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  • 101.
    Hagbard, Oscar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    ”Äghornas kringgiärde är af steen”: Hägnadernas utformning före skiftesreformerna i Äskhults by och norra Halland2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Äskhults by är idag ett kulturreservat och sedan 1990-talet har omfattande restaureringar gjorts, både i markerna och med byggnaderna. Ett mål för arbete i Äskhult är att återskapa landskapet så som det såg ut före skiftesreformerna. Därför har man använt skifteskartan från 1825 som utgångspunkt i restaureringsarbetet. Syftet med denna uppsats är att dra slutsatser kring hur hägnaderna såg ut under 1700-talet i denna trakten och därmed även bidra till arbetet med kulturreservatet. För att svara på frågor om hur hägnaderna såg ut före skiftesreformerna i norra Halland och varför vissa hägnadstyper förekom har Hallands landsbeskrifning från 1729 och geometriska avmätningar av Johan Söderlingh studerats. Källmaterialet indikerar att den dominerande hägnadstypen är av sten oavsett tillgången till material. Det förekommer dock trähägnader i området och då är det främst i form av ris. Det går att dra paralleller mellan trähägnadernas utbredning och förekomsten av skog i området. Skogsområdena ligger mot gränsen till Västergötland. En annan aspekt som kan ha påverkat förekomst och utformning av hägnader och som troligen inte syns i källmaterialet är tillfälliga hägnader. Tillfälliga hägnader kunde användas bland annat vid ljungbränning, efterbete eller tillfälliga kålgårdar. Därför borde det även funnits tillfälliga hägnader omkring Äskhult. Slutsatsen är dock att stenhägnader troligen var dominerande i området kring Äskhult.

  • 102.
    Halldén, Christer
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Mårtensson, A.
    Department of Paediatrics and Malmö Centre for Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Säll, T.
    Department of Biology, Lund University.
    Lind-Halldén, Christina
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Lidén, Annika C.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Ljung, R.
    Department of Paediatrics and Malmö Centre for Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö.
    Origin of Swedish hemophilia B mutations2013In: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, ISSN 1538-7933, E-ISSN 1538-7836, Vol. 11, no 11, p. 2001-2008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: More than 1100 mutations that cause hemophilia B (HB) have been identified. At the same time, specific F9 mutations are present at high frequencies in certain populations, which raise questions about the origin of HB mutations.

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the mutation spectrum of all HB families in Sweden and investigate if mutations appearing in several families are due to independent recurrent mutations (RMs) or to a common mutation event (i.e. are identical by descent (IBD)).

    PATIENTS/METHODS: The registered Swedish HB population consists of patients from 86 families. Mutations were identified by resequencing and identical haplotypes were defined using 74 markers and a control population of 285 individuals. The ages of IBD mutations were estimated using ESTIAGE.

    RESULTS: Out of 77 presumably unrelated patients with substitution mutations, 47 patients (61%) had mutations in common with other patients. Haplotyping of the 47 patients showed that 24 patients had IBD mutations (51%) with estimated ages of between two and 23 generations. A majority of these patients had mild disease. Eight of the 15 mutations observed in more than one family were C>T transitions in CpG sites and all eight were RMs.

    CONCLUSIONS: The association of IBD mutations with a mild phenotype is similar to what has been previously observed in hemophilia A. Noteworthy features of the mutations that are common to more than one family are the equal proportions of patients with RM and IBD mutations and the correlation between the occurrence of RMs and C>T transitions at CpG sites.

  • 103.
    Halldén, Christer
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Säll, Torbjorn
    Department of Biology, Lund University.
    Lind-Halldén, Christina
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Lidén, Annika C.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Ljung, R.
    Department of Pediatrics and Malmö Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Lund University.
    Origin of Swedish hemophilia A mutations2012In: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, ISSN 1538-7933, E-ISSN 1538-7836, Vol. 10, no 12, p. 2503-2511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Background: Hemophilia A (HA) has a high level of variation within the disease class, with more than 1000 mutations being listed in the HAMSTeRS database. At the same time a number of F8 mutations are present in specific populations at high frequencies. Objectives: The simultaneous presence of large numbers of rare mutations and a small number of high-frequency mutations raises questions about the origins of HA mutations. The present study was aimed at describing the origins of HA mutations in the complete Swedish population. The primary issue was to determine what proportion of identical mutations are identical by descent (IBD) and what proportion are attributable to recurrent mutation events. The age of IBD mutations was also determined. Patients/Methods: In Sweden, the care of HA is centralized, and the Swedish HA population consists of ∼ 750 patients from > 300 families (35% severe, 15% moderate, and 50% mild). Identical haplotypes were defined by single-nucleotide polymorphism and microsatellite haplotyping, and the ages of the mutations were estimated with estiage. Results: Among 212 presumably unrelated patients with substitution mutations, 97 (46%) had mutations in common with other patients. Haplotyping of the 97 patients showed that 47 had IBD mutations (22%) with estimated ages of between two and 35 generations. The frequency of mild disease increased with an increasing number of patients sharing the mutations. Conclusions: A majority of the IBD mutations are mild and have age estimates of a few hundred years, but some could date back to the Middle Ages.

  • 104.
    Hansen, M.
    et al.
    University of California Berkeley.
    Popovic, O.
    University of Copenhagen.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment MoLab.
    Krogh, K.
    University of Copenhagen.
    Stoumann, L.
    University of Copenhagen.
    Jacobsen, C.S.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland.
    Halling-Sørensen, B.
    University of Copenhagen.
    Impact of animal manure separation technologies on steriod hormone distribution: consequences for agricultural practices2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When steroid hormones are emitted into the environment, they may have harmful effects on the reproduction system of aquatic life. Until now, research has primarily focused on human excretion, demonstrating that steroid hormones reach the aquatic environment due to insufficient removal in waste water treatment processes. However more recently, it has been revealed that agricultural practices also may add to the environmental burden of steroid hormones. So far, research activities have mainly focused on steroid estrogens, but also androgens, progestagens and glucocorticoids, expressed in the vertebrate steroidogenesis, may occur at substantial levels in animal manure and should be addressed. In agricultural practices the animal manure can be applied to the soil as raw manure, but also as a solid or liquid manure fraction, since current livestock production facilities utilizes a recently developed technology, which separates raw animal manure into a solid and a liquid fraction.This technology offers an improved handling and refined distribution of the manure nutrients to the farmlands and the possibility to reduce the environmental impact of manure nutrients, especially avoiding the surplus load of phosphorous. In the present work we investigated the distribution of 9 steroid hormones (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, 17α-estradiol and 17β-estradiol) in raw manure and manure separates from 10 to 15 different pig farms in Denmark utilizing 4 different separation technologies. Furthermore, we investigated a possible relationship between the steroid hormone concentration and the different manure fractions and separation technologies. The chemical steroid hormone analysis was done by inverse and integrated clean-up pressurized liquid extraction, and further cleaned by a two step solid-phase extraction before derivatization and finally analyzed by GC-MS/MS.It was found that the steroid hormones were predominant in the solid manure separate calling for manure management strategies to reduce the content of steroid hormones in separated manure solid fraction. This could potentially be achieved through composting or anaerobic digestion for biogas production of the solid fraction; however, the effects of these technologies on steroid hormones need to be verified.

  • 105.
    Hansen, Martin
    et al.
    Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment MoLab. Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen.
    Popovic, Olga
    Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen.
    Jensen, Lars S.
    Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen.
    Jacobsen, Carsten S.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Sedlak, David L.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley.
    Halling-Sørensen, Bent
    Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen.
    Animal manure separation technologies diminish the environmental burden of steroid hormones2015In: Environmental Science and Technology Letters, E-ISSN 2328-8930, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 133-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Newly developed treatment technologies are capable of separating livestock manure into a liquid fraction and a solid fraction using sedimentation, mechanical, and/or chemical methods. These technologies offer a potential means of distributing nutrients to agricultural lands without the unwanted environmental risks associated with the release of steroid hormones to adjacent waterways. To assess the potential benefit of these technologies in reducing the level of release of steroid hormones to adjacent waterways, distribution profiles of nine steroid hormones (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, 17α-estradiol, and 17β-estradiol) were determined in raw swine manure, and in solid and liquid fractions separated from ten full-scale manure separation systems. Steroid hormone concentrations, normalized for nitrogen content, were significantly higher in separated solids than in liquids. If separated liquids are applied instead of raw manure, steroid hormone loading can be reduced by a factor of 2 at a constant nitrogen fertilization level.

  • 106.
    Hansen, Martin
    et al.
    Institut for Farmaci, Københavns Universitet.
    Rodríguez-Navas, Carlos
    University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment MoLab.
    Lægemidler i vandmiljøet på Mallorca2013In: Dansk kemi, ISSN 0011-6335, Vol. 94, no 8, p. 24-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 107.
    Hasanaj, Rilind
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Abuhemidan, Ahmed
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Air-quality sensor with 10-years lifespan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sensors with very low power consumption are required so that they can last a long time without the need to replace the batteries very often. Low power sensors can save significant cost and time incurred in battery replacement, especially in establishments and organizations that span over several buildings, floors and rooms. In this thesis, we investigate the use of the low-power wireless protocol Z-wave for sensors solutions that can last for approximately 10 years. An algorithm was created and we concluded that 10 years on a 480 mAh battery is not possible and the expected years need to be lowered or we need to increase the battery capacity.

  • 108.
    Hellström, Line
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Framställning och vidareympning av gårdskultur: Vad skiljer en yoghurt fermenterad av gårdens egen bakterieflora från industriell och traditionell yoghurt?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With industrialization, the traditional yoghurt cultures with a multitude of lactic acid bacteria had to make way for the more standardized. An artisanal farm culture is produced by raw milk spontaneously fermented by the farm's own bacterial flora and thus develops a unique character. The bacterial culture can then be inoculated for the production of yoghurt.Purpose: The pupose of the study is to produce and inoculate as well as sensory and microbiological characterization of a thermophilic artisanal farm culture from raw milk. The inoculation relates to the production of yoghurt fermented by the farm's own bacterial flora.Method: The artisanal farm culture was produced and inoculated into yoghurt which was assessed by microbiological characterization, antibiotic resistance, sensory profiling and then compared with industrial culture and a traditional heirloom culture.Result: The result showed that the artisanal farm culture differed both microbiologically and with regard to sensory paramters. The farm culture contained strains of enterococci which did not show resistance to analyzed antibiotics.Conclusion: It is possible to produce an artisanal farm culture of good microbiological and sensory quality. The artisanal farm culture provides a differentiated microbiological and sensory character in comparison to an industrial culture and a traditional heirloom culture The method may be risky and the culture should be analyzed for pathogens. A unique farm yoghurt can be a method for artisan farm dairies to build their brand based on terroir.

  • 109.
    Henmyr, Viktor
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin. Lund University.
    Carlberg, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Manderstedt, Eric
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Lund University.
    Lind-Halldén, Christina
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Säll, T.
    Lund University.
    Cardell, L. O.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Halldén, Christer
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Genetic variation of the toll-like receptors in a Swedish allergic rhinitis case population2017In: BMC Medical Genetics, ISSN 1471-2350, E-ISSN 1471-2350, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Variation in the 10 toll-like receptor (TLR) genes has been significantly associated with allergic rhinitis (AR) in several candidate gene studies and three large genome-wide association studies. These have all investigated common variants, but no investigations for rare variants (MAF ≤ 1%) have been made in AR. The present study aims to describe the genetic variation of the promoter and coding sequences of the 10 TLR genes in 288 AR patients.

    METHODS: Sanger sequencing and Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing was used to identify polymorphisms in a Swedish AR population and these were subsequently compared and evaluated using 1000Genomes and Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) data.

    RESULTS: The overall level of genetic variation was clearly different among the 10 TLR genes. The TLR10-TLR1-TLR6 locus was the most variable, while the TLR7-TLR8 locus was consistently showing a much lower level of variation. The AR patients had a total of 37 promoter polymorphisms with 14 rare (MAF ≤ 1%) and 14 AR-specific polymorphisms. These numbers were highly similar when comparing the AR and the European part of the 1000Genomes populations, with the exception of TLR10 where a significant (P = 0.00009) accumulation of polymorphisms were identified. The coding sequences had a total of 119 polymorphisms, 68 were rare and 43 were not present in the European part of the 1000Genomes population. Comparing the numbers of rare and AR-specific SNPs in the patients with the European part of the 1000Genomes population it was seen that the numbers were quite similar both for individual genes and for the sum of all 10 genes. However, TLR1, TLR5, TLR7 and TLR9 showed a significant excess of rare variants in the AR population when compared to the non-Finnish European part of ExAC. In particular the TLR1 S324* nonsense mutation was clearly overrepresented in the AR population.

    CONCLUSIONS: Most TLR genes showed a similar level of variation between AR patients and public databases, but a significant excess of rare variants in AR patients were detected in TLR1, TLR5, TLR7, TLR9 and TLR10. This further emphasizes the frequently reproduced TLR10-TLR1-TLR6 locus as being involved in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis.

  • 110.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). KVA.
    Baden, S
    Gothenburg University.
    Tassidis, Helena
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Hörnaeus, K
    Uppsala University.
    Guillemant, J
    Uppsala University.
    Bergström Lind, S
    Uppsala University.
    Bergquist, J
    Uppsala University.
    Impact of oceanacidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilusedulis)2016In: Fish and Shellfish Immunology, ISSN 1050-4648, E-ISSN 1095-9947, Vol. 55, p. 452-459Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 111.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Baden, Susanne
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sjukare skaldjur i framtidens hav2018In: HavsUtsik, Vol. 01Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatförändringarna försämrar immunförsvaret hos kräftor, musslor och sjöstjärnor, och gör att de lättare får infektioner. De smittsamma bakterierna och virusen ser däremot inte ut att fara illa i den förändrade miljön. En dålig kombination för ekosystemet, och för oss konsumenter av marina skaldjur.

  • 112.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Collin, Betty
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Kan klimatförändringen öka smitta av infektionssjukdomar via havsvatten?2018In: Man and Biosphere Health: en komplett akademisk miljö / [ed] Ann-Sofi Rehnstam Holm, Kristianstad: Högskolan Kristianstad , 2018, p. 22-33Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De pågående klimatförändringarna gör haven allt varmare ochsurare. Dessutom förväntas perioder av intensiva regn att öka, v et bidrar till högre koncentrationer av näringsämnen i havsvattnet. Även sjukdomsframkallande bakterier och virus följer med vattnet från land ut i havet. Näringsämnena kommer att göda algblomningarna, vilket resulterar i fler syrefria bottnar. I bottensedimenten finns det naturligt rikligt med metallen mangan. Den frisätts till vattnet vid syrebrist och kan då tas upp av bottenlevande djur. I spåren av detta har vi genom experimentella långtidsstudier sett negativa effekter på immunförsvaret hos både kräfta, mussla och sjöstjärna. Förmågan att eliminera inkräktande bakterier och virus försämrades och djuren blev mer infektionsbenägna. Den tydligaste effekten såg vi då vi tillsatte mangan. Vi undersöker även hur viabilitet och virulens hos sjukdomsalstrande bakterier i havet påverkas och har bl.a. sett att havslevande bakterier av släktet Vibrio inte far illa av de förändrade faktorerna i havet, vilket indikerar att de kan få ett övertag på demarina organismerna, vars immunförsvar försvagats.

  • 113.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Tassidis, Helena
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Baden, Susanne P
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Immunosuppression of aquatic organisms exposed to elevated levels of manganese: from global to molecular perspective2019In: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, ISSN 0145-305X, E-ISSN 1879-0089, Vol. 104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace metal for all organisms. However, in excess it causes toxic effects but the impact on aquatic environments has so far been highly overlooked. Manganese is abundant both in costal and deep sea sediments and becomes bioavailable (Mn2+) during redox conditions. This is an increasing phenomenon due to eutrophication-induced hypoxia and aggravated through the ongoing climate change. Intracellular accumulation of Mn2+ causes oxidative stress and activates evolutionary conserved pathways inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Here, studies are compiled on how excess of dissolved Mn suppresses the immune system of various aquatic organisms by adversely affecting both renewal of immunocytes and their functionality, such as phagocytosis and activation of pro-phenoloxidase. These impairments decrease the animal's bacteriostatic capacity, indicating higher susceptibility to infections. Increased distribution of pathogens, which is believed to accompany climate change, requires preserved immune sentinel functions and Mn can be crucial for the outcome of host-pathogen interactions.

  • 114.
    Heydorn, Per
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Inbreeding decreases upwind pheromone: mediated male flight and frequency in female calling behavior in a lab culture of the pyraloid moth Plodia interpunctella2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Semiochemicals are chemicals used to communicate. Animals tend to use these e.g. to locate food sources or to find a suitable mate. In this study, the sex pheromone of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, was analysed. Since this is an economically important species, it is mass-reared in labs and science centers worldwide for experimental purposes. A culture of these moths was brought into the lab at Lund University for studies and has after that served as a model species demonstrating up-wind pheromone-mediated male flight in different courses held by the university. As years went by, the culture got less successful in up-wind flights, most probably because of inbreeding and bottleneck effects, and therefore, a new culture was taken in. This study focuses on using various experiments to see if there was a behavioral and/or physiological difference between the two cultures. Results show a significant difference in behavioral traits (frequency of calling behavior in females and in male up-wind flights) but not in physiological traits (female pheromone production or male antennal response). This study discusses some effects of mass-reared lab cultures.

  • 115.
    Heydorn, Per
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Anderbrant, Olle
    Lunds universitet.
    Jonsson, Lars J.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Svensson, Glenn P.
    Lunds universitet.
    Long-term rearing affects pheromone-mediated flight behaviour of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella2019In: Journal of applied entomology, ISSN 0931-2048, E-ISSN 1439-0418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pest Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) is reared in many research laboratories. In a culture established in 1996, attraction of males to the female-produced sex pheromone in flight tunnel assays gradually decreased after approximate to 15 years of rearing. A new culture was established to enable comparison with the old culture regarding traits associated with mate finding. Female calling activity, pheromone titre and male antennal response to pheromone components did not differ between cultures. In contrast, very few males from the old culture reached the pheromone source in flight tunnel assays compared with 61%-81% of males from the other culture. Our results highlight the importance of maintaining viable insect cultures for research purposes and suggest frequent evaluation of traits involved in chemical communication in such cultures to ensure reliable results in experiments.

  • 116.
    Hillethan, Morgan
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Smycket av ett biologiskt kulturarv eller en utdöende epok?: en återinventering av hamlade träd i nordöstra Skåne 20192019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning och studier om hamlade träd och lövängar har varit något begränsad p.g.a. att de spår som syns i våra marker endast hyser ett fåtal rester. Förmodligen har landskapet varit rikt på hamlade träd. Under en inventering som pågick mellan 2004–2007 i nordöstra Skåne lokaliserades individer med hamlingsspår samt lövängsrester. Med den som grundmaterial genomfördes en inventering av fyra utvalda lokaler, varav två har ett formellt skydd i form av naturreservat och kulturreservat samt två utan skydd. Samma metod användes. Inventeringen visar att hamling och nyhamling av träd har ökat, främst på de lokaler som har skydd. Dessa lokaler har dessutom en skötselplan som gynnar hävd vilket passar individer med hamlingsspår. Resurser i form av medel och kunskap borde förläggas inom de områden där hamlade träd har störst chans att leva kvar. Reservat ger den möjlighet som ett långsiktigt bevarandearbete kräver, med en skötsel som gynnar de hamlade individerna, framhäver nyhamling samt det biologiska kulturarvet.

  • 117.
    Holm, Ingvar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Tassidis, Helena
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Miljö, medicin och undervisning, hur hänger det ihop?: exempel från projektet mangan och prostatacancer2018In: Man and Biosphere Health: en komplett akademisk miljö / [ed] Ann-Sofi Rehnstam-Holm, Kristianstad: Högskolan Kristianstad , 2018, p. 16-21Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningsmiljön ”Man and Biosphere Health” är engruppering där forskare från helt olika biologiskakunskapsområden träffas och knyter kontakter. Forskning inom området ”Life Science” (Livsvetenskap), som framförallt innefattar biologi, medicin och biokemi, är världens största tvärdisciplinära forskningsområde med studier av biologisktliv samt de förutsättningar som utgör grunden för fortsatt liv. Unikt för samarbetet inom MABH är kombinationen avekologisk och biomedicinsk kompetens, vilket i vårt fall har inneburit att cellbiologisk forskning har knutits ihop med miljöforskning på ett nyskapande sätt.

  • 118.
    Holmqvist, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Vårdträdens resa i tid och tanke: en komparativ studie över tid om bakomliggande orsaker till ett landskapselements uppkomst2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vårdträdet är ett landskapselement som har sitt kulturella ursprung i hedniska tider av träddyrkan. Dessa träd har förts från heliga lundar in till gårdsplanerna där de har planterats för att sedan tjäna som symbol för gårdens lycka eller olycka beroende på trädets hälsa och hur behandlingen av trädet utförts. I moderna tider tenderar vi att istället för en tro på ödet och sökandet efter omen för att sia om framtiden, resonera med hjälp av logik och rationalitet för att tolka vår omgivning. Hur dessa sätt att tänka står i kontrast till varandra har varit utgångspunkten för denna studien. Vårdträdet har tjänat som symbol för detta då landskapselementet fortfarande existerar på den skånska landsbygdens gårdstomter precis som det gjort i hundratals år. Hur kulturen, och resonerandet kring träden i fråga ser ut idag i jämförelse med då är dock den intressanta frågan och syftet med studien har varit att få en djupare förståelse för detta. Genom detta kan ett bidrag ges till diskussionen kring varför platser ser ut som de gör. Frågeställningen för studien har därför blivit "Vilka faktorer i då- och nutid ligger bakom skapandet av landskapselementet vårdträd?" Undersökningsmetoden som valts för detta har till en början varit att studera frågelistor från Lunds universitets Folklivsarkiv. Vidare har djupintervjuer genomförts tillsammans med människor som har ett vårdträd växande i anslutning till gården de bor på. På detta sätt har en historisk inblick skapats om vårdträden som sedan kan ställas i kontrast emot dagens människors tänkande om samma sorts träd. Resultaten visar på att vissa kulturella fenomen lever kvar medan andra har förändrats. Vårdträden anses idag liksom då, som kulturarvsobjekt som "tillhör gården". Träden används också fortfarande som socialiseringsplats samt som solskydd och i viss mån som offerplats av gröt på julen samt att trädet får växa fritt. Hur kulturen dock skiljer sig visar sig i hur rädslan vid trädets behandling ej existerar i samma grad längre. Vårdträden respekteras då liksom nu, men tron om bestraffning och otur vid "illa" behandling av vårdträdet är ej lika starkt manifesterat i de intervjuades tankar som det tenderade att vara enligt frågelistorna. Då vårdträden i traditionell mening ej rördes över huvud taget, gallras träden idag utan större eftertanke. Vad likheterna gällande synen på träden som kulturarvssymbol beror på, kan vara att träden p.g.a. sina höga åldrar genom denna konstant tillskrivs ett historiskt värde genom berättelser som hela tiden tillskrivs trädet desto äldre det blir. Därför har vårdträdet då liksom nu många gånger tjänat som släktklenod för gårdens invånare där minnen från alla livets skeden är knutna. Skiljaktigheterna kan bero på hur dagens rationella och logiska tänkande skiljer sig från folktrons ej ifrågasättande och okritiska synsätt. På grund av detta tenderar personerna att vifta bort de historiska föreställningarna och behandla sina vårdträd som de vill. Dock lever möjligen vårdträdskulturen kvar även som ett "mekaniskt" handlande, dvs att planteringen i sig, att träden ej rörs och att "ta i trä" är handlingar som utförs av automatisk karaktär utan att reflektera över deras historiska innebörd. Oavsett vad, fortsätter i alla fall vårdträdet vara ett inslag på den skånska landsbygden.

  • 119.
    Holopainen, Sari
    et al.
    Finland.
    Arzel, Céline
    Finland.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Fox, Anthony D
    Danmark.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Frankrike.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Nummi, Petri
    Finland.
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    Swedish Univ of Agricultural Sciences.
    Väänänen, Veli-Matti
    Finland.
    Alhainen, M
    Finland.
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Finland.
    Sustainable management of migratory European ducks: finding model species2018In: Wildlife Biology, ISSN 0909-6396, E-ISSN 1903-220XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eurasian migratory duck species represent a natural resource shared between European countries. As is evident throughout human harvest history, lack of coordinated management and monitoring at appropriate levels often leads to ‘the tragedy of the commons’, where shared populations suffer overexploitation. Effective management can also be hampered by poor understanding of the factors that limit and regulate migratory populations throughout their flyways, and over time. Following decades of population increase, some European duck populations now show signs of levelling off or even decline, underlining the need for more active and effective management. In Europe, the existing mechanisms for delivering effective management of duck populations are limited, despite the need and enthusiasm for establishing adaptive management (AM) schemes for wildlife populations. Existing international legal agreements already oblige European countries to sustainably manage migratory waterbirds. Although the lack of coordinated demographic and hunting data remains a challenge to sustainable management planning, AM provides a robust decision-making framework even in the presence of uncertainty regarding demographic and other information. In this paper we investigate the research and monitoring needs in Europe to successfully apply AM to ducks, and search for possible model species, focusing on freshwater species (in contrast to sea duck species) in the East Atlantic flyway. Based on current knowledge, we suggest that common teal Anas crecca, Eurasian wigeon Mareca penelope and common goldeneye Bucephala clangula represent the best species for testing the application of an AM modelling approach to duck populations in Europe. Applying AM to huntable species with relatively good population data as models for broader implementation represents a cost effect to develop AM on a European flyway scale for ducks, and potentially other waterbirds in the future.

  • 120. Holopainen, Sari
    et al.
    Arzel, Céline
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Fox, Anthony D
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Nummi, Petri
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    Väänänen, Veli-Matti
    Alhainen, M
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Sustainable management of migratory European ducks: finding model species2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eurasian migratory ducks are a natural resource shared between multiple European countries. Due to lack of flyway-level management and monitoring, there is a risk of “the tragedy of the commons” arising, where populations are overexploited. Effective management may also be hindered by a poor understanding of the factors that limit and regulate migratory populations throughout their flyways, and over time. Following decades of population increase, some European duck populations now show signs of levelling off or even decline, underlining the need for more active management. In Europe, we lack effective common tools to manage duck populations, despite the need and enthusiasm for establishing flyway-level adaptive management (AM) schemes for migratory birds. There are several international legal agreements (e.g. EEC Birds Directive, AEWA) that oblige European countries to sustainably manage migratory birds and their habitats. Although the lack of coordinated demographic and hunting data remains a challenge to sustainable management planning for waterfowl, AM provides a robust decision-making framework even in the presence of uncertainty.

    We investigate the research and monitoring needs in Europe to successfully apply AM to ducks, and search for possible model species, focusing on freshwater duck species.  Our geographical focus is NW Europe (excluding Russia), the area utilized by ducks in the East-Atlantic flyway. Based on current knowledge and their wide distribution, we suggest that Common Teal Anas crecca, Eurasian Wigeon Mareca penelopeand Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangulawould be the best species for testing the application of an AM modelling approach for ducks in Europe. Applying AM to huntable species with relatively good population data as models for broader implementation represents a cost effective way of starting to develop AM on a European flyway scale for ducks and other harvested waterbirds.

  • 121.
    Hommel, Martin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Konfigurering av omrörarna i flockningskamrarna på Källby avloppsreningsverk2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har undersökt omrörningen i flockningsbassängerna på Källby avloppsreningsverk (ARV). Med hjälp av frekvensomriktning går hastigheten på omrörarna att ställa individuellt med målet att uppnå en bättre flockbildning och högre fosforreduktion. Brister i de nu valda omrörningshastigheterna upptäcktes och förändrades till enligt litteraturens korrekta värden. Det gick dock inte dra några slutsatser om hur de nya inställningarna påverkar fosforreduktionen men en onödigt hög kemikaliedosering kan ha legat bakom de låga och inte korrelerande värdena.

  • 122.
    Hultberg, M
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bodin, Hristina
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Fungi-based treatment of real brewery waste streams and its effects on water quality2019In: Bioprocess and biosystems engineering (Print), ISSN 1615-7591, E-ISSN 1615-7605, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 1317-1324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient-rich liquid waste streams generated during the beer brewing were treated by submerged fungal growth. Among five filamentous fungal strains tested, Pleurotus ostreatus and Trichoderma harzianum were selected for treatment of run-off from spent grain and hot trub, respectively. In both waste streams, nitrogen was well removed by fungal treatment, with a maximum reduction of 91.5 ± 0.5% of total nitrogen in run-off from spent grain treated with P. ostreatus and 77.0 ± 3.1% in hot trub treated with T. harzianum. Removal of phosphorus was considerably lower, with maximum removal of total phosphorus of 30.8 ± 11.1% for the P. ostreatus treatment and 16.6 ± 7.8% for the T. harzianum treatment. Considering the high concentration of phosphorus in the waste sources (320-600 mg L-1), additional techniques for its removal are needed. In the P. ostreatus treatment, a total amount of 13.2 ± 2.2 g L-1 dwt of biomass with a protein concentration of 11.6 ± 2.1% was produced.

  • 123.
    Hultberg, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bodin, Hristina
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Effects of fungal-assisted algal harvesting through biopellet formation on pesticides in water2018In: Biodegradation, ISSN 0923-9820, E-ISSN 1572-9729, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 557-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has demonstrated the potential of using filamentous fungi to form pellets with microalgae (biopellets), in order to facilitate harvesting of microalgae from water following algae-based treatment of wastewater. In parallel, there is a need to develop techniques for removing organic pollutants such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals from wastewater. In experiments using the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger and biopellets composed of these microorganisms, this study investigated whether fungal-assisted algal harvesting can also remove pesticides from contaminated water. A mixture of 38 pesticides was tested and the concentrations of 17 of these were found to be reduced significantly in the biopellet treatment, compared with the control. After harvesting, the concentration of total pesticides in the algal treatment did not differ significantly from that in the control. However, in the fungal treatment and biopellet treatment, the concentration was significantly lower (59.6 ± 2.0 µg/L and 56.1 ± 2.8 µg/L, respectively) than in the control (66.6 ± 1.0 µg/L). Thus fungal-assisted algal harvesting through biopellet formation can also provide scope for removing organic pollutants from wastewater, with removal mainly being performed by the fungus.

  • 124.
    Hultberg, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Prade, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bodin, Hristina
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Vidakovic, Aleksandar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Asp, Håkan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Adding benefit to wetlands: valorization of harvested common reed through mushroom production2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 637-638, p. 1395-1399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands have been successfully implemented as water purification systems for removal of plant nutrients and can play a significant role in nutrient recycling, depending on use of the harvested biomass. In a constructed wetland in southern Sweden examined in this study, assimilation of plant nutrients in wetland biomass corresponded to 234 kg/ha nitrogen, 22.8 kg/ha phosphorus, and 158 kg/ha potassium in the study year (2016). The harvested biomass, composed exclusively of common reed, was evaluated as a substrate for production of oyster mushrooms, one of the most widely produced edible mushrooms in the world. The biological efficiency of the substrate was 138 ± 10%, corresponding to production of 1.4 kg mushrooms (fresh weight) based on 1 kg reed (dry weight). The fruiting bodies had high quality, with total protein concentration 18.3 ± 2.8% and very low levels of contaminating heavy metals. Thus, nutrient assimilation in wetland biomass not only decreases the risk of eutrophication in recipient waters, but can be utilized for direct production of high-quality food. The biomass remaining after mushroom production, composed of mycelium and partly degraded wetland biomass, has potential for use in ruminant feed, i.e., as roughage.

  • 125.
    Huynh, Martin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Valarino, Fernando
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    An analysis of continuous consistency models in real time peer-to-peer fighting games2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses different methods of maintaining a consistent state between two peers in a real time fighting game played over a network. Current methods of state management are explored in a comprehensive literature review, which establishes a baseline knowledge and theoretical comparison of use cases for the two most common models: delay and rollback. These results were then further explored by a practical case study where a test fighting game was created in Unity3D that implemented both delay and rollback networking. Networking strategies were tested by a group of ten users under different simulated network conditions and their experiences were documented using a Likert-style questionnaire for each stage of testing. Based on user feedback it was found that the implemented rollback strategy provided an overall better user experience. Rollback was found to be more responsive and stable than the delay implementation as network latency was increased, suggesting that rollback is also more fault tolerant than delay.

  • 126.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Can high-pressure homogenization cause thermal degradation to nutrients?2019In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 240, p. 133-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although originally developed for fat globule disruption in dairy applications, high-pressure homogenizers are extensively used in other food processing applications. Two newer applications are in forming nanoemulsion for delivering supplemented nutrients and as a preservation technique, both using higher pressures than traditional applications. This has raised concern that friction heat created in the homogenizer causes thermal degradation to temperature sensitive molecules such as nutrients. This contribution uses a numerical model to give insight into temperature profiles for drops in a homogenizer valve and investigates when homogenization at elevated pressures is expected to cause thermal degradation. A fast method for estimating the extent of degradation for a given application is also proposed. It is concluded that no thermal degradation is expected inside the valve, almost regardless of operating conditions, due to the short residence time. Provided that cooling is applied after the homogenizer, degradation downstream of the valve can also be avoided.

  • 127.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Det ängsliga matsamhället2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt mer av det vi stoppar i oss har vid något tillfälle befunnit sig i fabrikernas rostfria ståltankar, transporterats på löpande band, behandlats med kemiskt framtagna tillsatser och förpackats i färgglada förpackningar. Istället för gladlynta kockar eller känsliga mathantverkare är det idag kemister, ingenjörer och industriarbetare som designar, tillverkar och monterar vår mat.

    Men många som köper den industriellt producerade maten är samtidigt oroliga och känner dåligt samvete. Och många högröstade kritiker menar att industrimaten är näringsfattig, miljöfarlig, bedräglig – eller rentav giftig. Finns det fog för denna kritik?

    Det ängsliga matsamhället tittar närmare på den industriella matproduktionen och drar slutsatsen att industrimat inte alls är så farlig som många tror. Kritiken bygger snarare på att den storskaliga industriella matproduktionen har hamnat på kollisionskurs med en samling vanliga värderingar, som exempelvis uppfattningen att det som producerats utan mänsklig inblandning alltid är bättre (biofili) eller att den traditionella maten automatiskt är bättre bara i egenskap av sin historia (mat-konservatism). Att kritisera färdigmat och pulversås har dessutom blivit ett sätt att markera sin egen moraliska förträfflighet och klasstillhörighet. Vi ser också att motståndet har blivit en kraftfull och samlande symbol för sådant många debattörer vänder sig emot – d­et är egentligen inte ett motstånd mot en viss sorts mat så mycket som mot teknokrati, liberalism, marknadsekonomi och rationalism.

  • 128.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Emulsion formation by homogenization: current understanding and future perspectives2019In: Annual review of food science and technology, ISSN 1941-1421, Vol. 10, p. 239-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emulsion formation by homogenization is commonly used in food production and research to increase product stability and to design colloidal structures. High-energy methods such as high-pressure homogenizers and rotor-stator mixers are the two most common techniques. However, to what extent does the research community understand the emulsion formation taking place in these devices? This contribution attempts to answer this question through critically reviewing the scientific literature, starting with the hydrodynamics of homogenizers and continuing by reviewing drop breakup and coalescence. It is concluded that although research in this field has been ongoing for a century and has provided a substantial amount of empirical correlations and scaling laws, the fundamental understanding is still limited, especially in the case of emulsions with a high-volume fraction of the disperse phase, as seen in many food applications. These limitations in the current understanding are also used to provide future perspectives and suggest directions for further investigation.

  • 129.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Error estimation, validity and best practice guidelines for quantifying coalescence frequency during emulsification using the step-down technique2017In: HELIYON, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 3, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coalescence during emulsification has a significant effect on the outcome of the process, especially for the high volume fractions of disperse phase common in food and pharmaceutical processing. Controlling emulsification requires that the extent of coalescence during different conditions can be quantified. The step-down technique is the most commonly used method for measuring coalescence frequency during emulsification. However, the validity of the method has been questioned. No in-depth theoretical validation or best practice guidelines have been provided for the step-down technique, or for any of the suggested alternative methods. This contribution derives error estimates for three non-idealities present in every step-down experiment: i) limited sampling rate, ii) non-instantaneous step-down and iii) residual fragmentation after the step. It is concluded that all three factors give rise to systematic errors in estimating coalescence rate. However, by carefully choosing experimental settings, the errors can be kept small. The method, thus, remains suitable for many conditions. Best practice guidelines for applying the method are given, both generally, and more specifically for stirred tank oil-in-water emulsification.

  • 130.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Fabrication of nanoemulsions by high-pressure valve homogenization2018In: Nanoemulsions: formulation, applications, and characterization / [ed] Seid Mahdi Jafari and David Julian McClements, Elsevier, 2018, p. 175-206Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High-pressure valve homogenization is a standard technique for nanoemulsion formation in low-viscosity formulations. It is applied extensively in industrial applications and in academic research. This chapter summarizes the scientific-based knowledge in terms of principal mechanisms of operation and practical applicability of the methodology. It is concluded that high-pressure valve homogenization has many advantages in producing nanoemulsions; the technique is mature and allows for continuous production and for production in various scales. However, the technique also has limitations. The thermodynamic efficiency is low, giving rise to high energy cost, and a substantial temperature rises in the product. The high pressures required for nanoemulsion formation have also been reported to cause overprocessing, which results in an additional limitation.

  • 131.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Flow pulsation plays an important role for high-pressure homogenization in laboratory-scale2018In: Chemical engineering research & design, ISSN 0263-8762, E-ISSN 1744-3563, Vol. 138, p. 472-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most experimental and numerical investigations of high-pressure homogenizers assume that the valve is fed with a constant flowrate. However, technical homogenizers use piston pumps with either 3 or 5 pistons (production- and pilot-scale machines) or a single piston (laboratory-scale machines). This results in flow pulsation. It is still unknown to what extent this influences valve hydrodynamics. Moreover, it is unknown if the difference in the number of pistons has implications for scale-up. This study uses a piston pump model and CFD simulations to elaborate on these questions. It is concluded that the constant flow assumption is justifiable for homogenizers using piston pumps with 3 or 5 pistons (pilot-and production-scale), but that homogenizers run with a single piston (i.e. laboratory-scale machines) will obtain a substantially different flow field. Most notably, the jet extending from the single-piston homogenizer gap will become highly unsteady and smaller drop sizes are expected (when keeping all other settings constant). This adds to previous findings suggesting substantial fundamental differences between laboratory- and production-scale homogenizers. (C) 2018 Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 132.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Lund University.
    Rotor-stator mixers: from batch to continuous Mode of Operation—a review2018In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 6, no 32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although continuous production processes are often desired, many processing industriesstill work in batch mode due to technical limitations. Transitioning to continuous production requires an in-depth understanding of how each unit operation is affected by the shift. This contribution reviews the scientific understanding of similarities and differences between emulsification in turbulent rotor-stator mixers (also known as high-speed mixers) operated in batch and continuous mode. Rotor-stator mixers are found in many chemical processing industries, and are considered the standard tool for mixing and emulsification of high viscosity products. Since the same rotor-stator heads are often used in both modes of operation, it is sometimes assumed that transitioning from batch to continuous rotor-stator mixers is straight-forward. However, this is not always the case, as has been shown in comparative experimental studies. This review summarizes and critically compares the current understanding of differences between these two operating modes, focusing on shaft power draw, pumping power, efficiency in producing a narrow region of high intensity turbulence, and implications for product quality differences when transitioning from batch to continuousrotor-stator mixers.

  • 133.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Rayner, Marilyn
    Lunds universitet.
    General principles of nanoemulsion formation by high-energy mechanical methods2018In: Nanoemulsions: formulation, applications, and characterization / [ed] Seid Mahdi Jafari and David Julian McClements, Elsevier, 2018, p. 103-139Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Emulsion formation is a challenging task. Breaking a large drop into smaller fragments gives rise to an increase in the total interfacial area and, consequently, in the interfacial energy. External energy must, therefore, be supplied to form an emulsion. Nanoemulsion formation is even more challenging since small drops require even higher interfacial energy.

    The high-energy methods are designed to supply the energy required for emulsification by subjecting it to a disruptive hydrodynamic stress, that is, laminar or turbulent shear or cavitation. This chapter provides an overview of the current understanding of the mechanical principles of the high-energy methods. It discusses how they give rise to emulsification, both in terms of the traditional stress-balance description and of dynamic theories of emulsification. Special emphasis is placed on the difference between forming micrometer range emulsions and nanoemulsions.

  • 134.
    Håkansson, Caroline
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Vad är en kulturväg?: En jämförande studie av kulturvägsinventeringar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad är en kulturväg? Vid första anblick kan man tro att det är en enkel fråga att svara på. Denna uppsats visar på komplexiteten kring begreppet och lyfter behovet av en diskussion av det. Trafikverket genomför just nu ett projekt där alla statliga vägar i Sverige ska inventeras i syfte att hitta landets kulturvägar. Det har även utförts inventeringar tidigare, men då utan en definition på kulturvägar. I fyra inventeringar, utförda mellan 1995–2018, har aspekterna sträckningen, beläggning, objekt vid vägen och omgivande landskap undersökts i syfte att se vad som ligger till grund för klassificering av kulturvägar. Av resultatet går det att se att objekt vid vägen och det omgivande landskapet har stor tyngd vid klassificering av kulturvägar. Objekt vid vägen är en bred och tydlig aspekt medan det omgivande landskap är en aspekt som är svårdefinierad. Uppsatsen problematiserar aspekterna och lyfter viktiga frågor som bör besvaras inför en kulturvägsinventering.

  • 135.
    Höglund, Evelina
    et al.
    RISE.
    Ekman, Susanne
    Swedish Match.
    Stuhr-Olsson, Gunnel
    Findus Special Foods.
    Lundgren, Christina
    Findus Special Foods.
    Albinsson, Berit
    RISE.
    Signäs, Michael
    Medirest.
    Karlsson, Christina
    ICA.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    A meal concept designed for older adults: small enriched meals including dessert2018In: Food and Nutrition Research, no 62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The population of older adults is growing and many are at risk of disease-related malnutrition.This is a serious condition which increases the risk for other diseases and distress, human suffering and puts ahigh load on health care costs. Meal concepts tailored to suit the needs of older adults are required to decreasethe incidence of disease-related malnutrition.

    Objective: To evaluate sensory perception regarding a concept of small, protein and energy-enriched multicomponentmeals designed according to the nutritional needs of older adults.

    Design: A meal concept of small main courses with complementary desserts and protein and energy-enrichedproducts was evaluated using triangle tests, hedonic evaluation and focus group discussion. Enriched saucesand meals were compared to corresponding commercial products regarding appearance, taste, consistency andoverall acceptance.

    Results: The concept of a small main course with a complementary dessert was generally perceived as positiveby the target group. The acceptance scores for the enriched meals were generally lower than for the commercialmeals, mainly owing to the packaging of the enriched meals which required covering the food in sauce.Enriched sauces contained approximately 90% more protein than the commercial sauces. However, proteinenrichment affected the sensory properties of the sauces and they were perceived as thicker, creamier and lessflavour-intensive.

    Conclusions: A concept based on small, protein and energy-enriched meals supplemented with a dessert wasconsidered suitable for increasing the energy and protein intakes of older adults provided that the method ofenrichment ensures attractive sensorial properties.

  • 136.
    Höijer, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Expanding the home economics classroom: new opportunities with outdoor cooking?2018In: “What is happening in home economics?”: a spotlight on European activities / [ed] EAHE, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 137.
    Höijer, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Förnyad undervisning om mattraditioner: en lesson study2019Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 138.
    Höijer, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Redefining education about food traditions in Swedish home economics education: report from a lesson study2018In: “What is happening in home economics?”: a spotlight on European activities / [ed] EAHE, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The syllabus for Home Economics in Sweden has a concrete culture perspective tied to cultural variations and food traditions (Skolverket 2011, 2016). Culture has been described as pivotal to how we socially understand the world around us (Burr 2003, Gerger 2009), which means that the world isn’t neutral to us but rather understood from one cultural perspective or another (Hastrup 2004). Research (Bohm 2016, Höijer 2013) has illustrated how food selected to be included in Home Economics education primarily is chosen by the teacher, and also that the teacher is embedded in the cultural and structural traditions that are (re)constructed in society and school. Education about food in Home Economics is contested in the sense that students and teachers’ cultural perspective are misaligned and students’ experiences rarely are taken as a starting point (Höijer 2013). So far there has been no research investigating how education about food traditions is realized, but experience suggests that it often entails baking traditional saffron buns in December or to speak about geographical regions rather than to investigate food as codes, images, values, experiences and ways of thinking that groups of people share. The main aim of the project was to develop Home Economic teachers competence in a Swedish municipality, the specific aim was to develop education about food traditions.

    Between August of 2017 and January 2018 a competence development project was carried out in a large municipality near Stockholm. The project was planned as a combination between lectures and research in the form of a lesson study (Lewis 2002; Lewis, Perry & Murata 2006; Murata 2011). In the lesson study a specific lesson was planned by the whole group and carried out by one teacher, and observed by other teachers. Analysis and revision of the lesson was done by the whole group.

  • 139.
    Höijer, Karin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Fransson, Sofia
    Forssman, Linda
    Neidestam, Katarina
    Förnyad undervisning om mattraditioner i hem- och konsumentkunskap: en lesson study2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 140.
    Höijer, Karin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Hjälmeskog, Karin
    Uppsala universitet.
    Ämnesdidaktik: konsten att undervisa i HK2019Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 141.
    Höijer, Karin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Karlsson, Johanna
    Lunds universitet.
    Gerberich, Johanna
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Språk- och kunskapsutvecklande ämnesundervisning för nyanlända elever den första tiden: Del 5. Att lyfta språket och ämneskunskaperna med hjälp av stöttning Del 7. Läsförståelse i alla ämnen2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 142.
    Isberg, Julia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Åkers, Anna
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Utanverken - en oas mitt i staden: en enkätundersökning om upplevelsekaraktärer, kulturella ekosystemtjänster och utveckling i Utanverken, Kristianstad2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagsläget finns ett stort behov av exploatering för nya bostäder och förtätning i många svenska städer. Bra boende - och livsmiljöer innefattar ofta en närhet till grönområden. Utanverken i Kristianstad, Skåne län, är ett grönområde med höga natur - och kulturvärden. Omkring området planeras en stor exploatering av bostäder vilket betyder att grönområdet är viktigt för staden. Genom grönområden kan olika upplevelsekaraktärer upplevas och olika kulturella ekosystemtjänster tas ut. Dessa karaktärer och tjänster är en viktig hälsoaspekt för människan. För att ta reda på vilka upplevelsekaraktärer och kulturella ekosystemtjänster som upplevs och utnyttjas av de boende omkring undersökningsområdet idag genomfördes en enkätundersökning. Resultatet visar att det finns karaktärer och tjänster som upplevs och utnyttjas mer än andra. Däremot finns det meningsskiljaktigheter kring utveckling av undersökningsområdet mellan olika grupper av de boende. För att tillgodose dagens och framtidens invånares önskningar bör det alltid föras en dialog mellan beslutsfattare och invånare. Vid planering av grönområden bör det även tas i beaktande över vilka funktioner dessa bör innehålla för att främja speciella upplevelsekaraktärer och kulturella ekosystemtjänster för skapandet av bra boendemiljöer i urbana områden. 

  • 143.
    Ivarsson, Sebastian
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Slaget om talldungen: om informationen och kommunikationens betydelse i utvecklingen av Haväng och Vitemölla strandbackars naturreservat, 2011–20182018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although nature conservation is supposed to benefit all of us, the work is rarely trouble-free. My concern for these problems is the starting point for this candidacy. The study intends to investigate how information and communication has influenced the residents' attitude to Sand Life, in connection with the development of Haväng and Vitemölla nature reserve. The case study also examines the conflict that arose in the process. The investigation was made possible in three steps: interviews with the county administrative board and Sand Life staff members; questionnaire and interviews with residents around Vitemölla. The result indicates that the residents as a group initially were negative in their attitude to Sand Life. The attitude seemed to be caused by the experience that the county administrative board and Sand Lifes' original plans for the nature reserve was too extensive and not sufficiently anchored, from a local perspective. It was also found that the information about the project had been inadequate, which could possibly be linked to the initial attitude. Today the results indicate that the residents as a group are neutral to cautiously positive in their attitude to Sand Life. Possibly due to the fact that the measures taken in the nature reserve became appealing; the attitude can perhaps also be linked to the authorities revising the care plan and showing greater openness towards the residents. Proactive information, clear intentions and the willingness to develop different plans and projects in a continuous dialogue with locals, can possibly limit the extent of conflicts.

  • 144.
    Jismark, Sofia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Ragnarsson, Sofia
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Mat och dryck i kombination: Betydelsen av gemensamma grundsmaker och aromatisk likhet för balans och harmoni2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Combining food and drink is foremost about achieving balance and harmony. To reach balance and harmony in food and beverage combinations taste, texture and flavour need to be considered. Contrasts and similarities need to be considered as well.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to explore if similar basic tastes and aromatic similarity has an impact on balance and harmony in food and beverage pairing.

    Method: Based on subjective estimation of Calientes drinks Blueberry/Lemongrass and Lime/Ginger and with the help of aromatic similarity, four dishes were developed. The dishes in combination with the drinks were tested in a consumer test where 38 respondents were asked to answer questions about liking and perceived harmony.

    Result: The result shows that the majority of respondents experienced balance and harmony in the food and drink combinations and indicate that not only one aspect but several must be taken into consideration when combining food and drink.

    Conclusion: Similar basic tastes, aromatic similarity and the individual's subjective taste experience are important for perceived balance and harmony in food and drink combinations.

  • 145.
    Johannesson, Julie
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    University of Gothenburg.
    Slinde, Frode
    University of Gothenburg.
    Meal frequency and vegetable intake does not predict the development of frailty in older adults2019In: Nutrition and health, ISSN 0260-1060, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:: Frailty is considered highly prevalent among the aging population. Fruit and vegetable intake is associated with positive health outcomes across the life-span; however, the relationship with health benefits among older adults has received little attention.

    AIM:: The aim was to examine if a relationship exists between meal frequency or frequency of vegetable intake and the development of frailty in a population of older adults.

    METHODS:: A total of 371 individuals, 80 years or older, from the study 'Elderly Persons in the Risk Zone' were included. Data was collected in the participants' home by face-to-face interviews up to 24 months after the intervention. Baseline data were calculated using Chi2-test; statistical significance was accepted at the 5% level. Binary logistic regression was used for the relationship between meal frequency or vegetable intake and frailty.

    RESULTS:: Mean meal frequency was 4.2 ± 0.9 meals per day; women seem to have a somewhat higher meal frequency than men (p=0.02); 57% of the participants had vegetables with at least one meal per day. No significant relationship was found between meal frequency or vegetable intake and frailty at 12 or 24 months follow-ups.

    CONCLUSIONS:: Among this group of older adults (80+), meal frequency was slightly higher among women than men, and just over half of the participants had vegetables with at least one meal a day. The risk of developing frailty was not associated with meal frequency or vegetable intake. The questions in this study were meant as indicators for healthy food habits.

  • 146.
    Johansson, Agneta
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Naturens bästa: enkätundersökning av svenska naturarrangörers förhållande till natur och kultur2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Turismen är idag en av världens största industrier, där naturturismen är en av de fortast växande. Ekoturismen faller inom naturturism och står för ansvarsfullt resande och skapandet av hållbara naturoch kulturupplevelser. Naturens Bästa är en kvalitetsmärkning som tagits fram av Svenska Ekoturismföreningen och Visit Sweden för naturarrangörer i Sverige med god kunskap om hållbar turism. En enkätundersökning gjordes med syftet att få en djupare förståelse för Naturen Bästa samt se vilket förhållande de har till de sex grundkriterierna och även undersöka samspelet mellan natur och kultur i verksamheterna. Resultatet av enkätundersökningen visar att medlemmarna helst vill bidra till naturvärden i närområdet men även kvalitet och trygghet är viktigt. Det som medlemmarna minst vill bidra till är att skydda kulturvärdena samt gynna den lokala ekonomin. För att kunna driva sin verksamhet anser medlemmarna att respektera resmålets begränsningar, naturvärden, kvalitet och trygghet, miljömedvetenhet samt upptäckarglädje, kunskap och respekt är de grundkriterierna som spelar störst roll. Kulturvärden spelar minst roll i de flesta Naturens Bästa verksamheter. Av de arrangörer som svarade på enkäten tänker alla på hur viktigt ett samspel mellan natur och kultur är och de allra flesta visar ett samspel i sina verksamheter på något vis. Att samspel får ett så positivt resultat är överraskande då alla kulturpåståenden i enkäten fått svaga resultat. Samtidigt är det arrangörer som arbetar med kultur som är de bästa på att visa ett samspel i verksamheten. Sammanfattande kan sägas att om Naturens Bästa vill utveckla samspelet mellan natur och kultur ska man göra det med hjälp av arrangörer med ett kulturintresse.

  • 147.
    Johansson, Kjell
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Mohlin, Camilla
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    On microglia and synaptic integrity of the outer plexiform layer2019In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 60, no 9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 148.
    Johnsen, Kent
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Kulturmiljöns roll i kommunal planering: En fallstudie av landskapet i översiktsplaner över sex skånska kommuner för att utreda hur kulturmiljöbegreppet används i en planeringsdiskurs.2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kulturmiljöer finns överallt runt om oss. Planerad påverkan av vår omvärld påbörjades redan under medeltiden och har genom historien varit uttryck för både säkerhetsfrågor och makt. Kulturmiljövårdens riksintresse etableras på 1970-talet och skyddas av miljöbalken. Plan- och bygglagen infördes 1987 och ställde krav på att kommuner ska producera en översiktsplan som tar ställning till långsiktiga markanvändnings- och byggfrågor.

    I översiktsplaner behandlas även kulturmiljövärden i kommunerna och syftet med detta arbete är att utreda hur detta begrepp tolkas och arbetas med i kommunal planering. Detta görs genom en diskursanalytisk fallstudie över sex skånska kommuner. Dessa är Burlöv, Eslöv, Höör, Simrishamn, Trelleborg och Ängelholm. Översiktsplanerna har valts utifrån deras aktualitet. Varje översiktsplan presenteras för sig i resultatdelen och jämförs och analyseras i diskussionen.

    Värdeord och förekommande begrepp presenteras i en matris. Det framkommer att kulturmiljöerna presenteras som något som ger karaktär och identitet till kommunerna men används främst som en resurs för rekreation och näringslivet. Det framkommer också att kommunerna vill öka kunskapen om kulturmiljövärden generellt.

    När kulturmiljöer ses som en resurs kan värdefrågor uppstå och synlighet och påtaglighet blir värdehöjande. Många svårtolkade kulturmiljöer riskerar att försvinna. Ett par kommuner nämner skapandet av nya kulturmiljövärden. Diskussionen avslutas med att konstatera att saker måste försvinna för att nya saker ska få plats.

  • 149.
    Jovanovic, Aleksandar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Vu, Cong
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Triggningskriterier i triggningsmodul för trådlösa dataloggern DL141E2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the data logger DL141E it’s possible to continuously log measurement data from sensors up to 30k samples per second, and then transferring them to a mobile phone with Bluetooth technology. But this is by far too much sample data in a small time for a mobile phone with technical limitations to receive. That’s why only relevant measurement data should be mass logged to reduce the unnecessary data amount. Int his study a new approach is proposed where a specific and smaller amount of discrete pre-samples are logged in sequence. Every set of pre-samples is processed by comparing them to the user pre-defined trigger criterias. Met criterias will trigger logging of a massive set of samples on basis of only interesting signal deviations. The following trigger criterias are used: a specific signal level to cross, a specific signal direction, and both of these in combination with an amount of consecutive samples. The study provides an examination on how the signal processing method ”Lebesgue sampling” can be applied with the above criterias to achieve a god accuracy with reasonable processing time on mobile phones. This is observed using sensors with the most common signal types ramp and pulse in an environment where small noises and transients occur. The accuracy and the processing load are taken into account when estimating the efficiency of Lebesgue method and when estimating how many pre-samples per set might be sufficient. The implementation is written in Java Android platform and then integrated into a digital triggering module with Graphical User Interface (GUI).

  • 150.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Radiation tolerance in tardigrades: current knowledge and potential applications in medicine2019In: Cancers, ISSN 2072-6694, Vol. 11, no 9Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades represent a phylum of very small aquatic animals in which many species have evolved adaptations to survive under extreme environmental conditions, such as desiccation and freezing. Studies on several species have documented that tardigrades also belong to the most radiation-tolerant animals on Earth. This paper gives an overview of our current knowledge on radiation tolerance of tardigrades, with respect to dose-responses, developmental stages, and different radiation sources. The molecular mechanisms behind radiation tolerance in tardigrades are still largely unknown, but omics studies suggest that both mechanisms related to the avoidance of DNA damage and mechanisms of DNA repair are involved. The potential of tardigrades to provide knowledge of importance for medical sciences has long been recognized, but it is not until recently that more apparent evidence of such potential has appeared. Recent studies show that stress-related tardigrade genes may be transfected to human cells and provide increased tolerance to osmotic stress and ionizing radiation. With the recent sequencing of the tardigrade genome, more studies applying tardigrade omics to relevant aspects of human medicine are expected. In particular, the cancer research field has potential to learn from studies on tardigrades about molecular mechanisms evolved to maintain genome integrity.

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