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  • 101.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Psychological well-being in the police interview: a therapeutic jurisprudential approach2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the idea of therapeutic jurisprudence, law enforcement actors are seen as therapeutic agents promoting crime victims’ and suspects’ psychological well-being in legal procedures. Contrary to psychological well-being bad demeanour or behaviour of law enforcement actors may cause a secondary victimisation and obstruct legal procedures, and as a consequence of such obstructions be anti-therapeutic. This paper discusses the definition and measurement of psychological well-being in relation to the police interview with crime victims and suspects. Two studies regarding crime victims’ and suspects’ experiences of police interviews in consideration of Antonovsky’s sense of coherence (SOC) are presented. Results show that crime victims’ perceptions of anxiety in the police interview are associated lower SOC and suspects’ perceptions of being respected in the police interview relate to higher SOC. Interviewees’ experiences and interview outcomes with respect to psychological well-being are discussed.

  • 102.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Psychological well-being related to police interviews: a therapeutic jurisprudential approach2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 103.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Kristianstad University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Sexualbrottsförövarens upplevelser av polisförhör1996Report (Other academic)
  • 104.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Murderers' and sexual offenders' experiences of police interview and their inclination to admit or deny crime2002In: Behavioral sciences & the law (Print), ISSN 0735-3936, E-ISSN 1099-0798, Vol. 20, no 1-2, p. 31-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research concerns murderers' and sexual offenders' experiences of Swedish police interviews and their attitudes towards allegations of these serious crimes. The explorative study is based on a questionnaire answered by 83 men convicted of murder or sexual offences. Results show that when police officers interview murderers and sexual offenders, the individuals perceive attitudes that are characterized by either dominance or humanity. Logistic regression shows that police interviews marked by dominance are mainly associated with a higher proportion of denials, whereas an approach marked by humanity is associated with admissions. When suspects feel that they are respected and acknowledged, they probably gain more confidence and mental space, allowing them to admit criminal behaviour.

  • 105.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Madsen, Kent
    Polisen.
    Humanity and dominance in police interviews: causes and effects. Paper presented at the 4th International Investigative Interviewing Conference, Brussels, June 28 – July 12010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of Therapeutic Jurisprudence (TJ) is to execute legal procedures such that they promote the social and psychological well-being of the individual involved in a juridical action. TJ may be a facilitating factor in the police interview. Previous studies  have shown a relation between a humanitarian interviewing approach and suspects inclination to confess as well as crime victims narrate all what they can remember from a crime event (see e.g., Gudjonsson, 2006; Holmberg 2004; Holmberg & Christianson, 2002; Kebbell et al., 2006; Kebbell et al., 2008). The humanitarian experiences of the people involved in judicial actions seem to promote a therapeutic jurisprudential psychological well-being that might act as a rehabilitating factor.

    The aim of the present experimental study was to investigate the causal relationship between the humanitarian respectively the dominant interviewing approach and interview outcomes. With interview outcomes mean the memory performance and psychological well-being. The experiment comprised three phases and 127 subjects between 17 and 70 years old participated in these three phases. The first phase was an exposure where the subjects in pairs acted against each other in a computer simulation with a scenario symbolizing a crime event. During the simulation, half of the subjects got the opportunity to steel from the opposite party. A week after the exposure phase, the subjects were interviewed in a humanitarian or a dominant style symbolizing a police interview after a crime event. Sex month later, the subjects were interviewed again in the same manner, symbolizing the interview in the court proceeding. Before the exposure phase, the subject completed Spielberger’s stait-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) – trait form and Rammstedt & John’s the 10-Item Big Five Inventory. Before after every phase, the participants completed Antonovsky’s sense of coherence questionnaire and Spielberger’s STAI – the state form. After the interviews the participants also completed a questionnaire that measured whether the interviews were perceived as humanitarian or dominant. Preliminary results, since a part of the interviews has been analyzed, show that acting in the computer simulation affected the subjects’ mood. Results indicate that the humanitarian interviewing approach result in a higher memory performance and a higher psychological well-being compared to the dominant interviewing style. The results from the analyzes of the compete sample will be presented and discussed.

  • 106.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Madsen, Kent
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Rapport operationalized as a humanitarian interview in investigative interview settings2014In: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 591-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes and tests an empirical-based theoretical model of rapport in an investigative interview context. Essential in this study is whether rapport, operationalized as the humanitarian interview, in two interviews with a six-month retention interval, had any causal effects on the respective memory performance of 146 and 127 interviewees. Independent-samples t‐tests revealed, on both occasions, that a humanitarian rapport interview led to a larger amount of reported information altogether, with more central and peripheral information, than a dominant non-rapport interview did. Regardless of the interview approach, mixed between-within analysis of variance showed a substantially larger amount of reported information in the first interview than the second. The amount of false information reported in both interviews was statistically invariable, regardless of interviewing style.

  • 107.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Madsen, Kent
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Rapport operationalized as a humanitarian interview in investigative interview settings: a therapeutic jurisprudential approach2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount and the quality of provided information in a police interview can be seen as the lifeblood of a crime investigation where a Therapeutic Jurisprudential approach may act as a facilitating factor.

    The aim of the present experimental study was to investigate the causal relationship between the humanitarian respectively the dominant interviewing approach and interview outcome. Interview outcome means the memory performance and psychological well-being. The experiment comprised three phases where 127 subjects between 17 and 70 years old participated. The first phase was an exposure where the subjects acted against each other in pairs in a computer simulation with a scenario symbolizing a crime event. A week after the exposure phase, the subjects were interviewed in a humanitarian or a dominant style symbolizing a police interview after a crime event. Sex month later, the subjects were interviewed again in the same manner, symbolizing the interview in the court proceeding.

    Before and after every phase, the participants completed Antonovsky’s sense of coherence questionnaire and Spielberger’s STAI – the state form. The results from the two interview phases will be discussed in terms of interviewing styles, memory performance, that is the amount and quality of provided information, and psychological well-being.

  • 108.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Madsen, Kent
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Therapeutic jurisprudentially humanitarian approach vs. dominance in police interviews: causes and effects. Paper presented at the 20th Conference of the European Association of Psychology and Law.Gothenburg, Sweden, 15 – 18 June2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 109.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Pettersson, Bertil
    Polishögskolan, Solna.
    “Dom ska minsann inte komma undan”: om biljakter2004In: Polispsykologi / [ed] Christianson, Sven Å., Granhag, Pär Anders, Stockholm: Natur och kultur , 2004, p. 144-158Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 110.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    Innes-Ker, Åse
    Lunds universitet.
    Accuracy and realism in confidence in children's event recall in response to two different types of questions2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 111.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    Innes-Ker, Åse
    Lunds universitet.
    Accuracy and the realism in confidence in children's and adults' event recall in response to free recall and focussed questions2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    Innes-Ker, Åse
    Lunds universitet.
    Accuracy and the realism in confidence in childrens' and adults' event recall in response to free recall and focussed questions2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 113.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Innes-Ker, Åse
    Lunds universitet.
    Accuracy and the realism in confidence in children's and adults' event recall in response to free recall and focussed questions2006In: Nixon, Keri (ed.), Forensic recall and eyewitness testimony, London: IA-IP Publishing , 2006, p. 27-37Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 114.
    Håkansson, Frida
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Associations between autistic traits and creativity domains ​in the average adult population2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     The present study aimed to research links between autistic traits and creativity in the average adult population. The sample consisted of 108 adults,​ 60 females, 48 males, age 18-66 (M=34,90; SD=10,85), from 20 different social media pages who participated in the study through self-report questionnaires about autistic traits and creativity. The result shows that the autistic traits of difficulties in imagination and difficulties in social skills has associations with difficulties in creativity, while the autistic trait of attention to detail has associations with benefits in creativity. The creativity domains, differences between men and women and the method of self-report are discussed.

  • 115.
    Ipsonius, Mattias
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Knutsson, Malin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Samband mellan svenska ungdomars välmående och föräldrabeteendena emotionellt stöd och psykologisk kontroll2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilket samband föräldrabeteendena emotionellt stöd och psykologisk kontroll har för svenska ungdomars välmående. Deltagarna (n = 76), fördelade på 40 flickor och 36 pojkar, läser vid en svensk gymnasieskola där enkätundersökningen också genomfördes. Enkäten byggde på fem befintliga mätinstrument som avsåg mäta emotionellt stöd, psykologisk kontroll, affektivt välbefinnande, livstillfredsställelse och depressiva känslor. Enkäten utformades så att det skulle vara möjligt att genomföra analyser för respektive kön samt för mammors och pappors föräldrabeteende var för sig. Resultaten visar på positiva samband mellan föräldrabeteendet emotionellt stöd och ungdomars affektiva välbefinnande och livstillfredsställelse samt ett negativt samband mellan emotionellt stöd och depressiva känslor. Mellan föräldrabeteendet psykologisk kontroll och både affektivt välbefinnande och livstillfredsställelse framkom negativa signifikanta samband. En deskriptiv jämförelse avseende könsskillnader visade indikationer på att mammors respektive pappors föräldrabeteende har olika inverkan på ungdomars välbefinnande.

  • 116.
    Ivarsson Bourdo, Maria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Osvalds, Hans
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Upplevd förändring av aggressionsnivåer hos svenska soldater efter utlandstjänstgöring i Afghanistan2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The major part of the existing research on psychological effects on participating in war or residing in a war zone shows negative effects on the person’s mental health. However not all research, from an international perspective, shows the same results. Since we haven’t found any research regarding Swedish conditions and there has been a recent implementation of a decision from the Supreme Commander regarding commanded international service for all staff within the Swedish armed forces, the question has now become more relevant. This essay intends to examine how the direct contacts with warring counterparts have contributed to a change in Swedish soldier’s perception of their own aggression levels. High levels of aggression may be included in various types of mental illness, particularly in post-traumatic stress. Furthermore, perceived aggression levels in relation to involvement in direct fighting and combat exposure is investigated. The result demonstrates a clear increase in perceived aggression levels after the intervention, albeit from low levels. There was also an increase in perceived aggression in relation to the degree of personal combat exposure.

  • 117.
    Jansson, Lisa
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Lundmark, Isabel
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Instrumentell och reaktiv aggression hos svenska mordbrännare2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kvantitativa studie undersökte om det var möjligt att kategorisera mordbrännares aggression som instrumentell eller reaktiv utifrån Cornells (1996) kodningsguide. Det huvudsakliga syftet med studien var att tillföra en förståelse om hur teorin gällande reaktivt och instrumentell aggression kan tillämpas när det gäller mordbrännare, och därmed även förhoppningsvis utöka användningsområdet för teorin. Studien bygger på 87 fällande domar från Sveriges hovrätter där gärningspersonerna blivit dömda för försök till mordbrand, mordbrand alternativt till grov mordbrand mellan år 2017-2018 från två av hovrätterna och mellan 2016-2018 från fyra av hovrätterna. Domarna bedömdes av två oberoende bedömare, tillika författarna av denna studie. Med en hög interbedömarreliabilitet visade resultatet av undersökningen att det var möjligt att skilja reaktiva gärningspersoner från instrumentella. Variablerna planering och målinriktning förekom i större utsträckning hos de gärningspersoner som klassades som instrumentella, medan variablerna provokation och känslomässig upphetsning oftare förekom hos reaktiva gärningspersoner. Sambanden mellan variablerna omfattning, relation samt ställning i skuldfrågan och typ av aggression var däremot ej signifikanta. Vidare implikationer av studien visar ett utökat användningsområde för Cornells (1996) kodningsguide, men att det finns skäl till att kritisera den dikotoma klassificeringen. Ett alternativ kan vara att utöka klassificeringen, alternativt att för just mordbrännare använda sig av Canter och Fritzons (1998) kodningsguide som är speciellt framtagen för mordbrännare, men har vissa likheter med Cornells (1996).

  • 118.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin.
    Walter, Henrik
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin.
    Incentive motivational salience and the human brain2014In: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, ISSN 1878-3627, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 141-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the concept of incentive motivational salience is briefly described, pioneering studies on the subject of the mesolimbic motivational system are reviewed, and studies we have been involved in conducting which elaborate on this subject are discussed. In particular, we aim to show that the mesolimbic motivational system is recruited as a reaction to primary and secondary reinforcers as a function of salience, that is independent of valence. Furthermore, studies showing that both psychological and pharmacological interventions can affect the function of the mesolimbic motivational system and how its' dysfunction is related to psychopathological phenomena with an emphasis on psychosis are discussed.

  • 119.
    Johansson, Mikael
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Inducing and reducing false memories: a Swedish version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 369-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participants tend to falsely remember a nonpresented critical word after having studied a list of the word's primary associates. This paper presents a Swedish version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, which provides a tractable method of experimentally inducing and investigating such illusory memories. In Experiment 1, using 60 19-32 yr olds, it was demonstrated that the constructed stimulus material induced highly reliable false-recall and false-recognition effects, and, moreover, that veridical and false memories were associated with a similar phenomenological experience of remembering. The results from Experiment 2, using 40 19-32 yr olds, indicate that the susceptibility to false recognition can be substantially reduced when participants are explicitly required to monitor the sources of their memories. These findings are consistent with predictions derived from the source-monitoring framework.

  • 120.
    Johansson, Mikael
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Stenberg, Georg
    School of Social Sciences, Växjö University.
    Lindgren, M.
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Rosén, Ingmar
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Clinical Neurophysiology, Lund University Hospital.
    Memory for perceived and imagined pictures: an event-related potential study2002In: Neuropsychologia, vol. 40, no. 7, 2002, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 986-1002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioural measures were used to investigate recognition memory and source-monitoring judgements about previously perceived and imagined pictures. At study, word labels of common objects were presented. Half of these were followed by a corresponding picture and the other half by an empty frame, signalling to the participants to mentally visualise an image. At test, participants in a source-monitoring task made a three-way discrimination between new words and words corresponding to previously perceived and imagined pictures. Participants in an old/new-recognition task indicated whether test words were previously presented or not. In both tasks, correctly identified old items elicited more positive-going ERPs than correctly judged new items. This widely distributed old/new effect was found to have an earlier onset and to be of a greater magnitude for imagined than for perceived items. Task (source versus item-memory) affected the old/new effects over prefrontal areas and the reaction times to remembered old items. The present findings are consistent with the view that a greater amount, or a different type, of information is necessary for accurate source-memory judgements than for correct recognition, and moreover, that different types of source-specifying information revive at different rates. In addition, the results add weight to the view that the late widespread ERP-old/new effect is sensitive to the quality or the amount of information retrieved from memory.

  • 121.
    Johansson, Stina
    et al.
    LTH Teknik och Samhälle.
    Siotis, Camilla
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Barn och unga i kollektivtrafiken2012Report (Other academic)
  • 122.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Generating artificial social networks2019In: The Quantitative Methods for Psychology, ISSN 1017-3455, E-ISSN 1543-8740, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 56-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of complex social networks is an inherently interdisciplinary research area with applications across many fields, including psychology. Social network models describe, illustrate and explain how people are connected to each other and can, for example, be used to study information spread and interconnectedness of people with different kinds of traits. One approach to social network modelling, originating mainly in the physics literature, is to generate targeted kinds of social networks using models with specialized mechanisms while analyzing and deriving features of the models. Surprisingly though, and despite the popularity of this approach, there is no available functionality for generating a wide variety of social networks from these models. Thus, researchers are left to implement and specify these models themselves, restricting the applicability of these models. In this article, I provide a set of Matlab functions enabling the generation of artificial social networks from 22 different network models, most of them explicitly designed to capture features of social networks. Many of these models originate in the physics literature and may therefore not be familiar to psychological researchers. I also provide an illustration of how these models can be evaluated in terms of a simulated model comparison approach and how they can be applied to psychological research. With the already existing network functionality available in Matlab and other languages, this should provide a useful extension to researchers.

  • 123.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Gossip spread in social network models2017In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 417, no 1, p. 126-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gossip almost inevitably arises in real social networks. In this article we investigate the relationship between the number of friends of a person and limits on how far gossip about that person can spread in the network. How far gossip travels in a network depends on two sets of factors: (a) factors determining gossip transmission from one person to the next and (b) factors determining network topology. For a simple model where gossip is spread among people who know the victim it is known that a standard scale-free network model produces a non-monotonic relationship between number of friends and expected relative spread of gossip, a pattern that is also observed in real networks (Lind et al., 2007). Here, we study gossip spread in two social network models (Toivonen et al., 2006; Vázquez, 2003) by exploring the parameter space of both models and fitting them to a real Facebook data set. Both models can produce the non-monotonic relationship of real networks more accurately than a standard scale-free model while also exhibiting more realistic variability in gossip spread. Of the two models, the one given in Vázquez (2003) best captures both the expected values and variability of gossip spread.

  • 124.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Hail the impossible: p-values, evidence, and likelihood2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 113-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Significance testing based on p-values is standard in psychological research and teaching. Typically, research articles and textbooks present and use p as a measure of statistical evidence against the null hypothesis (the Fisherian interpretation), although using concepts and tools based on a completely different usage of p as a tool for controlling long-term decision errors (the Neyman-Pearson interpretation). There are four major problems with using p as a measure of evidence and these problems are often overlooked in the domain of psychology. First, p is uniformly distributed under the null hypothesis and can therefore never indicate evidence for the null. Second, p is conditioned solely on the null hypothesis and is therefore unsuited to quantify evidence, because evidence is always relative in the sense of being evidence for or against a hypothesis relative to another hypothesis. Third, p designates probability of obtaining evidence (given the null), rather than strength of evidence. Fourth, p depends on unobserved data and subjective intentions and therefore implies, given the evidential interpretation, that the evidential strength of observed data depends on things that did not happen and subjective intentions. In sum, using p in the Fisherian sense as a measure of statistical evidence is deeply problematic, both statistically and conceptually, while the Neyman-Pearson interpretation is not about evidence at all. In contrast, the likelihood ratio escapes the above problems and is recommended as a tool for psychologists to represent the statistical evidence conveyed by obtained data relative to two hypotheses.

  • 125.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Test learning as an explanation of dual task dissociations in implicit learning2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) has been used extensively to study implicit learning. In this task participants first observe letter sequences generated by a grammar. In a later test phase participants are asked to distinguish new grammatical and ungrammatical sequences. Participants are able to do this, both when the letters instantiating the grammar remain the same (standard AGL) and when the letters are changed between training and test (transfer AGL).

     

    Virtually all models of AGL assume that there is no learning during the test phase. Yet, test learning can occur in AGL and the structural constraints of a grammar can imply useful cues at test as well as at training. For example, grammatical test sequences are often more similar to each other than are ungrammatical test sequences to each other. Similarity to test sequences observed so far can then be used as a cue for classification.

     

    In the current research I used an episodic memory model, Minerva II, in order to simulate a recent study by Hendricks et al. (2013). They found that for standard AGL performing dual tasks at test was more detrimental to performance than dual tasks at training. For transfer AGL performing dual tasks at training reduced performance as much as dual tasks at test. The authors interpreted these results as revealing automatic vs. intentional process in AGL: transfer AGL requires intentional processes at both training and test, whereas standard AGL requires intentional processes at test but only automatic processes at training.

     

    I modelled these experiments using a version of Minerva II extended to learn at test. The model encodes sequences probabilistically into memory based on a learning rate at both training and test. Each test sequence is classified based on the similarity to sequences encoded in memory so far, so that test sequences also influence classification. The model does not distinguish between automatic and intentional processes. The learning rate at training was varied independently of the learning rate at test in order to simulate dual task manipulations in different phases of the task. In order to model transfer AGL I used a simple repetition coding scheme in Minerva II.

     

    For standard AGL the simulations revealed that learning rate at test had a much greater impact on classification than learning rate at training in Minerva II.  In contrast, for transfer AGL the effects of changing learning rates at training was the same as changing learning rate during test. In essence, the empirical data may not reveal automatic vs. intentional processes, but simply effects of a single similarity process. The simulation results and the notion of test learning invites useful avenues for further computational and empirical research in order to establish the processes involved in implicit learning. 

  • 126.
    Jönsson, Peter
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Ingegerd
    Lunds universitet.
    Androgyny and creativity: a study of the relationship between a balanced sex-role and creative functioning2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 269-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between creativity and androgyny was studied in 163 women and men with the Creative Functioning Test (CFT) and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). A 2 (femininity: high/low) x 2 (masculinity: high/low) x 2 (sex) ANOVA was conducted on subjects' CFT scores. A significant interaction effect between femininity and masculinity was found showing that subjects high on both femininity and masculinity (androgynous) and low on both scales (undifferentiated) reached higher CFT scores than female-typed and male-typed subjects. Further, a significant three-way interaction including sex of subject indicated that the former two-way interaction was accounted for by men only.

  • 127.
    Jönsson, Peter
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Hansson-Sandsten, Maria
    Lunds universitet.
    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia in response to fear-relevant and fear-irrelevant stimuli2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heart period variability and heart rate were studied in 15 women and 15 men while they were viewing negatively (snakes/spiders), neutrally (scenic views), and positively (cats and kittens/puppies and dogs) valenced films. Time-frequency analyses of the heart period variability power spectrum in the high frequency region (0.12-0.4 Hz), reflecting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), were carried out during 5 minutes in each condition. The main finding showed that RSA-magnitude (high frequency power) was inversely related to emotional valence: lowest magnitudes were found in response to positive films, and highest magnitude to negative films. The findings were interpreted as reflecting motor or behavioral inhibition, and increased attention to negatively valenced, stimuli.

  • 128.
    Jönsson, Peter
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Sonnby-Borgström, Marianne
    Lunds universitet.
    The effects of pictures of emotional faces on tonic and phasic autonomic cardiac control in women and men2003In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 157-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine autonomic function in response to negatively and positively valenced pictures under different levels of conscious recognition. Heart period variability (HPV) and heart rate (HR) reactivity were studied in 53 males and females who were being shown pictures of angry and happy faces. The pictures, which were backwardly masked, were presented once every 30 s during a 5-min period and under three conditions (counterbalanced for type of facial expression): below the level of conscious recognition (17 ms), at an intermediate level (56 ms), and at a clearly recognizable level (2370 ms). Analyses of HR power spectrum (for 5 min in each condition) in the high frequency region (HF: 0.15-0.5 Hz) that reflects respiratory sinus arrhythmia, as well as analysis of phasic heart rate responses (7.5 s in 0.5 epochs following every picture presentation) were carried out. The main findings were that HF-power was higher, and cardiac midinterval acceleration lower, in response to angry as opposed to happy faces, a result obtained only for the men, however. No interaction effect between facial expression and the three exposure conditions was found, suggesting that the pictures induced emotional activation both subliminally and supraliminally. The results were discussed in terms of increased attention to aversive stimuli.

  • 129.
    Jönsson, Peter
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Wallergård, Mattias
    Osterberg, Kai
    Hansen, Ase Marie
    Johansson, Gerd
    Karlson, Björn
    Cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity and habituation to a virtual reality version of the Trier Social Stress Test: a pilot study2010In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 35, no 9, p. 1397-1403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a widely used protocol to induce stress in laboratory settings. Briefly, in the TSST, the test participant is asked to hold a speech and to do an arithmetic task in front of an audience. In the present pilot study, we examined endocrine and autonomic reactivity and habituation to repeated stress provocations using a virtual reality (VR) version of TSST. The VR system was a CAVE™ system with three rear projected walls (4 m×3 m), and one floor projection. The system also included a head tracking system and passive stereoscopy. The virtual audience consisted of one woman, and two men. Ten healthy men, mean age 28.3 years (24-38 years), were confronted with the test twice (1 week between sessions), during which salivary cortisol, heart rate (HR), high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV, parasympathetic activity), and T-wave amplitude (TWA, suggested to be related to sympathetic influence on myocardial performance) were assessed. Cortisol secretion showed a marked increase (88% vs. baseline) during the first stress provocation, but habituated in the second session. The magnitude of HR and TWA reactivity during stress provocation was approximately the same at both sessions, implying a stable increase in sympathetic activity. Heart rate showed a maximum increase of 40% at the first session, and 32% at the second. TWA showed a maximum decrease of 42% at the first session, and 39% at the second. The results resemble those obtained in prior studies using the real-life TSST. If these results can be replicated with larger samples, VR technology may be used as a simple and standardized tool for social stress induction in experimental settings.

  • 130.
    Jönsson, Peter
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Wallergård, Mattias
    Lund University.
    Österberg, Kai
    Lund University.
    Johansson, Gerd
    Lund University.
    Karlson, Björn
    Lund University.
    Cardiovascular reactivity in high-, and low-trait anxious individuals during social stress induction2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    In two previous studies we report that subjective ratings of state anxiety in healthy individuals co-vary positively with vagally mediated high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), during base line recording before an experimental task, and during social stress induction. In this pilot study cardiovascular regulation was examined during a stressful task in high-, and low trait anxious individuals.

    Method

    35 healthy men were divided in to one high- and one low-anxiety group based on the median split of the results of the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (M = 39.9, SD = 8.5, resp. M = 26.2, SD = 3.3, p < .001). Both groups were confronted with a virtual version of the Tier Social Stress Test (V-TSST), involving two tasks: to hold a speech, and to complete a mathematical task in front of a committee. Heart rate (HR), high frequency HR variability (HF-HRV, related to vagal activity), T-wave amplitude (TWA, inversely related to sympathetic activity) and respiration were assessed before, during, and after the V-TSST.

    Results

    Main effects showed that during stress HR increased [F(7, 231) = 63.98, p < .001, η2 = .66], TWA decreased [F(7, 231) = 33.69, p < .001, η2 = .51]. Regarding HF-HRV an interaction with trait anxiety was found [F(7, 231) = 2.83, p = .047, η2 = .08; cubic F(1, 33) = 5.51, p = .025, η2 = .14], indicating slightly higher magnitudes during stress for the high anxious group, but lower magnitudes for the low anxious group.

    Discussion

    Both anxious groups responded with increased HR and sympathetic activity (decreased TWA) during V-TSST. However, the high anxious group showed higher HF-HRV during stress than the low anxious group. Tentatively, the participants with higher trait anxiety activate the vagal system to inhibit the sympathetic system to adequately cope with the stressful situation in order to complete the tasks successfully. It is important, however, to note that the high anxious group doesn’t represent a clinical sample. Clinical anxiety is generally associated with reduced HF-HRV suggested partly being related to poor emotional and attentional control. Healthy individuals with moderate increases in trait anxiety, on the other hand, would likely have a well functioning vagal system to engage in attention demanding and stressful tasks.

  • 131.
    Jönsson, Peter
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Österberg, Kai
    Wallergård, Mattias
    Hansen, Åse
    Johansson, Gerd
    Burnout: cortisol reactivity and habituation to psychosocial stress2015In: Work, stress and health 2015: sustainable work, sustainable health, sustainable organizations, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 132.
    Jørgensen, Øyvind
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Contrasting positive and negative associations to neutral associations in implicit tests2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tests like the Implicit Association Test (IAT), the Sorting Paired Features task (SPF) and the Brief IAT (BIAT), all to some degree contrast positively and negatively valenced categories against each other, in the task itself and/or in the scoring procedure. This makes it difficult to truly disentangle positive and negative associations, something that is important when measuring attitudes. A different approach was explored in a series of studies using a method similar to SPF and BIAT, but using a neutral category as a contrast against positive and negative associations. The method was tested using gender SPFs and gender BIATs, as well as various ethnicity SPFs. The results show support for the validity of the positive-neutral tests, but the results for the negative-neutral tests are less clear, and questions remain concerning reliability when using the latter test. Results on positive-netrual tests, on the other hand, showed some support for its validity, for instance was scores on a gender BIAT related to the level of appreciation of sexist jokes. Further studies using large samples are needed to determine the psychometric of this method.

  • 133. Jørgensen, Øyvind
    In-group bias control2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores in-group bias control. It is well-known that people tend to have extra liking for people they identify themselves with. An extra positive in-group attitude may cause discrimination, even in the absence of any negative attitudes towards the out-group. At the same time are many people motivated to behave and present themselves as unbiased. We study whether people attempt to control favourable in-group evaluations to a more modest level due to concerns about being and/or appearing biased.Empirical studies are presented in three papers. Paper 1 studied how the presence of either a member of the in-group or a member of the out-group influenced how favourably the in-group was evaluated. In a between-groups design, participants tended to rate their in-group more favourably when they gave their evaluations verbally to an in-group member rather than to an out-group member. In paper 2, a scale intended to measure individual differences in motivation to control in-group bias was constructed, and its psychometric properties were tested. Inspired by the literature on out-group bias correction, two subscales where items either referred to internal motivation to control in-group bias or to external motivation to control in-group bias were created. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses gave some support to the notion of two distinct, but related factors. However, the temporal reliability of the scales was lower than expected. The scales showed some relations to other theoretically relevant measures, but more reliable scales are needed in order to further test their validity.In paper 3 corrections in evaluations of people of different ethnicity and sex was explored. Participants evaluated pictures of Black males, Black females, White males, White females, Middle Eastern males and Middle Eastern females. When participants were given a reminder of the risk of bias, a three-way interaction effect was evident across three experiments. The correction patterns varied somewhat between the experiments, but an overall pattern was that a cue to the risk of bias led to more favourable ratings of some groups (Black men, Middle Eastern men and White women) and a less favourable rating of other (White men). A final study explored a normative account of the findings from the experiments, and a clear pattern emerged where people considered it more important to avoid overrating White men compared to the other groups, whereas it was considered less important to avoid underrating white men compared to the other groups under study. Implications of the results and some thoughts regarding future research are discussed. (Less)

  • 134.
    Jørgensen, Øyvind
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    A measure of internal and external motivation to control in-group bias2012In: Lund Psychological Reports, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A measure of individual differences in the motivation to control in-group bias ( favouritism) was created. As in Plant and Devine’s (1998) measure of out-group bias, one subscale referred to an internal motivational source and the other to an external motivational source. The psychometric properties of the measure were tested across four samples. The results indicate that the measure reliably captures individual differences in the motivation to control in-group bias, and that a distinction between internal and external motivational sources of control can be made. However, the convergent and discriminant validity of both subscalesneeds to be examined further before the measure can be considered launchable. Implications for research on intergroup bias are discussed.

  • 135.
    Jørgensen, Øyvind
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Bidirectional correction in social judgments: how a cue to the risk of bias causes more favorable ratings of some groups but less favorable of others2013In: Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-4545, E-ISSN 1940-1183, Vol. 153, no 2, p. 131-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Correction of judgments of people of different ethnicities and sexes was explored by exposing participants to cues to the risk of making biased judgments (from explicit warnings to subtle hints). In three experiments, a three-way interaction was revealed, where the effect of a cue to bias varied as a function of both the ethnicity and sex of the target person. Some targets (White males) were generally rated less favorably when judges were reminded of bias, whereas other targets (Black males, Middle Eastern males and White females) were generally rated more favorably, indicating bidirectional correction. Finally, a normative account of the results was explored. In a pattern consistent with the experimental results, it was considered more important to avoid overrating White men than all other groups, and more important to avoid underrating all other groups than White men. The results are discussed in relation to theories of correction and intergroup bias.

  • 136.
    Jørgensen, Øyvind
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Bidirectional correction in social judgments: how a cue to the risk of bias causes more favorable ratings of some groups but less favorable of others2013In: Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-4545, E-ISSN 1940-1183, no 2, p. 131-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Correction of judgments of people of different ethnicities and sexes was exploredby exposing participants to cues to the risk of making biased judgments (from explicitwarnings to subtle hints). In three experiments, a three-way interaction was revealed, wherethe effect of a cue to bias varied as a function of both the ethnicity and sex of the targetperson. Some targets (White males) were generally rated less favorably when judges werereminded of bias, whereas other targets (Black males, Middle Eastern males and Whitefemales) were generally rated more favorably, indicating bidirectional correction. Finally, anormative account of the results was explored. In a pattern consistent with the experimentalresults, it was considered more important to avoid overrating White men than all othergroups, and more important to avoid underrating all other groups than White men. Theresults are discussed in relation to theories of correction and intergroup bias.

  • 137.
    Jørgensen, Øyvind
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Lund University.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Judgments of warmth and competence in a computerized paradigm: little evidence of proposed impression formation asymmetries2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 4, article id e0175210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of what we know concerning impression formation is based on experimental methods where the participant receives a list of traits or behaviors and is asked to make trait judgments or meta-cognitive judgments. The present study aimed to put some well-known effects from the impression formation literature to a test in a more dynamic computerized environment, more akin to many real world impression formation scenarios. In three studies participants were introduced to multiple target persons. They were given information about the target persons' behavior, one at a time, while making ratings of their warmth and competence, and their probability of performing related behaviors in the future. In neither of the studies the negativity effect of warmth or the positivity effect of competence were reproduced.

  • 138.
    Karlson, Björn
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Lund University.
    Pålsson, Birgitta
    Lund University.
    Abjörnsson, Gunnel
    Lund University.
    Malmberg, Birgitta
    Lund University.
    Larsson, Britt
    Linköping University.
    Osterberg, Kai
    Lund University.
    Return to work after a workplace-oriented intervention for patients on sick-leave for burnout: a prospective controlled study2010In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 10, article id 301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In the present study the effect of a workplace-oriented intervention for persons on long-term sick leave for clinical burnout, aimed at facilitating return to work (RTW) by job-person match through patient-supervisor communication, was evaluated. We hypothesised that the intervention group would show a more successful RTW than a control group.

    METHODS: In a prospective controlled study, subjects were identified by the regional social insurance office 2-6 months after the first day on sick leave. The intervention group (n = 74) was compared to a control group who had declined participation, being matched by length of sick leave (n = 74). The RTW was followed up, using sick-listing register data, until 1.5 years after the time of intervention.

    RESULTS: There was a linear increase of RTW in the intervention group during the 1.5-year follow-up period, and 89% of subjects had returned to work to some extent at the end of the follow-up period. The increase in RTW in the control group came to a halt after six months, and only 73% had returned to work to some extent at the end of the 1.5-year follow-up.

    CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the present study demonstrated an improvement of long-term RTW after a workplace-oriented intervention for patients on long-term sick leave due to burnout.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials NCT01039168.

  • 139.
    Karlson, Björn
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Österberg, Kai
    Lund University.
    Long-term stability of return to work after a workplace-oriented intervention for patients on sick leave for burnout2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, article id 821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The period from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s saw a rapid increase in long-term sick leave in Sweden, primarily due to mental illness and often related to job burnout. This led to an urge for effective treatment programs that could prevent the often long sick leaves. In 2010 we presented a newly developed work-place intervention method, showing that 89% of the intervention group had returned to work at a 1.5 year follow-up, compared to 73% of the control group. The main aim of this study was to assess the long-term stability of these promising results.

    METHODS:

    Sick leave registry data from the Regional Social Insurance Office were analyzed for an additional year (50 weeks) beyond the original 1.5 year period (80 weeks). Data from 68 matched pairs of intervention participants (IP) and controls were available. The proportions of participants being on full-time sick leave versus having returned to work to any extent were computed for every 10th week. Generalized estimating equations were used with GROUP (IP versus controls) as between-subjects factor, WEEKS and AGE as covariates, and return-to-work (RTW) as dependent variable. Significant differences (Wald χ2 with α ≤ .05) was followed up with polynomial contrasts. Individual relapses to higher degrees of sick leave (e.g. from 50% to 100%) and whether partial RTW led to later full-time RTW, were also analyzed.

    RESULTS:

    The omnibus test over all 130 weeks showed a GROUP*WEEKS interaction effect (p = .02), indicating differential group developments in RTW, though similarly high at week 130 in both groups with 82.4% of the IP and 77.9% of the controls having RTW (p = .22; χ2-test). A significant interaction with age led to separate analyses of the younger and older subgroups, indicating a stable pattern of superior RTW only among younger IP (week 130: 88.6% vs. 69.7%, p = .054; χ2-test). There was no group difference in relapses into increased degree of sick leave. Part-time sick leave did not predict a later stable full-time RTW.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The previously reported improvement in RTW with the newly developed workplace-oriented intervention showed a long-term stability only among younger participants.

  • 140.
    Karlsson, Anders
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Anknytning och ätstört matbeteende: En undersökning kring samband mellan anknytning och ätstört matbeteende2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the connection between attachment and disordered eating behavior. This study presents disordered eating behavior as a continuum, ranging from unstrained eating behaviors at one end of the continuum, clinical eating disorder at the other end of the continuum, and milder forms of disordered eating at intermediate points. The aim was to examine if individual attachment styles vary systematically along the disordered eating continuum. Data were collected from a self-administered questionnaire, from - 111 participants in ages between 13 – 57 years. The participants were recruited from forum for individuals who have or have had eating disorders, as well as among individuals from upper secondary school, both students and teachers. The results showed a systematic association between insecure attachments and disordered eating behaviors. They further revealed a positive association between relational insecurity and need for continuous confirmation, as a specific component of insecure attachment and eating disordered behavior. 

  • 141.
    Karlsson, Kristoffer
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Perfektionism: finns en adaptiv dimension vid sidan av en negativ?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning kring perfektionism har ökat på senare år. En anledning till detta är att det inte längre anses som självklart att perfektionism är någonting alltigenom negativt. Forskare har exempelvis funnit att vissa särskilda dimensioner av perfektionism ibland hänger samman med positiva utfall, vilket har gjort termen adaptiv perfektionism aktuell vid sidan av negativ perfektionism. I denna uppsats undersöktes sambandet mellan olika dimensioner av perfektionism i förhållande till depression för att se om en åtskillnad mellan adaptiv perfektionism och negativ perfektionism framträder i praktiken. En av studiens hypoteser var att dimensionerna höga uppsatta krav och ordning inte har något samband med depression. En annan predicerade att diskrepans (upplevelsen att ens höga krav inte uppnås) korrelerar positivt med depression. Ytterligare en hypotes var att självkänsla och optimism skulle fungera som mediatorer i det sambandet. Hypoteserna testades genom en enkätundersökning som innehöll påståenden som mätte de nämnda variablerna. Denna enkät distribuerades till 119 elever på en gymnasieskola i Blekinge Län. Korrelationsanalyser av respondenternas svar gav i princip stöd för de första två hypoteserna. Den tredje hypotesen stöddes delvis; självkänsla medierade partiellt sambandet mellan diskrepans och depression, vilket däremot optimism inte gjorde. Sammantaget indikerar studiens resultat att adaptiv perfektionism, eller åtminstone neutral perfektionism, finns vid sidan av negativ perfektionism.

  • 142.
    Karlsson, Kristoffer
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Sambandet mellan tre dimensioner av meningsfullt liv och vissa psykologiska utfall2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Meningsfullt liv är idag ett etablerat forskningsämne inom psykologin. Nyligen har det uppstått viss konsensus om att begreppet meningsfullt liv är multidimensionellt och främst består av dimensionerna förståelse (en slags känsla av sammanhang), syfte (innehav av viktiga livsmål) och betydelse (upplevelsen att ens existens är av värde). Den aktuella studien hade som syfte att undersöka vilka samband som finns mellan dessa dimensioner och variablerna tacksamhet, självbildsklarhet, optimism, ensamhet och livstillfredsställelse. Tidigare forskning har funnit signifikanta samband, men då har främst endimensionella meningstest använts. En hypotes i den aktuella studien var att det skulle uppstå signifikanta samband även med användande av ett multidimensionellt mätinstrument bestående av nyss nämnda tre dimensioner. En annan hypotes var att studien vid multipla regressionsanalyser skulle upptäcka minst något fall där en meningsdimension är särskilt framträdande när det gäller att predicera ett visst utfall. Hypoteserna testades genom en enkätundersökning som främst hade universitetsstudenter som deltagare. Sammanlagt deltog 191 personer i studien. Den första hypotesen fick entydigt stöd. Angående den andra hypotesen uppstod fall där inte alla tre meningsdimensioner samtidigt unikt kunde predicera ett visst utfall. När utfallet var ensamhet visade det sig att alla tre meningsdimensioner kunde predicera detta utfall ungefär likvärdigt. Men när utfallet var exempelvis självbildsklarhet visade det sig att det främst var förståelse som kunde predicera detta utfall och i viss mån betydelse, men däremot inte syfte. Uppsatsens slutsats är därmed att det verkar finnas åtminstone vissa fall då det kan vara relevant att göra åtskillnad mellan olika meningsdimensioner och inte mäta begreppet meningsfullt liv enbart endimensionellt.

  • 143.
    Khan, Nabeel Ali
    et al.
    Pakistan.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Sandsten, Maria
    Lunds universitet.
    Performance comparison of time-frequency distributions for estimation of instantaneous frequency of heart rate variability signals2017In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 7, no 3, article id 221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The instantaneous frequency (IF) of a non-stationary signal is usually estimated from a time-frequency distribution (TFD). The IF of heart rate variability (HRV) is an important parameter because the power in a frequency band around the IF can be used for the interpretation and analysis of the respiratory rate but also for a more accurate analysis of heart rate (HR) signals. In this study, we compare the performance of five states of the art kernel-based time-frequency distributions (TFDs) in terms of their ability to accurately estimate the IF of HR signals. The selected TFDs include three widely used fixed kernel methods: the modified B distribution, the S-method and the spectrogram; and two adaptive kernel methods: the adaptive optimal kernel TFD and the recently developed adaptive directional TFD. The IF of the respiratory signal, which is usually easier to estimate as the respiratory signal is a mono-component with small amplitude variations with time, is used as a reference to examine the accuracy of the HRV IF estimates. Experimental results indicate that the most reliable estimates are obtained using the adaptive directional TFD in comparison to other commonly used methods such as the adaptive optimal kernel TFD and the modified B distribution.

  • 144.
    Kirkland-Persson, Jennifer
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    Renud-Svensson, Camilla
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    Upplevt lärarstöd acceptans och Skolmotivation2009Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om elevers upplevda lärarstöd/acceptans har betydelse för elevers skolmotivation. 42 elever deltog i den enkätundersökning som genomfördes en gymnasieskola i två olika klasser. Deltagarna var i åldern 18-19 år. Samtliga deltagare fick besvara 29 items som var avsedda att mäta upplevt lärarstöd/acceptans, upplevt föräldrastöd, elevprestation och elevmotivation. Resultatet av studien visade signifikanta samband mellan upplevt lärarstöd/acceptans och skolmotivation. Detta kan tolkas som att lärarstöd är viktig för elevers skolmotivation.

     

    Nyckelord: stöd, acceptans, motivation

  • 145.
    Krejsler, John B.
    Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitetsskole, Århus Universitet.
    Forhandlerbarnet2009In: Fordi jeg siger det!: 21 tankevækkere om børneopdragelse / [ed] Madsen Kvols, Anja, Breum Jakobsen, Michael, Lilleheden, Peter, Rosenlund, Anders, Århus: Siesta , 2009, p. 72-73Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 146.
    Kruschwitz, J. D.
    et al.
    Charité, Berlin.
    Walter, M.
    University Hospital of Magdeburg.
    Varikuti, D.
    University Hospital of Magdeburg.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Plichta, M. M.
    University of Heidelberg.
    Haddad, L.
    University of Heidelberg.
    Grimm, O.
    University of Heidelberg.
    Mohnke, S.
    Charité, Berlin.
    Pöhland, L.
    Charité, Berlin.
    Schott, B.
    Charité, Berlin.
    Wold, A.
    Charité, Berlin.
    Mühleisen, T. W.
    University of Bonn.
    Heinz, A.
    Charité, Berlin.
    Erk, S.
    Charité, Berlin.
    Romanczuk-Seiferth, N.
    Charité, Berlin.
    Witt, S. H.
    University of Heidelberg.
    Nöthen, M. M.
    University of Bonn.
    Rietschel, M.
    University of Heidelberg.
    Meyer-Lindenberg, A.
    University of Heidelberg.
    Walter, H.
    Charité, Berlin.
    5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphism and neuroticism are linked by resting state functional connectivity of amygdala and fusiform gyrus2015In: Brain Structure and Function, ISSN 1863-2653, E-ISSN 1863-2661, Vol. 220, no 4, p. 2373-2385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The s/s-genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and the personality trait of neuroticism have both been associated with experiences of negative affect, anxiety and mood disorders, as well as an emotional processing bias towards negative facial emotions. On a neural level, this bias can be characterized by altered amygdala and fusiform gyrus (FFG) activity during perception of negative facial expressions. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in a multi-center-sample of 178 healthy subjects of European descent, this study investigated the association of 5-HTTLPR (short s- and long l-allele) including the genotype of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs25531 (A/G) within this region polymorphism, and trait neuroticism on resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between amygdala and the FFG. Moreover, we aimed to identify additional brain regions with associations of 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 (combined according to its expression; low: s/s; high: lA/lA; intermediate: s/lA, s/lG, lG/lG, lA/lG) and trait neuroticism to amygdala rs-FC. Separate analyses for 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 and neuroticism (controlling for age, gender, handedness, and research site) revealed that s/s-homozygotes and individuals high in neuroticism obtained altered amygdala rs-FC in the right occipital face area, which is considered to be a "core component" of the face processing system. Importantly, effects of neuroticism were replicated across three independent research sites. Additionally, associations of 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 genotype and amygdala rs-FC were observed in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, whereas neuroticism was not related to rs-FC in these areas. The presented data implies that 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 variants and neuroticism are linked by resting state functional connectivity of amygdala and fusiform gyrus and suggests that variants of 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 genotype and different levels of neuroticism may partly account for altered processing of negative facial emotions.

  • 147.
    Kvam, Jenny
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Predicering av upplevelse av arbete och arbetssituation: känsla av sammanhang, upplevd stress, ålder och kön2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Negative stress affects our physical and psychological health. How we perceive our general stress affects our experience of work and situations therein. The things that are perceived as stressful vary among individuals and how we deal with our perceived stress also varies. The purpose of this study was to clarify to what extent our general perceived stress-level inter-acted with the sense of coherence in our experience of work and situations at work. Another purpose was to examine how the interaction were affected by age. Lastly, the purpose was to see if there is any differences between genders. Men and women (N=171) working 100 % in the last month participated in my study.

    To collect the data, I used Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS) in conjunction with question each participant´s background. The multiple regression analysis showed that PSS was the strongest predictor variable on experience of work and situations at work (B = -1.22, p< .001). SOC had a smaller relationship (B = 0.35, p< .01). Gender (B = -1.70, p = .717) and age (B = -0.22, p = .430) was not found to be significant. With the predictor variable SOC, the explained variance was 24.2% and when PSS was added to the model, the explained variance increased significantly to 28.4%.

  • 148.
    Kvarnström, Ellinor
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Skillnader i utmattning och upplevd cynism för ett fortsatt jobb bland svenska journalister på första- och andratidningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Yttre krav i arbetet och upplevelse av att inte kunna möta dem är något som kan skapa stress och leda till utmattning och utbrändhet. Mediebranschen och journalister är under stora omställningar och sparkrav, ny teknik introduceras ständigt och hot om ett förändrat presstöd leder till ökad stress bland journalister. En webbenkät som skickats ut till 24 första- och andratidningar i Sverige där 194 journalister svarat har visat att det finns ett positivt samband mellan cynism och utmattning. Den visade också att det finns negativa samband mellan trivsel på jobbet och utmattning, samt mellan en spillover från jobb till privat/familjelivet och utmattning. Studien visar också att kvinnliga journalister i högre utsträckning upplever utmattning jämfört med män. De resultaten går i linje med tidigare forskning. Något som skiljer jämfört med tidigare forskning är att den här studien inte kunde visa på någon skillnad i grad av utmattning mellan journalister på första- och andratidningar, alltså mellan journalister på större och mindre tidningar. Trots en utbredd cynism för framtida jobb i branschen där många funderar på att byta bransch är majoriteten av de svarande positiva till jobbet som journalist.

  • 149.
    Lemoine, J E
    et al.
    Frankrike.
    Konradsen, H
    Karolinska institutet.
    Lunde Jensen, A
    Danmark.
    Roland-Lévy, C
    Frankrike.
    Ny, Pernilla
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Khalaf, Atika
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Torres, S
    Portugal.
    Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 among adolescents and young adults in Danish, Portuguese, and Swedish2018In: Body image, ISSN 1740-1445, E-ISSN 1873-6807, Vol. 26, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the study of body image shifted from focusing on the negative aspects to a more extensive view of body image. The present study seeks to validate a measure of positive body image, the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2; Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015a) in Denmark, Portugal, and Sweden. Participants (N = 1012) were adolescents and young adults aged from 12 to 19. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the one-dimensional factor structure of the scale. Multi-group confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the scale was invariant across sex and country. Further results showed that BAS-2 was positively correlated with self-esteem, psychological well-being, and intuitive eating. It was negatively correlated with BMI among boys and girls in Portugal but not in Denmark and Sweden. Additionally, boys had higher body appreciation than girls. Results indicated that the BAS-2 has good psychometric properties in the three languages.

  • 150.
    Lenninger, Sara
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap inriktning fritidshem och förskola.
    Iconic attitude and how similar is similarity2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pictures and other visio-spatial signs with iconicity diverge in expression, and in how they operate on meaning. Like all signs, pictures are polysemous (Groupe µ 1992) and have several layers of meaning - such as being perceptual objects and signs, having pragmatic and contextual meanings etc. (Medin et al 1993; Tversky 1977). Pictures also rely on iconic meaning (Sonesson 1989). Similarity is a predominant feature in iconic signs – however similarity is not a single kind of relationship. The relevance of similarities differs. Sometimes, but not always, perception of similarities is tightly coupled to the conception of a sign relation. Important in this presentation, is the point that via the sign relation one may gain insight into structurally different organizations of similarity relations. A concept of Iconic Attitude (Lenninger 2019) is presented and discussed as a Phenomenal outlook that responds to the qualities in the iconic ground and thus may “manifest” a visual generalization in a specific sign perception.

    Goodman, N. 1972. Seven strictures on similarity. In Problems and projects, 437–446. Indianapolis/New York: Bobbs-Merrill.

    Groupe µ (1992). Traité du signe visuel. Pour une rhétorique de l'image. Paris: Seuil.

    Medin, D. L, Goldstone, R. L., & Gentner, D. (1993). Respects for Similarity. Psychological Review, 100(2), 254-278.

    Lenninger, S. (2019). The metaphor and the iconic attitude. Cognitive Semiotics, 12(1).

    Sonesson, G. (1989). Pictorial Concepts: inquiries into the semiotic heritage and its relevance to the interpretation of the visual world. Lund University Press: Lund.

    Tversky. A. (1977). Features of similarity. Psychological Review, 84(4), 327-352.

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