. Utifrån Israels sammanfattning av teoretiker kan man ta del av Bourdieus tankar om socialt och kulturellt kapital, samt sociala fält.

    De egna teorierna har uppstått ur kvalitativa undersökningar såsom intervjuer. Även kvantitativa undersökningar har gjorts på medlemmar på community Helgon.

    I analyskapitlet sammanvävs frågeställningarna med teoretikerna och undersökningarna.

    Studien visar att communities används som en marknad för att synas. Detta är inget nytt fenomen utan även människor i de förmoderna samhällena ville sticka ut. Vad postmodernismen har gett oss är ett nytt fält att leva ut detta behov.

  • 11749.
    Wellbro, Emma
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Levin, Karolina
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Hur patienter med övervikt- eller fetmaproblematik upplever vårdpersonalens bemötande i samband med hälso- och sjukvårdskontakter: En litteraturstudie2009Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Övervikt och fetma är ett globalt problem som ökar bland befolkningen. Ett liv med övervikt eller fetma kan medföra en vardag med diskriminering och fördomar. Patienter med övervikt eller fetma kan uppleva brister i vårdpersonals bemötande i samband med hälso- och sjukvårdskontakter. Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att belysa hur patienter med övervikt eller fetma upplever vårdpersonalens och framförallt sjuksköterskans bemötande i samband med hälso- och sjukvårdskontakter. Metod: Fördjupningsarbetet genomfördes som en allmän litteraturstudie vilken baserades på sex vetenskapliga artiklar. Resultat: Patienter med övervikt eller fetma upplevde vårdpersonals bemötande såväl positivt som negativt. Patienterna upplevde att vårdpersonals kunskap om övervikt och fetma var otillräcklig. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskor och övrig vårdpersonal har inte tillräcklig acceptans och förståelse för patienter med övervikt- eller fetmaproblematik. Det är därför av betydelse att vårdspersonal får kunskap om och erfarenhet av denna patientgrupp för att patienter ska uppleva sig väl bemötta, vilket i sig medför ökad motivation att klara av den livsstilsförändring de behöver göra.

  • 11750.
    Wemby, Annika
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Crafting a Dual-Market Strategy: A case study of Burberry2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s competitive environment, companies compete for the same customers. Therefore, it is important to be able to satisfy the ever changing needs of customers. Companies can satisfy customer demand by learning about the customer and by alternating offerings in accordance to changing needs. These are actions undertaken by market driven companies. Alternatively, market driving companies satisfy customer demand by being creative and by focusing on customers’ future needs, an action which implies educating customers. However, there are also companies which pursue both of these strategies simultaneously. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine how companies implement a dual-market strategy, and how the strategy is incorporated into the business. Based on literature on closely related research fields, a framework is developed. This framework suggests that certain components influence a dual-market strategy. A study is conducted on the luxury fashion company Burberry. Through semi-structured interviews with employees at Burberry, this study investigates how the company’s use of a dual-market strategy affects the organisational culture and vision. The results indicate that the phenomenon of duality is noticeable in the company’s culture and vision. Due to the lack of research on a dual-market strategy, this study attempts to provide a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of duality. Companies can use the conclusions drawn from this study, as guidelines for how to pursue a dual-market strategy. However, more research is necessary before any generalisations can be made.

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