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  • 10051.
    Sablic, Gino
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Duggal, Monika
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    The road to India: the internationalization of Swedish SMEs2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing globalization and decreasing trade barriers have created opportunities for Swedish companies to establish their activities in India. The aim with this dissertation is to explore if Swedish SMEs in the service sector follow the process suggested by the Uppsala Internationalization Model when establishing their activities in India.

    In order to find out if Swedish SMEs in the service sector follow the process suggested by the Uppsala Internationalization Model, a multiple case study was conducted, adopting a qualitative approach. Three Swedish SMEs in the IT industry, that have successfully established their activities on the Indian market, were interviewed.

    The results indicate that none of the companies in this study followed the internationalization process suggested by the Establishment Chain and the Psychic Distance. However, the examined companies in this study internationalized as suggested by the Basic Mechanism of Internationalization.

    There is limited research on the internationalization processes of Swedish SMEs in the service sector when entering the Indian market. Subsequently, this study has contributed theoretically to exploring what factors are of importance for Swedish SMEs in the service sector when entering India. Furthermore, it has possibly contributed to the initial step of further research within the field of SMEs internationalization processes, should further research be conducted involving various internationalization models. In addition, this study has contributed by strengthening the existing research regarding the Uppsala Internationalization Model.

    A suggestion to future research is to explore various existing internationalization models and to investigate what aspects of each model is applicable to Swedish SMEs.

  • 10052.
    Sadiku, Bujar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University.
    Vu, Huy
    Kristianstad University.
    Att avancera i yrkeslivet: En kvalitativ studie om kvinnliga revisorers karriärutveckling i relation till mentorskap och sociala nätverk2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The problem for women to reach organizational top positions has been a topic of debate for a long time in Sweden. According to previous studies the Swedish auditing industry is seen as male-dominated where masculinity is a part of the structure. Nowadays statistics shows that there is an even gender distribution in the Swedish auditing profession. Although, previous studies show that women in the auditing industry tend to dominate positions at the bottom of the hierarchy and men tend to dominate positions at the top of the hierarchy. The purpose of this study is to understand the importance of mentoring and social network that female auditors have.

    This study has been conducted through a qualitative method with an abductive approach which contributes to a hermeneutic interpretation. This increases the understanding of the examined area. A set of theories and concepts lies as a basis for the analytical area of the empirical material that has been collected through semi structured interviews.

    The conclusion of this study is that mentoring, and a social network are two distinguished factors which have a positive effect on female career advancement. Mentoring is a knowledge source that transfers knowledge from one individual to another. A social network is a mutual source which transfers knowledge among different individuals. Mentoring and social networks are factors that contribute female auditors getting an increase in competence and experience which leads to career advancement.

  • 10053.
    Sadriu, Leonora
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Aliu, Aurora
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Stagova, Adelina
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Integrationsprocessen i Kristianstads kommun 2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige är ett mångkulturellt land som präglas av många etniciteter, kulturer, språk och religioner. Detta leder till att integration berör hela samhället och inte bara nyinflyttade invandrare och det innebär att även majoritetsbefolkningen måste integreras i det nya mångkulturella samhället. Vi ser att enda möjligheten att integreras i det nya samhället är att lära sig språket.

    Vårt syfte med uppsatsen är att försöka belysa invandrares möjligheter/svårigheter till att bli integrerade i det svenska samhället. För att kunna ge en bild av detta valde vi att utgå ifrån Giddens teori om tre olika modeller till integration och symbolisk interaktionism. Det empiriska underlaget för vår uppsats utgörs av semistrukturerade intervjuer med integrationskontoret, SFI-utbildningen, arbetsförmedlingen och enskilda personer.

    Syftet har vi försökt nå genom att besvara följande frågeställning:

    1. Vilka resurser har Kristianstads kommun att erbjuda invandrarna för att bli integrerade i det svenska samhället?

    2. Hur uppfattas integrationsprocessen i Kristianstad av invandrare och kommunala handläggare?

    Anledningen till att vi har valt att skriva om invandrare och integration är att vi själva är invandrare och har erfarenheter av integrationsprocessen. Av våra egna erfarenheter vet vi hur svårt det är att skapa ett värdigt liv i det nya landet och att bli en del av det svenska samhället.

  • 10054.
    Saed, Nadin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business.
    El Rehman, Yara Abed
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business.
    Revisorns upplevelse av hot mot oberoende: skillnader mellan byråstorlek2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The auditor’s independence has been widely discussed and questioned for many years, since it is very important that the auditor does not risk his independence for instance when he is providing consulting services. The auditors’ independence is more at risk in smaller companies according to many researchers as they consider that smaller companies are more dependent on their clients and that there is a higher riskto bond with their clients and develop a friendship because of their small size.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how auditors experience and reflect on independence threats and if there is a difference between smaller, medium and bigger auditor firms. The study is based on qualitative research and in order to interpret the auditor's experience, six interviews have been conducted with auditors working at small, medium and large auditing firms.

    The findings indicate that the size does not affect their independence. Instead the experience, age and the size of the city does. Therefor our proposals for future research could be to do a similar qualitative study but to focus on these factors too.

  • 10055.
    Safari Zonoozi, Nazanin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Gullberg, Olena
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Orala hälsoproblem och ätsvårigheter hos äldre2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this literature review was to investigate the oral health’s impact on eating among older people.Scientific articles were searched in PubMed, limited to articles published between 2000-2010,age 60 years and older. In total were 11 articles included in the study. The results showed that eating difficulties can be linked to impaired oral health, poormastication, partial tooth loss or edentulism, oral pain and discomfort, ill-fitting dentures anddry mouth. Elderly with impaired oral health change their eating habits and often refrain fromtough food items due to chewing and swallowing difficulties and fear of further damage tofragile teeth.  The conclusion of the study was that older people with poor oral status had a risk for eating difficulties. Replacement of missing teeth might play an important role in the maintenance ofan optimal chewing function.

  • 10056.
    Safeen, Karolina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Milkovic, Marija
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Synen på munhälsa och tandvård hos pensionärer som deltar i olika pensionärsföreningar - en enkätstudie: The opinion of oral health and dental care now and in the future among retirement individuals that participate in different retirement organization.2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of this study was to examine retiared individuals view of oral health and dental care. A questionnaire was sent to three different retirement organizations and answared by 106 participants. Our studie showed that irrespective of education or health status, the majority considered oral health and dental care was important and will become so in the future. Most elderly individuals can consider getting help with their oral health with oral health care in the future. This studie showed that the elderly are concerned about their appearance. Despite that the majority was satisfied with the dental care, stated that the price for dental care was too expensive.

  • 10057.
    Sahlin, Anneli
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Långsamfilter - faktorer som inverkar/påverkar drifttiden2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet belyser hydrauliska faktorer som hastighet/belastning, motstånd/tryck, flöde och filtersandens karakteristika; klimatfaktorer som nederbörd och lufttemperatur; vattenkvalitetsfaktorer som vattentemperatur, färgtal, turbiditet samt lukt och smak, faktorer vilka samtliga anses inverka/påverka driftiden för långsamfilter.

    Ringsjöverkets dokumentation och statistik för år 1999-2009 analyseras och utvärderas för att fastställa eventuella samband mellan rensningsfrekvens, drifttid och funktion med hydrauliska-, klimat- och vattenkvalitetsfaktorer.

    Resultatet av examensarbetet tenderar att påvisa viss inverkan/påverkan av de hydrauliska faktorerna på rensningsfrekvens och drifttid. För klimat- och vattenkvalitetsfaktorer är resultatet mer oklart. Undersökningen av Ringsjöverkets långsamfilter varken bekräftar, dementerar eller fastställer något samband, utan snarare indikerar att en mängd faktorer av varierande art är involverade i hur rensningsfrekvens och drifttid utvecklas samt att framtida mer omfattande studier beträffande exempelvis vattenkemiska och mikrobiologiska undersökningar erfordras.

  • 10058.
    Sahlin, Jon
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Royalty2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt syfte med uppsatsen är att beskriva kriterierna för begreppet royalty, och att beskriva hur royalty är reglerat i Sveriges dubbelbeskattningsavtal med olika länder. Detta realiseras med hjälp av frågeställningarna i min problemformulering.

    I dagligt tal förknippas royalty ofta med ersättning som utgår till artister och låtskrivare för att någon har nyttjat deras konstnärliga verk. Men i och med att royalty inte är definierad i lagtexten, finns det otydligheter kring vad som ger royalty. I rättsfallen som undersöktes fann jag att ett av kriterierna för royalty är att ersättningen i princip utgår med varierande belopp, t.ex. per såld enhet. Ett annat kriterier var att engångsersättningar inte kan betraktas som royalty om det är ett på förhand fastställt belopp.

    I min andra frågeställning, angående Sveriges beskattning av royalty i dubbelbeskattningsavtal fann jag att det varierar vilken metod man använder för att undanröja dubbelbeskattningen av royalty. Det två huvudsakliga metoderna som Sverige använder är exempt- och credit-avtal. Källskatten som utgår vid creditavtalen varierar mellan länderna. Men skattesatserna varierar i de undersökta länderna mellan 5 % och 20 %.

    I min uppsats har jag även kommit fram till det hade blivit en tydligare och enklare lagstiftning med en definition av royalty. Men anser samtidigt att det inte behövs just nu, då de flesta internationella betalningarna av royalty är hanterade i respektive skatteavtal. Det är precis skillnaden i definition av royalty mellan skatteavtalen som gör att de klassas olika, och dessa skillnader hade funnits kvar även om Sverige definierat royalty.

  • 10059.
    Sahlin, Jon
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Royalty2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt syfte med uppsatsen är att beskriva kriterierna för begreppet royalty, och att beskriva hur royalty är reglerat i Sveriges dubbelbeskattningsavtal med olika länder. Detta realiseras med hjälp av frågeställningarna i min problemformulering.

    I dagligt tal förknippas royalty ofta med ersättning som utgår till artister och låtskrivare för att någon har nyttjat deras konstnärliga verk. Men i och med att royalty inte är definierad i lagtexten, finns det otydligheter kring vad som ger royalty. I rättsfallen som undersöktes fann jag att ett av kriterierna för royalty är att ersättningen i princip utgår med varierande belopp, t.ex. per såld enhet. Ett annat kriterier var att engångsersättningar inte kan betraktas som royalty om det är ett på förhand fastställt belopp.

    I min andra frågeställning, angående Sveriges beskattning av royalty i dubbelbeskattningsavtal fann jag att det varierar vilken metod man använder för att undanröja dubbelbeskattningen av royalty. Det två huvudsakliga metoderna som Sverige använder är exempt- och credit-avtal. Källskatten som utgår vid creditavtalen varierar mellan länderna. Men skattesatserna varierar i de undersökta länderna mellan 5 % och 20 %.

    I min uppsats har jag även kommit fram till det hade blivit en tydligare och enklare lagstiftning med en definition av royalty. Men anser samtidigt att det inte behövs just nu, då de flesta internationella betalningarna av royalty är hanterade i respektive skatteavtal. Det är precis skillnaden i definition av royalty mellan skatteavtalen som gör att de klassas olika, och dessa skillnader hade funnits kvar även om Sverige definierat royalty.

  • 10060.
    Sahlin, Rebecca
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    Jona och Isa stannar hemma idag...: - en kvalitativ studie om betydelsen av språk och kommunikation i samband med problematisk skolfrånvaro2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the causes of problematic school absence, how language and communication can be important for problematic school absence, as well as how the pattern can be broken and turn absence to attendance. In the investigation, the study is delimited to problematic school absence linked to students with neuropsychiatric disabilities (NPF). The survey wants to find out how some schools in a municipality are working on students with problematic school absence if there is a specific action plan for this and whether they act on the basis of it. Theoretical framework for the study consists of a relational special pedagogical perspective, as well as relational pedagogy. The study data was collected through three formal, semi-structured and in-depth interviews with custodians, as well as two surveys online, one to the rectors and one to special educators and teachers who work with problematic school absence. The study concludes the importance of early efforts, genuine relationships, as well as individualized measures. The results showed that many causes of problematic absence co-operate, that language and communication are key parts of this problem, that schools have good practices and action plans in case of problematic absence, and that the importance of personal relationships and special educational skills in meeting with these children needs to be developed.

  • 10061.
    Sahlström, Maria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Berghult, Emilie
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Matens roll i reseupplevelsen: En intervjustudie med sex nyckelaktörer i turismnäringen2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how key stakeholders see food as a part of the tourist industry and how they work with food experiences in practice. Data collection was collected by semi-structured interviews which were transcribed and analyzed within the model of processing a qualitative text. The stakeholders which participated were Landsbygdsdepartementet, Visit Sweden, Regional Matkultur Småland, Smaka på Skåne, Kristianstad Kommun and Idala gård. The interviewed stakeholders are working with food tourism at national, regional and local level. The results showed that all the participants thought food had a specific role within the tourist industry. In this study, it became clear that the respondents emphasized the importance for producers to see the potential food have to become a food experience and at the same time to make it more visible for tourists. A reason for this would be the view of Swedish food culture that the respondents think Swedish people have. It is important to see the unique assets which are available and to be proud of the culture.  It also shows that food experiences have a more obvious role in tourist industry, both as the main reason or as part of the travel. The advantage of the food experiences in relation to other experiences is the use of all the senses, thus providing a total tourism experience.

  • 10062.
    Said Yekta, Sareh
    et al.
    Department of Conservative Dentistry, Periodontology, and Preventive Dentistry, Aachen University.
    Lampert, Friedrich
    Department of Conservative Dentistry, Periodontology, and Preventive Dentistry, Aachen University.
    Kazemi, Saeid
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Kazemi, Reza
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Brand, Henk S.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Department of Periodontology and Oral Biochemistry, VU University Medical Centre and Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam.
    Baart, Jacques A.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, VU University Medical Centre and Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam.
    Mazandarani, Mina
    Department of Conservative Dentistry, Periodontology, and Preventive Dentistry, Aachen University.
    Evaluation of new injection and cavity preparation model in local anesthesia teaching2013In: Journal of Dental Education, ISSN 0022-0337, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 51-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a recently developed preclinical injection and cavity preparation model in local anesthesia. Thirty-three dental students administered an inferior alveolar nerve block injection in the model, followed by preparation on a tooth. The injection was evaluated by three observers, and the feedback from the model was registered. After completion of the practical session, the opinion of the dental students was explored with a ten-item questionnaire. Thirty dental students (91 percent) performed the injection correctly according to the feedback of the model, and twenty-eight students (85 percent) did so according to the expert opinion. The agreement between feedback from the training model and the expert opinion was high. The students were very satisfied with the opportunity to practice with the training model, as indicated by the high scores on each item of the questionnaire. These results suggest that use of this preclinical training model in anesthesia teaching may have beneficial effects on the administration of local anesthetics by dental students.

  • 10063.
    Saii, Kena
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Distriktssköterskans arbetssituation i en föränderlig organisation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Primary care has undergone major organizational changes over the years which also had repercussions on the district nurse's work situation and health. The purpose of this study was to describe district nurses´ experience of their work situation in primary care. The study is qualitative and the empirical material was collected through interviews with twenty district nurses in twenty different health care centers in Southern Sweden. The interviews have been processed inductively based on conventional content analysis. The analysis resulted in two  main categories: Not getting to be and act as district nurse and to do justice to oneself; an oscillation between frustration and satisfaction above all because of the district nurses´ perception of their work situation meant that they were torn between not to practice their profession in accordance with what is characteristic of this profession in accordance with their professional identity. The optimum work situation for district nurses were to be working delimited and special oriented because of extended space to display their skills and to use their knowledge from a salutogenic perspective.

  • 10064. Salami, F
    et al.
    Abels, M
    Hyöty, H
    Vaziri-Sani, Fariba
    Lunds universitet.
    Aronsson, Ca
    Vehik, K
    Delli, A
    Hagopian, Wa
    Rewers, M
    Ziegler, Ag
    Simell, O
    Akolkar, B
    Krischer, J
    She, J
    Lernmark, A
    Detection of Lactobacilli in monthly mail-in stool samples from 3-18 months old infants at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes2012In: International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics, ISSN 1555-1431, Vol. 7, no 3-4, p. 135-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The feasibility to detect lactobacilli in mail-in infant stools collected monthly from 3-18 months old children was investigated. The aim was to determine total lactobacilli and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) content (ng/g feces) in 50 infants each from Colorado (648 samples), Finland (624 samples) and Sweden (685 samples) who participated in the TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study. Total lactobacilli content varied markedly between 5 and 16,800 ng/g feces in the three clinical sites within and between individuals especially in infants. L.plantarum also varied markedly intra- and inter-individually from <0.5 - 736 ng/g feces. A higher variability of total lactobacilli was found before 10 months of age than after in the three different clinical sites. Sweden had the lowest total lactobacilli content compared to Colorado and Finland while the L.plantarum content was higher in Sweden. Mail-in stool samples from infants should prove useful in analyzing probiotics in childhood.

  • 10065.
    Salcin, Erna
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Selaci, Fllanza
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Hälsoutbildningens påverkan på psykologiska resurser hos chefer och anställda2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a quantitative study designed to examine whether training in health issues may have contributed to the increase in head managers' psychological capital (PsyCap). Construction consists of the following components: self confidence, hope, optimism and resilience. A high PsyCap considered beneficial in organizational change and steer towards the positive development and helps individuals in stressful situations. The results show an increase of characteristics such as hope and optimism among managers (N = 15) who have undergone training in health issues compared with managers who have not undergone training. However, the tests show no significant difference in head managers' attitudes to health breaks, not the severity of granting health breaks in the groups as a result of training. It was further examined the relationship between PsyCap and the propensity to grant health breaks. The test showed no significant difference between the groups. The psychological capital has been measured even among workers who use health breaks and those who do not, that to see if any spillover effects on other work. The results showed no significant difference. The psychological capital of the workforce as measured by t-test, does not differ between the investigated groups with employees who have managers with the training and the group who do not.

  • 10066.
    Sallerfors, Sven-Erik
    Lunds universitet.
    Gärds härad under dansk tid1974Book (Other academic)
  • 10067.
    Salman, Diala
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Kaitoly, Avesta
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Kvinnors upplevelse av bemötandet med sjukvården efter våld i nära relationer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: kvinnor som har blivit utsatta för våld i nära relationer vågar inte prata om vad de har blivit utsatta för. Det kan bero på att det är ett tabubelagt ämne men även andra orsaker så som att de blir dåligt bemötta av sjukvårdspersonalen. Kvinnorna väljer på så sätt att inte prata om problemet, och det leder till att våldet inte uppmärksammas. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva kvinnors upplevelse av bemötandet med sjukvården efter att ha blivit utsatta för våld i nära relationer. Metod: En kvalitativ litteraturstudie har tillämpats, egentlig informationssökning har gjorts i databaserna PubMed och Cinahl Complete för att få fram material till resultatet. Resultat: Kvinnor upplevde att de inte blev tagna på allvar samt att de inte fick tillräckligt med stöd av sjukvårdspersonalen. Majoriteten upplevde att de blev negligerade av sjukvårdspersonalen, samt att sjukvårdspersonalen inte hade förståelse för kvinnornas situation. De blev inte värdigt bemötta när de inte kunde vara privata. Det visade dock att ett fåtal kvinnorna upplevde att de är betydelsefulla genom att de får praktiskt stöd och att sjukvårdspersonalen var lyhörda. Det visade även att kvinnor upplevde mer trygghet när de blev bemötta av kunnig vårdpersonal. Diskussion: Kvinnor får inte emotionellt stöd, inte tillräckligt med tid samt att sjukvårdspersonalen inte har erfarenhet och kunskap om ämnet. Detta har lett till att kvinnorna inte väljer att prata om detta med sjukvårdspersonalen.

  • 10068.
    Salomonson, Annika
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Används utvecklingssamtal till att också utveckla ledarskapet?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med min studie är att försöka ta reda på hur några ledare tänker omkring möjligheterna att utveckla sitt eget ledarskap genom utvecklingssamtal. Oftast tycks det vara medarbetaren som står i centrum för utveckling och förbättring när utvecklingssamtal hålls. Kvalitativa intervjuer med fem ledare, som genomför utvecklingssamtal med sina medarbetare, har genomförts. Resultatet visade att ledarna inte använder utvecklingssamtalet till att fokusera sitt eget ledarskap. Ledarna poängterade vikten av att hålla en ömsesidig dialog, men betonade att man genom den ville ge medarbetarna utrymme att föra fram förslag på hur de ville förbättra sin arbetssituation till exempel. Ledarnas uppfattning om sin egen roll rimmar väl med den traditionella synen på ledarskapet. Tid för självreflektion, självkritik eller diskussioner om intersubjektivitet finner man inte lika viktigt. Även om man ser att möjligheterna kanske kunde finnas.

  • 10069.
    Salomonsson, Amelie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Persson, Therese
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Är matematik bara att räkna?: En studie om pedagogers förhållningssätt kring matematik i förskolan.2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie handlar om hur pedagoger tänker kring utformandet av en god matematisk verksamhet i förskolan. I studien framhålls pedagogers förhållningssätt i arbetet med fokus på matematik. Syftet med studien är att synliggöra pedagogernas synsätt kring matematik i förskolans verksamhet samt hur de lyfter matematiken. Syftet är även att synliggöra hur en möjlig implementering kan se ut.

    Studiens empiri utgår från intervjuer med fem pedagoger. Dessa pedagoger har ett medvetet förhållningssätt kring matematik i förskolans verksamhet. Samtliga pedagoger har deltagit i olika former av matematiska projekt.

    Studiens resultat synliggör hur pedagoger tänker kring arbetet med matematik i förskolans verksamhet. I resultat framkommer att pedagogerna lägger stor vikt vid sitt eget förhållningssätt och agerande och dess påverkan på barns möte med matematik.

  • 10070.
    Salvi, Giovanni E
    et al.
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Franco, Lea M
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Braun, Thomas M
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Lee, Angie
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Hong Kong.
    Giannobile, William V
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Pro-inflammatory biomarkers during experimental gingivitis in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a proof-of-concept study.2010In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 9-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To compare gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarker levels and microbial distribution in plaque biofilm (SP) samples for subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) versus healthy subjects without diabetes during experimental gingivitis (EG).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of nine T1DM patients and nine healthy controls of age and gender similar to the T1DM patients were monitored for 35 days during EG. Hygiene practices were stopped for 3 weeks, and GCF, SP, plaque index (PI) and gingival index were determined. IL-1beta, IL-8, MMP-8 and MMP-9 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and SP samples were assessed by DNA-DNA hybridization for a panel of 40 subgingival microbial species.

    RESULTS: IL-1beta levels in T1DM patients were elevated compared with healthy individuals, and showed differences between groups at 7-21 days while healthy patients showed IL-1beta increases from baseline to 14-21 days (p<0.05). Differences were observed in MMP-9 levels between patients with and without T1DM at 7-14 days (p<0.05). Orange complex species and PI measurements displayed a superior correlation with biomarker levels when compared with other complexes or clinical measurements during EG.

    CONCLUSIONS: The mean GCF biomarker levels for IL-1beta and MMP-8 were most significantly elevated in T1DM subjects compared with healthy individuals during EG, not resulting from differences in the mean PI or microbial composition.

  • 10071.
    Salvi, Giovanni E
    et al.
    University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Fürst, Mirjam M
    University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    One-year bacterial colonization patterns of Staphylococcus aureus and other bacteria at implants and adjacent teeth.2008In: Clinical Oral Implants Research, ISSN 0905-7161, E-ISSN 1600-0501, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 242-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: (i) To assess the pattern of early bacterial colonization on titanium oral implants after installation, at 12 weeks and at 12 months, (ii) to compare the microbiota at submucosal implant sites and adjacent subgingival tooth sites and (iii) to assess whether or not early colonization was predictive of 12-month colonization patterns.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Submucosal/subgingival plaque samples from 17 titanium oral implants and adjacent teeth were analyzed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization 30 min, 12 weeks and 12 months after implant installation.

    RESULTS: At 12 months, none of the inserted implants had been lost or presented with signs of peri-implantitis. The distribution of sites at implants and teeth with bleeding on probing varied between 2% and 11%. Probing pocket depths < or =3 mm were found at 75% of implant sites. At 12 months, the sum of the bacterial counts of 40 species was statistically significantly higher at tooth compared with implant sites (mean difference: 34.4 x 10(5), 95% confidence interval -0.4 to 69.4, P<0.05). At 12 months, higher individual bacterial counts at tooth sites were found for 7/40 species compared with implant sites. Detection or lack of detection of Staphylococcus aureus at implant sites at 12 weeks resulted in the highest positive (e.g. 80%) and negative (e.g. 90%) predictive values, respectively. Between 12 weeks and 12 months, the prevalence of Tannerella forsythia increased statistically significantly at implant sites (P<0.05). Lack of detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis at 12 weeks yielded a negative predictive value of 93.1% of this microorganism being undetectable at implant sites at 12 months.

    CONCLUSIONS: Within the limits of this study, the findings showed (i) a few differences in the prevalence of bacterial species between implant and adjacent tooth sites at 12 months and (ii) high positive and negative predictive values for selected bacterial species.

  • 10072. Salvi, Giovanni E
    et al.
    Kandylaki, Maria
    Troendle, Amineh
    Persson, G. Rutger
    School of Dental Medicine, University of Berne.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    Experimental gingivitis in type 1 diabetics: a controlled clinical and microbiological study.2005In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 310-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To monitor clinical and microbiological changes during experimental gingivitis in type 1 diabetics and non-diabetics.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine type 1 diabetics with good/moderate metabolic control and nine age-gender matched non-diabetics were recruited. Probing pocket depths in all subjects did not exceed 4 mm and none were affected by attachment loss. According to the original model, an experimental 3-week plaque accumulation resulting in experimental gingivitis development and a subsequent 2-week period of optimal plaque control were staged. Subgingival plaque samples were collected at days 0, 21 and 35 from one site per quadrant, pooled and analysed using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization.

    RESULTS: Diabetics (mean age 25.6+/-5.8 standard deviation (SD), range 16-35 years) had a mean HbA1c level of 8.1+/-0.7% (SD), while non-diabetics (mean age 24.8+/-5.7 (SD), range 15-36 years) were metabolically controlled (HbA1c< or =6.5%). Between Days 0, 21 and 35, no statistically significant differences in mean plaque and gingival index scores were observed between diabetics and non-diabetics. At days 7 and 21, however, diabetics showed statistically significantly higher percentages of sites with gingival index scores > or =2 compared with non-diabetics. Mean DNA probe counts of the red and orange complex species increased significantly (p<0.05) between days 0 and 21 and decreased significantly (p<0.05) between days 21 and 35 in both groups.

    CONCLUSION: Both diabetics and non-diabetics react to experimental plaque accumulation with gingival inflammation. Type 1 diabetics, however, develop an earlier and higher inflammatory response to a comparable bacterial challenge.

  • 10073.
    Salvi, Giovanni E
    et al.
    School of Dental Medicine, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    School of Dental Medicine, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Heitz-Mayfield, Lisa J A
    University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.
    Frei, Marc
    School of Dental Medicine, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    School of Dental Medicine, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Adjunctive local antibiotic therapy in the treatment of peri-implantitis II: clinical and radiographic outcomes.2007In: Clinical Oral Implants Research, ISSN 0905-7161, E-ISSN 1600-0501, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 281-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To monitor over 12 months clinical and radiographic changes occurring after adjunctive local delivery of minocycline microspheres for the treatment of peri-implantitis.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 25 partially edentulous subjects, 31 implants diagnosed with peri-implantitis were treated. Three weeks after oral hygiene instruction, mechanical debridement and local antiseptic cleansing using 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, baseline (Day 0) parameters were recorded. Minocycline microspheres (Arestin) were locally delivered to each implant site with bone loss and a probing pocket depth (PPD) >or=5 mm. Rescue therapy with Arestin was allowed at Days 180 and 270 at any site exhibiting an increase in PPD>or=2 mm from the previous visit. The following clinical parameters were recorded at four sites/implant at Day 0, 10, 30, 60, 90, 180, 270 and 360: PPD, clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP) and plaque index (PlI).

    RESULTS: Six implants in six subjects were either rescued or exited because of persisting active peri-implantitis. Successful implants showed a statistically significant reduction in both PPD and percentage of sites with BOP between baseline and Day 360 (P<0.05). At mesial implant sites, the mean PPD reduction amounted to 1.6 mm (95% CI: 0.9-2.2 mm, P<0.001) and was accompanied by a statistically significant reduction of the BOP value (P<0.001). Binary regression analysis showed that the clinical parameters and smoking history could not discriminate between successfully treated and rescued or exited implants at any observation time point.

    CONCLUSION: Non-surgical mechanical treatment of peri-implantitis lesions with adjunctive local delivery of microencapsulated minocycline led to positive effects on clinical parameters up to 12 months.

  • 10074.
    Salvigsen, Otto
    et al.
    Norge.
    Elgersma, Anne
    Norge.
    Hjort, Christian
    Lund University.
    Lagerlund, Erik
    Lund University.
    Liestol, Olav
    Norge.
    Svensson, Nils-Olof
    Lund University.
    Glacial history and shoreline displacement on Erdmannflya and Bohemanflya, Spitsbergen, Svalbard1990In: Polar Research, ISSN 0800-0395, E-ISSN 1751-8369, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 261-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traces of former glaciation were studied on Erdmannflya and Bohemanflya. Both peninsulas were probably completely covered by glaciers during the Late Weichselian and the final deglaciation took place around 10,000 C-14 years BP. Esmarkbreen readvanced shortly after 9,500 BP, probably a local and shortlasting event. Raised beaches occur to about 60 m above sea level, and date back to about 10,000 BP. Initial land emergence was rapid, about 3m/100 years. It seems to have been followed by a marine transgression between 8,500 and 7,500 BP, which resulted in a large and distinct beach bridge and marine abrasion cliffs about 10-12 m above present sea level. Mytilus edulis lived in the area between at least 9,000 and 5,000 BP. Five thousand years ago relative sea level probably stood 3-4 m higher than today. Relative sea level has remained close to present during the last centuries. Different positions of glacier fronts in this century have also been mapped.

  • 10075.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    A conceptual model facilitating the transition of involuntary migrant families2011In: ISRN Nursing, ISSN 2090-5483, p. 824209-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Refugee families face a complex transition due to the nature of involuntary migration and the process of acculturation. There are several risk factors to the family adaptation process during the transition period, which are sociocontextually environmental dependant. Facilitating a healthy transition for refugee families, therefore, requires the role of nursing to incorporate sociopolitics into the discipline. This paper introduces a sociopolitically oriented and community-driven assessment and intervention model which is based on a family systematic approach. Interventions that aid the families in their acculturation process as well as empowers them to a well-functioning daily life, as per the SARFI model, should be adopted. As such, the future of nursing may provide additional primary health care services for refugee families; this is through a team-led “family nurse” who provides quality care for the family unit in collaboration with other health care professionals and societal authorities.

  • 10076.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II.
    Att leva i kulturell transition: ofrivilligt invandrade familjers välbefinnande2012In: Att möta familjer inom vård och omsorg / [ed] Eva Benzein, Margaretha Hagberg, Britt-Inger Saveman, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, p. 115-127Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10077.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    En hälsosam anpassning: om ofrivilligt invandrade familjers hälsa under omställningen till Sverige och om hälsostödjande familjesamtal2010In: Omvårdnad i mångkulturella rum: frågor om kultur, etik och reflektion / [ed] Björngren Cuadra, Carin, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, p. 49-85Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10078.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Arbete i skolan (AiS).
    Facilitating a healthy transition for involuntary migrant families within primary health care2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The refugee families face a complex transition due to the nature of the migration. This exposes them to vulnerability in cohesion and family function. Primary Health Care Nurses (PHCN) and Interpreters in Primary Health Care (PHC) play a vital role in their promotion of health because migrant health care is mainly carried out within PHC. The overall aim of this thesis was to reach a comprehensive understanding of involuntary migrant family health in order to facilitate a healthy transition for the aforementioned families in Sweden from a systems perspective. These findings are based on interviews representing 16 members from ten families from the Balkans, Kurdistan and Africa (study I), 34 PHCNs (study II & III) and ten Interpreters working within PHC and originating from the same countries as the families (study IV). This study was carried out in two municipalities in Sweden. Contextual analysis with reference to phenomenography was used in interpreting the data in studies I-III. A qualitative method and contextual analysis was used in study IV. The Neuman Systems Model was used to unravel environmental influences in all the four studies. The findings of study I & II illustrate the families’ transition experience through four different family profiles respectively describing the families’ wellbeing: A distressed family living under prolonged tension; a contented family who leads a satisfactory life; a frustrated family who cannot lead a fully satisfactory life and a dejected family who feels deserted (study I). Further, a mentally distressed family within the asylum-seeking process; an insecure family with immigrant status; a family with internal instability and being segregated from society; and a stable and well functioning family integrated in society (study II). Stress factors such as living in uncertainty, having traumas, change in family roles, frequent negative attitudes of the host country and social segregation was detrimental to the wellbeing of the family. In promoting their health, PHCNs approached the families through: an ethnocentric approach, an empathic and culturally relative approach, and a holistic approach enabling families to function well in their everyday life (study III). From the Interpreters’ perspective, promoting health was to improve psychological wellbeing by: promoting positive thoughts of a future, promoting consideration of one’s worth and promoting stability of the family unit. Social interactions within the host country together with the recognition and appreciation of the families’ cultural values and beliefs, and competence and proper and elucidative information regarding the functioning of the host country, was considered necessary. Facilitating a healthy transition is possible within PHC. This can be done through cooperation of the family, with other health professionals, community and ethnic organisations. A model was developed in order to help the aforementioned. Competence in intercultural communication and family focused nursing is required. Adequate skills ought to be included in the education of nurses.

  • 10079.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    "Man måste anpassa sig": det är stressande att anpassa sig till en ny kultur och få sina värderingar dagligen ifrågasatta ; många drabbas av dålig hälsa och familjebanden hotas ; familjesamtal förordas som hälsofrämjande åtgärd för flyktingfamiljer2008In: Invandrare & Minoriteter, ISSN 1404-6857, no 1, p. 36-38Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10080.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    School of Social and Health Sciences, University of Halmstad.
    "It is a different war to fight here in Sweden": the impact of involuntary migration on the health of refugee families in transition2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 292-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Involuntary migration and adaptation to a new cultural environment is known to be a stress factor. The aim of the study was to explore the impact of involuntary migration on the family health in order to identify specific health care issues related to refugee families in transition living in Sweden. Data was collected through interviews with 16 members of 10 different refugee families from Balkan countries, Kurdistan and Africa for which permission was obtained from the chairman of the local ethnic organizations in a municipality in the southern part of Sweden. In interpreting the material, analysis was made using a contextual approach with reference to phenomenography. The analysis resulted in four qualitatively different descriptive categories characterizing the health of the families: a distressed family living under prolonged tension; a contented family who leads a satisfactory life; a frustrated family who cannot lead a fully satisfactory life and a dejected family who feels deserted. Stressors seeking asylum, facing unemployment and changed roles, interacted negatively within the family. A friendly and understanding attitude from the host country was the main factor in promoting the health of the refugee families. Nursing interventions should therefore assist the families accordingly in order to promote the stability of the family system.

  • 10081.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Arbete i skolan (AiS).
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    School of Social and Health Sciences, Halmstad University.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    FoUrum, Research and development unit in county of Jönköping.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University.
    The promotion of family wellness for refugee families in cultural transition: a phenomenographic study2012In: Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, ISSN 1925-4040, E-ISSN 1925-4059, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 92-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To illustrate how nurses can promote family wellness and facilitate acculturation for involuntary migrant families as conceptualized by bilingual interpreters and cultural mediators with own past refugee experience.  Due to the nature of involuntary migration and accompanying acculturation, refugee families face a complex transition, exposing them to vulnerability in cohesion and family function. Involuntary migrant health needs are largely managed within the Primary Health Care sector where Primary Health Care Nurses (PHCN) play an important role. Additionally, bilingual interpreters and cultural mediators with personal experience of being refugees and subsequent acculturation play a critical role in bridging the language and cultural gap between migrant families and PHCNs.

    Methods: The study is descriptive and explorative in design with a phenomenographic approach. Data was collected in Southern Sweden utilizing in-depth interviews with ten bilingual interpreters and cultural mediators originating from the Balkans, Kurdistan, Eritrea and Somalia. A contextual analysis with reference to phenomenography was used in interpreting the data material.

    Results: Three separate themes illustrated the meaning of family wellness: a sense of belonging to the new homeland, the maintenance of self-esteem and stable family interrelationships. The analysis demonstrated that the way ex-refugee bilingual interpreters and cultural mediators perceived of how to promote family wellness, fell into three qualitative different conceptions: (1) Promotion of family wellness is the responsibility of the family itself, manifested in its attitude in wanting to adjust to change, (2) Promotion of family wellness is the consideration of those outside the family and is marked by understanding and respectful attitudes, (3) Promotion of family wellness is a societal responsibility to which successful integration is a prerequisite.

    Conclusions: The promotion of health of involuntary migrant families in cultural transition is complex due to families, other members of the society and society at large all contributing to family wellness in the process of acculturation. For nurses to facilitate a healthy transition for involuntary migrant families, a holistic approach working with the entire family in a psychosocial way and cooperating with other health care professionals, community authorities and ethnic organizations maybe a future direction in encounters with involuntary migrant families with health problems. Adopting a family system approach will enable nurses to provide culturally and transition-competent quality care by enabling stabilizing interfamily relationships through supportive conversations about changes and its subsequent reactions and possible coping of the family as a unit. Further research in order to enhance health promotion would preferable take on a participatory approach.

  • 10082.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Fridlund, B.
    Lund university.
    Arvidsson, B.
    Halmstad university.
    Primary health care nurses' conceptions of involuntarily migrated families' health2006In: International Nursing Review, ISSN 0020-8132, E-ISSN 1466-7657, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 301-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Involuntary migration and adaptation to a new cultural environment is known to be a factor of psychological stress. Primary Health Care Nurses (PHCNs) frequently interact with refugee families as migrant health needs are mainly managed within Primary Health Care.

    Aim: To describe the health of the involuntary migrated family in transition as conceptualized by Swedish PHCNs.

     Method: Thirty-four PHCNs from two municipalities in Sweden were interviewed and phenomenographical contextual analysis was used in analysing the data.

     Findings: Four family profiles were created, each epitomizing the health characteristics of a migrated family in transition: (1) a mentally distressed family wedged in the asylum-seeking process, (2) an insecure family with immigrant status, (3) a family with internal instability and segregated from  society, and (4) a stable and wellfunctioning family integrated in society. Contextual socio-environmental stressors such as living in uncertainty awaiting asylum, having unprocessed traumas, change of family roles, attitudes of the host country and social segregation within society were found to be detrimental to the well-being of the family.

     Conclusion: Acceptance and a clear place in society as well as clearly defined family roles are crucial in facilitating a healthy transition for refugee families. Primary Health Care Nursing can facilitate this by adopting a family system perspective in strengthening the identity of the families and reducing the effects of socio-environmental stressors.

  • 10083.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Fridlund, B.
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University.
    Arvidsson, B.
    School of Social and Health Sciences, Halmstad University.
    Primary health care nurses' promotion of involuntary migrant families' health2010In: International Nursing Review, ISSN 0020-8132, E-ISSN 1466-7657, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 224-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Involuntary migrant families in cultural transition face a number of challenges to their health and to family cohesion. Primary health care nurses (PHCNs) therefore play a vital role in the assessment and promotion of their health.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the promotion of health in involuntary migrant families in cultural transition as conceptualized by Swedish PHCNs.

    Method: Interviews were conducted with 34 strategically chosen PHCNs covering the entire range of the primary health care sector in two municipalities of Southern Sweden. A contextual approach with reference to phenomenography was used in interpreting the data.

    Findings: There are three qualitatively different descriptive categories epitomizing the characteristics of the PHCNs' promotion of health: (1) an ethnocentric approach promoting physical health of the individual, (2) an empathic approach promoting mental health of the individual in a family context, and (3) a holistic approach empowering the family to function well in everyday life.

    Conclusions: For nurses to promote involuntary migrant families'health in cultural transition, they need to adopt a holistic approach. Such an approach demands that nurses cooperate with other health care professionals and community authorities, and practise family-focused nursing; it also demands skills in intercultural communication paired with cultural self-awareness in interacting with these families. Adequate knowledge regarding these skills should therefore be included in the education of nurses, both at under- and at post-graduate level.

  • 10084.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    Primary health care nurses' conceptions of involuntarily migrated families health2010In: Transitions Theory: middle-range and situation-specific theories in nursing research and practice / [ed] Meleis, Afaf Ibrahim, New York: Springer Pub. , 2010, p. 242-249Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10085.
    Samarasinghe, Kerstin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II.
    Hedemalm, Azar
    Högskolan Väst.
    Vård av patient med utländsk härkomst som har hjärtsjukdom2012In: Kardiologisk omvårdnad / [ed] Bengt Fridlund, Dan Malm, Jan Mårtensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 2, p. 303-322Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10086.
    Samarasinghe Kerstin, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Promoting health in involuntarily migrated families in cultural transition from the perspective of interpreters working within Primary Health CareManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Refugee families face a complex transition due to involuntary migration exposing them to vulnerability in cohesion and family function. Since migrant health care is mainly managed by the Primary Health Care sector, interpreters play a critical role in bridging the gap amongst these families and the Primary Health Care system. Aim: To explore and describe interpreters’ experiences of promoting health in involuntarily migrated families in cultural transition living in Sweden. Method: Ten interpreters from five ethnic groups were interviewed and contextual analysis was used in analysing the data. Result: Promoting health in refugee families was conceived as improving family members psychological wellness despite past experiences by promoting a future, promoting consideration of one’s worth and promoting stability of the family unit. Social interactions within the host country, recognition and appreciation of the families’ cultural values and beliefs as well as competence and proper and elucidative information regarding the functioning of the host country was considered necessary in the promotion of health of these families. Conclusion:  Promoting health in involuntarily migrated families will have to facilitate a healthy transition. Primary Health Care Nurses can do this by proper cooperation with community and ethnic organisations and by adopting a family system perspective in communicating the family’s transition experiences in a sensitive manner.

  • 10087.
    Samuelsson, David
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Kullman, Johan
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Fysisk aktivitet i skolan, ur pedagogens synvinkel 2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet Fysisk aktivitet i skolan – Ur pedagogens synvinkel undersöker och redovisar pedagogers syn på den dagliga fysiska aktiviteten i skolan. Hur pedagoger arbetar med daglig fysisk aktivitet och hur de uppfattar effekterna av ett sådant arbete. Att inkludera fysisk aktivitet under skoldagen är ett av skolans uppdrag, det uppdraget skall alla pedagoger som arbetar under Lpo 94 följa. Syftet är att undersöka huruvida pedagogens roll och arbetssätt påverkar skoldagen, samt vilka resurser och verktyg pedagogerna använder sig av. Undersökningen grundar sig på tre intervjuer med pedagoger som arbetar medvetet med fysisk aktivitet under skoldagen. Resultaten från undersökningen visar på fördelar och nackdelar med ett sådant arbetssätt och ger en positiv infallsvinkel på hur man som pedagog kan arbeta med daglig fysisk aktivitet. Arbetet kan användas som en idébank åt pedagoger för att utveckla och förbättra dagens arbete med daglig fysisk aktivitet i skolan.

  • 10088.
    Samuelsson, Helena
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Svensson, Maria
    Kristianstad University College, School of Teacher Education.
    Försummade barn: ett åsidosatt problem En studie om hur verksamma pedagoger i förskolan förhåller sig vid misstanke om att ett barn försummas2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att belysa hur sju verksamma pedagoger i förskolan förhåller sig vid misstanke om att ett barn försummas. Litteraturgenomgången behandlar ett barns grundläggande behov och ett barns behov av anknytning utifrån Bowlby´s teori. Vidare behandlas förskolans roll, där vikten av tidig upptäckt tas upp samt förskolans anmälningsplikt. Kvalitativa intervjuer med sju verksamma pedagoger inom förskolan utgör data i studien. Resultatet visar att försummelse, omsorgssvikt och vanvård av ett barn kan vara: otillräckligt med kläder, bristande hygien och negligering av ett barns behov. Flertalet av pedagogerna framhåller att fysisk misshandel är värre än försummelse vilket leder till att de flesta av pedagogerna inte anmäler direkt vid misstanke om att ett barn försummas eller vanvårdas. I dessa fall anses det vara viktigt att ge barnets föräldrar en chans till förbättring innan en anmälan till socialförvaltningen görs.

  • 10089.
    Samuelsson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business.
    Olsson, Robin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business.
    What influence the buyers’ decision-making process?: a study on the Swedish tenant-owned apartment market2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is concerned with the decision-making process on the tenant-owned apartment marked in Sweden. It is argued that decision-making on the market is complex and the consumer protection is in need to be strengthened. The main issues on the market is argued to be the information asymmetry and agency problems. These phenomena influence the bounded rationality in the decision-making process.

    The purpose is to gain an understanding of the information asymmetry and agency problems on the tenant-owned apartment market in order to explain how it influence the decision-making process. The empirical context where this research is performed is the tenant-owned apartment market in Sweden. More specifically, the relationship between buyers and brokers are examined. The descriptive and exploratory purpose of this mixed methods research calls for abductive reasoning. The choice of performing this research through mixed methods lead to the application of triangulation which influenced the choice of data collection techniques, namely interviews and a questionnaire. The broker perspective was examined with four interviews of real-estate brokers from the Kristianstad area. The perspective of the buyers was examined through three interviews with buyers from the Kristianstad area. Additionally, the questionnaire gathered the opinions from 83 respondents.

    If buyers desire to make decisions that is made under as little bounded rationality as possibly, efforts needs to be made regarding the procedures on the market. Bounded rationality occurs when buyers perceive limitations during the examination of properties which influence the decision-making process.

    Lastly, this field of research was previously rather uncovered. However, this thesis contributes with an understanding of various aspects that influence the decision-making process in the field of the tenant-owned apartment market. We believe that a further understanding of the tenant-owned apartment market would facilitate attempts to strengthen the consumer protection.

  • 10090.
    Samuelssson, Mattias
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Winberg, Henrik
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Business Administration.
    Det helägda kommunala aktiebolagets styrelses funktionella inriktning2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med vår undersökning var att förklara det svenska helägda kommunala aktiebolagets funktionella inriktning. Helägda kommunala aktiebolag präglas av sin särart, de verkar under vissa regler och lagar som inte tillämpas på privata aktiebolag och har en politisk ägare, denna särart förväntade vi oss skulle påverka dess styrelses funktionella inriktning. Den största delen av tidigare studier angående styrelsens funktionella inriktning är utförda i den privata sektorn, vilket har inneburit att vi har utvecklat befintliga teorier med hänsyn till det helägda kommunala aktiebolagets särart. För att uppnå målet med vår undersökning valde vi att använda ett positivistiskt synsätt med en deduktiv ansats. För att undersöka styrelsens funktionella inriktning har vi baserat undersökningen på institutionell-, agent-, stewardship- och public choice teori. Utifrån dessa teorier formulerade vi hypoteser för att på bästa sätt förklara det helägda kommunala aktiebolagets styrelses funktionella inriktning. För att undersöka fenomenet använde vi en kvantitativ tvärsnittsansats i form av en webbaserad enkät uppdelad efter en surveydel och en experimentell del. Undersökningen har baserats på ett urval av samtliga helägda kommunala aktiebolag i Sverige, vilket innebär att vi inte har begränsat oss geografiskt eller efter bransch eller storlek. Av totalt 1086 helägda kommunala aktiebolag ingick 278 i undersökningen, varav 38 besvarade enkäten. Undersökningen har gjorts på styrelseordföranden vilka vi ansåg borde ha bäst insyn i styrelsearbetet. Den data vi fick in genom enkätundersökningen bearbetade vi statistiskt i kalkylprogrammet Excell och i statistikprogrammet SPSS. Undersökningen resulterade i att vi kunde finna indikationer på att det helägda kommunala aktiebolaget är präglat av den institutionella miljö som det verkar i.

  • 10091.
    Sanagavarapu, Kalyani
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nüske, Elisabeth
    Germany.
    Nasir, Irem
    USA.
    Meisl, Georg
    England.
    Immink, Jasper N
    Lund University.
    Sormanni, Pietro
    England.
    Vendruscolo, Michele
    England.
    Knowles, Tuomas P J
    England.
    Malmendal, Anders
    Lund University.
    Cabaleiro-Lago, Celia
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Lund University.
    Linse, Sara
    Lund University.
    A method of predicting the in vitro fibril formation propensity of Aβ40 mutants based on their inclusion body levels in E. coli2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria may lead to their aggregation and deposition in inclusion bodies. Since the conformational properties of proteins in inclusion bodies exhibit many of the characteristics typical of amyloid fibrils. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the rate at which proteins form amyloid fibrils may be predicted from their propensity to form inclusion bodies. To establish a method based on this concept, we first measured by SDS-PAGE and confocal microscopy the level of inclusion bodies in E. coli cells overexpressing the 40-residue amyloid-beta peptide, Aβ40, wild-type and 24 charge mutants. We then compared these results with a number of existing computational aggregation propensity predictors as well as the rates of aggregation measured in vitro for selected mutants. Our results show a strong correlation between the level of inclusion body formation and aggregation propensity, thus demonstrating the power of this approach and its value in identifying factors modulating aggregation kinetics.

  • 10092. Sanai, Yasaman
    et al.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
    Starr, Jacqueline R
    Luis, Henrique S
    Bernardo, Mario
    Leitao, Jorge
    Roberts, Marilyn C
    Presence and antibiotic resistance of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Prevotella nigrescens in children.2002In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 929-934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Only limited information exists about the prevalence in children of pathogens associated with periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to determine by culture whether 8-11-year-old children carry Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and/or P. nigrescens in samples from the gingiva and/or the buccal mucosa taken before, and after caries treatment and oral hygiene instruction. A second aim was to assess the proportion of subjects who had gram-negative anaerobes carrying the tet(Q) and erm(F) genes, suggesting antibiotic resistance to tetracycline or erythromycin.

    METHOD: A total of 150 children provided gingival and buccal swab bacterial samples that were cultured for P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, and P. nigrescens. The species was verified using DNA-DNA hybridization with species-specific probes made from the variable region of the 16S rRNA sequences. Antibiotic-resistant genes, tet(Q) and erm(F), were identified using specific DNA-DNA hybridization with specific DNA probes.

    RESULTS: A total of 116 isolates of black-pigmented bacteria were cultured from 47 (31%) of 150 children. Five isolates were identified as P. gingivalis, 29 as P. intermedia, 33 as P. nigrescens, and 49 as other species. In general, the bacteria were not culturable at more than one time period. We found that 55% of these 47 children harbored black pigmented bacteria that carried either one or both of the two antibiotic-resistant genes studied (tet(Q), and erm(F)).

    CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that children not exposed to regular dental treatment carry bacteria outside the gingival sulcus that have been associated with periodontitis, and that standard treatment procedures may not clear the presence of the putative pathogens. In addition, antibiotic-resistant genes are common in identifiable gram-negative anaerobes, including putative pathogens.

  • 10093.
    Sanchez-Vega, M.
    et al.
    Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Uppsala University.
    Mach, Henryk
    Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Uppsala University.
    Taylor, R.B.E.
    Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Uppsala University.
    Fogelberg, B.
    Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Uppsala University.
    Lindroth, A.
    Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Uppsala University.
    Aas, A.J.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo.
    Dendooven, P.
    Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä.
    Honkanen, A.
    Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä.
    Huhta, M.
    Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä.
    Lhersonneau, G.
    Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä.
    Oinonen, M.
    Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä.
    Parmonen, J.M.
    Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä.
    Penttilä, H.
    Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä.
    Äystö, J.
    Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä.
    Persson, J.R.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Kurpeta, J.
    Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw.
    Studies of quadrupole collectivity in the γ -soft 106Ru2008In: European Physical Journal A, ISSN 1434-6001, E-ISSN 1434-601X, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 159-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various alternative models were used to describe the structure of 106Ru . For example, the General Collective Model (GCM) predicts shape-coexistence for 106Ru with a spherical and a triaxial minimum and strongly mixed structures, while in the IBA-2 calculations, where 106Ru was considered as transitional from vibrational U(5) to γ -soft O(6) , no need was found to include the shape-coexisting configurations. In order to provide additional constraints on the model interpretations, we have applied the Advanced Time-Delayed (ATD) βγγ(t) method to measure the level lifetimes of the excited levels in 106Ru . The new results include the half-lives of T 1/2 = 183(3) ps and 7.5(30)ps for the 2+ 1 and 2+ 2 states, respectively.

  • 10094.
    Sancino, Alessandro
    et al.
    England.
    Sicilia, Mariafrancesca
    Italy.
    Grossi, Giuseppe
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Research environment Governance, Regulation, Internationalization and Performance (GRIP. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Avdelningen för ekonomi.
    Between patronage and good governance: organizational arrangements in (local) public appointment processes2018In: International Review of Administrative Sciences, ISSN 0020-8523, E-ISSN 1461-7226, Vol. 84, no 4, p. 785-802Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates whether certain organizational arrangements in (local) public appointment processes could encourage the use of appointments as a tool of good governance rather than as a tool of patronage. Specifically, we studied the role of six organizational arrangements in 10 case studies of intra- and inter-organizational public appointment processes held in Italian local government. We found that good governance (in terms of perception of overall integrity and fairness) was found in processes of public appointments where there was independent scrutiny, and when the process involved local councillors and/or external stakeholders - that is, actors beyond those with the formal power to appoint. In these cases, making appointments was seen as a tool of good governance rather than of patronage. These organizational arrangements were more relevant than other ones such as the transparency of public advertisements, job descriptions and educational/professional requirements, and media and public awareness. The article describes the relevant literature and the research study, and discusses implications for research, policy and management. Points for practitioners In terms of policy implications, the article discusses the importance of ensuring transparency and some form of checks and balances in the power of making public appointments, as well as of promoting more awareness among citizens and society in general of the issue of public appointments. From a managerial point of view, the article suggests that public managers should consider the implications of the different organizational arrangements that can be used in public appointment processes to exploit the good governance potential of public appointments.

  • 10095.
    Sandberg, Birte
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Skolan som samhällsinstitution2011In: Skolan och läraruppdraget: att bli och vara lärare / [ed] Mona Holmqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, p. 203-215Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10096.
    Sandberg, Birte
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Holmqvist Olander, Mona
    University of Gothenburg.
    Complex object of learning: how to improve learning democracy at school by the use of Variation Theory and Learning2012In: Abstracts book, 2012, p. 132-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to test in what way variation theory (VT) can serve as a guiding principle when learning an abstract concept like democracy. The model Learning study is used, which is a kind of lesson study in combination with the theoretical framework of a learning theory (LT). The iterative process means designing the forthcoming lessons based on the results and analysis of the data from the previous lessons. The data consists of pre/post-tests and video-observed lessons. The study contains four research sessions with four different groups of pupils in three different schools in grade 6 at the compulsory school. In total two teachers and 78 students participated during the four research sessions, one lesson per group. The first lesson (A) included 21 students, the second (B) 17 students, the third (C) 21 students, and in the final session (D) there were in total 19 pupils. The research sessions were 80 minutes each, and the planning was guided by the variation theory. The results show that the teachers' different ways of presenting aspects on the object of learning – democracy - different aspects where possible to discern. The different patterns of variation used are described in relation to differences in the students’ learning outcome. In all lessons democracy was contrasted against dictatorship. In order to facilitate learning different aspects of the object of learning were designed in a pattern of variation to see if and in that case what kind of differences this meant for the students. The results show that in group A the test scores increased by 63%, in group B the increase was 32%, group C 29% and in the last group (D) the test scores increased by 91%.

  • 10097.
    Sandberg, Carina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Vilsson, Carina
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Kan stenen bli ett troll?: Finns skapande verksamhet utomhus på fritidshem?2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats handlar om skapande verksamhet i fritidshem bedrivs utomhus eller inte. Pedagogerna i fritidshem har i uppdrag att ge barnen utrymme för kreativt skapande. Fritidshemmen har en utomhuspedagogik men finns det någon skapande verksamhet i utomhuspedagogiken? Vad anser pedagogerna att skapande verksamhet är? Syftet med studien var att studera hur pedagogerna använde sig av skapande verksamhet i ett utomhuspedagogiskt perspektiv i fritidshemmen. Studien har arbetats fram utifrån ett konstruktivistiskt perspektiv. Vi skickade ut ett frågeformulär med öppen struktur till 75 st. fritidspedagoger. Pedagogerna fick svara på frågor om skapande verksamhet ur ett utomhuspedagogiskt perspektiv. Vi fick tillbaka 16 svar och utifrån svaren valde vi fem pedagoger som vi besökte och observerade när de hade skapande verksamhet utomhus. Utifrån observationerna och frågeformulären sammanställde vi data för att kunna se om skapande verksamhet ur ett utomhuspedagogiskt perspektiv förekommer på fritids. Resultatet i studiens empiriska data visar att pedagogerna anser att de har en skapande verksamhet utomhus. Det vi kan se är att pedagogerna bedriver skapande verksamhet utomhus men att den skapande verksamheten varierar. Från ett utomhuspedagogiskt skapande med utemiljön som redskap, till en verksamhet som bedrivs med material som plockas med inifrån för att sitta ute och skapa. Det vi kan utläsa från empirin trots att vi har få pedagoger som svarat, är att pedagogernas intresse om utomhuspedagogiskt skapande med utemiljöns material, varierar mycket på fritidshemmen vi har med i vår studie, vilket kan vara ett resultat som belyser hur det är på fritidshemmen i dag.

     

  • 10098.
    Sandberg, Cindy
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    På en litterär resa: från planering till genomförande2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom närläsning av ämnesplanen i svenska samt semistrukturerade intervjuer med pedagoger är detta en undersökning som har fokuserat på varför och hur litteraturundervisning sker i klassrummet. Hur kan en pedagog tolka de nya styrdokumenten och därefter lägga upp undervisning i litteratur? Pedagogerna som intervjuades valde, ofta utan elevpåverkan, vilka skönlitterära texter som skulle belysas. Synen på hur litteraturhistorien skulle bearbetas skilde sig åt beroende på den gemensamma hållningen att låta elevernas intressen och erfarenheter stå i centrum. Under läsningen var den vanligaste inställningen att låta eleverna läsa enskilt hemma. Genom att besvara frågor, men även genom att ibland samtala bearbetades sedan läsningen. Såväl kunskapskraven i ämnesplanen som elevernas läslust satte upp ramarna för vilka didaktiska val som gjordes. Att använda multimediala texter var en av de främsta metoderna som nyttjades i syfte att skapa lust att lära om och av skönlitteratur.

  • 10099.
    Sandberg, Emil
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    Vuleta, Davor
    Kristianstad University College, Department of Teacher Education.
    Lärarens uppmärksamhet gentemot eleverna - en studie, med LPF94 som grund, ur ett genusperspektiv2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med undersökningen är att ta reda på vad gymnasieeleverna anser att ”lärarens uppmärksamhet” är, samt om eleverna tycker att de får tillräckligt mycket av lärarens uppmärksamhet. Vi vill även ta reda på om det finns skillnader/likheter mellan de båda könen i denna syn på uppmärksamhet, samt om något av könen tycker att det andra könet får mer uppmärksamhet.

    Metod: Kvalitativ förundersökning med semistrukturerade intervjuer där svaren används för att konstruera enkäten. Huvudundersökningen baserades på 262 på ett kvantitativt sätt bearbetade enkäter. Dessa enkäter samlades in på fem skolor i södra Sverige. Könsfördelningen var jämn.

    Resultat: Resultatet pekar på att det finns många elever som inte är nöjda med lärarnas fördelning av uppmärksamhet. Tjejer är mer negativa än killarna.

  • 10100.
    Sandberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Malmberg, Ramona
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Chefen som normsändare: En kvalitativ studie ur chefs - och personalperspektiv2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of our study is to explore which norms that exists in the home care service, who is sending those norms, how are they maintained and how do they affect the interactions between staff and manager? We want to deep en our knowledge about home care service as an organization and increase our understanding for the psychosocial work environment and also the importance of leadership. We mean to read the organizational culture that exists which allows us to deal with the values that influence the behavior in the organization.

    The study is based on a qualitative method. The data consists of two focus group interviews, one with managers from the home care service - organization and one with staff from the same organization. T he interview with the managers consisted of five participants and the corresponding figure for the second interview with the staff was eight participants.

    The theoretical viewpoints have been communication - theory, organizational theory and Foucault´s th eory of power.

    Our result indicate that norms are something that unconsciously controls us and that we have learned that there are consequences when you step out of what is normative for the group. The result also indicate that norms within the own group i s difficult to recognize and a bit forbidden to talk about.

    One of the most important findings where that for our two interview - groups there where normative to talk about the care - takers perspective, but at the same time it was normative to base thoughts and acts from their own perspective. An important discovery is also that both managers and staff experience stress, have feelings of inadequacy and that nobody listens to their point of view.

    Both parts also have the experience of being powerless and not to be able to make decisions. According to them it seems like it is all about implement what they are ordered, which can be seen as the democracy is just a facade. The power exists and is being used but there are no subjects because no one experiences them selves to have any power.

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