hkr.sePublikationer
Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
1234567 101 - 150 av 388
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 101.
    Göransson, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Mina tankar eller dina?: psykiskt välbefinnande hos avhoppare från sekter i relation till psykiska övergrepp i rörelsen2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att se om psykiskt välbefinnande hos avhoppare från sekter är relaterat till förekomsten av psykiska övergrepp i den rörelse som lämnats samt att undersöka hur avhoppares psykiska välbefinnande ser ut. Deltagare var 57 avhoppare från åtta olika religiösa rörelser i Sverige. De rekryterades huvudsakligen genom hjälporganisationer för avhoppare och deltog genom att svara på frågor via ett nätformulär. Resultaten visade att högre förekomst av psykiska övergrepp, mätt med GPA-skalan, var relaterat till sämre psykiskt välbefinnande, mätt med CORE-OM, vilket var enligt hypotesen. Det fanns däremot inte något samband mellan psykiskt välbefinnande och antalet år i rörelsen eller antalet år sedan avhoppet. Vidare framkom att avhoppare har sämre psykiskt välbefinnande än normalbefolkningen, vilket var enligt hypotesen, där högt riskbeteende var utmärkande. Ett förslag till slutsats är att sämre psykiskt välbefinnande hos avhoppare till stor del orsakas av psykiska övergrepp som förekommit i rörelsen. Vidare indikerar resultaten att vården bör vara observant på riskbeteende hos denna patientgrupp samt att avhoppare skulle vara hjälpta av större kunskap hos vårdpersonal om sektmiljöer.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 102.
    Haapaniemi, Jan-Erik
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Personlighetsdimensionerna i femfaktormodellen och möjligheten att predicera upplevd stress2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns individuella skillnader i hur vi påverkas av stress och ett sätt att identifiera skillnaderna är att undersöka hur personlighetsdrag predicerar upplevd stress. Detta kan tillämpas vid rekrytering till yrken med särskilda krav på stresstålighet. Lazarus transaktionsmodell är ledande inom stressforskning och inom personlighetsteorier representerar femfaktormodellens (FFM) neuroticism, extraversion, öppenhet, samstämmighet och samvetsgrannhet de grundläggande personlighetsdragen. Enligt tidigare forskning utgör neuroticism en särskild sårbarhet för stress. Tre hypoteser prövades och undersökningens syftet var att predicera hur personligheten påverkar benägenheten att uppleva stress utifrån FFM, på dimensions- och facettnivå, samt att undersöka skillnader i upplevd stress beroende på kön. Etthundratolv studenter svarade på en enkät innehållande NEO-PI-R som mäter personlighetsdimensionerna samt Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) som mäter upplevd stress. Korrelationsanalyser, t-test och hierarkiska multipla regressioner gjordes. Hypoteserna om neuroticism och stress får stöd i resultatet men inte hypotesen om kön och stress. Oväntade resultat beträffande andra personlighetsdimensioner framkommer och möjliga orsaker till detta diskuteras.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 103.
    Hagdahl, Kristina
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Jimmy, Hammarbäck
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Studiemotivation en jämförelse mellan gymnasieelevers egen uppfattning om motivationsnivå och Self-Determination Theory: en jämförelse mellan gymnasieelevers egen uppfattning om motivationsnivå och Self-Determination Theory2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien handlar om svenska gymnasieelevers motivation för att studera matematikämnet. Den teoretiska grunden hämtas ifrån Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur väl gymnasieelevers egen uppfattning om sin motivationsnivå kan prediceras genom de fyra ingående motivationsorienteringarna i Self-Determination Theory: (1) external regulation; (2) introjected regulation; (3) identified regulation; och (4) intrinsic motivation. Deltagarna (n = 132), 44 pojkar, 84 flickor och fyra som valde att inte specificera kön, studerar vid två gymnasieskolor i Falu kommun. Deltagarna fick via en webbsida besvara en enkät som mätte variablerna: upplevd motivationsnivå, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation och intrinsic motivation. Multipel regression användes för att testa om de ingående variablerna i Self-Determination Theory kan predicera deltagarnas upplevda motivationsnivå. Resultatet visar att 69.9% av upplevd motivationsnivå kan förklaras genom de fyra ingående motivationsorienteringarna. De ingående fyra motivationsorienteringarna fanns ordnade enligt teori, vilket innebar att faktorer som upplevs mer autonoma också indikerar på högre motivationsnivå. Studiens resultat visar att gymnasieelevers självupplevda motivationsnivå kan prediceras genom Self-Determination Theory och dess motivationsorienteringar. De deltagare som skattar sin egen motivationsnivå som hög, är också de deltagare som i högst grad drivs av identified regulation och inre motivation, liksom att de deltagare som skattar sin självupplevda motivationsnivå som lägre drivs mer av yttre motivation.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Examensarbete vt 2014, Self-Determination Theory
  • 104.
    Hanna, Jokimaa
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning.
    Finns samband mellan personlighetstyp,stress och välmående?2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det arbetas mer och mer gränslöst, där gränserna mellan privatliv och arbetsliv suddas ut parallellt medsjukskrivningarna för reaktioner på stress ökar. Hur kan personlighetsdrag predicera upplevd stress ochvälmående? Detta kan tillämpas vid arbete med friskfaktorer som bidrar till välmående på arbetsplatsen.Perceived Stress Scale är den mest använda självskattningen inom stress, välmåendeformuläret visarutmärkt reliabilitet och god validitet. Inom personlighetsteorier representerar femfaktormodellen(neuroticism, extraversion, öppenhet, vänlighet och samvetsgrannhet) personlighetsdragen. Enligttidigare forskning utgör neuroticism en särskild sårbarhet för stress. Tre hypoteser prövades där syftetmed studien var att predicera hur personligheten påverkar välmåendet samt benägenheten att upplevastress. Deltagarna som svarade på enkäten var 1545 till antalet i åldrarna 18-71 år utspridda i Sverige.Korrelationsanalyser och multipla regressionsanalysen genomfördes. Hypotesen får stöd i studien,personlighetsdrag kan predicera upplevd stress och välmående. En tydlig korrelation fanns mellanvariablerna stress och samtliga personlighetsdimensioner.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 105.
    Hansson, Erika
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Psykologi. Lund university.
    Disordered eating among Swedish adolescents: associations with emotion dysregulation, depression and self-esteem2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The path to an eating disorder (ED) always leads through a borderland, which, in this thesis, is referred to as disordered eating (DE) (Neumark-Sztainer, Wall, Eisenberg,Story, & Hannan, 2006; Waaddegaard, Thoning, & Petersson, 2003). In this borderland, people tend to make unhealthy eating choices, such as greatly reducing their food intake, self-inducing vomiting, or engaging in binge eating, but not to the extent that they would receive an ED diagnosis. Nevertheless, DE can have a strong negative effect on psychological health. Approximately 15%–52% of all adolescents, depending on the gender and the study’s focus, are found within the borderland between a healthy diet accompanied by psychological well-being and full-blown ED (e.g. Hautala et al., 2011; Herpertz-Dahlmann et al., 2008). While most of these individuals return to a more or less healthy diet after engaging in DE for some time, others continue to engage in DE and also tend to have trouble regulating their emotions, depression, and low self-esteem. For these reasons, DE itself, apart from being a springboard to EDs, is well worth exploring.At the outset of this thesis, an instrument assessing DE among 1265 adolescents (54.5% girls) was validated. This easily administered questionnaire, referred to by the acronym SCOFF (Morgan, Reid, & Lacey, 1999), comprises five questions assessing possible eating disturbances that are all answered using a “yes”/“no” answer format. The results showed that more girls than boys suffered from DE, and that girls also suffered from more severe DE, which is in line with previous research (e.g. Hautala et al., 2008). Additionally, this assessment of the SCOFF gave rise to the question of whether a positive answer on only certain items (instead of the stipulated cut-off of two) is necessary for indicating the possible presence of DE among adolescents, such as the item assessing whether individuals had ever vomited because they felt uncomfortably full.To further explore DE among adolescents, a person-oriented approach to identify specific patterns of DE based on the subscales of the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) (restraint, eating, weight, and shape concerns) was used. There were six different DE patterns for both boys and girls. The associations of these patterns with emotion dysregulation, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem, which all are related to DE (e.g. Shea & Pritchard, 2007; Svaldi, Griepenstroh, Tuschen- Caffier, & Ehring, 2012), were also assessed. Four of the six girl clusters and five of the six boy clusters showed scores above the cut-off for a clinical ED on at least one of the four indicators. Furthermore, although the “non-problematic” pattern was substantial, including 50% and 76% of girls and boys, respectively, a large portion of adolescents were part of clusters reporting generally high levels of DE. This might partly have to do with my use of an overly permissive cut-off, but nevertheless indicates that a considerable amount of adolescents suffer from DE. Generally, individuals in the DE patterns showed worse emotion regulation, depressive thoughts, and self- esteem than did those in the “non-problematic” patterns. However, some exceptions were found, which emphasizes the utility of analyzing different patterns of DE, not merely severity. Specifically, both girls and boys belonging to the pattern characterized by scores well above the cut-off on shape and weight concerns reported the lowest levels of self-esteem. Moreover, girls and boys in the pattern with scores above the cut-off on restraint showed good emotion regulation skills, few depressive symptoms, and high self-esteem.In Study III, the possible links between adolescents’ and parents’ possible DE and emotion dysregulation were explored, alongside the possible impact of shared family meals on DE. This study further examined whether it is possible to predict DE among adolescents according to their parents’ behaviors. Both DE and emotion dysregulation were found to be more frequent among adolescents than among parents. Furthermore, both adolescents and parents showed weak but significant associations between DE and emotion dysregulation, and showed similarities regarding specific aspects of emotion regulation, although the associations were gender specific. For example, parental emotional strategies were associated with girls’ emotional strategies, impulse control, and emotional goals, but only with boys’ emotional strategies. The only factor that was (weakly) associated with DE and emotion regulation among adolescents was the number of dinners that they shared with the family. Additionally, parental ED was the only predictor of current adolescent DE.In summary, the results of this thesis showed that many adolescents, especially girls, suffer from DE as well as poor emotional regulation, depressive thoughts, and low self-esteem. This is a problem, especially given that existing instruments for evaluating DE do not seem optimal, especially for boys. For instance, answering “yes” to the question of ever having engaged in self-induced vomiting because you have felt too full is probably best followed by a visit to the school nurse. Furthermore, the results indicated the importance of viewing DE not as a singular problem, but as a collection of different problems, even among individuals of the same gender. These differences call for different strategies aimed at helping adolescents achieve a healthier diet. Finally, while the parental influence of DE was significant, more research is required,preferably in a Swedish or Nordic context, where parental responsibility is not as heavily reliant on the mother as in other countries.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 106.
    Hansson, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Psykologi. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO).
    Daukantaité, Daiva
    Lund University.
    Johnsson, Per
    Lund University.
    Disordered eating and emotion dysregulation among adolescents and their parents2017Ingår i: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 5, artikel-id 12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Research on the relationships between adolescent and parental disordered eating (DE) and emotion dysregulation is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether mothers' and fathers' own DE, as measured by SCOFF questionnaire, and emotion dysregulation, as measured by the difficulties in emotion regulation scale (DERS), were associated with their daughters' or sons' DE and emotion dysregulation. Furthermore, the importance of shared family meals and possible parent-related predictors of adolescent DE were explored.

    METHOD: The total sample comprised 1,265 adolescents (M age  = 16.19, SD = 1.21; age range 13.5-19 years, 54.5% female) whose parents had received a self-report questionnaire via mail. Of these, 235 adolescents (18.6% of the total sample) whose parents completed the questionnaire were used in the analyses. Parents' responses were matched and compared with those of their child.

    RESULTS: Adolescent girls showed greater levels of DE overall than did their parents. Furthermore, DE was associated with emotion dysregulation among both adolescents and parents. Adolescent and parental emotion dysregulation was associated, although there were gender differences in the specifics of this relationship. The frequency of shared dinner meals was the only variable that was associated to DE and emotion dysregulation among adolescents, while parental eating disorder was the only variable that enhanced the probability of adolescent DE.

    CONCLUSION: The present study contributes to the literature by demonstrating that there are significant associations between parents and their adolescent children in terms of DE, emotion dysregulation, and shared family meals. Future studies should break down these relationships among mothers, fathers, girls, and boys to further clarify the specific associational, and possibly predictive, directions.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 107.
    Hansson, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Lunds universitet.
    Daukantaité, Daiva
    Lunds universitet.
    Johnsson, Per
    Lunds universitet.
    SCOFF in a general adolescent population2015Ingår i: Journal of Eating Disorders, E-ISSN 2050-2974Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Although Disordered Eating Behaviors (DEB) is an ill-defined concept, multiple studies have examined prevalence of DEB and its relations to other variables in various populations. DEB have been shown to predict more serious eating disorders which in turn can lead to death. Mostly girls seem to suffer from DEB, but the question has been raised whether this, at least, partially is due to the methods used for screening. The SCOFF-questionnaire has been suggested as a quick and easily administered tool to assess DEB. However, the psychometric results regarding SCOFF suggest some inconsistencies, and more research is needed in various countries and age samples.

    Method

    To validate SCOFF, a total of 1265 Swedish adolescents (51.6 % girls) completed self-report questionnaires using the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) as a reference standard.

    Results

    The factor analyses show inconclusive results as to whether SCOFF should be regarded as a comprehensive scale; furthermore, the results indicate a correlation between SCOFF and the EDE-Q in both girl and boy samples. Girls scored significantly higher on SCOFF and also had a higher total score, indicating more severe problems than boys.

    Conclusions

    The results raised questions as to whether the SCOFF might be interpreted and responded to in different ways by girls and boys, risking overlooking boys’ DEB and also whether one “yes” answer, instead of the stipulated two, could be sufficient when using SCOFF for screening purposes. In sum, the results challenge the use of SCOFF in a general adolescent population.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    SCOFF ...
  • 108.
    Hansson, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Psykologi. Lund University.
    Daukantaitė, Daiva
    Lund University.
    Johnsson, Per
    Lund University.
    Typical patterns of disordered eating among Swedish adolescents: associations with emotion dysregulation, depression, and self-esteem2016Ingår i: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108X, Vol. 4, artikel-id 28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Using the person-oriented approach, we determined the relationships between four indicators (restraint and eating, shape, and weight concerns) of disordered eating (DE), as measured by the self-reported Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), to identify typical DE patterns. We then related these patterns to clinical EDE-Q cut-off scores and emotion dysregulation, depression, self-esteem, and two categories of DE behaviors (≥2 or ≤1 "yes" responses on the SCOFF questionnaire).

    METHOD: Typical patterns of DE were identified in a community sample of 1,265 Swedish adolescents (Mage  = 16.19, SD = 1.21; age range 13.5-19 years) using a cluster analysis. Separate analyses were performed for girls (n = 689) and boys (n = 576).

    RESULTS: The cluster analysis yielded a six-cluster solution for each gender. Four of the six clusters for girls and five for boys showed scores above the clinical cut-off on at least one of the four DE indicators. For girls, the two clusters that scored above the clinical cut-offs on all four DE indicators reported severe psychological problems, including high scores on emotion dysregulation and depression and low scores on self-esteem. In contrast, for boys, although two clusters reported above the clinical cut-off on all four indicators, only the cluster with exceedingly high scores on shape and weight concerns reported high emotion dysregulation and depression, and extremely low self-esteem. Furthermore, significantly more girls and boys in the most problematic DE clusters reported ≥2 "yes" responses on the SCOFF questionnaire (as opposed to ≤1 response), indicating clear signs of DE and severe psychological difficulties.

    CONCLUSION: We suspect that the various problematic DE patterns will require different paths back to a healthy diet. However, more research is needed to determine the developmental trajectories of these DE patterns and ensure more precise clinical cut-off scores, especially for boys. Comprehensive understanding of DE patterns might be of use to healthcare professionals for detecting DE before it develops into an eating disorder.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Lund, EPN (dnr: 2012/499).

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 109.
    Hansson, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Lunds universitet.
    Masche, J. Gowert
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Disordered eating in a general population: just an­other depressive symptom or a specific problem?2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that about 30% of adolescent girls and 15% of adolescent boys suffer from disordered eating (DE) which can be defined as problematic eating below criteria for eating disorders according to DSM-V (Hautala et al., 2008; Herpertz-Dahlman et al., 2008). Even sub-clinical unhealthy weight-control behaviors have predicted outcomes related to obesity and eating disorders five years later (Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2006). However, two issues question the validity of DE. First, in contrast to eating disorders, under- or overweight/obesity are not necessary parts of DE. Second, some symptoms and correlates of DE are similar to those of depression. E.g., parent-adolescent relationships seem to play an important role in explaining both DE (Hautala et al., 2011; Berge et al., 2010) and internalizing problems (Soenens et al., 2012). Thus, this study examined associations between DE and a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems, parent-adolescent relationship characteristics, and food intake and sleep habits in a general population of adolescents. Comparing results with and without controlling for depression reveals whether DE is a specific problem or merely a depressive symptom. This study also explored whether DE and the other variables under study are associated independently of weight status (underweight, overweight/obesity, and normal weight), specific to under- or overweight, or spurious if taking weight status into account.

    The study is based on the first wave of an on-going longitudinal study, and all measures are child-reported (N=1,281). Adolescents attending grades 7 to 10 in a Southern Swedish municipality (age 12.5 to 19.3, M = 15.2, SD = 1.2) filled out questionnaires in class.  DE was measured using the SCOFF, a five-item screening scale validated for use in general populations (e.g. Muro-Sans et al., 2008; Noma et al., 2006).

    The results of univariate ANOVAs indicate that associations with DE were largely independent of weight status. Moreover, most associations with disordered eating were spurious when controlling for depression. However, some associations remained. Above and beyond depression effects, adolescents with DE reported lower self-esteem, stronger feelings of being over-controlled by their parents and active withholding of information towards them, consumption of fewer meals during the week, and higher levels of daytime sleepiness. Boys with ED slept more hours during the week and ate more fruits and vegetables than boys without ED. In conclusion, despite an overlap between depressive symptoms and disordered eating, this study provides ample evidence that sleep, nutrition habits, self-esteem, and parental control issues distinguish eating disordered adolescents from those suffering from general depressive symptoms.

    Ladda ner (pdf)
    bilaga
  • 110.
    Hansson, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Masche, J. Gowert
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Disordered eating in a general population: just an­other depressive symptom or a specific problem?2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that about 30% of adolescent girls and 15% of adolescent boys suffer from disordered eating (DE) which can be defined as problematic eating below criteria for eating disorders according to DSM-V (Hautala et al., 2008; Herpertz-Dahlman et al., 2008). Even sub-clinical unhealthy weight-control behaviors have predicted outcomes related to obesity and eating disorders five years later (Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2006). However, two issues question the validity of DE. First, in contrast to eating disorders, under- or overweight/obesity are not necessary parts of DE. Second, some symptoms and correlates of DE are similar to those of depression. E.g., parent-adolescent relationships seem to play an important role in explaining both DE (Hautala et al., 2011; Berge et al., 2010) and internalizing problems (Soenens et al., 2012). Thus, this study examined associations between DE and a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems, parent-adolescent relationship characteristics, and food intake and sleep habits in a general population of adolescents. Comparing results with and without controlling for depression reveals whether DE is a specific problem or merely a depressive symptom. This study also explored whether DE and the other variables under study are associated independently of weight status (underweight, overweight/obesity, and normal weight), specific to under- or overweight, or spurious if taking weight status into account.

    The study is based on the first wave of an on-going longitudinal study, and all measures are child-reported (N=1,281). Adolescents attending grades 7 to 10 in a Southern Swedish municipality (age 12.5 to 19.3, M = 15.2, SD = 1.2) filled out questionnaires in class.  DE was measured using the SCOFF, a five-item screening scale validated for use in general populations (e.g. Muro-Sans et al., 2008; Noma et al., 2006).

    The results of univariate ANOVAs indicate that associations with DE were largely independent of weight status. Moreover, most associations with disordered eating were spurious when controlling for depression. However, some associations remained. Above and beyond depression effects, adolescents with DE reported lower self-esteem, stronger feelings of being over-controlled by their parents and active withholding of information towards them, consumption of fewer meals during the week, and higher levels of daytime sleepiness. Boys with ED slept more hours during the week and ate more fruits and vegetables than boys without ED. In conclusion, despite an overlap between depressive symptoms and disordered eating, this study provides ample evidence that sleep, nutrition habits, self-esteem, and parental control issues distinguish eating disordered adolescents from those suffering from general depressive symptoms.

  • 111.
    Hedstrom, Ellen
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Parenting Style as a Predictor of Internal and External Behavioural Symptoms in Children: The Child's Perspective2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine three distinct parenting styles and their effect on children’s behavioural patterns, as perceived by the child. The parenting styles, based on Baumrind’s typologies of authoritative, authoritarian and permissive parenting, were measured as well as the children’s self-rated internal and external symptoms. Results indicated that there was a relationship between authoritarian parenting and all aspects of internal symptoms (depression, loneliness and self-esteem) as well as delinquency and aggression (external symptoms). Gender had an effect on depression and loneliness with females displaying higher levels. Permissive parenting was the largest contributor to drug use and an effect of age on drug use was also found. In conclusion, the results from this study shows that authoritarian parenting has a detrimental effect on a host of mental health issues and behavioural problems. However, authoritative parenting was shown to have the most positive outcome across the study. Implications for positive parenting style interventions are discussed. In addition, further studies examining parent-child relations from the child’s perspective are suggested.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 112.
    Hejderup, Cecilia
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Enheten för lärarutbildning.
    Attityder mot pedofiler i ett genusperspektiv2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersoka skillnader mellan kvinnors

    och mans attityder gentemot pedofiler och deras handlingar. Kanske

    kan ocksa media spela en roll i detta samanhang. Vi vantade oss att

    kvinnor skulle vara mildare i synen mot pedofiler eftersom kvinnor

    overlag ar mer forstaende an man. Undersokningen undersokte ocksa

    om det fanns nagon skillnad i attityder som ar relaterad till alder. Tre

    olika alderskategorier anvandes, 18-25, 26-34 och 35+. Antalet

    forsoksdeltagare var 142 personer varav 80 kvinnor och 62 man.

    Forsoksledarna anvande sig av en enkat for att undersoka synen pa 4

    olika kategorier som var foljande: straff, garningsman, media och

    rattsvasende. Resultatet visade att kvinnor inte hade mildare syn pa

    denna typ av brottslingar an man. Man fann dock en skillnad mellan

    aldersgrupperna nar det gallde den kvinnliga delen av

    forsoksdeltagarna, den aldsta aldersgruppen hade en mer fordomande

    syn an de andra grupperna. Detta kan hora ihop men motsatta

    tendenser hos konen pa sa satt att man blir mer toleranta och kvinnor

    striktare angaende denna fraga. Forslag till vidare forskning inom

    omradet diskuteras.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
    Ladda ner (pdf)
    ATTACHMENT01
  • 113.
    Hereora Hummerhielm, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Samuelsson, Robert
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Medievåldets påverkan påsjälvkänsla och empati2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens övergripande syfte är att få en ökad kunskap om medievåld och dess exponering. En webbaserad enkät har använts där människor av alla åldrar och kön deltagit i studien. Yngsta deltagaren var 18 år och äldsta 61 år gammal. 64 kvinnor och 45 män deltog. Huvudresultat efter ett t-test och en två-vägs ANOVA visade på att det inte fanns några huvudeffekter med skillnader i empati relaterade till kön eller hög respektive låg medieexponering i just dagspress. Däremot visade det sig det fanns en signifikant interaktion där kön tillsammans med hög och låg exponering av medievåld, hade en effekt på empati. Kvinnor som exponerades mer av våldsrelaterad media i dagspress visade sig ha en högre empatisk förmåga än män. Analys av skönlitteratur och hur empati, relaterat till kön och våldsexponering, visade att kvinnor i denna studie hade tendens till en högre empati än män. De ytterligare tre exponeringsvariablerna: facklitteratur, film och TV-spel, visade inga indikeringar för interaktionseffekter men visade sig däremot ha signifikanta huvudeffekter mellan könen. Självkänsla som beroende variabel visade sig att inte variera på grund av de beroende variablerna kön eller hög- samt låg medieexponering (likt ovanstående) och gav inga signifikanta resultat.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 114.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Crime victims' experiences of police interviews and their inclination to provide or omit information2004Ingår i: International Journal of Police Science and Management, ISSN 1461-3557, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 155-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research concerns crime victims’ experiences of Swedish police interviews and their inclination to provide or omit information in such interviews. A group of rape or aggravated assault victims, consisting of 178 women and men, answered a questionnaire in this explorative study, which revealed that police officer behaviour in interviews was mainly calm and obliging. Results from factor analyses show that these crime victims perceived police attitudes to be characterised by either dominance or humanity. While being interviewed, crime victims either responded with feelings of anxiety or feelings of being respected, the latter of which encouraged them to be cooperative. Logistic regressions revealed that interviews marked by dominance and responses of anxiety are significantly associated with crime victims who omit information. Interviews marked by humanity, responses of feeling respected, and cooperation are significantly associated with crime victims who provide information.

  • 115.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Lärarutbildning.
    Crime victims' psychological well-being related to police interviews and questions from the prosecutor2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of Therapeutic Jurisprudence is to execute legal procedures such that they promote the social and psychological well-being of the individual involved in a juridical action.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate crime victims’ psychological well-being related to their experiences of being interviewed by the police and questioned by the prosecutor.

    Eighty-three crime victims completed a questionnaire about their experiences from their police interviews and the questions from the prosecutor. To measure the crime victims’ psychological well-being, the Sense of Coherence form and the Impact of Event Scale was used.

    PCA revealed that the victims perceived their police interviews and questions from prosecutors as marked of humanity or dominance. Victims who perceived high humanitarian police interviews showed a significant higher psychological well-being than those who perceived low humanitarian police interviews. There were no significant differences in psychological well-being associated with questions from prosecutors.

  • 116.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Interviewing suspects2012Ingår i: Forensic psychology: crime, justice, law, interventions / [ed] Graham Davies, Anthony Beech, Chichester: BPS Blackwell, 2012, 2, s. 135-150Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 117.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Lärarutbildning.
    Investigative interviewing as a therapeutic jurisprudential approach2009Ingår i: International developments in investigative interviewing / [ed] Williamson, Tom, Milne, Becky, Savage, Thephen P., London: Willan Publishing , 2009, s. 149-175Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 118.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Lärarutbildning.
    Investigative interviewing as a therapeutic jurisprudential approach2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the idea of therapeutic jurisprudence, law enforcement actors are seen as therapeutic agents promoting crime victims’ and suspects’ psychological well-being in legal procedures. Contrary to psychological well-being bad demeanour or behaviour of law enforcement actors may cause a secondary victimization and obstruct legal procedures, and as a consequence of such obstructions be anti-therapeutic. An overwhelming majority of the special squad police officers have perceived, during their entire career, high stress due to exposure to different events in patrol as well as investigative duty. Reactions from such exposure have serious negative impacts on the police officers’ psychological well-being, and may also affect the interviewing approach they adopt. This paper discusses the definition and measurement of psychological well-being in relation to the perspective of investigative interviewing. Three studies regarding crime victims’ and suspects’ experiences as well as police officers’ view of investigative interviewing in consideration of Antonovsky’s sense of coherence are presented. Interviewees’ and interviewers’ experiences and interview outcomes with respect to psychological well-being will be discussed.

  • 119.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Lärarutbildning.
    Police interviews with victims and suspects of violent and sexual crimes2008Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The police interview is one of the most important investigative tools that law enforcement has close at hand. The present work comprising three empirical studies and focusing on the police interviews in very serious crimes of violence and sexual offences. This research showed that police interviews marked by dominance were mainly associated with a higher proportion of suspects' denials whereas an approach marked by humanity was significantly associated with admissions. Crime victims' experience of an interviewing style marked by dominance was significantly associated with the victims' omissions of information whereas a humanitarian interviewing style was significantly related to victims providing all information from painful events. Special squad police officers' attitudes towards interviewing suspects and crime victims may be affected by traumatic experiences in duty and may automatically generate dominant attitudes. The police interview is multi-faceted and thoroughly related to cognitive as well as social psychology. The reader of this book will realize that legal procedures not only have juridical effects, but to the highest degree, also psychological effects.

  • 120.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Police interviews with victims and suspects of violent and sexual crimes: interviewees' experiences and interview outcomes2004Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The police interview is one of the most important investigative tools that law enforcement has close at hand, and police interview methods have changed during the twentieth century. A good police interview is conducted in the frame of the law, is governed by the interview goal, and is influenced by facilitating factors that may affect the elicited report. The present doctoral dissertation focuses on police interviews in cases of very serious crimes of violence and sexual offences. Results reveal crime victims’ and perpetrators’ experiences of being interviewed and police officers’ attitudes towards conducting interviews related to traumatizing crimes. Study 1 revealed that when police officers interviewed murderers and sexual offenders, the interviewees perceived attitudes characterized by either dominance or humanity. Police interviews marked by dominance and suspects’ responses of anxiety were mainly associated with a higher proportion of denials, whereas an approach marked by humanity, and responses of being respected were significantly associated with admissions. In line with Study 1, the victims of rape and aggravated assault in Study 2 also revealed the experience of two police interview styles, where an interviewing style marked by dominance and responses of anxiety was significantly associated with crime victims’ omissions of information. Moreover, a humanitarian interviewing style, and crime victims’ feelings of being respected and co-operative, was significantly related to crime victims providing all information from painful events. Special squad police officers’ attitudes towards interviewing crime victims, in Study 3, also showed a humanitarian approach and two dominant approaches, one affective and the other refusing. The attitude towards interviewing suspects of crimes in focus revealed humanitarian and dominant interviewing attitudes, and an approach marked by kindness. The present thesis shows that, during their entire career, an overwhelming majority of the special squad police officers have experienced stressful events during patrol as well as investigative duty. Results show that symptoms from stressful event exposures and coping mechanisms are associated with negative attitudes towards interviewing suspects and supportive attitudes towards crime victim interviews. Thus, experiences from stressful exposures may automatically activate ego-defensive functions that automatically generate dominant attitudes. Moreover, it is important to offer police officers who have been exposed to stressful events the opportunity to work through their experiences, for example, through debriefing procedures. After debriefings, police officers are better prepared to meet crime victims and suspects and, through conscious closed-loop processes, to conduct police interviews without awaking ego-defensive functions.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 121.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Lärarutbildning.
    Psychological well-being, humanity and dominance in police interviews: cuses and efects2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of Therapeutic Jurisprudence is to execute legal procedures such that they promote the social and psychological well-being of the individual involved in a juridical action.

    The aim of study one is to investigate whether personality characteristics (the Big Five) may explain crime victims’ psychological well-being related to their experiences of being interviewed by the police and questions from the prosecutor.

    Eighty-three crime victims completed a questionnaire, previously used by Holmberg and Christianson (2002) and Holmberg (2004), about their experiences from their police interviews and the questions from the prosecutor. To identify personality characteristics, the participants completed the Big Five Inventory, and for measuring the crime victims’ psychological well-being, the Sense of Coherence form has been used. Crime victims’ experiences from police interviews and their psychological well-being will be discussed in the perspective of personality characteristics.

    Previous studies by Holmberg and Christianson (2002) and Holmberg (2004) have shown associations between the interviewing styles (humanity and dominance) and interview outcomes. A study two with the aim of experimentally investigate the causality between interviewing styles, psychological well-being and interview outcomes will be presented and discussed.

    The aim of these two studies is to shed lights on causes and effects on therapeutic jurisprudential investigative interviews.

  • 122.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Psychological well-being in the police interview: a therapeutic jurisprudential approach2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the idea of therapeutic jurisprudence, law enforcement actors are seen as therapeutic agents promoting crime victims’ and suspects’ psychological well-being in legal procedures. Contrary to psychological well-being bad demeanour or behaviour of law enforcement actors may cause a secondary victimisation and obstruct legal procedures, and as a consequence of such obstructions be anti-therapeutic. This paper discusses the definition and measurement of psychological well-being in relation to the police interview with crime victims and suspects. Two studies regarding crime victims’ and suspects’ experiences of police interviews in consideration of Antonovsky’s sense of coherence (SOC) are presented. Results show that crime victims’ perceptions of anxiety in the police interview are associated lower SOC and suspects’ perceptions of being respected in the police interview relate to higher SOC. Interviewees’ experiences and interview outcomes with respect to psychological well-being are discussed.

  • 123.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Lärarutbildning.
    Psychological well-being related to police interviews: a therapeutic jurisprudential approach2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 124.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Sexualbrottsförövarens upplevelser av polisförhör1996Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 125.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Murderers' and sexual offenders' experiences of police interview and their inclination to admit or deny crime2002Ingår i: Behavioral sciences & the law (Print), ISSN 0735-3936, E-ISSN 1099-0798, Vol. 20, nr 1-2, s. 31-45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research concerns murderers' and sexual offenders' experiences of Swedish police interviews and their attitudes towards allegations of these serious crimes. The explorative study is based on a questionnaire answered by 83 men convicted of murder or sexual offences. Results show that when police officers interview murderers and sexual offenders, the individuals perceive attitudes that are characterized by either dominance or humanity. Logistic regression shows that police interviews marked by dominance are mainly associated with a higher proportion of denials, whereas an approach marked by humanity is associated with admissions. When suspects feel that they are respected and acknowledged, they probably gain more confidence and mental space, allowing them to admit criminal behaviour.

  • 126.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Lärarutbildning.
    Madsen, Kent
    Polisen.
    Humanity and dominance in police interviews: causes and effects. Paper presented at the 4th International Investigative Interviewing Conference, Brussels, June 28 – July 12010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of Therapeutic Jurisprudence (TJ) is to execute legal procedures such that they promote the social and psychological well-being of the individual involved in a juridical action. TJ may be a facilitating factor in the police interview. Previous studies  have shown a relation between a humanitarian interviewing approach and suspects inclination to confess as well as crime victims narrate all what they can remember from a crime event (see e.g., Gudjonsson, 2006; Holmberg 2004; Holmberg & Christianson, 2002; Kebbell et al., 2006; Kebbell et al., 2008). The humanitarian experiences of the people involved in judicial actions seem to promote a therapeutic jurisprudential psychological well-being that might act as a rehabilitating factor.

    The aim of the present experimental study was to investigate the causal relationship between the humanitarian respectively the dominant interviewing approach and interview outcomes. With interview outcomes mean the memory performance and psychological well-being. The experiment comprised three phases and 127 subjects between 17 and 70 years old participated in these three phases. The first phase was an exposure where the subjects in pairs acted against each other in a computer simulation with a scenario symbolizing a crime event. During the simulation, half of the subjects got the opportunity to steel from the opposite party. A week after the exposure phase, the subjects were interviewed in a humanitarian or a dominant style symbolizing a police interview after a crime event. Sex month later, the subjects were interviewed again in the same manner, symbolizing the interview in the court proceeding. Before the exposure phase, the subject completed Spielberger’s stait-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) – trait form and Rammstedt & John’s the 10-Item Big Five Inventory. Before after every phase, the participants completed Antonovsky’s sense of coherence questionnaire and Spielberger’s STAI – the state form. After the interviews the participants also completed a questionnaire that measured whether the interviews were perceived as humanitarian or dominant. Preliminary results, since a part of the interviews has been analyzed, show that acting in the computer simulation affected the subjects’ mood. Results indicate that the humanitarian interviewing approach result in a higher memory performance and a higher psychological well-being compared to the dominant interviewing style. The results from the analyzes of the compete sample will be presented and discussed.

  • 127.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Madsen, Kent
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Rapport operationalized as a humanitarian interview in investigative interview settings2014Ingår i: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 591-610Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes and tests an empirical-based theoretical model of rapport in an investigative interview context. Essential in this study is whether rapport, operationalized as the humanitarian interview, in two interviews with a six-month retention interval, had any causal effects on the respective memory performance of 146 and 127 interviewees. Independent-samples t‐tests revealed, on both occasions, that a humanitarian rapport interview led to a larger amount of reported information altogether, with more central and peripheral information, than a dominant non-rapport interview did. Regardless of the interview approach, mixed between-within analysis of variance showed a substantially larger amount of reported information in the first interview than the second. The amount of false information reported in both interviews was statistically invariable, regardless of interviewing style.

  • 128.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Madsen, Kent
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Rapport operationalized as a humanitarian interview in investigative interview settings: a therapeutic jurisprudential approach2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount and the quality of provided information in a police interview can be seen as the lifeblood of a crime investigation where a Therapeutic Jurisprudential approach may act as a facilitating factor.

    The aim of the present experimental study was to investigate the causal relationship between the humanitarian respectively the dominant interviewing approach and interview outcome. Interview outcome means the memory performance and psychological well-being. The experiment comprised three phases where 127 subjects between 17 and 70 years old participated. The first phase was an exposure where the subjects acted against each other in pairs in a computer simulation with a scenario symbolizing a crime event. A week after the exposure phase, the subjects were interviewed in a humanitarian or a dominant style symbolizing a police interview after a crime event. Sex month later, the subjects were interviewed again in the same manner, symbolizing the interview in the court proceeding.

    Before and after every phase, the participants completed Antonovsky’s sense of coherence questionnaire and Spielberger’s STAI – the state form. The results from the two interview phases will be discussed in terms of interviewing styles, memory performance, that is the amount and quality of provided information, and psychological well-being.

  • 129.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Lärarutbildning.
    Madsen, Kent
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Lärarutbildning.
    Therapeutic jurisprudentially humanitarian approach vs. dominance in police interviews: causes and effects. Paper presented at the 20th Conference of the European Association of Psychology and Law.Gothenburg, Sweden, 15 – 18 June2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 130.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Pettersson, Bertil
    Polishögskolan, Solna.
    “Dom ska minsann inte komma undan”: om biljakter2004Ingår i: Polispsykologi / [ed] Christianson, Sven Å., Granhag, Pär Anders, Stockholm: Natur och kultur , 2004, s. 144-158Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 131.
    Holmbring, Ulrika
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning.
    Har digitaliseringen i Sverige tappat bort de äldre?: Digitalisering och äldre personers förutsättningar att bemästra sin tillvaro i det digitala samhället2021Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har digitaliseringen gått fort. Forskning visar att det bland äldre personer finns sårbara grupper som inte använder digitala hjälpmedel så mycket och därför inte har tillgång till tjänster som de behöver. I föreliggande studie undersöks om tillgång till och användning av digital informationsteknologi påverkar äldre personers förmåga att bemästra sin tillvaro. Bemästringsförmågan mäts i en indexvariabel utifrån teorier om tron på den egna förmågan; inre och yttre kontroll samt känsla av sammanhang. Deltagarna (n=144) i studien var äldre som hade möjlighet att svara på en webbenkät och därför använde digitala hjälpmedel. Detta var en väsentlig begränsning som påverkade resultatet. I huvudsak framkommer inga signifikanta skillnader i bemästringsförmåga utifrån användning av digitala hjälpmedel eller demografiska faktorer bland deltagarna. En nyckelfaktor i de signifikanta samband med små effekter som framkom var erfarenheten av att regelbundet ha arbetat med datorer i sitt yrkesverksamma liv. Deltagare som anger att de har denna erfarenhet anger högre bemästringsförmåga än de som inte anger den erfarenheten. Här argumenteras för att skillnader i bemästringsförmåga är större i mer diversifierade grupper av äldre personer. Det stöder forskning som påtalar att digitaliseringen påverkar livskvalitén för äldre. Deltagare påtalar att alla inte vill eller har möjlighet att använda digitala verktyg och efterlyser kunskap och praktiskt stöd i användning av digitala verktyg. Det stöder forskning som visar att grupper av äldre inte kan delta i det digitaliserade samhället och forskning som påtalar vikten av ett livslångt lärande.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 132.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    Innes-Ker, Åse
    Lunds universitet.
    Accuracy and realism in confidence in children's event recall in response to two different types of questions2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 133.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    Innes-Ker, Åse
    Lunds universitet.
    Accuracy and the realism in confidence in children's and adults' event recall in response to free recall and focussed questions2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 134.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    Innes-Ker, Åse
    Lunds universitet.
    Accuracy and the realism in confidence in childrens' and adults' event recall in response to free recall and focussed questions2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 135.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Innes-Ker, Åse
    Lunds universitet.
    Accuracy and the realism in confidence in children's and adults' event recall in response to free recall and focussed questions2006Ingår i: Nixon, Keri (ed.), Forensic recall and eyewitness testimony, London: IA-IP Publishing , 2006, s. 27-37Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 136.
    Håkansson, Frida
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning.
    Associations between autistic traits and creativity domains ​in the average adult population2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

     The present study aimed to research links between autistic traits and creativity in the average adult population. The sample consisted of 108 adults,​ 60 females, 48 males, age 18-66 (M=34,90; SD=10,85), from 20 different social media pages who participated in the study through self-report questionnaires about autistic traits and creativity. The result shows that the autistic traits of difficulties in imagination and difficulties in social skills has associations with difficulties in creativity, while the autistic trait of attention to detail has associations with benefits in creativity. The creativity domains, differences between men and women and the method of self-report are discussed.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 137.
    Ipsonius, Mattias
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Knutsson, Malin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Samband mellan svenska ungdomars välmående och föräldrabeteendena emotionellt stöd och psykologisk kontroll2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilket samband föräldrabeteendena emotionellt stöd och psykologisk kontroll har för svenska ungdomars välmående. Deltagarna (n = 76), fördelade på 40 flickor och 36 pojkar, läser vid en svensk gymnasieskola där enkätundersökningen också genomfördes. Enkäten byggde på fem befintliga mätinstrument som avsåg mäta emotionellt stöd, psykologisk kontroll, affektivt välbefinnande, livstillfredsställelse och depressiva känslor. Enkäten utformades så att det skulle vara möjligt att genomföra analyser för respektive kön samt för mammors och pappors föräldrabeteende var för sig. Resultaten visar på positiva samband mellan föräldrabeteendet emotionellt stöd och ungdomars affektiva välbefinnande och livstillfredsställelse samt ett negativt samband mellan emotionellt stöd och depressiva känslor. Mellan föräldrabeteendet psykologisk kontroll och både affektivt välbefinnande och livstillfredsställelse framkom negativa signifikanta samband. En deskriptiv jämförelse avseende könsskillnader visade indikationer på att mammors respektive pappors föräldrabeteende har olika inverkan på ungdomars välbefinnande.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Examensarbete 2014 Ipsonius & Knutsson
  • 138.
    Ivarsson Bourdo, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Osvalds, Hans
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Upplevd förändring av aggressionsnivåer hos svenska soldater efter utlandstjänstgöring i Afghanistan2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    En överväldigande del av befintlig forskning kring psykologiska effekter av att delta i krig och stridszon påvisar en hel del negativa effekter för psykisk hälsa. Inte all forskning, internationellt sett, pekar mot samma håll. Då vi inte funnit några undersökningar avseende svenska förhållanden, och dessutom kan konstatera en implementering av ÖB Beslut gällande kommenderad utlands-tjänstgöring för samtlig personal inom de Svenska utlandsstyrkorna, gör att frågan nu blivit aktuell. Denna uppsats ämnar undersöka svenska soldaters upplevda förändringar av egna aggressionsnivåer efter insats i Afghanistan. Höga aggressionsnivåer kan ingå vid olika typer av psykisk ohälsa, bland annat vid posttraumatisk stress. Vidare undersöks upplevda aggressionsnivåer i relation med inblandning i direkta stridigheter och stridszon. Resultatet påvisar en klar ökning av upplevda aggressionsnivåer efter insats, om än från låga nivåer. Dessutom klargjordes ökningen i upplevd aggression i relation till grad av personlig stridsexponering.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Svenska soldaters upplevelse av aggression
  • 139.
    Jansson, Lisa
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning.
    Lundmark, Isabel
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning.
    Instrumentell och reaktiv aggression hos svenska mordbrännare2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kvantitativa studie undersökte om det var möjligt att kategorisera mordbrännares aggression som instrumentell eller reaktiv utifrån Cornells (1996) kodningsguide. Det huvudsakliga syftet med studien var att tillföra en förståelse om hur teorin gällande reaktivt och instrumentell aggression kan tillämpas när det gäller mordbrännare, och därmed även förhoppningsvis utöka användningsområdet för teorin. Studien bygger på 87 fällande domar från Sveriges hovrätter där gärningspersonerna blivit dömda för försök till mordbrand, mordbrand alternativt till grov mordbrand mellan år 2017-2018 från två av hovrätterna och mellan 2016-2018 från fyra av hovrätterna. Domarna bedömdes av två oberoende bedömare, tillika författarna av denna studie. Med en hög interbedömarreliabilitet visade resultatet av undersökningen att det var möjligt att skilja reaktiva gärningspersoner från instrumentella. Variablerna planering och målinriktning förekom i större utsträckning hos de gärningspersoner som klassades som instrumentella, medan variablerna provokation och känslomässig upphetsning oftare förekom hos reaktiva gärningspersoner. Sambanden mellan variablerna omfattning, relation samt ställning i skuldfrågan och typ av aggression var däremot ej signifikanta. Vidare implikationer av studien visar ett utökat användningsområde för Cornells (1996) kodningsguide, men att det finns skäl till att kritisera den dikotoma klassificeringen. Ett alternativ kan vara att utöka klassificeringen, alternativt att för just mordbrännare använda sig av Canter och Fritzons (1998) kodningsguide som är speciellt framtagen för mordbrännare, men har vissa likheter med Cornells (1996).

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 140.
    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet & Region Stockholm.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    Karolinska Institutet & Region Stockholm.
    Bohman, Benjamin
    Karolinska Institutet & Region Stockholm.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Karolinska Institutet, Region Stockholm & UCL Great Ormond Street Hospital Institute of Child Health.
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsplattformen för Hälsa i samverkan. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Karlstads universitet.
    Paradoxical intention for insomnia: A systematic review and meta-analysis2021Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, s. 1-14, artikel-id e13464Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Paradoxical intention (PI) has been considered an evidence-based treatment for insomnia since the 1990s, but it has not been evaluated with modern review techniques such as meta-analysis. The present study aimed to conduct the first systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that explore the effectiveness of PI for insomnia on insomnia symptomatology and theory-derived processes. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted by searching for eligible articles or dissertations in six online bibliographic databases. Randomised controlled trials and experimental studies comparing PI for insomnia to active and passive comparators and assessing insomnia symptoms as outcomes were included. A random effects model was estimated to determine the standardised mean difference Hedge's g at post-treatment. Test for heterogeneity was performed, fail-safe N was calculated, and study quality was assessed. The study was pre-registered at International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO, CRD42019137357). A total of 10 trials were identified. Compared to passive comparators, PI led to large improvements in key insomnia symptoms. Relative to active comparators, the improvements were smaller, but still moderate for several central outcomes. Compared to passive comparators, PI resulted in great reductions in sleep-related performance anxiety, one of several proposed mechanisms of change for PI. PI for insomnia resulted in marked clinical improvements, large relative to passive comparators and moderate compared to active comparators. However, methodologically stronger studies are needed before more firm conclusions can be drawn.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 141.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Bolstad, Ingeborg
    Norge.
    Effect of emotional content on brain activation patterns in a reality monitoring task2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Every day we take in large amounts of information from the external world, and we also synthesize representations of things or situations that we have not perceived through our senses. The ability to distinguish between a memory that contains representations from external world and a memory representing an imagined picture is necessary to make sense of the surroundings. This process is called reality monitoring. In the present study we aimed to confirm the existence of the reality monitoring network as reported by previous studies. Further, we wanted to extend these findings by investigating the effect of stimuli aversiveness on the reality monitoring processes and its neural correlates. 

    Twenty-five subjects were included in the study after passing a somatic and psychiatric health screening. The subjects first completed an encoding task of 80 trials outside the scanner. Small descriptions of either an object or a situation (two or three word sentences) were presented on a computer screen. Immediately after the description was shown, a frame that was either empty or containing a picture related to the description was shown for three seconds. The subjects were instructed to look at the picture in the frame or imagine a relevant picture when the frame was empty. The subjects were then instructed to consider whether the pictures were “Unpleasant” or “Not unpleasant” by choosing between the two alternatives on the computer screen. A retrieval task was carried out as Blood-Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) fMRI data was collected. During this task the participants were presented with small descriptions that were either presented during the encoding task or they were new. The subjects were to decide whether they previously had viewed a picture associated with the description (a V trial), whether they had imagined a picture associated with the description (an I trial) or whether the description was entirely new (an N trial). The subjects completed a total of 140 randomly presented trials during two runs (20 trials of each category and 20 baseline trials). T2*-weighted functional MRI images were collected on a 3T General Electrics Signa HDx scanner. Data were analysed using SPM8.

    Overall, most of the trials were considered neutral, and this was true within both the I and the V conditions. Fewer I trials than V trials were considered aversive. The response times were longer in I compared to the V for the aversive trials, and there was a trend for the same effect for the neutral trials. There were no significant differences in response time between neutral and aversive trial. The analysis of the retrieval task behavioural data revealed a higher accuracy rate for aversive trials in the I than the V, while there was no effect for neutral trials. An ANOVA for the corresponding response times showed a main effect of source of encoding where responses were shorter in V than I trials. In paired tests this difference was significant for neutral trials. Paired tests of emotional content within source showed a difference between aversive and neutral trials for I. Successful retrieval and discrimination between sources of encoding generated activations in the left posterior precuneus. Activations of the anterior cingulate were also present. An effect of stimuli aversiveness on brain activation was present in mediolateral prefrontal cortex and the precuneus, indicating a stronger effort of these regions during retrieval of source memory linked to aversive stimuli.

    In summary, activation patterns in reality monitoring networks were replicated from earlier studies. Further, the results suggest that activations in overlapping networks are increased for aversive stimuli compared to neutral stimuli.

  • 142.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin.
    Walter, Henrik
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin.
    Incentive motivational salience and the human brain2014Ingår i: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, ISSN 1878-3627, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 141-147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the concept of incentive motivational salience is briefly described, pioneering studies on the subject of the mesolimbic motivational system are reviewed, and studies we have been involved in conducting which elaborate on this subject are discussed. In particular, we aim to show that the mesolimbic motivational system is recruited as a reaction to primary and secondary reinforcers as a function of salience, that is independent of valence. Furthermore, studies showing that both psychological and pharmacological interventions can affect the function of the mesolimbic motivational system and how its' dysfunction is related to psychopathological phenomena with an emphasis on psychosis are discussed.

  • 143.
    Johannesson, Samuel
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning.
    Kappel, Sonja
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning.
    Gränslöst arbete - motivationshöjare eller motivationssänkare?: En studie bland tjänstemän2021Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med den tekniska utvecklingen och den nuvarande pandemin förändras också de traditionella arbetsförhållandena till mer flexibla förhållanden. De gränser som tidigare fanns mellan privatliv och arbetsliv suddas ut och arbetet kräver ett större ansvar från arbetstagarna. Syftet med studien är att undersöka om flexibelt arbete har något samband med individers motivation. De flexibla arbetsförhållanden som undersöks i den här studien innefattar flextid, distansarbete, egen planering av arbetstid samt att vara kontaktbar utanför ordinarie arbetstid. Dessa förhållanden, tillsammans med motivation, mäts för att undersöka om flexibelt arbete har något  samband med individers motivation. Det undersöktes även om det fanns några skillnader kopplat till kön och ålder. Motivationsteorierna som studien utgår från är tvåfaktorteorin, Self-determination theory (SDT) och de yttre och inre faktorer som påverkar individens beteenden. Data samlades in i form av en webenkät som distribuerades till olika chefer och som i sin tur skickade vidare till sina medarbetare via gruppmejl och på internportal till deltagarna. Antalet deltagare som svarade på enkäten var n = 104. I studien besvarades tre frågeställningar och de analyser som genomfördes var; regressionsanalyser, korrelationsanalyser och t-tester. Analyserna visade att det fanns ett samband mellan flexibelt arbete och inre motivation men inget samband mellan flexibelt arbete och yttre motivation. Det fanns även skillnader gällande kön och yttre motivation men inte för inre motivation. Några skillnader gällande ålder kunde inte tydas för inre eller yttre motivation. Studiens resultat var i linje med tidigare forskning.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 144.
    Johansson, Marcus
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    Own-other differences in the realism of some metacognitive judgments2007Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 48, nr 1, s. 13-21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated differences in judgments of one’s own and others’ knowledge (the own-other difference). Consistent with the below-average effect (e.g., Kruger, 1999), our main results showed that the participants gave lower knowledge ratings of their own extent of knowledge than of another person’s extent of knowledge (Experiment 1). Furthermore, lower and more realistic judgments were found when the participants judged their own as compared with when judging another person’s overall accuracy (frequency judgments) of answering knowledge questions correctly (Experiment 1 and 2). On the basis of these results it is argued that judgmental anchoring may be important also in the context of indirect comparisons, and that previous conclusions of cross-cultural psychology regarding the above-average effect may be oversimplified.

  • 145.
    Johansson, Mikael
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Inducing and reducing false memories: a Swedish version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm2002Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 43, nr 5, s. 369-383Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Participants tend to falsely remember a nonpresented critical word after having studied a list of the word's primary associates. This paper presents a Swedish version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, which provides a tractable method of experimentally inducing and investigating such illusory memories. In Experiment 1, using 60 19-32 yr olds, it was demonstrated that the constructed stimulus material induced highly reliable false-recall and false-recognition effects, and, moreover, that veridical and false memories were associated with a similar phenomenological experience of remembering. The results from Experiment 2, using 40 19-32 yr olds, indicate that the susceptibility to false recognition can be substantially reduced when participants are explicitly required to monitor the sources of their memories. These findings are consistent with predictions derived from the source-monitoring framework.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 146.
    Johansson, Mikael
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Stenberg, Georg
    School of Social Sciences, Växjö University.
    Lindgren, M.
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Rosén, Ingmar
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Clinical Neurophysiology, Lund University Hospital.
    Memory for perceived and imagined pictures: an event-related potential study2002Ingår i: Neuropsychologia, vol. 40, no. 7, 2002, Vol. 40, nr 7, s. 986-1002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioural measures were used to investigate recognition memory and source-monitoring judgements about previously perceived and imagined pictures. At study, word labels of common objects were presented. Half of these were followed by a corresponding picture and the other half by an empty frame, signalling to the participants to mentally visualise an image. At test, participants in a source-monitoring task made a three-way discrimination between new words and words corresponding to previously perceived and imagined pictures. Participants in an old/new-recognition task indicated whether test words were previously presented or not. In both tasks, correctly identified old items elicited more positive-going ERPs than correctly judged new items. This widely distributed old/new effect was found to have an earlier onset and to be of a greater magnitude for imagined than for perceived items. Task (source versus item-memory) affected the old/new effects over prefrontal areas and the reaction times to remembered old items. The present findings are consistent with the view that a greater amount, or a different type, of information is necessary for accurate source-memory judgements than for correct recognition, and moreover, that different types of source-specifying information revive at different rates. In addition, the results add weight to the view that the late widespread ERP-old/new effect is sensitive to the quality or the amount of information retrieved from memory.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 147.
    Johansson, Stina
    et al.
    LTH Teknik och Samhälle.
    Siotis, Camilla
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Barn och unga i kollektivtrafiken2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Barn och unga i kollektivtrafiken
  • 148.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Generating artificial social networks2019Ingår i: The Quantitative Methods for Psychology, E-ISSN 2292-1354, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 56-74Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of complex social networks is an inherently interdisciplinary research area with applications across many fields, including psychology. Social network models describe, illustrate and explain how people are connected to each other and can, for example, be used to study information spread and interconnectedness of people with different kinds of traits. One approach to social network modelling, originating mainly in the physics literature, is to generate targeted kinds of social networks using models with specialized mechanisms while analyzing and deriving features of the models. Surprisingly though, and despite the popularity of this approach, there is no available functionality for generating a wide variety of social networks from these models. Thus, researchers are left to implement and specify these models themselves, restricting the applicability of these models. In this article, I provide a set of Matlab functions enabling the generation of artificial social networks from 22 different network models, most of them explicitly designed to capture features of social networks. Many of these models originate in the physics literature and may therefore not be familiar to psychological researchers. I also provide an illustration of how these models can be evaluated in terms of a simulated model comparison approach and how they can be applied to psychological research. With the already existing network functionality available in Matlab and other languages, this should provide a useful extension to researchers.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 149.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Gossip spread in social network models2017Ingår i: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 417, nr 1, s. 126-134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gossip almost inevitably arises in real social networks. In this article we investigate the relationship between the number of friends of a person and limits on how far gossip about that person can spread in the network. How far gossip travels in a network depends on two sets of factors: (a) factors determining gossip transmission from one person to the next and (b) factors determining network topology. For a simple model where gossip is spread among people who know the victim it is known that a standard scale-free network model produces a non-monotonic relationship between number of friends and expected relative spread of gossip, a pattern that is also observed in real networks (Lind et al., 2007). Here, we study gossip spread in two social network models (Toivonen et al., 2006; Vázquez, 2003) by exploring the parameter space of both models and fitting them to a real Facebook data set. Both models can produce the non-monotonic relationship of real networks more accurately than a standard scale-free model while also exhibiting more realistic variability in gossip spread. Of the two models, the one given in Vázquez (2003) best captures both the expected values and variability of gossip spread.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 150.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Hail the impossible: p-values, evidence, and likelihood2011Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 113-125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Significance testing based on p-values is standard in psychological research and teaching. Typically, research articles and textbooks present and use p as a measure of statistical evidence against the null hypothesis (the Fisherian interpretation), although using concepts and tools based on a completely different usage of p as a tool for controlling long-term decision errors (the Neyman-Pearson interpretation). There are four major problems with using p as a measure of evidence and these problems are often overlooked in the domain of psychology. First, p is uniformly distributed under the null hypothesis and can therefore never indicate evidence for the null. Second, p is conditioned solely on the null hypothesis and is therefore unsuited to quantify evidence, because evidence is always relative in the sense of being evidence for or against a hypothesis relative to another hypothesis. Third, p designates probability of obtaining evidence (given the null), rather than strength of evidence. Fourth, p depends on unobserved data and subjective intentions and therefore implies, given the evidential interpretation, that the evidential strength of observed data depends on things that did not happen and subjective intentions. In sum, using p in the Fisherian sense as a measure of statistical evidence is deeply problematic, both statistically and conceptually, while the Neyman-Pearson interpretation is not about evidence at all. In contrast, the likelihood ratio escapes the above problems and is recommended as a tool for psychologists to represent the statistical evidence conveyed by obtained data relative to two hypotheses.

1234567 101 - 150 av 388
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf