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  • 1.
    Almberg, Wah-Sui
    et al.
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University.
    Kjellin, Harald
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Reusing patterns for indexing and communicating knowledge and insight2011Inngår i: International Journal of Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management Applications, ISSN 2150-7988, Vol. 3, 530-538 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Analogies can be used in most areas of human communication to highlight points of special interest. The creation of specific, specialised patterns, examples, or analogies for facilitating communication is resource-consuming. We therefore hypothesize that there are universal patterns that can be used and reused more economically, compared to specialised patterns, for indexing and communicating knowledge. We have conducted empirical tests with altogether 204 students, each one of whom was given 20 minutes to solve problems from six different scientific areas. The results of our tests show clearly an improvement of their problem solving skill when universal patterns were employed as cognitive aids. The average result of the test group that used universal patterns was 81 per cent higher than that of the control group.

  • 2.
    Bäcke, Maria
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Make-believe and make-belief in Second Life role-playing communities2012Inngår i: Convergence. The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, ISSN 1354-8565, E-ISSN 1748-7382, Vol. 18, nr 1, 85-92 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This feature article applies the concepts of ‘make-believe’ and ‘make-belief’ formulated by performance theorist, Richard Schechner, in a study of two role-play communities, Midian City and Gor in the online 3D environment Second Life. With make-believe fantasy role-play at their core, members of the two communities negotiate the social and political norms, the goals of the com- munity and as well as the boundaries of the virtual role-play. The article explores the innovative forms of interaction at play in these negotiation processes, using (cyber)ethnographic methods and the analysis of various textual sources, Goffman’s theories of social performance as well as various types of performance discussed by Schechner and Auslander. The innovative forms of interaction are analysed in the light of the new technology and as performances and make-belief strategies directed towards realizing performative utopias, towards influencing the direction in which leaders and residents of this digital context want the role-play to develop, and towards shaping the emergent social and cultural rules and the political framework of the role-play. 

  • 3.
    Bäcke, Maria
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Power games: rules and roles in Second Life2011Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how the members of four different role-playing communities on the online platform Second Life perform social as well as dramatic roles within their community. The trajectories of power influencing these roles are my main focus. Theoretically I am relying primarily on performance scholar Richard Schechner, sociologist, Erving Goffman, and post-structuralists Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze and Felìx Guattari. My methodological stance has its origin primarily within literature studies using text analysis as my preferred method, but I also draw on the (cyber)ethnographical works of T.L. Taylor, Celia Pearce, and Mikael Jakobsson. In this dissertation my focus is on the relationship of the role-player to their chosen role especially in terms of the boundary between being in character, and as such removed from "reality," and the popping out of character, which instead highlights the negotiations of the social, sometimes make-belief, roles. Destabilising and problematising the dichotomy between the notion of the online as virtual and the offline as real, as well as the idea that everything is "real" regardless of context, my aim is to understand role-play in a digital realm in a new way, in which two modes of performance, dramatic and social, take place in a digital context online.

  • 4.
    Bäcke, Maria
    Karlstads universitet, Estetisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Avdelningen för språk.
    Self, setting, and situation in Second Life2009Inngår i: Literary art in digital performance: case studies in new media art and criticism / [ed] Francisco J. Ricardo, New York: Continuum, 2009, 109-142 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Linden Lab, the company behind the online world Second Life (SL), invites multiplic- ity with slogans like “Your World. Your Imagination.”1 Yet many SL residents’2 profiles give evidence of adjustment to group narratives or norms in various social spaces inside the world. They seem to favor already established social and cultural conventions when creating an online identity; hence they also adjust to already existing hierarchies. I argue that residents in SL recreate social orders and power structures similar to ones already existing outside SL, even though they are of course under no obligation to do so. In that sense social and cultural patterns are reproduced and in some cases even amplified. My aim here is to trace social dynamics evident in three groups within this digital space and my hypothesis is that the rules of these social spaces then function as a foundation and guideline for identity formation, and in fact almost seem to prescribe a certain way of acting or behaving. Two of the groups have a clear role-playing profile, based on books and movies, whereas role-playing is not required, although possible, in the third group. All of them are thus removed from the lifeworld by constituting either purely fictive or, conversely, historical constructs, but they can nevertheless provide clues to how the residents think in an environment that is not primarily “real life” based, and in which anything, even a utopia, can be possible. By reading group charters and profile descriptions found in the SL search engine, and studying articles and blogs functioning either as group information channels or journals for individuals in each community, I examine the motivations and power structures driving avatar and online identity construction in role-playing communities, with a focus on the interac- tion between the overarching “state” power, the Linden Lab, the three communities, their respective role-models, and the rules that govern them, as well as the individuals that are a part of them. 

  • 5.
    Kjellin, Harald
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Alwazae, Meshari M. S.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Automated feedback to facilitate the understanding of filmed best practices2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Kjellin, Harald
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Quade, Stefanie
    Tyskland.
    Applying a formalized context to inspire people to develop transferable descriptions of knowledge2011Inngår i: E-learning innovative models for the integration of education, technology and research, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Kjellin, Harald
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Toufaili, Houssam
    Stockholm University.
    Creating an artificial context based on video-recorded competitive games for supporting the learning of tacit skills2011Inngår i: eL&mL 2011: the third International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and On-line Learning / [ed] Göran Karlsson, Dumitru Dan Burdescu, Bernd Krämer, 2011, 68-71 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is easier for students to learn tacit skills if they get much feedback on their behavior. Extensive resources are required for providing students with enough quantities and qualities of a specific feedback that is directly related to the students’ skills or lack of skills. We demonstrate how the demand for extensive feedback resources can be decreased by allowing the students to review film-clips from situations when they and their fellow students received qualified feedback. We will demonstrate a strategy in which we can film students’ behaviors by using cost effective filming techniques. The films allowed the students to study their own behavior in detail. Our conclusions from the study is that the presented type of strategy for supporting learning works very well and we advise other researchers to test similar strategies when they need to mass-produce teaching of tacit skills.

  • 8.
    Kjellin, Harald
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Toufaili, Houssam
    Stockholms universitet.
    Wettergren, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet.
    The heuristics for designing an artificial context. Paper presented at the Symbiosis International Conference on Open & Distance Learning, February, 20112011Inngår i:  , 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Persson, Henrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Gustavsson, Jacob
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Olson, Anders
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Andersson, Anders-Petter
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    B.E.A.C.O.N. - Beacon Emits Audio from Color, Or Not2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    People who suffer from dementia are often isolated due to lack of ways of communication. In many cases verbal communication can be difficult to perform at all. We created Beacon with the goal to let people with dementia interact with a very simple and intuitive control interface to give them a means of non-verbal communication, and let them take control over the soundscapes that Beacon is capable of producing. In this paper we describe our concept Beacon, its physical form and how the design makes it possible for a person with dementia to control the software by moving around items of different colors and sizes on its surface to create synthesized and sampled sounds. We hope that Beacon will produce positive results among people with dementia, and that the interaction will be rewarding.

  • 10.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Making methods work in software engineering: method deployment - as a social achievement2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The software engineering community is concerned with improvements in existing methods and development of new and better methods. The research approaches applied to take on this challenge have hitherto focused heavily on the formal and specifying aspect of the method. This has been done for good reasons, because formalizations are the means in software projects to predict, plan, and regulate the development efforts. As formalizations have been successfully developed new challenges have been recognized. The human and social role in software development has been identified as the next area that needs to be addressed. Organizational problems need to be solved if continued progress is to be made in the field. The social element is today a little explored area in software engineering. Following with the increased interest in the social element it has been identified a need of new research approaches suitable for the study of human behaviour. The one sided focus on formalizations has had the consequence that concepts and explanation models available in the community are one sided related in method discourses. Definition of method is little explored in the software engineering community. In relation to identified definitions of method the social appears to blurring. Today the software engineering community lacks powerful concepts and explanation models explaining the social element. This thesis approaches the understanding of the social element in software engineering by applying ethnomethodologically informed ethnography and ethnography. It is demonstrated how the ethnographic inquiry contributes to software engineering. Ethnography is also combined with an industrial cooperative method development approach. The results presented demonstrate how industrial external and internal socio political contingencies both hindered a method implementation, as well as solved what the method was targeted to do. It is also presented how project members’ method deployment - as a social achievement is played out in practice. In relation to this latter contribution it is provided a conceptual apparatus and explanation model borrowed from social science, The Documentary method of interpretation. This model addresses core features in the social element from a natural language point of view that is of importance in method engineering. This model provides a coherent complement to an existing method definition emphasizing formalizations. This explanation model has also constituted the underpinning in research methodology that made possible the concrete study results.

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