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  • 1051.
    Wang, Qinghua
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Using secret spreading codes to enhance physical layer security in wireless communication2017In: ICC 2017: 3rd International Workshop on Advanced PHY and MAC Technology for Super Dense Wireless Networks, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The broadcast nature of wireless communication make it intrinsically vulnerable to jamming and eavesdropping attacks. Spread-spectrum techniques spread narrowband signals over a wide bandwidth, and provide good resistance to noise and jamming attacks. However, spread-spectrum signals can still be intercepted if their used spreading codes are known. To tackle this issue, this paper proposes a lightweight design on generating secret spreading codes. A secret spreading code has all the desired properties of an ordinary spreading code, plus its unpredictability. Our method on generating secret spreading codes is shown to be resistant to cryptanalysis, and has little requirement on memory and computing resources.

  • 1052.
    Wang, Qinghua
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Huang, Xin
    England.
    Mengistu, Dawit
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. dawit.mengistu@hkr.se .
    Session key agreement for end-to-end security in time-synchronized networks2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1053.
    Wendin, Karin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Normann, Cecilia
    RISE.
    Forsberg, Sarah
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Davidsson, Fredrik
    Geoloc AB.
    Josell, Åsa
    Atria Scandinavia AB.
    Prim, Mia
    RISE.
    Langton, Maud
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Insects as a culinary ingredient: consumer acceptance and neophobia2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The world´s population is increasing and thus the pressure on the earth´s resources. To ensure food supply and sustainability, food habits in western societies have to change. A significant contribution to global sustainability can be achieved by, for example, decreasing meat consumption 1. Advantages concerning nutrition and sustainability have been found by inclusion of insects in the diet2. Insects as food has a large potential, and the “culinary way” seems to be an effective way to reach consumer acceptance for insect-based foods3. The aim was to examine consumer acceptance and neophobia related to the use of insects as ingredients in food.

    Methods: Food neophobia4, attitudes and acceptance were surveyed by a web-based questionnaire answered by 150 respondents.

    Results: Significantly higher acceptance was shown for insect protein added to foods as a “powder”, with invisible insects than for added visible insects. The interest of buying insect protein as a powder was higher than of buying whole insects. Further, 24 of the respondents (16%) were considered neophobic.

    Discussion: To reach acceptance of insect protein, culinary food could include “non-visible” insects. This is in line with the fact that food neophobia and acceptance are influenced by the sensory attributes and benefits of the actual food. Further, neophobia varies over the life course 5.

    Conclusions: The use of insect protein in food as a powder has higher acceptance than use of whole insects. 16% of the respondent were neophobic.

    References:

    1. WWF. Living Planet Report 20

    2. Yen. Edible insects: Traditional knowledge or western phobia? Entomological   Research 2009

    3. Astrup Pedersen. Disgusting or delicious, MSc Thesis, Copenhagen University 2014    

    4. Pliner, Hobden. Development of a scale to measure the trait of food neophobia in humans. Appetite 1992

    5. Pliner, Salvy. Food neophobia in humans. Shepherd, Raats, ed. The psychology of food choice. 2006

  • 1054. Wendt-Rasch, L
    et al.
    Vought, Lena B. M.
    Lunds universitet.
    Woin, P
    Effects of fenvalerate on the net-spinning behaviour of Hydropsyche siltalai (Dohler) (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae)1998In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 382, no 1-3, p. 53-61Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1055.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    The minimal eating observation form – version II (MEOF-II) revisited – validity and reliability2019In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1056.
    Westergren, Albert
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Melgaard, Dorte
    The Minimal Eating Observation Form – Version II (MEOF-II) Danish Version – psychometric and metrological aspects.2019In: Journal of Nursing MeasurementArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 1057. Whelan, M. J.
    et al.
    Van Egmond, R.
    Guymer, I.
    Lacoursière, Jean O.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Vought, Lena B. M.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Finnegan, C.
    Fox, K. K.
    Sparham, C.
    O'Connor, S.
    Vaughan, M.
    Pearson, J. M.
    The behaviour of linear alkyl benzene sulphonate under direct discharge conditions in Vientiane, Lao PDR2007In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 41, no 20, p. 4730-4740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct discharge of untreated sewage to surface waters is a common practice in many parts of the world. However, relatively little is known about the behaviour of synthetic organic pollutants under these conditions. This paper describes a sampling campaign designed to track changes in water quality in a surface water system in Vientiane (Lao PDR) receiving significant quantities of untreated waste water. The study was based on following in-channel transport using a fluorescent tracer injected as a pulse, with a focus on the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) and ammonia. Water samples were collected at a number of stations with sampling times estimated to coincide with solute time-of-travel. The reduction in LAS concentration with flow-time could be approximated by first-order kinetics with a half life of about 7 h. Free ammonia concentrations decreased more slowly than LAS and remained above the level believed to be toxic for sensitive aquatic species along the entire channel. Changes in the ratios of LAS alkyl chain homologues to total LAS concentrations suggest a preferential removal of longer chain lengths. The role of biodegradation in the removal of LAS was confirmed by the presence of LAS metabolites (sulphophenylcarboxylates, SPCs) which increased systematically (as a fraction of LAS remaining) with flow-time.

  • 1058.
    Widén, Cecilia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Critén, Sladjana
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Persson, Rutger G
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Measuring inflammatory markers in saliva inpolyphenols research2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently an interest in the possible anti-inflammatory effects of intake of fruits and berries. The aim of this study was to determine whether the twice daily administration of a berry beverage rich in polyphenols had effects on salivary levels of a selected group of pro-inflammatory cytokines for one week in a pre- and post-study design. Levels of selected cytokines were compared in whole saliva and saliva obtained using commercially available collection devices (Salivette® Cotton and Salivette® Synthetic rolls). Twenty healthy subjects drank 200 mL of a berry beverage consisting of equal parts of bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus), black currant (Ribes nigrum), lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) diluted with 50% water. Levels of cytokines, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-12 and TNF-α were assessed. Levels of cytokines differed between sources of collection but were highest in whole saliva. The use of cotton or synthetic rolls does not seem to be useful as a method for saliva collection and cytokine analysis. There was no significant change in the levels of selected cytokines at baseline and after intake of the berry beverage in whole stimulated saliva. There was a large inter-individual variation in cytokine levels.

  • 1059.
    Wilsson, Anneli
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Förslag till placering av anläggningar för att förbättra vattenkvalitén i Tidan 2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Considering water quality, landuse and reducion of wetland area in the watershed of Tidan, areas witch are in need of constructions to improve the water quality are identified. Constructions are suggested to be located within the smaller streams in the watershed, so that the water is treated before it reaches the stream Tidan.

  • 1060.
    Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    SPI success factors within product usability evaluation2010In: JOURNAL OF SYSTEMS AND SOFTWARE, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 83, no 11, p. 2059-2072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an experience report where we compare 8 years of experience of product related usability testing and evaluation with principles for software process improvement (SPI). In theory the product and the process views are often seen to be complementary, but studies of industry have demonstrated the opposite. Therefore, more empirical studies are needed to understand and improve the present situation. We find areas of close agreement as well as areas where our work illuminates new characteristics. It has been identified that successful SPI is dependent upon being successfully combined with a business orientation. Usability and business orientation also have strong connections although this has not been extensively addressed in SPI publications. Reasons for this could be that usability focuses on product metrics whilst today's SPI mainly focuses on process metrics. Also because today's SPI is dominated by striving towards a standardized, controllable, and predictable software engineering process: whilst successful usability efforts in organisations are more about creating a creative organisational culture advocating a useful product throughout the development and product life cycle. We provide a study and discussion that supports future development when combining usability and product focus with SPI, in particular if these efforts are related to usability process improvement efforts. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 1061.
    Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Hellman, Mats
    UIQ Technology AB.
    Reporting Usability Metrics Experiences2009In: 2009 ICSE WORKSHOP ON COOPERATIVE AND HUMAN ASPECTS OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, IEEE , 2009, p. 108-115Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often claimed that software development is negatively affected by infrequent, incomplete and inconsistent measurements; improving with the help of metrics is an obvious solution. Software testing provides opportunities for measurement that give organizations insight in to processes. Usability testing is part of the testing area, although it is not a commonly addressed area within software engineering, perhaps because of a split between qualitative and quantitative paradigms. We compare a usability testing framework called UTUM with principles for Software Process Improvement, and find areas of close agreement as well as areas where our work illuminates new characteristics. UTUM is found to be a useful vehicle for improvement in software engineering, dealing as it does with both product and process. Our work emphasises the importance of the neglected area of usability testing. Our experience also illustrates how the metrics have been tailored to act as a boundary object between different disciplines.

  • 1062.
    Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rissanen, Mikko
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Identifying organizational barriers: a case study of usability work when developing software in the automation industry2014In: JOURNAL OF SYSTEMS AND SOFTWARE, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 88, p. 54-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates connections between usability efforts and organizational factors. This is an important field of research which so far appears to be insufficiently studied and discussed. It illustrates problems when working with software engineering tasks and usability requirements. It deals with a large company that manufactures industrial robots with an advanced user interface, which wanted to introduce usability KPIs, to improve product quality. The situation in the company makes this difficult, due to a combination of organizational and behavioural factors that led to a "wicked problem" that caused conflicts, breakdowns and barriers. Addressing these problems requires a holistic view that places context in the foreground and technological solutions in the background. Developing the right product requires communication and collaboration between multiple stakeholders. The inclusion of end users, who fully understand their own work context, is vital. Achieving this is dependent on organizational change, and management commitment. One step to beginning this change process may be through studying ways to introduce user-centred design processes. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 1063.
    Winzell, Claes
    et al.
    Rise mätteknik.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    Rise mätteknik.
    Felin, Aslak
    Rise mätteknik.
    Melin, Jeanette
    Rise mätteknik.
    Nilsson, Evalill
    Linköpings universitet.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Hagqvist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet.
    Jämförelser kräver kvalitetssäkrad mätteknik2019In: Dagens Medicin, debattArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1064.
    Woodward, Guy
    et al.
    Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College Cork.
    Gessner, Mark O.
    Department of Aquatic Ecology, Eawag.
    Giller, Paul S.
    Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College Cork.
    Gulis, Vladislav
    Institute of Marine Research (IMAR) and Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra.
    Hladyz, Sally
    Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College Cork.
    Lecerf, Antoine
    Université de Toulouse.
    Malmqvist, Björn
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    McKie, Brendan G.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Tiegs, Scott D.
    Department of Aquatic Ecology, Eawag.
    Cariss, Helen
    Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University.
    Dobson, Mike
    Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University.
    Elosegi, Arturo
    Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao.
    Ferreira, Verónica
    Institute of Marine Research (IMAR) and Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra.
    Graça, Manuel A.S.
    Institute of Marine Research (IMAR) and Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra.
    Fleituch, Tadeusz
    Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.
    Lacoursière, Jean O.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Nistorescu, Marius
    Department of Systems Ecology and Sustainability, University of Bucharest.
    Pozo, Jesús
    Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao.
    Risnoveanu, Geta
    Department of Systems Ecology and Sustainability, University of Bucharest.
    Schindler, Markus
    Department of Aquatic Ecology, Eawag.
    Vadineanu, Angheluta
    Department of Systems Ecology and Sustainability, University of Bucharest.
    Vought, Lena B. M.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Chauvet, Eric
    Université de Toulouse.
    Continental-scale effects of nutrient pollution on stream ecosystem functioning2012In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 336, no 6087, p. 1438-1440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive nutrient loading is a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide that leads to profound changes in aquatic biodiversity and biogeochemical processes. Systematic quantitative assessment of functional ecosystem measures for river networks is, however, lacking, especially at continental scales. Here, we narrow this gap by means of a pan-European field experiment on a fundamental ecosystem process—leaf-litter breakdown—in 100 streams across a greater than 1000-fold nutrient gradient. Dramatically slowed breakdown at both extremes of the gradient indicated strong nutrient limitation in unaffected systems, potential for strong stimulation in moderately altered systems, and inhibition in highly polluted streams. This large-scale response pattern emphasizes the need to complement established structural approaches (such as water chemistry, hydrogeomorphology, and biological diversity metrics) with functional measures (such as litter-breakdown rate, whole-system metabolism, and nutrient spiraling) for assessing ecosystem health.

  • 1065.
    Wu, Shiying
    et al.
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University.
    Chen, Yu
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University.
    Mao, Guanzhong
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University.
    Trobro, Stefan
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University.
    Kwiatkowski, Marek
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University.
    Kirsebom, Leif A.
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University.
    Transition-state stabilization in Escherichia coli ribonuclease P RNA-mediated cleavage of model substrates2014In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 631-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used model substrates carrying modified nucleotides at the site immediately 5' of the canonical RNase P cleavage site, the -1 position, to study Escherichia coli RNase P RNA-mediated cleavage. We show that the nucleobase at -1 is not essential but its presence and identity contribute to efficiency, fidelity of cleavage and stabilization of the transition state. When U or C is present at -1, the carbonyl oxygen at C2 on the nucleobase contributes to transition-state stabilization, and thus acts as a positive determinant. For substrates with purines at -1, an exocyclic amine at C2 on the nucleobase promotes cleavage at an alternative site and it has a negative impact on cleavage at the canonical site. We also provide new insights into the interaction between E. coli RNase P RNA and the -1 residue in the substrate. Our findings will be discussed using a model where bacterial RNase P cleavage proceeds through a conformational-assisted mechanism that positions the metal(II)-activated H2O for an in-line attack on the phosphorous atom that leads to breakage of the phosphodiester bond.

  • 1066.
    Yu, Li
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Zhao, Sibin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Design and implementation of an e-healthcare subsystem for chronic renal failure patients2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project deals with the analysis, design and implementation of an e-healthcare subsystem. The subsystem is a prototype for the patients in the chronic renal failure unit. The main purpose of this project is to make research on information and communication technology (ICT) applied on health care system and data presentation. The expected result is that a worked e-healthcare subsystem is implemented to demonstrate the application of modern ICT, and a good foundation for applying for new e-healthcare projects.

  • 1067.
    Zhang, Linfan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Zheng, Shuang
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Enhancing QR Code Security2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Quick Response code opens possibility to convey data in a unique way yet insufficient prevention and protection might lead into QR code being exploited on behalf of attackers. This thesis starts by presenting a general introduction of background and stating two problems regarding QR code security, which followed by a comprehensive research on both QR code itself and related issues. From the research a solution taking advantages of cloud and cryptography together with an implementation come after. We also give an objective evaluation on the outcome in comparison to existing QR products. They are based on the purpose of enhancing QR code security and aim to interpret how we have tackle the specified problems meanwhile to suggest possible further work for bringing security of QR code to a higher level. 

  • 1068.
    Zorita, Saioa
    et al.
    Division of Analytical Chemistry, University of Lund.
    Hallgren, Pär
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Mathiasson, Lennart
    Division of Analytical Chemistry, University of Lund.
    Steroid hormone determination in water using an environmentally friendly membrane based extraction technique2008In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1192, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a method was developed for determination of steroid hormones (17beta-estradiol, estrone, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol) in tap and sewage water samples from Sweden. Sample preparation and analysis were performed by a hollow-fibre microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction (HF-MMLLE) set-up combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this approach, only the organic liquid in the lumen (10microL) of the hollow-fibre membrane was utilised for depleting extraction. Several parameters were studied, including: type of organic solvent, sample pH, salt and humic acid content. The optimised method allowed the determination of the analyte at the low ngL(-1) level in tap and sewage water. A linear plot gave correlation coefficients better than 0.995 and resulted in a method limit of detection of 1.6, 3 and 10ngL(-1) for 17beta-estradiol, estrone, and 17alpha-ethynylestradiol, respectively, in sewage water. Enrichment factors were over 1400 after derivatisation. The repeatabilities at 50 and 600ngL(-1) were better than 10% and 6%, respectively.

  • 1069.
    Zorita, Saioa
    et al.
    Division of Analytical Chemistry, University of Lund.
    Mårtensson, Lennart
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Mathiasson, Lennart
    Division of Analytical Chemistry, University of Lund.
    Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals in a municipal sewage treatment system in the south of Sweden2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 8, p. 2760-2770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence and removal rate of seven pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, fluoxetine, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin), two metabolites (norfluoxetine, clofibric acid), one degradation product (4-isobutylacetophenone) and 3 estrogens (17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 17beta-estradiol, estrone) were studied in the inlet and outlet of a tertiary sewage treatment plant (STP) in Sweden as well as between different treatment steps in the STP which includes a conventional activated sludge step. Pharmaceuticals in raw household and raw hospital sewage streams leading to the STP were as well investigated. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) of each treatment step was considered for sampling and for the calculation of the removal rates. These rates were above 90%, except for diclofenac, clofibric acid, estrone and ofloxacin. However, only diclofenac and naproxen showed significant effluent loads (>145 mg/d/1000 inh). Diclofenac was not eliminated during the treatment and in fact even higher concentrations were found at the effluent than in the inlet of the STP. 17alpha-Ethinylestradiol was not detected in any of the samples. Results indicate that a STP such as the one in Kristianstad, Sweden, with a tertiary treatment is sufficient to remove significantly most of the investigated pharmaceuticals. The chemical treatment improved the removal of several pharmaceuticals especially the antibiotics, which showed step removal rates between 55 and 70%. The expected concentration levels of the pharmaceuticals in the surface water (dilution 1 to 10) close to the outlet of the STP are below the no-observed effect-concentration (NOEC). However, despite that this would imply no important effects in the aquatic environment one cannot rule out negative consequences nearby the STP because most of the NOEC values are derived from acute toxicity data. This may underestimate the real impact of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic ecosystem.

  • 1070.
    Zorita, Saioia
    et al.
    Division of Analytical Chemistry, Lund University.
    Mårtensson, Lennart
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Mathiasson, Lennart
    Division of Analytical Chemistry, Lund University.
    Hollow-fibre supported liquid membrane extraction for determination of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine concentration at ultra trace level in sewage samples2007In: Journal of Separation Science, ISSN 1615-9306, E-ISSN 1615-9314, Vol. 30, no 15, p. 2513-2521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a method was developed for determining the concentration of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine and its metabolite, norfluoxetine, in sewage water samples. Sample preparation was performed by hollow-fibre supported liquid membrane (HF-SLM) extraction with final analysis using liquid chromatography with UV detection. Several parameters were studied including type of organic solvent, sample and acceptor pH, and salt and humic acid content. The optimised method allowed determination of the analyte at the ng/L level in sewage water. A linear plot gave a correlation coefficient better than 0.991 for both analytes and resulted in limits of detection in sewage water of 11 and 12 ng/L, for fluoxetine and norfluoxetine, respectively. The enrichment factor was over 1700 for both analytes in sewage water. The repeatability and reproducibility were better than 8% and 17%, respectively. The developed methodology was used to study daily variations of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in municipal sewage streams. Norfluoxetine has been detected for the first time in sewage water and a preliminary analysis gave average concentrations of 150 and 225 ng/L for norfluoxetine and fluoxetine, respectively.

  • 1071.
    Ångman, Hanna
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    I tigerns rike: en landskapsvetenskaplig studie om två underarters populationsförändring och ekologiska värde för landskapet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study is a literature review and seek to find out two subspecies of tiger´s (Panthera tigris) population change and the reasons surrounding this on a time scale from 1970 to 2010. It also includes finding out the landscape and ecological consequences related to this, in order to discuss the sustainable conservation opportunities in the future. The two chosen subspecies for the study is the sumatran tiger and the amurtiger.

    The method has been mainly supported by previous studies, statistics and reports on the subject, but has allow themselves to be analysed and discussed in search for new fatc that can bring more light over the tigers popoulationchanges and the reserach of the tigerlandscape. Comparative studies with other predators, our Swedish wolf out and foray into the landscape, however, brings us a good picture of what could happen if the tiger continues to decrease or completely disappear from their landscape.

    Despite declining statistics, there were clear signs that fragmentation and human population growth are important factors to discuss the tiger's decline. The sumatran tiger was shown to be dangerly threatened by deforestation and human population growth in Sumatra, while the amurtiger seemed to be more resistent despite earlier researches has shown. An explanation for this might be the fact that the two subspecies range has been analyzed the same way despite large differences in environment and sieze and this can play a big role in my results that differes from earlier reserach results. It is clear, however, that humans general attitude toward predatos in their local area, so called human-wildlife conflicts, complicates the issue of conservation of the tiger when damage caused by the predators can be fatal and not to easy or affordable to compensate.

  • 1072.
    Östberg, Håkan
    Kristianstad University.
    Kan gullstånds hålla stånd?- återinventering av Senecio paludosus i Kristianstad Vattenrike 20122013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Botanist Kjell-Arne Olsson inventoried the plant fen ragwort Senecio paludosus 1983 in Scania andfound a big number of locations within Biosphere Reserve Kristianstad Vattenrike. In 2012, a reinventoryof the 1983 survey was carried out to study whether there has been any change in the fenragwort population in Kristianstad Vattenrike since the last inventory. The results show that therehas been no overall change in the number of fen ragwort in Kristianstad Vattenrike, on certainpremises they have increased in number while in others they have fallen. However, the inventoryshows that almost half of the locations with fen ragwort have disappeared during the same period.The main reason for this is that fen ragwort did not manage to competitive with other vegetation,taking in consideration this has been smaller premises with young plants. In addition to competitionother factors such as prolonged high water, grazing and caterpillars from Tyria jacobaeaecontributed to the decrease. Despite this the future looks stable for fen ragwort in KristianstadVattenrike where several very strong premises exist in the region.

  • 1073.
    Österling, Jesper
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Skapa grön infrastruktur för nyckelbiotoper med kantzoner runt värdefulla Vatten.: GIS-analys i Dalarna för bättre biodiversitet i skogsbruket2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker förslaget att kombinera utökade kantzoner med nyckelbiotoper med en matrix av hyggesfri skog. Om det här förslaget hade varit framgångsrikt i praktiken hade det medfört många fördelar för biodiversiteten i skogar och vattendrag. Genom analys med GIS-program analyserar studien ifall nyckelbiotoper har en tendens med att ligga nära vatten, och hur mycket skog och nyckelbiotop hade inkluderats i ett antal hypotetiska utökade kantzoner. Studiens resultat visar dock att det inte finns ett kausalt samband med att nyckelbiotoper skulle ligga nära vatten, och mängden skog och nyckelbiotop som skulle ha inkluderats i de hypotetiska kantzonerna är försumbart.

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