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  • 101.
    Bertolani, Roberto
    et al.
    Italien.
    Guidetti, Roberto
    Italien.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Altiero, Tiziana
    Italien.
    Boschini, Deborah
    Rebecchi, Lorena
    Italien.
    Experiences with dormancy in tardigrades2004In: Journal of limnology, ISSN 1129-5767, E-ISSN 1723-8633, Vol. 63, no Suppl. 1, p. 16-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades often colonise extreme habitats, in which they survive using both types of dormancy: quiescence and diapause. Together with nematodes and bdelloid rotifers, tardigrades are known to enter quiescence (with several forms of cryptobiosis: anhydrobiosis, cryobiosis, anoxybiosis, osmobiosis) at any stage of their life cycle, from egg to adult. Entering anhydrobiosis, tardigrades contract their body into a so-called tun, loosing most of their free and bound water (>95%), synthesizing cell protectants (e.g., trehalose, glycerol, heat shock proteins) and strongly reducing or suspending their metabolism. Our research on cryptobiosis focused on some ecological and evolutionary aspects. We evaluated: i) the long-term anhydrobiotic survival by comparing quantitative data on recovery from naturally induced desiccation in several species of tardigrades; ii) differences in survival patterns between species and populations by experimentally inducing anhydrobiosis and cryobiosis; iii) phenotypic factors affecting anhydrobiotic survival. As regards diapause, we considered encystment and eggs. Encystment involves at least the synthesis of new cuticular structures. Morphological changes during cyst formation are more complex than those involved in tun formation. We analyzed more in detail encystment processes, comparing a semiterrestrial with a limnic species. Several inter-specific differences have been identified, other than the production of two types of cysts in the semiterrestrial species. Our analysis of life history traits of a laboratory reared strain of a soil tardigrade revealed a particular hatching phenology that involved the production of both subitaneous and resting eggs. The latter need a cue to hatch (dehydration followed by re-hydration). In addition, the evolutionary meaning of dormancy in tardigrades is discussed

  • 102.
    Betts, Bruce H
    et al.
    USA.
    Warmflash, David
    USA.
    Fraze, Raymond E
    USA.
    Friedman, Louis
    USA.
    Vorobyova, Elena
    Russia.
    Lilburn, Timothy G
    USA.
    Smith, Amy
    USA.
    Rettberg, Petra
    USA.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Ciftcioglu, Neva
    USA.
    Fox, George E
    USA.
    Svitek, Tomas
    USA.
    Kirschvinck, Joseph L
    USA & Japan.
    Moeller, Ralf
    Germany.
    Wassmann, Marko
    Germany.
    Berger, Thomas
    Germany.
    Phobos LIFE (Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment).2019In: Astrobiology, ISSN 1531-1074, E-ISSN 1557-8070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Planetary Society's Phobos Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment (Phobos LIFE) flew in the sample return capsule of the Russian Federal Space Agency's Phobos Grunt mission and was to have been a test of one aspect of the hypothesis that life can move between nearby planets within ejected rocks. Although the Phobos Grunt mission failed, we present here the scientific and engineering design and motivation of the Phobos LIFE experiment to assist with the scientific and engineering design of similar future experiments. Phobos LIFE flew selected organisms in a simulated meteoroid. The 34-month voyage would have been the first such test to occur in the high-radiation environment outside the protection of Earth's magnetosphere for more than a few days. The patented Phobos LIFE "biomodule" is an 88 g cylinder consisting of a titanium outer shell, several types of redundant seals, and 31 individual Delrin sample containers. Phobos LIFE contained 10 different organisms, representing all three domains of life, and one soil sample. The organisms are all very well characterized, most with sequenced genomes. Most are extremophiles, and most have flown in low Earth orbit. Upon return from space, the health and characteristics of organisms were to have been compared with controls that remained on Earth and have not yet been opened.

  • 103.
    Biederstädt, Jana
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Landskapsförändringar och deras påverkan på dagens biodiversitetsmönster hos kärlväxter i ett skånskt jordbrukslandskap2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete studerades landskapsförändringar, i synnerhet olika typer av gräsmarkshabitat i fråga om artinnehåll och rikedom samt hur dagens diversitetsmönster har påverkats av den historiska markanvändningen. Undersökningsområdet har en area av ca 143 ha och är beläget i nordöstra Skåne. Resultatet visade att områdets areal av naturliga gräsmarker var mest omfattande kring 1783/98 och minst 1926-23. De naturliga gräsmarkernas omfattning har nästan halverats från slutet av 1700-talet till idag. Andelen betesmark som har hävdats från 1700-talets slut till 2014 utgör dock inte mer än 11 % av betesmarkernas totala areal. Väg- och dikesren uppvisade störst andel arter som var gemensamma med naturbetesmarkernas; minst var andelen i kultiverad gräsmark. Artrikedomen var minst lika hög i vägren, dikesren och skogsbryn som i naturbetesmarken medan den var lägre i kuliverad gräsmark. Artrikedomen var högst på vägrenen.

  • 104.
    Bisevac, Maida
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Jämförelse av Vibrio parahaemolyticus överlevnad i marint och artificiellt saltvatten samt jämförelse av fyra kit för RNA-extrahering från V. parahaemolyticus 2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine bacterium that humans can ingest through fish and shellfish or when exposed to seawater with high concentration of the bacteria, and it can cause gastrointestinal illness. It can also cause infection in ears and wounds. V. parahaemolyticus may be pathogenic to marine organisms. Since increased carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere may lead to ocean acidification, which will weaken the immune systems of marine organisms, it is important to study gene expression in V. parahaemolyticus at lower pH in order to know if it is as virulent in lower pH as in the pH of today. The aim of this study is firstly to compare bacterial survival in natural seawater and artificial seawater (ASW). 4

    ASW is often used for studying of marine bacteria in laboratory work. Secondly, the study aims to compare four commercial kits (TRIzol Max bacterial RNA Isolation Kit, RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen), NucleoSpin RNA Plus and SV Total RNA Isolation Kit (Promega)) for RNA extraction from both log-phase at the recommended bacterial counts and marine water at low bacterial counts. Results show that the bacteria survived equally well in both kind of water. As for RNA extraction, TRIzol gave the highest RNA yield but lower quality, especially when extracted from bacteria in natural marine waters. NucleoSpin gave little higher RNA yield than the Qiagen, but the quality of the RNA extracted with Qiagen was estimated as the highest compared to other kits. This together with very short extraction time, as well as better security and easier steps can be a reason to prefer Qiagen and NucleoSpin than TRIzol.

  • 105.
    Bjurvald, Charlotta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Wetterlöf, Robert
    Kristianstad University.
    Orienterare, framtidens naturvårdare?: Inventering av markstörningar i samband med O-Ringen i Skåne 20142014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As an increasingly rationalized forestry and agriculture have human interference in the form of tradition, grazing and use declined. There is a strong link between biodiversity and disturbance of the landscape. In sandy soils many insects and plants require exposed sand to survive while the disorder may contribute to seed dispersal in the woodlands. On behalf of O-Ringen Skåne 2014, a study of the interference from orienteering in sandy soil and the forest during competitions conducted. The aim is to clarify the interference of which orienteering runners contributes, through to inventory presence before and after the competitions in the bottom and field layer in three locations. The results showed a decreased frequency of dominant, but trivial species in all areas and in one area the amount of bare ground also increased. The interference allows for less dominant species to spread and therefore can benefit the biodiversity. Orienteering can be a part of future conservation.

  • 106.
    Björkman, Tina
    Kristianstad University.
    Hörneborg - borg eller lada?: kolanalys, magnetisk susceptibilitet, sjösänkning och historiska kartor.2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hörneborg ligger på en udde i sjön Hörnsjön i Olofströms kommun i Blekinge län. En utgrävning av borgen gjordes 1997 för att fastställa funktion och ålder. 14C dateringar visade att borgen var byggd cirka 1030-1250 e.Kr. och förstördes genom brand någon gång mellan 1290 och 1420 e. Kr. (Ödman 1997). Enligt historiska kartor är Hörneborg placerad på en ö. Dokument över sänkning av vattennivån i sjön saknas. Förslag till utdikning av utloppet från Hörnsjön finns dock och syftet var att torrlägga omkringliggande marker vid Hörnsjön. Syftet med detta arbete är att sammanställa den litteratur som finns om Hörneborg, tidfästa sänkningen av Hörnsjöns yta och undersöka om det går att korrelera händelser i borgens historia med förändringar i sjösediment från Hörnsjön.

    Prover på bottensediment togs i tre profiler från isen på den östra sidan om borgen. Detta för att analysera kol och magnetiska mineral i sedimentet för korrelation med borgens historia. Borgens byggnation och förstörelse verkar inte ha gett några spår i sedimenten. Därför antas att materialet till byggnaden tagits från omgivningen, att byggnaden varit liten och konstruktionen inte orsakat någon större erosion. Kolanalysen visar ett antal små toppar. Dessa är oregelbundet förekommande och kan därför sannolikt inte knytas till borgens brand. Därför antas att branden varit begränsad. Att vattennivån i Hörnsjön sänkts under 1900- talet, beror sannolikt på de utdikningar som gjorts i utloppet för att torrlägga omkringliggande marker.

  • 107.
    Blomqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Section of Clinical Bacteriology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Christerson, Linus
    Section of Clinical Bacteriology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Section for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Lindberg, Peter
    Department of Contaminant Research, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm.
    Helander, Björn
    Department of Zoology, Gothenburg University.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Herrman, Björn
    Section of Clinical Bacteriology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Olsen, Björn
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden2012In: Infection Ecology and Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 2, p. 8435-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  • 108. Blomqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Christerson, Linus
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Lindberg, Peter
    Helander, Björn
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Herrman, Björn
    Olsen, Björn
    Prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci in Swedish birds2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 109.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). SLU, Alnarp.
    Asp, Håkan
    SLU, Alnarp.
    Hultberg, Malin
    SLU, Alnarp.
    Effects of biopellets composed of microalgae and fungi on cadmium present at environmentally relevant levels in water2017In: International journal of phytoremediation, ISSN 1522-6514, E-ISSN 1549-7879, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 500-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Removal of cadmium (Cd) present at low levels (1 µg L−1) in water was investigated using three different microorganism treatments: the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, the fungus Aspergillus niger and for the first time biopellets composed of C. vulgaris and A. niger. After 5 days, all microorganism treatments resulted in significantly lower Cd concentrations compared with the control. Biopellets treatment resulted in significantly lower pH values than other microorganism treatments, indicating that the biopellets should be investigated further for their water treatment capacity, since pH is a factor affecting the fate of numerous pollutants in water. Use of biopellets as a method to simplify harvesting of microalgae from water is also suggested.

  • 110.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Daneshvar, Atlasi
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gros, Meritxell
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hultberg, Malin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Effects of biopellets composed of microalgae and fungi on pharmaceuticals present at environmentally relevant levels in water2016In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 91, p. 169-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Removal of seven pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, carbamazepine, diclofenac, metoprolol, naproxen, ranitidine and sulfamethoxazole) from water was investigated using three different microbial treatments with: (1) the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, (2) the fungus Aspergillus niger and (3) biopellets composed of both microorganisms. The three-day experiment was performed under laboratory conditions and pharmaceuticals were spiked at the environmentally relevant concentration of 10 mu g L-1. The biopellets and fungal treatments resulted in significantly lower ranitidine concentration compared with the initial value. Also, treatment with biopellets resulted in significantly lower final ranitidine concentrations compared to those found after control and microalgal treatments. Low removal rates were obtained for other substances, possibly because the amount of microbial biomass used was 16-500-fold lower than that normally used in activated sludge processes in wastewater treatments plants. Thus, the pharmaceutical removal potential, elimination potential and performance of biopellets should be further investigated at higher biomass concentrations. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 111.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Mietto, Anna
    Italien.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University.
    Persson, Jesper
    SLU, Alnarp.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Halmstad University.
    Tracer behaviour and analysis of hydraulics in experimental free water surface wetlands2012In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 49, p. 201-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of inlet design and vegetation type on tracer dynamics and hydraulic performance were investigated using lithium chloride in 18 experimental free water surface wetlands. The wetlands received similar water flow but had different vegetation types: 6 emergent vegetation wetlands (EVWs), 6 submerged vegetation wetlands (SVWs) and 6 free development wetlands (FDWs). Two types of inlet designs were applied: half of each wetland vegetation type had a barrier near the inlet to help distribute incoming tracer solution, while the rest had no barrier. Residence time distribution (RTD) functions were calculated from tracer data using two techniques: method of moments and a novel Gauss modelling approach. RTD functions were used to quantify hydraulic parameters: active wetland volume (e-value), water dispersion (N-value) and hydraulic efficiency (-value). For wetlands without barrier, significantly lower tracer mass recoveries were found from EVWs compared to FDWs and SVWs, signifying a risk of tracer methodological problems in small densely vegetated wetlands. These problems were minimized in wetlands with an inflow construction promoting distribution of incoming tracer solution. Compared to the method of moments, Gauss modelling seemed to produce more reliable -values but less reliable N-values. Data for precise hydraulic quantification were lost by Gauss modelling, as indicated by overall lower variance in these data sets and lower mass recoveries. However, Gauss modelling may minimize uncertainties associated with lithium immobilization/mobilization. Parameters were significantly affected by the RTD data analysis method, showing that the choice of method could affect evaluation of wetland hydraulics. The experimental wetlands in this study exhibited relatively high e-values and low N-values. This was probably caused by the small size of the wetlands and low water flow velocities, emphasizing that hydraulic parameter values obtained in small experimental wetlands may not be applicable to hydraulics in larger wetlands. The method of moments revealed lower e-values from EVWs compared to SVWs and FDWs. It was indicated that lower e-values were mainly caused by vegetation volumes. This highlighted a need for regular maintenance to secure efficient treatment volume in wetlands with dense vegetation.

  • 112.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Persson, Jesper
    SLU.
    Hydraulic performance of small free water surface constructed wetlands treating sugar factory effluent in western Kenya2012In: Hydrology Research, ISSN 1998-9563, Vol. 43, p. 476-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated, usinga iithium salt tracer, how macrophyte species and hydraulic ioading rate (HLR) of wastewater infiuenced hydrauiics in constructed wetiands (CWs). Four piiot-scale CWs received 45 mm/day of pre-treated sugar factory effluent and another four received 110 mm/day.Haif the CWs were planted with Cyperus papyrus and haif with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Resuits showed a significant negative connection between tracer mass recovery and wetiand water leaioges. Aiso, a significant negative reiationship between active wetiand water volume and macrophyte density was detected. Further, a significant effect of HLR on mass removal rates of NH/-N was observed. However, no significant effect of either HLR or macrophyte species on wetland hydraulic parameters was found.

    Keywords | constructed wetiand, Cyperus papyrus. Echinochloa pyramidalis, hydrauiic ioading rate, hydraulic tracer study, vegetation

  • 113.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Persson, Jesper
    SLU, Alnarp.
    Englund, Jan-Erik
    SLU, Alnarp.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University.
    Influence of residence time analyses on estimates of wetland hydraulics and pollutant removal2013In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 501, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydraulic tracer studies are frequently used to estimate wetland residence time distributions (RTDs) and ultimately pollutant removal. However, there is no consensus on how to analyse these data. We set out to (i) review the different methods used and (ii) use simulations to explore how the data analysis method influences the quantification of wetland hydraulics and pollutant removal. The results showed that the method influences the water dispersion (N) most strongly and the removal least strongly. The influence increased with decreasing effective volume ratio (e) and N, indicating a greater effect of the method in wetlands with low effective volume and high dispersion. The method of moments with RTD truncation at 3 times the theoretical residence time (tn) and tracer background concentration produced the most dissimilar parameters. The most similar parameters values were those for gamma modelling and the method of moments with RTD truncation at tracer background concentration. For correct removal estimates, e was more important than N. However, the results from the literature review and simulations indicated that previously published articles may contain overestimated e and underestimated N values as a result of frequent RTD truncations at 3tn when using the method of moments. As a result, the removal rates may also be overestimated by as much as 14% compared to other truncation methods or modelling. Thus, it is recommended that wetland hydraulic tracer studies should use the same method, specifically, RTD truncation. We conclude that the choice of tracer data analysis method can greatly influence the quantifications of wetland hydraulics and removal rate.

  • 114.
    Bohn, Pernille
    et al.
    Toxicology Laboratory, Analytical Biosciences, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen.
    Bak, Søren A.
    Eurofins Denmark A/S, Environment, Vejen.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment MoLab.
    Krogh, Kristine A.
    Toxicology Laboratory, Analytical Biosciences, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen.
    Hansen, Martin
    Toxicology Laboratory, Analytical Biosciences, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen.
    Abiotic degradation of antibiotic ionophores2013In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 182, p. 177-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrolytic and photolytic degradation were investigated for the ionophore antibiotics lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, and narasin. The hydrolysis study was carried out by dissolving the ionophores in solutions of pH 4, 7, and 9, followed by incubation at three temperatures of 6, 22, and 28 °C for maximum 34 days. Using LC–MS/MS for chemical analysis, lasalocid was not found to hydrolyse in any of the tested environments. Monensin, salinomycin, and narasin were all stable in neutral or alkaline solution but hydrolysed in the solution with a pH of 4. Half-lives at 25 °C were calculated to be 13, 0.6, and 0.7 days for monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, respectively. Absorbance spectra from each compound indicated that only lasalocid is degraded by photolysis (half-life below 1 h) due to an absorbance maximum around 303 nm, and monensin, salinomycin, and narasin are resistant to direct photolysis because they absorb light of environmentally irrelevant wavelengths.

  • 115. Bojcevska, Hristina
    et al.
    Raburu, Philip O.
    Kenya.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University.
    Free water surface constructed wetlands for polishing sugar factory effluent in western Kenya: macrophyte phosphorus recovery and treatment results2006In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control, 23-29 September 2006 / [ed] Dias, V., Vymazal, J, Lisbon: Ministério de Ambiente, do Ordenamento do Territóri e do Desenvolvimento Regional (MAOTDR) and IWA , 2006, p. 709-718Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater treatment and nitrogen and phosphorus (P) recovery in harvested biomass of two macrophyte species receiving two wastewater loading rates was studied in a free water surface constructed wetland (FWS CW) in Kenya. Half the CWs were planted with Cyperus papyrus and half with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Inlets and outlets water samples were analysed for selected water quality parameters. Macrophytes were harvested at around 7 month intervals on three occasions for determination of biomass, P and N content. Area specific removals of TP, TSS and Nh4+-N were higher in the high-load CWs and in the low-load ones, but the relative removal was lower. For Nh4+-N, there was a significantly higher removal in C. papyrus CWs- Each macrophyte species had similar tissue P content independent of mass load suggesting excess available phosphorus in all CWs, as supported by the low N:P ratios. During a 7 month period, the amount of P stored daily in the green biomass of the macrophytes represented 18-29% and 25-100% of the daily removal of TP and TDP, respectively.

  • 116.
    Bojcevska, Hristina
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University.
    Impact of loads, season, and plant species on the performance of a tropical constructed wetland polishing effluent from sugar factory stabilization ponds2007In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 66-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of wastewater loading rates and two macrophyte species on treatment of sugar factory stabilization pond effluent were investigated in a pilot-scale free water surface constructed wetland (FWS CW) system in western Kenya. For 12 months, four CWs were operated at a hydraulic loading rate of 75 mm day−1 and four at 225 mm day−1. Half the CWs were planted with Cyperus papyrus and half with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Water samples were taken at the inlets and outlets and analyzed for TP, TDP, NH4-N, and TSS. Mass removal rates of the selected water quality parameters were compared during three periods designated the short rain (period 1), dry (period 2), and long rain (period 3) seasons. There was a significant linear relationship between the mass removal rate of TP, NH4-N, and TSS and the mass load, and season had a significant effect on the mass removal rate of TSS, NH4-N, and TDP. Mass loading rates for TDP were about 78% of those for TP, whereas TDP comprised 78–99% of TP mass outflow rates, indicating a release of dissolved P within the CWs. The only significant difference between the two macrophyte species was associated with mass removal of NH4-N, with more efficient removal in CWs planted with C. papyrus than those with E. pyramidalis. TP mass removal rates were 50–80% higher when a mean water loss for CWs 6–8 during periods 1 and 2 was assumed to represent evapotranspiration for all CWs in period 3 instead of pan evaporation data. This illustrated the importance of accurate estimations of evapotranspiration for pollutant mass removal rates in CWs in tropical climates.

  • 117.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE.
    Enger, Johanna
    LTH/LU.
    Hiller, Carolina
    RISE.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    User-centric measuers of perceived light quality: development of tools to promote energy efficient lighting2018In: BEHAVE 2018: 5th European Conference on Behaviour and Energy Efficiency, / [ed] Hackenfort M, Carabias-Hütter V, Hartmann C, Janser M, Schwarz N and Stücheli-Herlach P, 2018, p. 59-60Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the research presented is to support the implementation of light environments that cater both energy efficiency and well-being by providing tools that support communication about perceived lighting quality between professionals in lighting design and procurement.

  • 118.
    Brantlid, Carolina
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Attityder och framtidsval kring tonåringars inställning till sin hemstad Simrishamn2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att med hjälp utifrån en hermeneutiskt kvalitativ inriktning och utifrån positivismens kvantitativa inriktning kartlägga hur ungdomar i ”övergångsåldern”, åldern mellan skola och arbetsliv i staden Simrishamn ser på sin framtid utifrån faktorerna utbildning, jobb och utflyttning. Två metodologiska utgångspunkter har valts för undersökningen, detta för att nå en djupare kunskap och förståelse. Den valda metoden för undersökningen var enkät med ett visst utrymme för fria svar.

  • 119.
    Brink, Ebba
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Wamsler, Christine
    Lund University.
    Adolfsson, Maria
    Trelleborg Municipal.
    Axelsson, Monica
    Kristianstad Municipal.
    Beery, Thomas H.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    Bjorn, Helena
    Lomma Municipal.
    Bramryd, Torleif
    Lund University.
    Ekelund, Nils
    Malmö University.
    Jephson, Therese
    SALA.
    Narvelo, Widar
    Helsingborg Municipal.
    Ness, Barry
    lund University.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Palo, Thomas
    SLU Umeå.
    Sjeldrup, Magnus
    Bjuv Municipal.
    Stalhammar, Sanna
    Lund University.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Lomma Municipal.
    On the road to 'research municipalities': analysing transdisciplinarity in municipal ecosystem services and adaptation planning2018In: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 765-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transdisciplinary research and collaboration is widely acknowledged as a critical success factor for solution-oriented approaches that can tackle complex sustainability challenges, such as biodiversity loss, pollution, and climate-related hazards. In this context, city governments' engagement in transdisciplinarity is generally seen as a key condition for societal transformation towards sustainability. However, empirical evidence is rare. This paper presents a self-assessment of a joint research project on ecosystem services and climate adaptation planning (ECOSIMP) undertaken by four universities and seven Swedish municipalities. We apply a set of design principles and guiding questions for transdisciplinary sustainability projects and, on this basis, identify key aspects for supporting university-municipality collaboration. We show that: (1) selecting the number and type of project stakeholders requires more explicit consideration of the purpose of societal actors' participation; (2) concrete, interim benefits for participating practitioners and organisations need to be continuously discussed; (3) promoting the 'inter', i.e., interdisciplinary and inter-city learning, can support transdisciplinarity and, ultimately, urban sustainability and long-term change. In this context, we found that design principles for transdisciplinarity have the potential to (4) mitigate project shortcomings, even when transdisciplinarity is not an explicit aim, and (5) address differences and allow new voices to be heard. We propose additional guiding questions to address shortcomings and inspire reflexivity in transdisciplinary projects.

  • 120.
    Brochet, Anne-Laure
    et al.
    CNERA Avifaune migratrice, Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, Arles.
    Dessborn, Lisa
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Legagneux, P.
    Département de Biologie, Université Laval, Pavillon Vachon.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Gauthier-Clerc, M.
    Centre de Recherche de la Tour du Valat, Arles.
    Fritz, H.
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS UMR 5558 Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, Université de Lyon, Villeurbanne.
    Guillemain, M.
    CNERA Avifaune migratrice, Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, Arles.
    Is diet segregation between dabbling ducks due to food partitioning?: a review of seasonal patterns in the Western Palearctic2012In: Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0952-8369, E-ISSN 1469-7998, Vol. 286, no 3, p. 171-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the paradigm of resource-limited competition-structured communities, dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) have been used as a textbook example of how morphological differences, notably bill lamellar density and body length, may allow sympatric species to partition food and hence coexist. We reviewed all accessible diet studies from the Western Palearctic for three closely related dabbling duck species, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), pintail (A.?acuta) and teal (A.?crecca), and present a comprehensive list of the food items (invertebrates, seeds, vegetative parts of plants) ingested. To assess the circumannual perspective of niche separation, we evaluated size distribution of ingested seeds among seasons and duck species. There was a significant difference among duck species in mean size and mass of ingested seeds, as well as in diet composition, with the largest seeds consumed by the largest species (mallard) with the coarsest bill filter apparatus (lamellae), and the smallest seeds by the smallest species (teal) with the finest bill lamellae. However, no effect of season was found, suggesting consistent diet segregation among species throughout the annual cycle of ducks and over large geographical areas. We argue that the patterns of food size separation between the three species are compatible with the idea of coexistence under interspecific competition.

  • 121.
    Brodin, Anders
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Holmgren, Noél
    University of Skövde.
    Optimal energy allocation and behaviour in female raptorial birds during the nestling period2003In: Ecoscience, ISSN 1195-6860, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 140-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many raptors and owls the male is the main provider of food in the early phase of the nestling period while the female incubates the eggs and broods the young. In the nestling period the female often helps the male to feed the young, but the factors affecting whether and when she leaves the brood to hunt have not been investigated in detail. We present a dynamic state variable model that analyses female behaviour and fat storage dynamics over the nestling period. The results show that in the first half of the nestling period the female faces a conflict between the need to brood the young and the need to hunt to provision them with food. This conflict arises because the energy needs of the young peak early in the nestling period, at a time when they still cannot thermoregulate and therefore need brooding from the female. The most critical period is the second nestling week, when both female and nestling fat reserves will decrease to low levels. Large female fat reserves in the early nestling period provide a solution to this conflict and are essential for successful breeding. Stochasticity in male provisioning is thus not needed to explain why females should be fat when the eggs hatch. Under normal circumstances, the female broods during the first two weeks and leaves the young only if hunting is absolutely necessary. After the second week the energy requirements are relaxed, and whether the female assists the male in hunting or not depends on factors such as male hunting success, environmental stochasticity, and energy requirements of the young. Our model provides a framework for empirical investigations on female behaviour during breeding in raptors, owls, and other birds with marked division of labour.

  • 122.
    Brunosson, Albina
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Kökets bråkstakar: elevers förståelse för bråktal i hem- och konsumentkunskap2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study has been to investigate students’ understanding of fractions when they occur in the practical subject home economics. In order to investigate this, the learning study method was used. Learning study can be understood as a method to gain deeper understanding of what is learnt by students during a lesson to increase learning outcome.

    The variation theory framework has been utilized to analyze the results of this study. The object of learning was chosen to be addition of fractions bigger than one half when they appear in home economics. The results indicate that in order for the learners to experience the object of learning it requires that they discern some critical aspects; to distinguish between quarters and four parts, the relationship between the part and the whole in fractions, varied presentations of the same fraction along with an understanding of the meaning of the concept to double.

     

    Moreover the students have carried out a math test which tested the students’ theoretical understanding of fractions to see whether they can transfer the knowledge from one learning context to another. The result evinces that most of the learners show a good understanding of fractions in a theoretical context as well as a practical. The learning study has increased the students learning according to the object of learning

  • 123.
    Bruze, Amanda
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    A comparison of nutrient reduction between activated carbon and cocout fibre in wastewater treatment2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two batch mesocosms were created on site in Da Nang, Vietnam to reduce nutrients in wastewater from fish processing factories. The mesocosms contained either activated carbon or coconut fibre which in earlier studies has shown promising results in wastewater treatment. Three aspects of the materials were compared; Chemical content, which measured levels of COD, total-nitrogen and total-phosphorus. Rate of biofilm formation, where biofilm were measured visually and through weight. The last aspect was microbiological presence where fours species of microorganisms were cultivated. The experiment showed no obvious difference between the materials but concludes that this is an experiment that could and should be developed further.

  • 124.
    Bruér, Rebecka
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Wiklund, Jenny
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Elevers möjligheter att lära bråk2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur elever i årskurs 6 uttrycker sina kunskaper om olika aspekter av bråk, jämförelser och division samt vilka resonemang och strategier de då använder. Syftet är även att undersöka vilka möjligheter eleverna upplever de fått att lära sig detta samt vilka möjligheter lärarna upplever att de har gett eleverna att lära sig, eftersom vi vill veta orsaker till att använda strategier valdes och vilka samband det kan finnas mellan elevers kunskaper om bråks olika aspekter och deras kunskaper om jämförelser och division med bråk. Studien är förankrad i teoretiska modeller om hur bråk kan förstås, teorier om lärande samt tidigare forskning med liknande frågeställningar. Det tillvägagångssätt som valts är flermetodsforskning som omfattar kvantitativ metod för insamling och analys av en skriftlig diagnos och kvalitativ metod för insamling och tematisk analys av intervjuer med elever och lärare. Resultatet visar att eleverna hade tillräckliga kunskaper totalt sett om bråks aspekter, jämförelser och divisioner men otillräckliga kunskaper om framför allt aspekten bråk som kvot vilket medförde otillräckliga kunskaper om innehållsdivision.

  • 125.
    Cabaleiro-Lago, Celia
    et al.
    Irland.
    Quinlan-Pluck, Fiona
    Irland.
    Lynch, Iseult
    Irland.
    Dawson, Kenneth A
    Irland.
    Linse, Sara
    Lund University.
    Dual effect of amino modified polystyrene nanoparticles on amyloid β protein fibrillation2010In: ACS Chemical Neuroscience, ISSN 1948-7193, E-ISSN 1948-7193, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 279-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fibrillation kinetics of the amyloid β peptide is analyzed in presence of cationic polystyrene nanoparticles of different size. The results highlight the importance of the ratio between the peptide and particle concentration. Depending on the specific ratio, the kinetic effects vary from acceleration of the fibrillation process by reducing the lag phase at low particle surface area in solution to inhibition of the fibrillation process at high particle surface area. The kinetic behavior can be explained if we assume a balance between two different pathways: first fibrillation of free monomer in solution and second nucleation and fibrillation promoted at the particle surface. The overall rate of fibrillation will depend on the interplay between these two pathways, and the predominance of one mechanism over the other will be determined by the relative equilibrium and rate constants.

  • 126.
    Cabaleiro-Lago, Celia
    et al.
    Irland.
    Quinlan-Pluck, Fiona
    Irland.
    Lynch, Iseult
    Irland.
    Lindman, Stina
    Lund University.
    Minogue, Aedin M
    Irland.
    Thulin, Eva
    Lund University.
    Walsh, Dominic M
    Irland.
    Dawson, Kenneth A
    Irland.
    Linse, Sara
    Lund University.
    Inhibition of amyloid beta protein fibrillation by polymeric nanoparticles2008In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 130, no 46, p. 15437-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copolymeric NiPAM:BAM nanoparticles of varying hydrophobicity were found to retard fibrillation of the Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid beta protein (Abeta). We found that these nanoparticles affect mainly the nucleation step of Abeta fibrillation. The elongation step is largely unaffected by the particles, and once the Abeta is nucleated, the fibrillation process occurs with the same rate as in the absence of nanoparticles. The extension of the lag phase for fibrillation of Abeta is strongly dependent on both the amount and surface character of the nanoparticles. Surface plasmon resonance studies show that Abeta binds to the nanoparticles and provide rate and equilibrium constants for the interaction. Numerical analysis of the kinetic data for fibrillation suggests that binding of monomeric Abeta and prefibrillar oligomers to the nanoparticles prevents fibrillation. Moreover, we find that fibrillation of Abeta initiated in the absence of nanoparticles can be reversed by addition of nanoparticles up to a particular time point before mature fibrils appear.

  • 127.
    Caizergues, Alain
    et al.
    Frankrike.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Frankrike.
    Arzel, Céline
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Devineau, Olivier
    USA.
    Leray, Gilles
    Frankrike.
    Pilvin, Daniel
    Frankrike.
    Lepley, Michel
    Frankrike.
    Massez, Grégoire
    Frankrike.
    Schricke, Vincent
    Frankrike.
    Emigration rates and population turnover of teal Anas crecca in two major wetlands of western Europe2011In: Wildlife Biology, ISSN 0909-6396, E-ISSN 1903-220X, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 373-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the winter of 2003/04, we studied emigration rates of teal Anas crecca in two major wetlands: the Camargue (southern France) and the Loire estuary (western France). We derived local survival probabilities as a step in ultimately estimating emigration rates from individual mark-resighting (visual recaptures) history of birds fitted with nasal saddles. In goodness-of-fit tests of time-dependent models for local survival, we only detected the presence of transients among young females in the Loire estuary, which indicated that this category of individuals includes an ‘unstable compartment’ continuing its migratory journey further to the south. We observed low monthly local survival and high emigration rates (range: 0.01-0.81) in both areas, which suggests high turnover rates. In the Loire estuary, temporal changes in emigration rates matched the post- and pre-nuptial migration peaks (i.e. October-November and February-March). By combining local survival probabilities and count data, we derived an estimate of the ratio between the winter peak count of teals in our study areas and the minimum number of birds that actually frequented the areas over the entire wintering period (October-March). In both cases, we estimated the number of teal visiting the two wintering sites be about twice as large as the maximum number of birds counted instantaneously.

  • 128. Callaghan, Terry V.
    et al.
    Tweedie, Craig E.
    Akerman, Jonas
    Andrews, Christopher
    Bergstedt, Johan
    Butler, Malcolm G.
    Christensen, Torben R.
    Cooley, Dorothy
    Dahlberg, Ulrika
    Danby, Ryan K.
    Daniels, Fred J. A.
    de Molenaar, Johannes G.
    Dick, Jan
    Mortensen, Christian Ebbe
    Ebert-May, Diane
    Emanuelsson, Urban
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Uppsala.
    Eriksson, Hakan
    Hedenas, Henrik
    Henry, Greg. H. R.
    Hik, David S.
    Hobbie, John E.
    Jantze, Elin J.
    Jaspers, Cornelia
    Johansson, Cecilia
    Johansson, Margareta
    Johnson, David R.
    Johnstone, Jill F.
    Jonasson, Christer
    Kennedy, Catherine
    Kenney, Alice J.
    Keuper, Frida
    Koh, Saewan
    Krebs, Charles J.
    Lantuit, Hugues
    Lara, Mark J.
    Lin, David
    Lougheed, Vanessa L.
    Madsen, Jesper
    Matveyeva, Nadya
    McEwen, Daniel C.
    Myers-Smith, Isla H.
    Narozhniy, Yuriy K.
    Olsson, Håkan
    Pohjola, Veijo A.
    Price, Larry W.
    Riget, Frank
    Rundqvist, Sara
    Sandstroem, Anneli
    Tamstorf, Mikkel
    Van Bogaert, Rik
    Villarreal, Sandra
    Webber, Patrick J.
    Zemtsov, Valeriy A.
    Multi-Decadal Changes in Tundra Environments and Ecosystems: Synthesis of the International Polar Year-Back to the Future Project (IPY-BTF)2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 705-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the responses of tundra systems to global change has global implications. Most tundra regions lack sustained environmental monitoring and one of the only ways to document multi-decadal change is to resample historic research sites. The International Polar Year (IPY) provided a unique opportunity for such research through the Back to the Future (BTF) project (IPY project #512). This article synthesizes the results from 13 papers within this Ambio Special Issue. Abiotic changes include glacial recession in the Altai Mountains, Russia; increased snow depth and hardness, permafrost warming, and increased growing season length in sub-arctic Sweden; drying of ponds in Greenland; increased nutrient availability in Alaskan tundra ponds, and warming at most locations studied. Biotic changes ranged from relatively minor plant community change at two sites in Greenland to moderate change in the Yukon, and to dramatic increases in shrub and tree density on Herschel Island, and in sub-arctic Sweden. The population of geese tripled at one site in northeast Greenland where biomass in non-grazed plots doubled. A model parameterized using results from a BTF study forecasts substantial declines in all snowbeds and increases in shrub tundra on Niwot Ridge, Colorado over the next century. In general, results support and provide improved capacities for validating experimental manipulation, remote sensing, and modeling studies.

  • 129.
    Cappelen, Birgitta
    et al.
    Oslo School of Architecture and Design.
    Andersson, Anders-Petter
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Design for co-creation with interactive montage2011In: Proceedings, 4th Nordic Design Research Conference, Nordes2011, School of Art and Design, Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland
May 29th - June 1st, 2011: Making Design Matter / [ed] Jung-Joo Lee, School of Art and Design, Aalto University, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Montage in cinema means to mount images andsounds from different sources, that are interpreted together and whose oppositions drive the storyfurther. In this paper we develop the montage concept further for co-creation in interactive, tactile, spatial cross-media. As case we use the design of the interactive, tangible, cross-media installation ORFI. ORFI is developed to facilitate collaboration and co-creation between children with severe disabilities and their care persons. In this paper we focus on how we have designed for interactive montage. We present two main types of interactive montage, close and shifted in three dimensions (spatial, temporal and actorial). With the first we mean spatial and temporal closeness, depending on the roles users take and the interpretations they make. With shifted we mean how to use spatial and temporal shifting and distance between the media elements in space and over time, depending on the users’ roles and interpretations. All this to encourage co-creation over time, between a variety of users in different situations.

  • 130.
    Cappelen, Birgitta
    et al.
    Oslo School of Architecture and Design.
    Andersson, Anders-Petter
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Expanding the role of the instrument2011In: Proceedings of the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, 30 May - 1 June 2011, Oslo, Norway / [ed] Alexander Refsum Jensenius, Rolf Inge Godøy, Oslo University, Oslo, 2011, p. 511-514Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional role of the musical instrument is to be the working tool of the professional musician. On the instrument the musician performs music for the audience to listen to. In this paper we present an interactive installation, where we expand the role of the instrument to motivate musicking and co-creation between diverse users. We have made an open installation, where users can perform a variety of actions in several situations. By using the abilities of the computer, we have made an installation which can be interpreted to have many roles. It can both be an instrument, a co-musician, a communication partner, a toy, a meeting place and an ambient musical landscape. The users can dynamically shift between roles, based on their abilities, knowledge and motivation.

     

  • 131.
    Cappelen, Birgitta
    et al.
    Oslo School of Architecture and Design.
    Andersson, Anders-Petter
    Malmö högskola.
    From designing objects to designing fields: from control to freedom2003In: Digital Creativity, ISSN 1462-6268, E-ISSN 1744-3806, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 74-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we want to explore Field as a concept and as a metaphor for understanding interactive systems. By interactive systems we mean both systems and artworks, where the user by interacting changes the course of events. We intend to show why we need new terms and why we consider Field to be a fruitful concept and term. Further we will show how the Field concept changes both our understanding of what we do as designers and composers and how we acknowledge our audience. We will exemplify the design consequences of the Field concept by going through some design considerations we made when designing the audio tactile installation Mufi.

  • 132.
    Cardegård, Fanny
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Alléer i Östergötlands län: alléers utbredning och förändring mellan 1868-1877 och idag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Avenues are a landscape element that consist of both nature and culture and that’s been planted by man for various reason. The Swedish avenues reduces because of that the Trafikverket and the Riksantikvarieämbetet wishes to develop a national basis for avenues. In Östergötland there is no compilation of avenues in historical time because of that the purpose of the study is to examine avenues spread and continuity in Östergötland from 1868 until today. Avenues has the greatest occurence in the flat country. Avenues belonging to manor or factory had changed least from the period 1868-1877 until today which is probably due to avenues belonging to manor or factory already was common under the period 1868-1877. Approach avenues leading to farms has increased in the districts since 1868-1877 which can be linked to the agriculture shiftreform that changed the landscape in the late 19th century and gave rise to avenue plantings in the county. Today’sk avenues are avenues witch mixed tree species uppermost occurring.

  • 133.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Differences between the iterated prisoner's dilemma and the chicken game under noisy conditions2002Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The prisoner's dilemma has evolved into a standard game for analyzing the success of cooperative strategies in repeated games. With the aim of investigating the behavior of strategies in some alternative games we analyzed the outcome of iterated games for both the prisoner's dilemma and the chicken game. In the chicken game, mutual defection is punished more strongly than in the prisoner's dilemma, and yields the lowest fitness. We also ran our analyses under different levels of noise. The results reveal a striking difference in the outcome between the games. Iterated chicken game needed more generations to find a winning strategy. It also favored nice, forgiving strategies able to forgive a defection from an opponent. In particular the well-known strategy tit-for-tat has a poor successrate under noisy conditions. The chicken game conditions may be relatively common in other sciences, and therefore we suggest that this game should receive more interest as a cooperative game from researchers within computer science.

  • 134.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    The success of cooperative strategies in the iterated prisoner's dilemma and the chicken game2007In: Scalable Computing: Practice and Experience: Scientific International Journal for Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISSN 1895-1767, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 87-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prisoner's dilemma has evolved into a standard game for analyzing the success of cooperative strategies in repeated games. With the aim of investigating the behavior of strategies in some alternative games we analyzed the outcome of iterated games for both the prisoner's dilemma and the chicken game. In the chicken game, mutual defection is punished more strongly than in the prisoner's dilemma, and yields the lowest fitness. We also ran our analyses under different levels of noise. The results reveal a striking difference in the outcome between the games. Iterated chicken game needed more generations to find a winning strategy. It also favored nice, forgiving strategies able to forgive a defection from an opponent. In particular the well-known strategy tit-for-tat has a poor successrate under noisy conditions. The chicken game conditions may be relatively common in other sciences, and therefore we suggest that this game should receive more interest as a cooperative game from researchers within computer science.

  • 135.
    Carlsson, Lars
    Kristianstad University College, Vice-chancellor's office.
    Vattenriket är inte så märkvärdigt som man tror, det är märkvärdigare!2007In: Sarah, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 8-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 136.
    Carlsson, Nils O L
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Lacoursière, Jean O.
    Lunds universitet.
    Herbivory on aquatic vascular plants by the introduced golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) in Lao PDR2005In: Biological Invasions, ISSN 1387-3547, E-ISSN 1573-1464, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 233-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of naturally found densities of the exotic and herbivorous golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) on three dominant aquatic plants – duckweed (Lemna minor), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and morning glory (Ipomoea aquatica) – was assessed in a wetland survey and quantified in a field experiment in Laos in southeast Asia. Snail grazing reduced plant biomass, but plant species were differently affected by grazing. Duckweed had almost disappeared after 6 and water hyacinth after 21 days, whereas morning glory remained at 80% of initial biomass after 32 days. Snail growth was lowest on morning glory and, when all plant species were simultaneously presented to snails, this plant was not preferred. We suggest that the negative effect the golden apple snail had on the growth of these plant species in field enclosures is present in the natural environment as well. This new and intense herbivory could have serious negative effects on invaded freshwater ecosystems in this region.

  • 137.
    Cederin, Klas
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Engineering.
    Carlson, Mats
    Kristianstad University, School of Engineering.
    Digital historical maps in physical planning2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 138.
    Champagnon, Jocelyn
    et al.
    Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, CNERA Avifaune Migratrice, Arles.
    Crochet, P. A.
    Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, UMR 5175 – CNRS, Montpellier.
    Kreisinger, J.
    Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague.
    Čížková, D.
    Department of Population Biology, Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno.
    Gauthier-Clerc, M.
    Centre de Recherche de la Tour du Valat, Arles.
    Massez, G.
    Les Marais du Vigueirat, Arles.
    Söderquist, Pär
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Albrecht, T.
    Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague.
    Guillemain, M.
    Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, CNERA Avifaune Migratrice, Arles.
    Assessing the genetic impact of massive restocking on wild mallard2013In: Animal Conservation, ISSN 1367-9430, E-ISSN 1469-1795, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 295-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Captive-bred mallards Anas platyrhynchos have been released for hunting purposes at a very large scale in Europe since the mid-1970s. In spite of a potential genetic impact, the actual contribution of restocked mallards to the genome of the target population has received little attention. The genetic structure of modern wild mallards in the Camargue, Southern France, was assessed from two samples: one originating from shot birds in hunting bags and one from presumed wild ducks captured alive in a hunting-free reserve. Reference samples originated from five mallard farms, as well as from museum samples collected before the mid-1970s (i.e. before massive mallard releases started). Our results revealed that the genetic signature of wild wintering mallards has not changed significantly because museum and presumed wild samples from the Camargue hunting-free nature reserve were genetically similar, and clearly differentiated from the farm mallards. This suggests that mallard releases in the Camargue or elsewhere in France, although massive, have not actually translated into complete admixture of wild and captive genomes, most likely due to low survival of released birds once in the wild. Nevertheless, although genetic introgression of the wild population by captive-bred was contained, we found significant rates of hybridization between wild and captive-bred mallards in modern samples. This result suggests that long-term releases of captive-bred mallards, if carried on at such large scale, could compromise irreversibly the genetic structure and composition of European mallards. This work contributes to fill in the gap on the monitoring of the genetic consequences of large-scale game releases for exploitation.

  • 139.
    Champagnon, Jocelyn
    et al.
    Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage – CNERA Avifaune Migratrice, Le Sambuc, Arles.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage – CNERA Avifaune Migratrice, Le Sambuc, Arles.
    Gauthier-Clerc, Michel
    Centre de Recherche de la Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, Arles.
    Lebreton, Jean-Dominique
    Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive UMR 5175 - CNRS, Montpellier.
    Conspecifics can be aliens too: a review of effects of restocking practices in vertebrates2012In: Journal for Nature Conservation, ISSN 1617-1381, E-ISSN 1618-1093, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 231-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review the indexed scientific literature (233 papers) dealing with ‘restocking’ of vertebrates, i.e. reinforcement of wild populations by release of individuals of the same species. We found evidence that restocking may have desired beneficial effects such as: increased genetic diversity and mitigation of Allee effects in small populations; increased size or even salvation of threatened populations; increased harvest opportunities; and, redirection of harvest pressure from wild to captive-bred individuals. However, restocking may also have negative effects like changes in behaviour, morphology, and demography in recipient populations, as well as enhancement of pathogen spread. Negative genetic effects on recipient populations include homogenisation, introduction of non-native genes, and loss of local adaptation. Research thus far is strongly biased towards birds and mammals, and geographically to Europe and North America. Restocking for conservation purposes has been studied more than that for harvest management, while the latter may be of far greater importance in terms of number of released individuals. Demographic and genetic effects have been studied more than effects on behaviour, which in turn have received more attention than effects on morphology and pathogen spread. There is a general tendency for research on restocking to be fragmented taxonomically and by biological sub-disciplines. Our review demonstrates that restocking practices may and do cause significant disruptions of natural patterns in wild recipient populations. It also highlights the diversity, frequency and extent of these activities, leading us to argue that restocking is an emerging conservation and ecosystem resilience issue of global significance. Based on this review we outline monitoring and research needs for the future. We also provide guidelines to practitioners in conservation, game management, fisheries, epidemiology and other fields involved in restocking of vertebrates, who are likely to benefit from merging their perspectives and adopting a more cross-taxonomical and interdisciplinary attitude when laying out future agendas for evaluation and policy-making in this field.

  • 140.
    Champagnon, Jocelyn
    et al.
    Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, CNERA Avifaune Migratrice, Arles.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, CNERA Avifaune Migratrice, Arles.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Folkesson, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Gauthier-Clerc, Michel
    Centre de Recherche de la Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, Arles.
    Changes in Mallard Anas platyrhynchos bill morphology after 30 years of supplemental stocking2010In: Bird Study, ISSN 0006-3657, E-ISSN 1944-6705, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 344-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capsule Massive releases of captive-reared Mallard for hunting purposes have been practiced for 30 years. During this period the number of lamellae per centimetre of bill length in wild Mallard populations has decreased. Aims Every year since the 1970s, several million captive Mallard have been released in Europe. This may lead to a spread of unnatural phenotypes into the wild. Nevertheless, the consequences of such introductions have not been examined. Methods Two widespread and common migratory ducks were studied: Mallard Anas platyrhynchos and Teal A. crecca. Mallard is the only duck species for which stocking programmes occur, and Teal served as a control. In a 'before-after' design, we compared duck bill lamellar density over the last 30 years. Results Lamellar density in Mallard, but not Teal, decreased. The observed 10% decrease occurred in the first (proximate) centimetre of the bill, the most crucial in terms of food filtration. Conclusions We hypothesize that the change in bill morphology was because of the propagation of captive Mallard into the wild: captive Mallard eat mainly large items, relaxing the natural selection pressure maintaining high lamellar density for sieving small prey in wild ducks.

  • 141.
    Champagnon, Jocelyn
    et al.
    French Hunting and Wildlife Agency, Arles, France.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    French Hunting and Wildlife Agency, Arles, France.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Folkesson, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Gauthier-Clerc, Michel
    Tour du Valat Research Center, Arles.
    Do stocking programs result in maladapted populations?: mallard bill morphology after 30 years of massive releases2011In: Abstracts: Joint meeting of the 11th North American Crane Workshop and the 34th Annual Meeting of The Waterbird Society, Grand Island, Nebraska, USA, March 13-16, 2011, 2011, p. 31-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year since the 1970s, several million captive Mallard have been released in Europe for hunting purposes. This may lead to a spread of unnatural phenotypes into the wild. Two widespread and common migratory ducks were studied: Mallard    Anas platyrhynchos and Teal A. crecca. Mallard is the only duck species for which large-scale stocking programs occur in the region, and Teal hence serves as a control. In a « before-after » design, we compared duck bill lamellar density over the last thirty years. Lamellar density in Mallard, but not Teal, decreased. The observed 10 % decrease occurred in the first (proximate) centimetre of the bill, the most crucial in terms of food filtration. We hypothesize the observed change in bill morphology was due to the propagation of captive Mallard into the wild: captive Mallard mainly eat large items, relaxing the natural selection pressure maintaining high lamellar density for sieving small preys in wild ducks.

  • 142.
    Champagnon, Jocelyn
    et al.
    French Hunting and Wildlife Agency, Le Sambuc, Arles.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    French Hunting and Wildlife Agency, Le Sambuc, Arles.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Massec, Grégoire
    Marais du Vigueirat, Mas Thibert, Arles.
    Gauthier-Clerc, Michel
    Tour du Valat Research Center, Le Sambuc, Arles.
    Survival probability and morphological adaptation of captive-reared Mallard Anasplatyrhynchos after release into the wild2011In: Abstracts: Joint meeting of the Association of Field Ornithologists, the Cooper Ornithological Society, and the Wilson Ornithological Society, Kearny, Nebraska, USA, March 9-12, 2011, 2011, p. 16-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Captive-reared animals released as part of reinforcement programmes are considered less likely to survive than their wild conspecifics. One of the possible causes for this is reduced digestion efficiency. We studied adaptation of the digestive system in Mallard, a species with high adaptability to its environment. Body condition and digestive organs were compared between three groups: captive-reared Mallards remaining in a game farm, captive-reared Mallards released into the wild as juveniles and wild Mallards. We also assessed difference in diet between released birds and wild birds, and conducted a one-year survival analysis of captive-reared birds released in a hunting-free area. Released Mallards had a smaller gizzard than wild birds, but there was no difference between captive-reared and wild Mallards in the size of others organs in the gastro-intestinal tract. Body condition of captive-reared Mallards was poorer than wild ones, and this was only partially improved after release. Survival probability of captive-reared Mallards was low, compared to documented survival of wild Mallards. In particular, high mortality occurred when additional food provisioning was stopped and during harsh winter periods. We argue that in spite of a viable digestive system, pre-release conditions experienced by captivereared ducks impeded restocking success. In the context of massive releases of this species for hunting purposes (several million birds per year in Europe), low survival due to a combination of high hunting pressure and poor condition could limit the number of farmed birds surviving to breed and thus limit introgression of "captive genes" into the wild population.

  • 143.
    Champagnon, Jocelyn
    et al.
    Frankrike.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Frankrike.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Massez, Grégoire
    Frankrike.
    Cavallo, Francois
    Frankrike.
    Gauthier-Clerc, Michel
    Frankrike.
    Low survival after release into the wild: assessing “the burden of captivity” on Mallard physiology and behaviour2012In: European Journal of Wildlife Research, ISSN 1612-4642, E-ISSN 1439-0574, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 255-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Captive-reared animals used in reinforcement programs are generally less likely to survive than wild conspecifics. Digestion efficiency and naive behaviour are two likely reasons for this pattern. The Mallard is a species with high adaptability to its environment and in which massive reinforcement programs are carried out. We studied physiological and behavioural factors potentially affecting body condition and survival of captive-reared Mallards after being released. Digestive system morphology and an index of body condition were compared among three groups: captive-reared birds remaining in a farm (control), captive-reared birds released into the wild as juveniles (released) and wild-born birds (wild). We also compared behaviour and diet of released vs. wild Mallards. Finally, we conducted a 1-year survival analysis of captive-reared birds after release in a hunting-free area. Gizzard weight was lower in control Mallards, but the size of other organs did not differ between controls and wild birds. The difference in gizzard weight between released and wild birds disappeared after some time in the wild. Diet analyses suggest that released Mallards show a greater preference than wild for anthropogenic food (waste grain, bait). Despite similar time-budgets, released Mallards never attained the body condition of wild birds. As a consequence, survival probability in released Mallards was low, especially when food provisioning was stopped and during harsh winter periods. We argue that the low survival of released Mallards likely has a physiological rather than a behavioural (foraging) origin. In any case, extremely few released birds live long enough to potentially enter the breeding population, even without hunting. In the context of massive releases presently carried out for hunting purposes, our study indicates a low likelihood for genetic introgression by captive-reared birds into the wild population.

  • 144.
    Champagnon, Jocelyn
    et al.
    Frankrike.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Frankrike.
    Gauthier-Clerc, Michel
    Frankrike.
    Lebreton, Jean-Dominique
    Frankrike.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Consequences of massive bird releases for hunting purposes: mallard Anas platyrhynchos in the Camargue, Southern France2009In: Wildfowl, ISSN 0954-6324, E-ISSN 2052-6458, no Special issue 2, p. 184-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of captive-reared fish and game animals into the wild is a common management practice in Europe and North America. In Europe, millions of reared birds are released each year yet the consequences of these release programmes have received little attention. This paper describes the massive introduction of Mallard Anas platyrhynchos, a native migrant species released into the wild to increase the size of hunted populations. It provides the rationale for current and forthcoming experiments aimed at determining the effects of the augmentation of Mallard stocks on wild population genotype and survival rates.

  • 145.
    Chauvet, Eric
    et al.
    Frankrike.
    Ferreira, V.
    Portugal.
    Giller, P. S.
    Irland.
    McKie, B. G.
    SLU, Uppsala.
    Tiegs, S. D.
    USA.
    Woodward, G.
    Storbritannien.
    Elosegi, A.
    Spanien.
    Dobson, M.
    Storbritannien.
    Fleituch, T.
    Polen.
    Graca, M. A. S.
    Portugal.
    Gulis, V.
    USA.
    Hladyz, S.
    Australien.
    Lacoursière, Jean O.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Lecerf, A.
    Frankrike.
    Pozo, J.
    Spanien.
    Preda, E.
    Rumänien.
    Riipinen, M.
    Storbritannien.
    RisŸnoveanu, G.
    Rumänien.
    Vadineanu, A.
    Rumänien.
    Vought, Lena B. M.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Gessner, M. O.
    Tyskland.
    Litter decomposition as an indicator of stream ecosystem functioning at local-to-continental scales: insights from the European RivFunction project2016In: Large-scale ecology: model systems to global perspectives / [ed] Alex J. Dumbrell, Rebecca L. Kordas; Woodward, Guy, London: Academic Press , 2016, Vol. 55, p. 99-182Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RivFunction is a pan-European initiative that started in 2002 and was aimed at establishing a novel functional-based approach to assessing the ecological status of rivers. Litter decomposition was chosen as the focal process because it plays a central role in stream ecosystems and is easy to study in the field. Impacts of two stressors that occur across the continent, nutrient pollution and modified riparian vegetation, were examined at > 200 paired sites in nine European ecoregions. In response to the former, decomposition was dramatically slowed at both extremes of a 1000-fold nutrient gradient, indicating nutrient limitation in unpolluted sites, highly variable responses across Europe in moderately impacted streams, and inhibition via associated toxic and additional stressors in highly polluted streams. Riparian forest modification by clear cutting or replacement of natural vegetation by plantations (e.g. conifers, eucalyptus) or pasture produced similarly complex responses. Clear effects caused by specific riparian disturbances were observed in regionally focused studies, but general trends across different types of riparian modifications were not apparent, in part possibly because of important indirect effects. Complementary field and laboratory experiments were undertaken to tease apart the mechanistic drivers of the continental scale field bioassays by addressing the influence of litter, fungal and detritivore diversity. These revealed generally weak and context-dependent effects on decomposition, suggesting high levels of redundancy (and hence potential insurance mechanisms that can mitigate a degree of species loss) within the food web. Reduced species richness consistently increased decomposition variability, if not the absolute rate. Further field studies were aimed at identifying important sources of this variability (e.g. litter quality, temporal variability) to help constrain ranges of predicted decomposition rates in different field situations. Thus, although many details still need to be resolved, litter decomposition holds considerable potential in some circumstances to capture impairment of stream ecosystem functioning. For instance, species traits associated with the body size and metabolic capacity of the consumers were often the main driver at local scales, and these were often translated into important determinants of otherwise apparently contingent effects at larger scales. Key insights gained from conducting continental scale studies included resolving the apparent paradox of inconsistent relationships between nutrients and decomposition rates, as the full complex multidimensional picture emerged from the large-scale dataset, of which only seemingly contradictory fragments had been seen previously.

  • 146.
    Chen, Eric Zhi
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    A new iterative computer search algorithm for good quasi-twisted codes2015In: Designs, Codes and Cryptography, ISSN 0925-1022, E-ISSN 1573-7586, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 307-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a generalization to cyclic and consta-cyclic codes, quasi-twisted (QT) codes contain many good linear codes. During the last twenty years, a lot of record-breaking codes have been found by computer search for good QT codes. But due to the time complexity, very few QT codes have been reported recently. In this paper, a new iterative, heuristic computer search algorithm is presented, and a lot of new QT codes have been obtained. With these results, a total of 45 entries in the code tables for the best-known codes have been improved. Also, as an example to show the effectiveness of the algorithm, 8 better binary quasi-cyclic codes with dimension 12 and m = 13 than previously best-known results are constructed.

  • 147.
    Chen, Eric Zhi
    Kristianstad University, School of Engineering.
    An explicit construction of 2-generator quasi-twisted codes2008In: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ISSN 0018-9448, E-ISSN 1557-9654, Vol. 54, no 12, p. 5770-5773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quasi-twisted (QT) codes are a generalization of quasi-cyclic (QC) codes. Based on consta-cyclic simplex codes, a new explicit construction of a family of 2-generator quasi-twisted (QT) two-weight codes is presented. It is also shown that many codes in the family meet the Griesmer bound and therefore are length-optimal. New distance-optimal binary QC [195, 8, 96], [210, 8, 104] and [240, 8, 120] codes, and good ternary QC [208, 6, 135] and [221, 6, 144] codes are also obtained by the construction.

  • 148.
    Chen, Eric Zhi
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Computer construction of quasi-twisted two-weight codes2009In: Proceedings of the sixth International Workshop on Optimal Codes and Related Topics, Varna, Bulgaria, 2009, p. 62-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A code is said two-wight if the non-zero codewords have only two different weights w1 and w2. In this paper, it is generalized that a consta-cyclic code of composite length can be put in the quasi-twisted (QT) form. Based on this result, a new computer method of QT two-weight codes is presented. A large amount of QT two-weight codes are found, and several new codes are also constructed.

  • 149.
    Chen, Eric Zhi
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Constructions of 2-generator quasi-cyclic codes2006In: Proceedings of the tenth International Workshop on Algebraic and Combinatorial Coding Theory, Zvenigorod: Institute of Information Transmission Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences , 2006, p. 60-63Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 150.
    Chen, Eric Zhi
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Constructions of quasi-cyclic two-weigh codes2006In: Proc. of the tenth International Workshop on Algebraic and Combinatorial Coding Theory (ACCT-10), 2006, p. 56-59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a generalization of cyclic codes, quasi-cyclic (QC) codes contain many good linear codes. But quasi-cyclic codes studied so far are mainly limited to one generator (1-generator) QC codes. In this paper, 2-generator QC codes are studied, and many good 2-generator QC codes are constructed using simplex codes. A computer algorithm is given, and used to find the best possible 2-generator QC codes. Among those 2-generator QC codes constructed, some codes are two-weight codes.

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