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  • 101. Salvi, Giovanni E
    et al.
    Kandylaki, Maria
    Troendle, Amineh
    Persson, G. Rutger
    School of Dental Medicine, University of Berne.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    Experimental gingivitis in type 1 diabetics: a controlled clinical and microbiological study.2005Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 310-316Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To monitor clinical and microbiological changes during experimental gingivitis in type 1 diabetics and non-diabetics.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine type 1 diabetics with good/moderate metabolic control and nine age-gender matched non-diabetics were recruited. Probing pocket depths in all subjects did not exceed 4 mm and none were affected by attachment loss. According to the original model, an experimental 3-week plaque accumulation resulting in experimental gingivitis development and a subsequent 2-week period of optimal plaque control were staged. Subgingival plaque samples were collected at days 0, 21 and 35 from one site per quadrant, pooled and analysed using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization.

    RESULTS: Diabetics (mean age 25.6+/-5.8 standard deviation (SD), range 16-35 years) had a mean HbA1c level of 8.1+/-0.7% (SD), while non-diabetics (mean age 24.8+/-5.7 (SD), range 15-36 years) were metabolically controlled (HbA1c< or =6.5%). Between Days 0, 21 and 35, no statistically significant differences in mean plaque and gingival index scores were observed between diabetics and non-diabetics. At days 7 and 21, however, diabetics showed statistically significantly higher percentages of sites with gingival index scores > or =2 compared with non-diabetics. Mean DNA probe counts of the red and orange complex species increased significantly (p<0.05) between days 0 and 21 and decreased significantly (p<0.05) between days 21 and 35 in both groups.

    CONCLUSION: Both diabetics and non-diabetics react to experimental plaque accumulation with gingival inflammation. Type 1 diabetics, however, develop an earlier and higher inflammatory response to a comparable bacterial challenge.

  • 102.
    Salvi, Giovanni E
    et al.
    School of Dental Medicine, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    School of Dental Medicine, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Heitz-Mayfield, Lisa J A
    University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.
    Frei, Marc
    School of Dental Medicine, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    School of Dental Medicine, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Adjunctive local antibiotic therapy in the treatment of peri-implantitis II: clinical and radiographic outcomes.2007Ingår i: Clinical Oral Implants Research, ISSN 0905-7161, E-ISSN 1600-0501, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 281-285Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To monitor over 12 months clinical and radiographic changes occurring after adjunctive local delivery of minocycline microspheres for the treatment of peri-implantitis.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 25 partially edentulous subjects, 31 implants diagnosed with peri-implantitis were treated. Three weeks after oral hygiene instruction, mechanical debridement and local antiseptic cleansing using 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, baseline (Day 0) parameters were recorded. Minocycline microspheres (Arestin) were locally delivered to each implant site with bone loss and a probing pocket depth (PPD) >or=5 mm. Rescue therapy with Arestin was allowed at Days 180 and 270 at any site exhibiting an increase in PPD>or=2 mm from the previous visit. The following clinical parameters were recorded at four sites/implant at Day 0, 10, 30, 60, 90, 180, 270 and 360: PPD, clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP) and plaque index (PlI).

    RESULTS: Six implants in six subjects were either rescued or exited because of persisting active peri-implantitis. Successful implants showed a statistically significant reduction in both PPD and percentage of sites with BOP between baseline and Day 360 (P<0.05). At mesial implant sites, the mean PPD reduction amounted to 1.6 mm (95% CI: 0.9-2.2 mm, P<0.001) and was accompanied by a statistically significant reduction of the BOP value (P<0.001). Binary regression analysis showed that the clinical parameters and smoking history could not discriminate between successfully treated and rescued or exited implants at any observation time point.

    CONCLUSION: Non-surgical mechanical treatment of peri-implantitis lesions with adjunctive local delivery of microencapsulated minocycline led to positive effects on clinical parameters up to 12 months.

  • 103. Sanai, Yasaman
    et al.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
    Starr, Jacqueline R
    Luis, Henrique S
    Bernardo, Mario
    Leitao, Jorge
    Roberts, Marilyn C
    Presence and antibiotic resistance of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Prevotella nigrescens in children.2002Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 29, nr 10, s. 929-934Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Only limited information exists about the prevalence in children of pathogens associated with periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to determine by culture whether 8-11-year-old children carry Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and/or P. nigrescens in samples from the gingiva and/or the buccal mucosa taken before, and after caries treatment and oral hygiene instruction. A second aim was to assess the proportion of subjects who had gram-negative anaerobes carrying the tet(Q) and erm(F) genes, suggesting antibiotic resistance to tetracycline or erythromycin.

    METHOD: A total of 150 children provided gingival and buccal swab bacterial samples that were cultured for P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, and P. nigrescens. The species was verified using DNA-DNA hybridization with species-specific probes made from the variable region of the 16S rRNA sequences. Antibiotic-resistant genes, tet(Q) and erm(F), were identified using specific DNA-DNA hybridization with specific DNA probes.

    RESULTS: A total of 116 isolates of black-pigmented bacteria were cultured from 47 (31%) of 150 children. Five isolates were identified as P. gingivalis, 29 as P. intermedia, 33 as P. nigrescens, and 49 as other species. In general, the bacteria were not culturable at more than one time period. We found that 55% of these 47 children harbored black pigmented bacteria that carried either one or both of the two antibiotic-resistant genes studied (tet(Q), and erm(F)).

    CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that children not exposed to regular dental treatment carry bacteria outside the gingival sulcus that have been associated with periodontitis, and that standard treatment procedures may not clear the presence of the putative pathogens. In addition, antibiotic-resistant genes are common in identifiable gram-negative anaerobes, including putative pathogens.

  • 104.
    Sims, Tom J
    et al.
    University of Washington, Seattle WA.
    Lernmark, Ake
    University of Washington, Seattle WA.
    Mancl, Lloyd A
    University of Washington, Seattle WA.
    Schifferle, Robert E
    Department of Periodontics and EndodonticsSUNY at Buffalo, NY.
    Page, Roy C
    University of Washington, Seattle WA.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Washington, Seattle WA.
    Serum IgG to heat shock proteins and Porphyromonas gingivalis antigens in diabetic patients with periodontitis.2002Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 29, nr 6, s. 551-562Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Past studies have reported a correlation between the presence and severity of periodontitis and serum antibody titers to species-specific antigens of Porphyromonas gingivalis or to cross-reactive antigens, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and heat shock proteins (HSP), shared between P. gingivalis and other bacteria. Our recent study of periodontal treatment outcome in insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes mellitus patients with severe periodontitis (IDDMI/periodontitis) resulted in two key findings: 1. serum glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody (GAD65 Ab) levels were significantly associated with periodontal pocket depth change (PDC) and 2. serum IgG titers to P. gingivalis cells were positively associated with GAD65 Ab level in seropositive (GAD65 Ab +) patients. We have therefore hypothesized that profiles of serum autoantibody levels and IgG titers, to P. gingivalis-specific antigens may be useful in assessing risk for refractory periodontitis in such patients.

    AIM: To determine whether PDC resulting from non-surgical periodontal treatment can be predicted using profiles of baseline IgG titers to P. gingivalis-specific antigens, human HSP, and GAD65.

    METHODS: PDC was assessed two months after non-surgical periodontal treatment of 7 GAD65 Ab + and 11 GAD65 AbIDDM/periodontitis patients. Pretreatment titers to GAD65, recombinant human heat shock proteins (HSP90, HSP70, and HSP60), and various P. gingivalis antigens were measured using radioligand precipitation or enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assays and compared to the same measurements for 154 recent-onset IDDM patients and 46 non-diabetic controls.

    RESULTS: Median titers (ELISA units) to HSP90 and HSP70 were significantly higher than non-diabetic controls for GAD65 Ab + (p degrees = 0.002) and GAD65 Ab- (p = 0.034) IDDM/periodontitis patients, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated significant partial correlation of PDC with log-transformed titers to HSP90 (r = - 0.62, p = 0.008), HSP70 (r = + 0.62, p = 0.009), GAD65 (r = - 0.60, p = 0.01) and P. gingivalis LPS (r = - 0.5 1, p = 0.04). Furthermore, hierarchical clustering of baseline profiles of log-transformed HSP90, HSP70, and GAD65 Ab titers sorted patients into two distinct clusters with significantly different median PDC (1.45 min, n = 10 vs. 0.65 min, n = 8; p = 0.016, Mann-Whitney).

    CONCLUSION: Pretreatment profiles of serum antibody titers to HSP90, HSP70, GAD65, and P. gingivalis LPS may be useful for predicting which patients with IDDM/periodontitis will have a poor response to non-surgical periodontal therapy.

  • 105. Swoboda, Jessica
    et al.
    Kiyak, H Asuman
    Persson, Rigmor E
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
    Yamaguchi, David K
    MacEntee, Michael I
    Wyatt, Christopher C L
    Predictors of oral health quality of life in older adults.2006Ingår i: Special care in dentistry : official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry, ISSN 0275-1879, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 137-144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is limited information regarding oral health status and other predictors of oral health-related quality of life. An association between oral health status and perceived oral health-related quality of life (OHQOL) might help clinicians motivate patients to prevent oral diseases and improve the outcome of some dental public health programs. This study evaluated the relationship between older persons' OHQOL and their functional dentition, caries, periodontal status, chronic diseases, and some demographic characteristics. A group of 733 low-income elders (mean age 72.7 [SD = 4.71, 55.6% women, 55.1% members of ethnic minority groups in the U.S. and Canada) enrolled in the TEETH clinical trial were interviewed and examined as part of their fifth annual visit for the trial. OHQOL was measured by the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI); oral health and occlusal status by clinical exams and the Eichner Index; and demographics via interviews. Elders who completed the four-year assessment had an average of 21.5 teeth (SD = 6.9), with 8.5 occluding pairs (SD = 4.6), and 32% with occlusal contacts in all four occluding zones. Stepwise multiple regressions were conducted to predict total GOHAI and its subscores (Physical, Social, and Worry). Functional dentition was a less significant predictor than ethnicity and being foreign-born. These variables, together with gender, years since immigrating, number of carious roots, and periodontal status, could predict 32% of the variance in total GOHAI, 24% in Physical, 27% in Social, and 21% in the Worry subscales. These findings suggest that functional dentition and caries influence older adults' OHQOL, but that ethnicity and immigrant status play a larger role.

  • 106. Swoboda, Jessica R
    et al.
    Kiyak, H Asuman
    Darveau, Richard
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Correlates of periodontal decline and biologic markers in older adults.2008Ingår i: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 79, nr 10, s. 1920-1926Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is limited information on infectious and host responses distinguishing older people with or without active periodontitis. This study measured bacterial and serum cytokine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels in older persons.

    METHODS: Elders (mean age: 67 years), whose periodontal status had declined most or least (20% worst or 20% best) over 5 years, were enrolled. Two years later, they were classified as periodontally declining (active periodontitis [AP]), if they had at least five teeth with probing depth (PD) > or =5 mm, or stable (stable periodontally [SP]), if they did not. Groups were compared with respect to demographics, PD, clinical loss of attachment, subgingival bacteria, serum hsCRP, interleukin (IL)-1beta and -6, and chronic diseases.

    RESULTS: Ten AP and 24 SP subjects were identified; 13% of women and 44% of men from the original sample were in the AP group (P <0.05). Most Asians were SP; most whites and all African Americans were classified as having AP (P <0.01). More AP elders had osteoporosis (P <0.01), but the AP and SP groups did not differ with respect to IL-1beta and -6 or hsCRP. Bacterial counts were higher in the AP group for Parvimonas micra (previously Peptostreptococcus micros or Micromonas micros) (7.7 x 10(5) cells versus 3.8 x 10(5) cells; P <0.05), Prevotella intermedia (25.7 x 10(5) cells versus 9.8 x 10(5) cells; P <0.01), Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis) (16.2 x 10(5) cells versus 8.0 x 10(5) cells; P <0.05), and Streptococcus mutans (6.2 x 10(5) cells versus 2.0 x 10(5) cells; P <0.01). Three risk factors were most predictive of periodontal decline: PD, osteoporosis, and being white or African American.

    CONCLUSION: Periodontal decline was associated with osteoporosis, ethnicity, PD, gender, serum hsCRP, and levels of four bacterial species.

  • 107.
    Van de Velde, Tommie
    et al.
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Thevissen, Eric
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland, and the University of Washington, Seattle WA, USA.
    Johansson, Carina
    Örebro University.
    De Bruyn, Hugo
    University of Ghent, Belgium & University of Ghent, Belgium & Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Two-year outcome with Nobel Direct implants: a retrospective radiographic and microbiologic study in 10 patients.2009Ingår i: Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, ISSN 1523-0899, E-ISSN 1708-8208, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 183-193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The Nobel Direct implant (Nobel Biocare AB, Göteborg, Sweden) was developed to minimize marginal bone resorption and to result in "soft tissue integration" for an optimized aesthetic outcome. However, conflicting results have been presented in the literature. The aim of this present study was to evaluate the clinical and microbiologic outcomes of Nobel Direct implants.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten partially edentulous subjects without evidence of active periodontitis (mean age 55 years) received 12 Nobel Direct implants. Implants were loaded with single crowns after a healing period of 3 to 6 months. Treatment outcomes were assessed at month 24. Routine clinical assessments, intraoral radiographs, and microbiologic samplings were made. Histologic analysis of one failing implant and chemical spectroscopy around three unused implants was performed. Paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for the evaluation of bone loss; otherwise, descriptive analysis was performed.

    RESULTS: Implants were functionally loaded after 3 to 6 months. At 2 years, the mean bone loss of remaining implants was 2.0 mm (SD +/- 1.1 mm; range: 0.0-3.4 mm). Three out of 12 implants with an early mean bone loss >3 mm were lost. The surviving implants showed increasing bone loss between 6 and 24 months (p = .028). Only 3 out of the 12 implants were considered successful and showed bone loss of <1.7 mm after 2 years. High rates of pathogens, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium spp., Porphyromonas gingivalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Tanerella forsythia, were found. Chemical spectroscopy revealed, despite the normal signals from Ti, O, and C, also peaks of P, F, S, N, and Ca. A normal histologic image of osseointegration was observed in the apical part of the retrieved implant.

    CONCLUSION: Radiographic evidence and 25% implant failures are indications of a low success rate. High counts and prevalence of significant pathogens were found at surviving implants. Although extensive bone loss had occurred in the coronal part, the apical portion of the implant showed some bone to implant integration.

  • 108. Vitaliano, Peter P
    et al.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
    Kiyak, Asuman
    Saini, Hardeep
    Echeverria, Diana
    Caregiving and gingival symptom reports: psychophysiologic mediators.2005Ingår i: Psychosomatic Medicine, ISSN 0033-3174, E-ISSN 1534-7796, Vol. 67, nr 6, s. 930-938Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: We first assessed the association of caregiving with gingival symptom reports. We then assessed whether the observed relationship was mediated by psychophysiologic host factors.

    METHODS: Caregivers of spouses with Alzheimer's disease (n = 123) were compared with demographically similar noncaregiver spouses (n = 117).

    RESULTS: The percentage of caregivers (17%) who reported gingival symptoms was twice that of noncaregivers (8.5%) (p < .05), despite the fact that caregivers and noncaregivers did not differ in oral health care. The relationship between caregiving and gingival symptom reports was mediated by psychophysiologic variables. Caregivers were higher on hassles (p < .05), depressed mood (p < .05), and metabolic risk (insulin, glucose, obesity; p < .05) than were noncaregivers. Greater gingival symptom reports were also associated with greater hassles (p < .01), depressed mood (p < .001), and metabolic risk (p < .001). Measures of subcutaneous fat, inflammation, and frank diabetes were related to gingival symptom reports but not to caregiver status.

    CONCLUSIONS: A higher percentage of caregivers reported gingival symptoms than noncaregivers. These results have implications for research on aging, psychophysiology, and chronic stress.

  • 109.
    Wallin Bengtsson, Viveca
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet (OHAL).
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet (OHAL).
    Berglund, Johan
    Institute of Technology, Karlskrona.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet (OHAL).
    A cross-sectional study of the associations between periodontitis and carotid arterial calcifications in an elderly population2015Ingår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 74, nr 2, s. 115-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the presence of periodontitis is associated with carotid arterial calcifications diagnosed on panoramic radiographs in an elderly population.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study individuals were randomly selected from the Swedish civil registration database representing the aging population (60-96 years) in Karlskrona, Sweden. Bleeding on probing (BOP) and the deepest probing measurement at each tooth were registered. The proportions of teeth with a probing depth ≥5 mm and the proportion of teeth with bleeding on probing were calculated. Analog panoramic radiographs were taken and the proportion of sites with a distance ≥5 mm between the alveolar bone level and the cement-enamel junction (CEJ) were assessed. A diagnosis of periodontitis was declared if a distance between the alveolar bone level and the CEJ ≥5 mm could be identified from the panoramic radiographs at >10% of sites, probing depth of ≥5 mm at one tooth or more and with BOP at >20% of teeth.

    RESULTS: Readable radiographs were obtained from 499 individuals. Carotid calcification was identified in 39.1%. Individuals were diagnosed with periodontitis in 18.4%. Data analysis demonstrated that individuals with periodontitis had a higher prevalence of carotid calcifications (Pearson χ (2) = 4.05 p < 0.05) and with a likelihood of 1.5 (95% CI = 1.0, 2.3, p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Data analysis demonstrated a significant association between periodontitis and carotid calcification.

  • 110.
    Wallin Bengtsson, Viveca
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Assessment of carotid calcifications on panoramic radiographs in relation to other used methods and relationship to periodontitis and stroke: a literature review2014Ingår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 72, nr 6, s. 401-412Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To assess the literature on carotid calcifications defined from panoramic radiographs (PMX) and concurrent diagnosis of stroke and periodontitis.

    Materials and methods. A literature search screening for publications using search terms such as PMX and carotid calcification, stroke and periodontitis was performed in November 2012.

    Results. A total of 189 articles were retrieved, among which 30 were included in the review. The sensitivity for PMX findings of carotid calcifications (CC) compared to a diagnosis by Doppler sonography varied between 31.1–100%. The specificity for PMX findings of carotid calcifications compared to a diagnosis by Doppler sonography varied between 21.4–87.5%. Individuals with CC findings from PMX have more periodontitis and risk for stroke.

    Conclusions. There is a shortage of well-designed studies in older dentate individuals assessing the associations between periodontitis and radiographic evidence of CC and in relation to stroke or other cardiovascular diseases.

    Statement of Clinical Relevance. Carotid calcifications are prevalent in patients with periodontitis and such individuals may have an increased risk for stroke. The absence of signs of carotid calcification on panoramic radiographs is indicative of no calcification of carotid arteries.

  • 111.
    Widén, Cecilia
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III.
    Coleman, Michael
    Storbritannien.
    Critén, Sladjana
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III.
    Karlgren-Andersson, Pernilla
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Blekinge Institute of Technology & Trinity College, Dublin .
    Persson, G Rutger
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. USA.
    Consumption of bilberries controls gingival inflammation2015Ingår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 10665-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioactive molecules in berries may be helpful in reducing the risk of oral diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of bilberry consumption on the outcome of a routine dental clinical parameter of inflammation, bleeding on probing (BOP), as well as the impact on selected biomarkers of inflammation, such as cytokines, in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in individuals with gingivitis. Study individuals who did not receive standard of care treatment were allocated to either a placebo group or to groups that consumed either 250 or 500 g bilberries daily over seven days. The placebo group consumed an inactive product (starch). A study group, receiving standard of care (debridement only) was also included to provide a reference to standard of care treatment outcome. Cytokine levels were assayed using the Luminex MagPix system. The mean reduction in BOP before and after consumption of test product over 1 week was 41% and 59% in the groups that consumed either 250 or 500 g of bilberries/day respectively, and was 31% in the placebo group, and 58% in the standard of care reference group. The analysis only showed a significant reduction in cytokine levels in the group that consumed 500 g of bilberries/day. A statistically significant reduction was observed for IL-1b (p = 0.025), IL-6 (p = 0.012) and VEGF (p = 0.017) in GCF samples in the group that consumed 500 g of bilberries daily. It appears that berry intake has an ameliorating effect on some markers of gingival inflammation reducing gingivitis to a similar extent compared to standard of care.

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  • 112.
    Widén, Cecilia
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet (OHAL).
    Critén, Sladjana
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet (OHAL).
    Renvert, Stefan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet (OHAL).
    Persson, Rutger G
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet (OHAL).
    Measuring inflammatory markers in saliva in polyphenols research2016Ingår i: 29th International Horticultural Congress on Horticulture: Sustaining Lives, Livelihoods and Landscapes (IHC) / [ed] Finn, CE & Mezzetti, B, 2016, s. 201-206Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently an interest in the possible anti-inflammatory effects of intake of fruits and berries. The aim of this study was to determine whether the twice daily administration of a berry beverage rich in polyphenols had effects on salivary levels of a selected group of pro-inflammatory cytokines for one week in a pre-and post-study design. Levels of selected cytokines were compared in whole saliva and saliva obtained using commercially available collection devices (Salivette (R) Cotton and Salivette (R) Synthetic rolls). Twenty healthy subjects drank 200 mL of a berry beverage consisting of equal parts of bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus), black currant (Ribes nigrum), lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) diluted with 50% water. Levels of cytokines, IL-1 beta, IL-8, IL-12 and TNF-alpha were assessed. Levels of cytokines differed between sources of collection but were highest in whole saliva. The use of cotton or synthetic rolls does not seem to be useful as a method for saliva collection and cytokine analysis. There was no significant change in the levels of selected cytokines at baseline and after intake of the berry beverage in whole stimulated saliva. There was a large inter-individual variation in cytokine levels.

  • 113.
    Widén, Cecilia
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Holmer, Helene
    Kristianstad Central Hospital, Kristianstad.
    Coleman, Michael
    England.
    Tudor, Marian
    Kristianstad Central Hospital, Kristianstad.
    Ohlsson, Ola
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet (OHAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Sättlin, Susanna
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet (OHAL).
    Renvert, Stefan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Persson, G Rutger
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet (OHAL).
    Systemic inflammatory impact of periodontitis on acute coronary syndrome2016Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 43, nr 9, s. 713-719Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: A causative relationship between acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and periodontitis has yet to be defined. The aim of this study was to assess differences in levels of serum cytokines between individuals with or without ACS or periodontal comorbidity.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a case-control study, individuals with ACS (78 individuals, 10.3% females) and matching healthy controls (78 individuals, 28.2% females) were included. Medical and dental examinations were performed to diagnose ACS and periodontitis. Serum levels of cytokines were assessed using Luminex technology.

    RESULTS: A diagnosis of periodontitis in the ACS and control group was diagnosed in 52.6% and 12.8% of the individuals, respectively. The unadjusted odds-ratio that individuals with ACS also had periodontitis was 7.5 (95% CI: 3.4, 16.8, p<0.001). Independent of periodontal conditions, individuals with ACS had significantly higher serum levels of IL8 (mean: 44.3 and 40.0 pg/ml) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (mean: 82.3 and 55.3 pg/ml) than control individuals. A diagnosis of periodontitis made no difference in serum cytokine expressions.

    CONCLUSION: Elevated serum levels of VEGF were associated with ACS. Serum cytokine expression in individuals with ACS is unrelated to periodontal conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 114.
    Widén, Cecilia
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen Oral hälsa.
    Antibacterial activity of berry juices, an in vitro study2015Ingår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 73, nr 7, s. 539-543Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro antibacterial activities of blackcurrant and sea buckthorn juices on bacteria associated with gingival inflammation.

    Materials and methods

    The growth of selected bacteria (Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus gordonii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was studied in vitro on agar plates. The content of phenols in the different extracts was measured with HPLC-ESI-MS.

    Results

    The spectrometric analysis identified that the highest level of the single phenols studied was found for ferulic acid (113 μg/ml) in blackcurrant juice. Sea buckthorn contained low levels of selected phenols. Total bacterial inhibition for all bacterial species studied was found at 20% berry juice concentration with pH varying between 4.1-5.4.

    Conclusions

    The present study identified that in vitro bacterial growth on agar plates was inhibited by blackcurrant and sea buckthorn juices and that low juice pH explains bacterial in vitro growth. This may have clinical implications in biofilm development, reducing the risks for both tooth decay and gingivitis.

  • 115. Wyatt, C C L
    et al.
    Maupome, G
    Hujoel, P P
    MacEntee, M I
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Persson, Rigmor E.
    Kiyak, H A
    Chlorhexidine and preservation of sound tooth structure in older adults: A placebo-controlled trial2007Ingår i: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 93-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Trial to Enhance Elderly Teeth Health (TEETH) was designed to test the impact of regular rinsing with a 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) solution on tooth loss, and the causes of tooth loss (caries, periodontal disease and trauma) were also investigated. This paper reports on the effectiveness of a 0.12% CHX solution for controlling caries using a tooth surface (coronal and root) survival analysis. A total of 1,101 low income elders in Seattle (United States) and Vancouver (Canada), aged 60-75 years, were recruited for a double-blind clinical trial and assigned to either a CHX (n = 550) or a placebo (n = 551) mouth rinse. Subjects alternated between daily rinsing for 1 month, followed by weekly rinsing for 5 months. All sound coronal and root surfaces at baseline were followed annually for up to 5 years. At each follow-up examination, those tooth surfaces with caries, restored, or extracted were scored as 'carious'. The hazard ratio associated with CHX for a sound surface to become filled, decayed, or extracted was 0.87 for coronal surfaces (95% confidence interval: 0.71-1.14, p = 0.20) and 0.91 for root surfaces (95% confidence interval: 0.73-1.14, p = 0.41). These findings suggest that regular rinsing with CHX does not have a substantial effect on the preservation of sound tooth structure in older adults.

  • 116.
    Zeigler, Cecilia C
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
    Wondimu, Biniyam
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marcus, Claude
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sobko, Tanja
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Modéer, Thomas
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Microbiota in the oral subgingival biofilm is associated with obesity in adolescence.2012Ingår i: Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 157-164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To test the hypothesis whether microbiota in oral biofilm is linked with obesity in adolescents we designed this cross-sectional study. Obese adolescents (n = 29) with a mean age of 14.7 years and normal weight subjects (n = 58) matched by age and gender were examined with respect to visible plaque index (VPI%) and gingival inflammation (bleeding on probing (BOP%)). Stimulated saliva was collected. They answered a questionnaire concerning medical history, medication, oral hygiene habits, smoking habits, and sociodemographic background. Microbiological samples taken from the gingival crevice was analyzed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. The sum of bacterial cells in subgingival biofilm was significantly associated with obesity (P < 0.001). The link between sum of bacterial cells and obesity was not confounded by any of the studied variables (chronic disease, medication, VPI%, BOP%, flow rate of whole saliva, or meal frequency). Totally 23 bacterial species were present in approximately threefold higher amounts, on average, in obese subjects compared with normal weight controls. Of the Proteobacteria phylum, Campylobacter rectus and Neisseria mucosa were present in sixfold higher amounts among obese subjects. The association between obesity and sum of bacterial cells in oral subgingival biofilm indicates a possible link between oral microbiota and obesity in adolescents.

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