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  • 1.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Innes-Ker, Åse Helene
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Fredin, Gunilla
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Children's and adults' realism in their event-recall confidence in responses to free recall and focussed questions2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Innes-Ker, Åse
    Lunds universitet.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    Lunds universitet.
    Fredin, Gunilla
    Lunds universitet.
    Children's and adults' realism in their event-recall confidence in response to free recall and focussed questions.2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Aupée, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Lunds universitet.
    Age-related changes of phasic heart rate responses to affective pictures2008Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, nr 4, 325-331 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined age differences in phasic heart rate in response to neutral, negative and positive pictures. Heart rate changes and subjective ratings were analyzed in 22 middle-aged (40-55 years) and 30 older (56-78 years) participants. The effects of valence on the HR pattern across time were similar to that obtained by Bradley and co-workers. Conversely to previous studies, we did not report any age-related reduction in cardiac reactivity. Instead, when viewing positive pictures, the triphasic wave form appeared in the group of older adults, but for younger participants, it was replaced by a sustained deceleration. These results were interpreted in the light of the socioemotional selectivity theory.

  • 4.
    Berglund, Malin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Stereotyper i politiken: finns de och hur ser de ut?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att se om det förekommer stereotypiska bilder av värderingar hos människor som anser sig höra till höger respektive vänster på den politiska skalan i Sverige. Studien har genomförts som en experimentell inomgruppsdesign där fokus legat på fyra  enligt psykologisk teori olika grundvärderingar som anses stå i motsats till varandra - selftranscendence och selfenhancement samt normativism och humanism. I Sverige finns ingen tidigare forskning på området, men forskning som utförts i andra länder indikerar att politiska opponenter utvecklar stereotypiska bilder av varandra och att detta kan påverka förhandlingar samt eventuellt också leda till överdrivna konflikter dem emellan. Den aktuella studien utgjordes av personer som skattar sig själva att höra till vänster (N=92) respektive höger (N=42) på den svenska politiska skalan. Resultatet visade att det skiljer sig markant i hur deltagare generellt skattade typiska personer som röstar antingen åt vänster eller höger inom den svenska politiken vad gäller deras grundvärderingar och slutsatsen kunde därför dras att det existerar stereotypiska värderingsbilder för de olika ändarna på den svenska höger- och vänsterskalan. Personer som själva skattar sig höra till vänster inom den svenska politiken visade sig också ha en tendens att i något högre grad utveckla stereotypiska värderingsbilder än personer som skattar sig till höger. För vidare forskning föreslås att jämföra stereotypiska värderingsbilder med verkliga värderingsskillnader mellan människor som skattar sig höra till höger respektive vänster för att kunna dra bättre slutsatser kring vilken påverkan dessa skulle kunna ha vad gäller konflikter inom politiken.

  • 5.
    Bertills, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Psykologi. Jönköping University.
    Measuring self-efficacy, aptitude to participate and functioning in students with and without impairments2017Inngår i: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Including vulnerable groups of students such as students with learning disabilities in mainstream school research, require ethical considerations and questionnaire adaptation. These students are often excluded, due to low understanding or methodologies generating inadequate data. Students with disability need be studied as a separate group and provided accessible questionnaires. This pilot study aims at developing and evaluating student self-reported measures, rating aspects of student experiences of school-based Physical Education (PE). Instrument design, reliability and validity were examined in Swedish secondary school students (n = 47) including students, aged 13, with intellectual disability (n = 5) and without impairment and test–retested on 28 of these students. Psychometric results from the small pilot-study sample were confirmed in analyses based on replies from the first wave of data collection in the main study (n = 450). Results show adequate internal consistency, factor structure and relations between measures. In conclusion, reliability and validity were satisfactory in scales to measure self-efficacy in general, in PE, and aptitude to participate. Adapting proxy ratings for functioning into self-reports indicated problems. Adequacy of adjustments made were confirmed and a dichotomous scale for typical/atypical function is suggested for further analyses.

  • 6.
    Bredefeldt Öhman, Monica
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Episodiskt minne: finns det något sådant?2003Inngår i: Nordisk Psykologi: teori, forskning, praksis, ISSN 0029-1463, Vol. 55, nr 4, 232-341 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The distinction between semantic and episodic memory is discussed on the basis of an empirical study focusing on mental representations and autobiographical memory. The notion of episodic memory is called in question. An alternative model is proposed which is grounded in whether the memory is refering to the self or not, and if a phenomenal reliving experience is activated or not. In the proposed model autobiographical memory and semantic memory are partly overlapping but the recollective memory is regarded to be a "natural kind" and consequently secluded. Everything a person knows and remembers has its origin in experiences. If the experiences are emotionally significant for the self they will fill a different function for the individual than they will if they are emotionally neutral. This is the crucial point for whether the memory of an experience will become a semantic memory or an autobiographical memory.

  • 7.
    Bredefeldt Öhman, Monica
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Lärarutbildning.
    Force dynamics in autobiographical memory2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Bredefeldt Öhman, Monica
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Livet som figur: om självbiografiskt minne2003Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Bredefeldt Öhman, Monica
    Lunds universitet.
    Livet som figur: om självbiografiskt minne och metaforer2009Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Chukman, Vesna
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Jakten på de gömda metaforerna: förekomst och variation av KRAFTmetaforer i två olika typer av texter; självbiografiska och argumenterande2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Via semantisk analys har förekomst och variation av KRAFTmetaforer i två olika typer av texter jämförts. Hypotesen är att kognitiva neurala nätverk som ansvarar för den abstrakta tanken är tätt sammanbundna med kognitiva neurala nätverk som representerar känsloerfarenhet baserat på sensoriska upplevelser. Analysen utfördes på två olika typer av texter. Resultatet visar på signifikant skillnad i förekomsten av antalet metaforer i de olika texterna. Ett antagande för undersökningen var att självbiografiska texter är mer förankrade i känsloerfarenhet baserat på sensoriska upplevelser än vad argumenterande texter är. Resultatet visar dock att de argumenterande texterna innehåller ett större antal metaforer än de självbiografiska texterna, vilket står i strid med hypotesen. Två tolkningar av resultatet är därför möjliga. 1) Sensoriska upplevelser har inget med förekomst av KRAFTmetaforer att göra. 2) Argumenterande texter visar mer eller kan visa mer känsloerfarenhet baserat på sensoriska upplevelser än självbiografiska texter. I resultaten finns belägg som stödjer den teoretiska referensramen för hur abstrakt tänkande uppstår samt hur abstrakt betydelse uppstår dvs som ett resultat av sensoriska erfarenheter baserat på kroppsliga upplevelser som kan spåras i språket genom metaforiska processer. De slutsatser man kan dra utifrån resultaten i denna undersökning stödjer hypotesen att det neurala nätverk som ansvarar för den abstrakta tanken är tätt sammanbundet med det neurala nätverk som representerar sensorisk erfarenhet baserat på kroppsliga upplevelser

  • 11. Dahlgren, L. O.
    et al.
    Wenestam, Claes-Göran
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Ideas about nuclear power plants. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association's (AERA) Annual Meeting, April 7-11, Boston1980Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12. Danielsen, A
    et al.
    Otnæss, M K
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Williams, S C R
    Østberg, B C
    Investigating repetition and change in musical rhythm by functional MRI2014Inngår i: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 275, 469-476 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Groove-based rhythm is a basic and much appreciated feature of Western popular music. It is commonly associated with dance, movement and pleasure and is characterized by the repetition of a basic rhythmic pattern. At various points in the musical course, drum breaks occur, representing a change compared to the repeated pattern of the groove. In the present experiment, we investigated the brain response to such drum breaks in a repetitive groove. Participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while listening to a previously unheard naturalistic groove with drum breaks at uneven intervals. The rhythmic pattern and the timing of its different parts as performed were the only aspects that changed from the repetitive sections to the breaks. Differences in blood oxygen level-dependent activation were analyzed. In contrast to the repetitive parts, the drum breaks activated the left cerebellum, the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG), and the superior temporal gyri (STG) bilaterally. A tapping test using the same stimulus showed an increase in the standard deviation of inter-tap-intervals in the breaks versus the repetitive parts, indicating extra challenges for auditory-motor integration in the drum breaks. Both the RIFG and STG have been associated with structural irregularity and increase in musical-syntactical complexity in several earlier studies, whereas the left cerebellum is known to play a part in timing. Together these areas may be recruited in the breaks due to a prediction error process whereby the internal model is being updated. This concurs with previous research suggesting a network for predictive feed-forward control that comprises the cerebellum and the cortical areas that were activated in the breaks.

  • 13.
    Davidson, Per
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hellerstedt, Robin
    England.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    No effect of sleep on the forgetting of unwanted memories2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Eckert, B.
    et al.
    University of Lund.
    Rosén, Ingmar
    University of Lund.
    Stenberg, Georg
    University of Lund.
    Agardh, C-D.
    University of Lund.
    The recovery of brain function after hypoglycaemia in normal man1992Inngår i: Diabetologia, 35, Suppl.1, 1992, Vol. 35, nr Suppl. 1, A43- s.Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the recovery of brain function after moderate hypoglycaemla in normal man. Hypoglycaemia was induced by an intravenous infusion of insulin (2.5 mU/kg) in seven healthy right-handed men aged 25.4+1.1 years (Mean • SD). The brain function was evaluated with P300-amplitude after auditory stimulus, reaction time measurements and EEG before, during (2.4+0.44 mmol/l for 70 min) and three times in the recovery period following hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia caused a reduction in the P300-amplitude, a prolongation in reaction time and minor changes in the EEG-activity. 15 min after normalisation of the blood glucose level, the P300-amplitude was lower than during hypoglycaemia and still 1,5 hrs after normalisation of the blood glucose level, there was a marked reduction in the P3OO-amplitude. 4 hrs after normalisation of the blood glucose, the P300-amplitude was restituted. The reaction time was shorter 15 min after normalisation of the blood glucose compared to hypoglycaemia, but was not nermalised until 1,5 hrs after of recovery following hypoglycaemia. The EEG-changes were normalised 15 min after hypoglycaemia.

    We conclude that moderate hypglycaemia causes marked effects in P300 and reaction time and that brain function measured as P300 is not restored after 1,5 hrs but at 4 hrs after normalisation of hypoglycaemia.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, T. Gerhard
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Masche-No, Johanna G.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Dåderman, Anna M.
    University West,Trollhättan.
    Personality traits of prisoners as compared to general populations: signs of adjustment to the situation?2017Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 107, nr 1, 237-245 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two recent studies have challenged the well-established belief that offending behaviors are inversely related to the personality trait of conscientiousness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore prisoners’ levels of traits according to the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality compared to control groups, with a focus on conscientiousness. Two separate samples of inmates in Swedish high-security prisons were investigated in three studies. Inmates and non-inmates completed a Swedish-language translation of Goldberg’s (1999) International Personality Item Pool questionnaire (IPIP-NEO, Bäckström, 2007). Male inmates (n = 46) in Studies 1 and 2 scored higher on conscientiousness than non-inmates (norm data based on approximately 800 males, and a students’ sample), which conflicts with previous results. Study 3 further explored the conscientiousness differences on the facet level. Male and female inmates (n = 131) scored higher on order and self-discipline (even after an adjustment for social desirability) than students (n = 136). In conjunction with previous findings, these differences are interpreted as being either temporal or enduring adjustments to the prison environment. It is suggested that researchers and clinical teams should cautiously interpret the FFM factor of conscientiousness (and its facets) when planning the further treatment of inmates.

  • 16.
    Esse, Moa
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Boväng, Ellinor
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Psykiska sjukdomar i somatiken: Grunden till sjuksköterskans attityder till vårdandet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Individer med psykiska sjukdomar är ett vanligt förekommande patientklientel på somatiska vårdavdelningar. Att vårda dessa individer kräver ofta mycket arbete och fokus från allmänsjuksköterskan. Syftet var att belysa vad som kan ligga till grund för sjuksköterskors attityder till vårdandet av patienter med psykiska sjukdomar i somatiska vårdmiljöer. Metod Studien genomfördes som en litteraturstudie, på ett systematiskt vis, baserad på data från tolv vetenskapliga studier. Vetenskaplig litteratur inom området söktes upp, granskades, analyserades och sammanställdes. Resultat Sjuksköterskans attityder visade sig främst vara kopplade till dennes vård- och arbetsmiljö, sjuksköterskeutbildningen och den tillgång till stöd som sjuksköterskan upplevde samt hennes tidigare erfarenheter.  Resultatet presenteras utifrån tre kategorier: Vårdmiljöns betydelse för sjuksköterskans attityder, Utbildningens och kunskapens betydelse för sjuksköterskans attityder samt Erfarenhetens betydelse för sjuksköterskans attityder. Diskussion De mest centrala fynden diskuteras utifrån resultatets tre kategorier. Om sjuksköterskeutbildningar utökade kursutbudet inom psykiatrisk omvårdnad och om möjlighet till bättre stöd och kontinuerlig utbildning, blev tillgänglig för personal på somatiska vårdavdelningar, skulle detta förmodligen förändra den negativa inställning som många sjuksköterskor har till vårdandet av psykiskt sjuka patienter. Det skulle också skapas bättre förutsättningar för sjuksköterskor att kunna bistå med en bättre vård. Det har utförts relativt lite forskning inom området, ytterligare forskning är önskvärd.

  • 17.
    Forsberg, Erik
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Tvetydighet som moderator: om sambandet mellan moraliska intuitioner, attityd till tvetydighet och fördomar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Med ett urval om 430 deltagare avsåg denna studie att undersöka om sambandet mellan individens moralfundament och fördomsfulla attityder modereras av individens attityd mot tvetydighet, förstådd som faktorerna obekväm inför tvetydighet, moralisk absolutism och behov av komplexitet. För att skapa ett mätinstrument för fördomsfulla attityder utfördes en explorativ faktoranalys utifrån deltagarnas positiva eller negativa attityd responser gentemot 21 olika sociala grupper och kategorier. Analysen replikerade tidigare studier och visade en närvaro av 3 fördomsfaktorer: förringade-, farliga- och dissidenta grupper. För att testa den centrala hypotesen utfördes 6 multipla regressioner som samtliga kontrollerade för ålder. Resultatet visade inte på någon närvaro av en moderationseffekt men väl flertalet huvudeffekter. Överlag var prediktionseffekten av fördomsfulla attityder starkare för bindande fundament relativt individens attityd mot tvetydighet. Bindande fundament predicerade mer fördomsfulla attityder oavsett typ av fördom men effekten var starkast för fördomsfulla attityder mot dissidenta grupper. Moralisk absolutism predicerade fördomsfulla attityder mot dissidenta- och förringade grupper. Behov av komplexitet predicerade mer fördomsfulla attityder mot dissidenta grupper. Obekväm inför tvetydighet predicerade mindre fördomsfulla attityder mot dissidenta grupper. I jämförelse uppvisade moralisk absolutism den starkaste prediktionseffekten av tvetydighetsfaktorerna och detta vid prediktion av attityder mot dissidenta grupper. Ålder uppvisade tecken på en huvudeffekt i det att äldre individer tenderade att vara mer toleranta mot förringade- och dissidenta grupper. Avslutningsvis diskuteras begränsningar och uppslag inför framtida studier. 

  • 18.
    Hansson, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Lunds universitet.
    Masche, J. Gowert
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Disordered eating in a general population: just an­other depressive symptom or a specific problem?2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that about 30% of adolescent girls and 15% of adolescent boys suffer from disordered eating (DE) which can be defined as problematic eating below criteria for eating disorders according to DSM-V (Hautala et al., 2008; Herpertz-Dahlman et al., 2008). Even sub-clinical unhealthy weight-control behaviors have predicted outcomes related to obesity and eating disorders five years later (Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2006). However, two issues question the validity of DE. First, in contrast to eating disorders, under- or overweight/obesity are not necessary parts of DE. Second, some symptoms and correlates of DE are similar to those of depression. E.g., parent-adolescent relationships seem to play an important role in explaining both DE (Hautala et al., 2011; Berge et al., 2010) and internalizing problems (Soenens et al., 2012). Thus, this study examined associations between DE and a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems, parent-adolescent relationship characteristics, and food intake and sleep habits in a general population of adolescents. Comparing results with and without controlling for depression reveals whether DE is a specific problem or merely a depressive symptom. This study also explored whether DE and the other variables under study are associated independently of weight status (underweight, overweight/obesity, and normal weight), specific to under- or overweight, or spurious if taking weight status into account.

    The study is based on the first wave of an on-going longitudinal study, and all measures are child-reported (N=1,281). Adolescents attending grades 7 to 10 in a Southern Swedish municipality (age 12.5 to 19.3, M = 15.2, SD = 1.2) filled out questionnaires in class.  DE was measured using the SCOFF, a five-item screening scale validated for use in general populations (e.g. Muro-Sans et al., 2008; Noma et al., 2006).

    The results of univariate ANOVAs indicate that associations with DE were largely independent of weight status. Moreover, most associations with disordered eating were spurious when controlling for depression. However, some associations remained. Above and beyond depression effects, adolescents with DE reported lower self-esteem, stronger feelings of being over-controlled by their parents and active withholding of information towards them, consumption of fewer meals during the week, and higher levels of daytime sleepiness. Boys with ED slept more hours during the week and ate more fruits and vegetables than boys without ED. In conclusion, despite an overlap between depressive symptoms and disordered eating, this study provides ample evidence that sleep, nutrition habits, self-esteem, and parental control issues distinguish eating disordered adolescents from those suffering from general depressive symptoms.

  • 19.
    Hereora Hummerhielm, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Samuelsson, Robert
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Medievåldets påverkan påsjälvkänsla och empati2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens övergripande syfte är att få en ökad kunskap om medievåld och dess exponering. En webbaserad enkät har använts där människor av alla åldrar och kön deltagit i studien. Yngsta deltagaren var 18 år och äldsta 61 år gammal. 64 kvinnor och 45 män deltog. Huvudresultat efter ett t-test och en två-vägs ANOVA visade på att det inte fanns några huvudeffekter med skillnader i empati relaterade till kön eller hög respektive låg medieexponering i just dagspress. Däremot visade det sig det fanns en signifikant interaktion där kön tillsammans med hög och låg exponering av medievåld, hade en effekt på empati. Kvinnor som exponerades mer av våldsrelaterad media i dagspress visade sig ha en högre empatisk förmåga än män. Analys av skönlitteratur och hur empati, relaterat till kön och våldsexponering, visade att kvinnor i denna studie hade tendens till en högre empati än män. De ytterligare tre exponeringsvariablerna: facklitteratur, film och TV-spel, visade inga indikeringar för interaktionseffekter men visade sig däremot ha signifikanta huvudeffekter mellan könen. Självkänsla som beroende variabel visade sig att inte variera på grund av de beroende variablerna kön eller hög- samt låg medieexponering (likt ovanstående) och gav inga signifikanta resultat.

  • 20.
    Ivarsson Bourdo, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Osvalds, Hans
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Upplevd förändring av aggressionsnivåer hos svenska soldater efter utlandstjänstgöring i Afghanistan2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The major part of the existing research on psychological effects on participating in war or residing in a war zone shows negative effects on the person’s mental health. However not all research, from an international perspective, shows the same results. Since we haven’t found any research regarding Swedish conditions and there has been a recent implementation of a decision from the Supreme Commander regarding commanded international service for all staff within the Swedish armed forces, the question has now become more relevant. This essay intends to examine how the direct contacts with warring counterparts have contributed to a change in Swedish soldier’s perception of their own aggression levels. High levels of aggression may be included in various types of mental illness, particularly in post-traumatic stress. Furthermore, perceived aggression levels in relation to involvement in direct fighting and combat exposure is investigated. The result demonstrates a clear increase in perceived aggression levels after the intervention, albeit from low levels. There was also an increase in perceived aggression in relation to the degree of personal combat exposure.

  • 21.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin.
    Walter, Henrik
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin.
    Incentive motivational salience and the human brain2014Inngår i: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, ISSN 1878-3627, Vol. 32, nr 1, 141-147 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the concept of incentive motivational salience is briefly described, pioneering studies on the subject of the mesolimbic motivational system are reviewed, and studies we have been involved in conducting which elaborate on this subject are discussed. In particular, we aim to show that the mesolimbic motivational system is recruited as a reaction to primary and secondary reinforcers as a function of salience, that is independent of valence. Furthermore, studies showing that both psychological and pharmacological interventions can affect the function of the mesolimbic motivational system and how its' dysfunction is related to psychopathological phenomena with an emphasis on psychosis are discussed.

  • 22.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Generating Artificial Social NetworksManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Test learning as an explanation of dual task dissociations in implicit learning2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) has been used extensively to study implicit learning. In this task participants first observe letter sequences generated by a grammar. In a later test phase participants are asked to distinguish new grammatical and ungrammatical sequences. Participants are able to do this, both when the letters instantiating the grammar remain the same (standard AGL) and when the letters are changed between training and test (transfer AGL).

     

    Virtually all models of AGL assume that there is no learning during the test phase. Yet, test learning can occur in AGL and the structural constraints of a grammar can imply useful cues at test as well as at training. For example, grammatical test sequences are often more similar to each other than are ungrammatical test sequences to each other. Similarity to test sequences observed so far can then be used as a cue for classification.

     

    In the current research I used an episodic memory model, Minerva II, in order to simulate a recent study by Hendricks et al. (2013). They found that for standard AGL performing dual tasks at test was more detrimental to performance than dual tasks at training. For transfer AGL performing dual tasks at training reduced performance as much as dual tasks at test. The authors interpreted these results as revealing automatic vs. intentional process in AGL: transfer AGL requires intentional processes at both training and test, whereas standard AGL requires intentional processes at test but only automatic processes at training.

     

    I modelled these experiments using a version of Minerva II extended to learn at test. The model encodes sequences probabilistically into memory based on a learning rate at both training and test. Each test sequence is classified based on the similarity to sequences encoded in memory so far, so that test sequences also influence classification. The model does not distinguish between automatic and intentional processes. The learning rate at training was varied independently of the learning rate at test in order to simulate dual task manipulations in different phases of the task. In order to model transfer AGL I used a simple repetition coding scheme in Minerva II.

     

    For standard AGL the simulations revealed that learning rate at test had a much greater impact on classification than learning rate at training in Minerva II.  In contrast, for transfer AGL the effects of changing learning rates at training was the same as changing learning rate during test. In essence, the empirical data may not reveal automatic vs. intentional processes, but simply effects of a single similarity process. The simulation results and the notion of test learning invites useful avenues for further computational and empirical research in order to establish the processes involved in implicit learning. 

  • 24.
    Lenninger, Sara M
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Sinha, Chris
    Hunan University.
    Sonesson, Göran
    Lunds universitet.
    Editorial introduction: semiotic and cognitive development in human evolution2015Inngår i: Cognitive development, ISSN 0885-2014, E-ISSN 1879-226X, Vol. 36, nr Oct/Dec, 127-129 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25.
    Lindgren, M.
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Lund University and University Hospital.
    Eckert, B.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Lund University and University Hospital.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Lund University and University Hospital.
    Agardh, C. D.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Lund University and University Hospital.
    Restitution of neurophysiological functions, performance, and subjective symptoms after moderate insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in non-diabetic men1996Inngår i: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, Vol. 13, nr 3, 218-25 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The restoration of cognitive function was studied in 10 healthy men aged 26 years (25.5 +/- 1.2 years; mean +/- SD) after insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (arterialized blood glucose 2.5 +/- 0.4 mmol l-1) for 62 +/- 8 min. Another group of six men participated in a single blind sham study for comparison. The hypoglycaemic event caused a significant increase (p = 0.006) in serum adrenaline levels. Ratings of adrenergically mediated symptoms increased during hypoglycaemia (p = 0.006), as did neuroglycopenic symptoms (p = 0.002), although neuroglycopenia ratings increased in both studies. During hypoglycaemia, P300 amplitudes in a relatively demanding visual search task decreased (p = 0.02), whereas easier tasks were unaffected. The amplitudes were restored after 40 min of normoglycaemia. Reaction time deteriorated after restoration of normoglycaemia, suggesting an effect of hypoglycaemia on learning. Thus, hypoglycaemia at a blood glucose level that is common among patients treated with insulin causes clear cognitive dysfunction, although restoration of the cognitive dysfunction to normal was fast.

  • 26.
    Marton, Ference
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Wenestam, Claes-GöranGöteborgs universitet.
    Att uppfatta sin omvärld: varför vi förstår verkligheten på olika sätt1984Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27.
    Masche, J. Gowert
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Explanation of normative declines in parents’ knowledge about their adolescent children2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study searches for developmental mechanisms explaining why parents possess less knowledge about their adolescent children, as these get older. Family processes related to adolescents’ striving for and parents’ granting of autonomy, and adolescents’ relations outside the family might be such developmental mechanisms.

    Methods: A total of 2,415 Swedish adolescents aged 13 to 18 participated in at least two consecutive waves of a five-year time-sequential survey study with annual assessments. Of a sub-sample of 10-16 year-olds, 1,223 parents filled out questionnaires at Times 1 and/or 3. Multi-level analyses were conducted to test whether family process variables and adolescents’ relations outside the family explained intraindividual residual change of parental knowledge, and whether these effects explained normative age variations of knowledge.

    Results: Adolescent-reported parental knowledge declined more and more steeply with age. Adolescents’ reduced disclosure of information and their defiance of parental requests explained about 40 percent of this normative age variation. Other processes such as increasing parental solicitation of information and adolescents’ improved peer relations had an enhancing effect on parental knowledge and thus slowed down the decline of knowledge. Few gender differences occurred.

    Conclusions: Adolescents achieve autonomy from parents by managing information they provide to them and by acting against parental requests. These autonomy-related behaviors explain a large portion of the normative age decline of knowledge. However, increased parental solicitation and improved relations outside the family increasingly contribute to parental knowledge, thus limiting its decline. This suggests that family members balance adolescents’ autonomy and their connectedness with the family.

  • 28.
    Masche, J. Gowert
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Five years later: effects of parenting styles and parent-adolescent relationships on young adults’ well-being2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Parents can support their adolescent child’s psychosocial development by a parenting style which is warm and involved, firm and consistent, and which grants psychological autonomy (the freedom to have one’s own thoughts and feelings). Psychological autonomy granting is regarded as particularly beneficial for the prevention of anxiety, depression, or other kinds of internalizing distress (McLeod, et al., 2007; Steinberg, 2001). However, longitudinal research has produced mixed evidence (Birmaher, et al., 2000; Colarossi & Eccles, 2003; Galambos et al., 2003; Steinberg, et al., 1994). Even less is known on long-term effects into young adulthood. Besides parental behaviors, also the parent-adolescent relationship might be important. Teens who feel close to their parents and who communicate frequently with them might experience a “secure base” which protects against depression and fosters the children’s well-being even in the future. Thus, this study examined reciprocal effects between parenting styles (psychological control and affection) and the parent-adolescent relationship (felt closeness to and communication with parents) and emotional, social and psychological well-being, and depression.

    This study used the 2002, 2005, and 2007 waves of an ongoing longitudinal study, representative for the USA. Out of 1,319 adolescents aged 11-19 in 2002, 575 young adults, then 18-22 years old were re-interviewed in 2005. By 2007, more adolescents had reached young adulthood, thus, 878 young adults of age 18-24 were re-interviewed in 2007. Also 224 of the originally youngest adolescents were re-interviewed in 2007 as a separate sample. Parenting styles were assessed in the adolescent data collections 2002 and 2007, and parent-child relationships and well-being at all occasions.

    Albeit adolescents’ perceptions of mothers’ and fathers’ parenting styles were highly correlated, specific effects on well-being occurred in cross-lagged regression analyses. Maternal psychological control in 2002 predicted lowered levels of emotional and social well-being and elevated levels of depression in 2005 (β’s = -.10, -.08, and .11, resp.). In part, these effects were found even after five years in 2007. Maternal support did not have any significant effects. For fathers, only one effect was found, of psychological control 2002 on depressive symptoms 2007 (β = .08). Measures of the parent-adolescent relationship did not predict well-being, with the exception of communication to mothers in 2002 which predicted emotional well-being in 2005.

    In the opposite direction of effects, depression predicted maternal psychological control five years later (β = .18, p = .023), despite the smaller sample of still adolescent respondents. Also some effects of parenting and of well-being on the parent-young adult relationship occurred.

    In conclusion, advice to parents might focus on how to avoid psychologically controlling behaviors, especially for mothers were these might conflict most with North-American gender roles. Future research should investigate why such detrimental behaviors occur in response to adolescents’ emotional problems. That parental support as a general style proved unimportant does not mean that support never would be needed: It might be that in key situations of danger or adolescent problems, adolescents need the impression that parents care, and not only abstain from psychological control (Olsson & Wik, 2009).

  • 29.
    Masche, J. Gowert
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Revisiting Barber's behavioral control: an action-theoretical interpretation of ascribed parental knowledge2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Barber (e.g., 1996, 2005) has proposed that parental behavioral control has a unique effect on adolescents’ normbreaking, even if psychological control and support are statistically controlled.  Barber uses a scale of parental knowledge as a measure of behavioral control.  However, parental knowledge and normbreaking are more closely associated with adolescents’ free disclosure of information than with behavioral control.  Moreover, disclosure explains part of the association between knowledge and normbreaking, whereas behavioral control does not (Kerr & Stattin, 2000; Stattin & Kerr, 2000).  This makes parental knowledge a questionable measure of behavioral control, and it suggests that family communication and relationship processes affect normbreaking more than behavioral control does.  However, Kerr and Stattin did not specifically test Barber’s theory.  They did not statistically control psychological control and support which might have “cleaned” parental knowledge of its relationship and communication-associated facets and thus might have left a more valid measure of parental control.  Thus, the first aim of this study is to test whether the unique association of parental knowledge with adolescent normbreaking, after controlling psychological control and parental support, can be explained by parental behavioral control—as Barber proposes—or rather by family relationship processes—as Stattin and Kerr suggest.

    Given previous empirical findings (e.g., Kerr & Stattin, 2000; Stattin & Kerr, 2000), interpreting parental knowledge as an index of relationship properties or as behavioral control might both be insufficient.  As an alternative, this paper takes an action-theoretical perspective and views parental knowledge as an expectancy in an expectancy-value model.  The extent to which adolescents ascribe knowledge about themselves to their parents can be seen as adolescents’ expectancy that the parents will gain knowledge about their actions.  A value that together with this expectancy might predict less adolescent normbreaking is adolescents’ desire to please and comfort their parents.  According to Individuation Theory (Youniss & Smollar, 1985), this is a common desire among adolescents.  If adolescents expect their parents will be knowledgeable about their activities, and if they do not want to worry them, they might engage in less normbreaking than adolescents who either do not care about their parents’ worries or who expect that the parents will not know about their normbreaking.  The second aim of this study is to test this interaction effect on normbreaking.

    A German sample of 968 13- and 16-year-olds filled out questionnaires at school.  Scales for parental knowledge, psychological control, parental support, and normbreaking were identical to Barber’s (2005) study.  Behavioral control was measured with scales for spare-time control (curfew rules, low laissez-faire), school control, and harsh punishments.  Family relationship processes were tapped by scales of parental warmth and openness and of adolescents’ caring for their parents.  The latter measure aimed at assessing family processes similar to those covered by Kerr and Stattin’s scale of free disclosure of information.  Finally, the desire to please and comfort their parents was measured with a newly developed scale.  All measures evinced adequate psychometric properties.

    Concerning the first aim of this study, parental knowledge was strongly related to low normbreaking (Model 0), even after controlling psychological control and parental support (Model 1).  Although the various facets of behavioral control were associated with normbreaking (Model 0), only punishments explained a small part of the effect of parental knowledge (Model 2c).  But punishments were inversely related to parental knowledge and predicted more instead of less normbreaking.  Out of the two family relationship process variables, caring for parents explained a small part of the effect of parental knowledge (Model 2e).  In total, however, the largest part of the effect of parental knowledge remained unexplained (Model 3).  Thus, the results do not support Barber’s idea that parental knowledge is an index of behavioral control.  The findings support Stattin and Kerr’s (2000, Kerr & Stattin, 2000) critique of knowledge as a measure of behavioral control.  However, also family relationship processes explained only little of the association between parental knowledge and normbreaking.

    The results testing the expectancy-value model of parental knowledge and the desire to please the parents, explaining low normbreaking, were as follows.  Parental knowledge, the desire to please the parents, and their interaction predicted low normbreaking (if latent main effect factors were scaled to SD = 1, beta = –.39, –.22, and ‑.06, resp., all p’s < .05).  The stronger the desire to please the parents, the steeper the decline of normbreaking with increasing parental knowledge.  Most adolescents desired strongly to please their parents.  However, results suggest almost no effect of parental knowledge if adolescents have no desire to please their parents.  In summary, the proposed expectancy-value model is supported by the data.

    Barber has described parenting as a unidirectional process.  This description rests on studies using parental knowledge as an index for parental behaviors.  As in previous studies, this interpretation of parental knowledge is not supported.  This paper provides initial support for a new view on parental knowledge:  Adolescents actively decide about what they do, in the light of what they expect the consequences to be and how they evaluate them.

  • 30.
    Masche, J. Gowert
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    You Can Check Out any Time You Like, But You Can Never Leave: Psychological Control of Teens Predicts Young Adults’ Depression2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Parental support predicts low levels of depression in teenagers, and psychological control high levels. However, this pattern holds true for cross-sectional research only whereas longitudinal support is mixed at best. Moreover, few studies have investigated long-term effects into young adulthood. This study explores effects of teenagers’ experienced parental support and psychological control on depression and parent-child relationships in young adulthood, three and five years later. It also explores parental behaviors as outcomes of teen depression. Out of 1,319 U.S. American adolescents aged 11-19 in 2002, those who had reached young adulthood by 2005 (n = 575) and 2007 (n = 878), respectively, were re-interviewed. Also the youngest participants, who still were in adolescence, took part in 2007 (n = 224). In cross-lagged panel regressions, maternal psychological control predicted depression and low well-being over time whereas maternal support predicted close parent-child relationships. For the youngest participants, effects on parenting were tested, and depression predicted increased maternal psychological control after five years. Only few effects were found for fathers. These findings suggest that psychological control does not make young adults withdraw from the relationship, despite their increased independence. Instead, they still expose themselves to this parenting behavior, resulting in increased depression. Depression also contributes to psychological control, resulting in a vicious circle of maternal psychological control and youth depression. Parental support in contrast is linked to relationship closeness over time, but largely unrelated to both depression and psychological control. The differential roles of psychological control and support will be discussed further.

  • 31.
    Masche, J. Gowert
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Burk, William
    Universiteit Leiden (NL), Social and Behavioural Sciences.
    “I Don’t Tell You!”: Do Parent-Adolescent Interaction Problems Cause Both Low Parental Knowledge and Adolescent Internalizing?2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Paradoxically, knowledge that parents posses about their adolescent children’s activities declines with age, but low levels of knowledge are associated with externalizing and internalizing problems. Might there only be a small group of adolescents with steeply declining parental knowledge? Or, are interindividual differences in knowledge and its normative decline independent of each other? This study will explore different trajectories of knowledge in order to answer this question.

    Second, why is low parental knowledge associated with adolescent problems? Focusing on internalizing problems, does parental knowledge really predict them over time, or do they reduce parental knowledge, for example because a depressed or unconfident adolescent tends to withdraw from conversation? This study will determine the direction of effects.

    Third, if parental knowledge predicts internalizing problems, why is this so? Previous studies suggest that both knowledge and internalizing might result from family interaction processes (Kerr & Stattin, 2000), but the same results could also be read as mediation from knowledge via family interactions to internalizing. Furthermore, knowledge was only partly explained by parent-adolescent interaction processes, lending doubt to the interpretation of parental knowledge as a mere expression of them (Barber, 2005). Thus, parental knowledge might either be an indicator of parent-adolescent communication or a causal factor in its own. This study will contribute to clarification. Aversive parental behaviors and adolescent non-disclosure and oppositional behavior were chosen as predictors because they belong to problematic parent-adolescent interactions and because of their links to adolescent internalizing problems.

    A representative Swedish community sample of 1,744 adolescents of age 10-14 at T0 was re-assessed at four annual occasions T1-4. Each year, adolescents filled out questionnaires at school.

    Using Growth Mixture Modeling, three trajectories of parental knowledge, and two trajectories each of self-esteem and depression were revealed across T1-4. The three knowledge trajectories differed in level, but each trajectory had virtually the same age decline.

    In all subsequent analyses, the effects of predictor variables at T0 on T1-4 trajectories of either knowledge or depression, or self-esteem were tested, above and beyond the stability of the respective dependent variable since T0. These analyses revealed effects of parental knowledge on trajectories of depression and self-esteem, but not vice versa.

    A conceptual model was concluded from a series of analyses including parent-adolescent interaction variables. If parents exerted aversive behaviors such as being harsh or making fun of their children, these disclosed not much information and behaved oppositional which in turn predicted low levels of parental knowledge. Although knowledge had predicted adolescent depression and low self-esteem when entered in the analyses alone, it did not consistently predict these variables if adolescents’ opposition and non-disclosure were taken into account.

    In conclusion, the normative decline of parental knowledge and interindividual differences are two independent phenomena which might have different causes. This study has contributed to an understanding of how parent-adolescent interactions lead to interindividual differences in knowledge. Low levels of knowledge were not a consistent causal factor for adolescent internalizing symptoms, but clearly indicated parent-adolescent problems.

  • 32.
    Masche, J. Gowert
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Hansson, Erika
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Lunds universitet.
    It takes two to tango: teen internalizing and exter­nalizing problems are predicted by the interaction of parent and teen behaviors2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Associations between parenting behaviors of support, behavior control and overcontrol, and psychological control/disrespect with adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems have been studied extensively (Barber et al., 2012; Kerr & Stattin, 2000), and also adolescent behaviors of disclosure and secrecy in the context of these problems (Frijns et al., 2010). However, few studies have assessed how parent and child behaviors might moderate each other’s associations with problems (Keijsers et al., 2009). This study investigates interaction effects of the above-mentioned parent and adolescent behaviors when predicting depression, loneliness, and low self-esteem (internalizing), and delinquency, aggression, and drug/alcohol use (externalizing). Given the variety of behaviors and problems under study, it is hypothesized that various kinds of moderation effects will emerge.

    An ethnically diverse sample of 1,281 adolescents attending grades 7 to 10 in a Southern Swedish municipality (age 12.5 to 19.3, M = 15.2, SD = 1.2) filled out questionnaires in class. All scales have been published internationally; however, some items were added to short scales. Each of the internalizing and externalizing problems was regressed on all possible combinations of one of the four parenting variables and one of the two adolescent behaviors under study, resulting in 48 regression analyses.

    Confirming previous findings, parent psychological control and overcontrol were associated with internalizing and externalizing problems, and behavior control and insufficient support with internalizing problems. Adolescent disclosure predicted low levels of both kinds of problems and secrecy predicted high levels. Two-way interactions of parent and adolescent behaviors added significantly (p < .05) to the variance in 13 of 48 analyses which is beyond chance level (p < .001). In addition to the inspection of significant effects, t-values across all analyses were analyzed in order to distinguish between more general trends and solitary effects on specific internalizing or externalizing problems only. Confirming the hypothesis, interaction effects varied across the combinations of parent and adolescent behaviors (η2 = .26) and were further moderated by the distinction between internalizing and externalizing problems (η2 = .38). These effects were grouped into five kinds of interaction effects: In mutually enhancing and mutually exacerbating effects, two positive or two negative, respectively, behaviors increased each other’s associations with problem levels. In protection effects, usually adolescents’ behavior reduced associations between negative parenting and problems. Relationship split effects might reflect an alienated parent-adolescent relationship in which negative behaviors cannot do much additional harm. Finally, maintained relationship/sabotage means that the lowest level of problems occurred if one generation maintained the relationship by a positive behavior and the other generation abstained from “sabotaging” it by a negative behavior. Otherwise, problem behaviors increased sharply without the other generation’s behavior having any large effect any longer.

    In conclusion, analyses provide ample evidence that adolescents’ behavior moderates links between parents’ behaviors and adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. Possible causal interpretations include adolescents as “gatekeepers” of parenting efforts, families’ functional and dysfunctional adaptations, and parent and child behavior combinations as consequences of internalizing and externalizing problems.

  • 33.
    Masche, J. Gowert
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Olsson, Mimmi
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Wik, Sandra
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    How to foster depression: bother your adolescent child all the time, but leave it alone when it needs you2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Is there another way to predict adolescents’ depressive symptoms than by trait-like parenting characteristics, such as affective support (Barber, Stolz, & Olsen, 2005)? Drawing from a systems perspective (Lollis & Kuczynski, 1997) and Social Domain Theory (Smetana & Asquith, 1994), this paper suggests that parental responses in key situations might be important for the development of adolescent depression: (a) adolescent-parent conflict; (b) dangerous situations; (c) need of help with a problem. These three situations require steering adolescents’ behaviors in a responsive way, i.e., combinations of demandingness and responsiveness. Thus, the roles of authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and indifferent parental responses in these key situations will be rested.

    In order to have a standard of comparison, well-established parenting styles (Barber, et al., 2005; Steinberg, 2001) will be evaluated, too. Lack of support has been found to predict depressive symptoms. The prediction by behavior control and the support-by-control interaction will be tested as well, for a better comparability to the test of parental responses in specific situations.

    A total of 108 Swedish adolescents aged 14-15 (67 girls, 41 boys) filled out questionnaires at school. For depressive symptoms and parental support, well-established American scales were used. Behavior control was measured by scales tapping parental control and solicitation of information, respectively. 3 (situations) by 4 (parental responses) by 2 (parent genders) scales of parental responses in key situations were newly developed. For each type of situations, the respondents received two typical examples (e.g., having problems with a friend or a girlfriend/boyfriend as an example of a problem) and rated the frequencies of various parental responses. Because all mother and father scales were highly correlated, they were standardized and added (complementary analyses with either mother or father data yielded similar results; so did analyses including adolescent gender).

    Parental responses in key situations explained 30% of variance of adolescent depression. Authoritative responses to problems were associated with low levels of depression. Moreover, indifferent responses to all three kinds of situations predicted higher levels of depression.

    Main effects of parenting style variables explained 14% of the variance of depression. Adding the interactions between support and parental control and solicitation explained additional 8% of variance. Most of this effect was due to an interaction between acceptance and solicitation. Authoritarian parenting predicted the highest depression levels whereas supportive styles predicted low depression. When entering either reactions in key situation first into the regression equation and parenting styles next, or vice versa, each of them predicted significant portions of variance above and beyond the other. However, reactions in key situations produced the larger increase in explained variance.

    Albeit cross-sectional data do not allow for causal conclusions, this study has generated important hypotheses for future studies: If parents constantly bother their adolescent child with requests to talk about something, in combination with low levels of support, the child is likely to show elevated levels of depression. Even more deleterious might be adolescents’ experience to be left alone when they need their parents.

  • 34.
    Masche, J. Gowert
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Oud, Johan H. L.
    Radboud University Nijmegen (NL).
    Modeling of causal influences in the family in discrete and continuous time2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    Masche, J. Gowert
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Persson, Kristina
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Löfgren, Malin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Do parents only have to avoid being nasty, or should they even be nice?: the case of adolescent substance use and deviance2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, parents’ firm and consistent behavior control has been regarded as effective protection against adolescents’ drug use and delinquency (Steinberg, 2001). However, the validity of findings has been questioned (Stattin & Kerr, 2000; Kerr & Stattin, 2000). The widely-used indicator of behavior control, parental knowledge, appears rather to reflect a trusting relationship (Masche, 2010). However, little is known about which facets of the relationship are most important: Is it more “nasty,” guilt inducing and interfering behavior, i.e. psychological control, which leads to substance use and deviance? Or is it parents’ ability to be “nice” and create close family relations marked by solidarity that prevents these problem behaviors?

    A total of 143 adolescents attending grade 9 (age 15-16, 58% male) in two medium-sized Swedish cities filled out questionnaires at school. Scales on alcohol and drug use focused on frequency and intensity of use and on symptoms of substance abuse. The deviance scale ranged from minor delinquency to violent acts. Adolescents answered also scales on their experienced relationship quality to their parents, on parents’ psychological control and behavior control (e.g., needing permission before going out on the evening). Mother and father scales were summed because of their high inter-correlations. Drug consumption was generally low, and several items did not even vary between participants. Still, all scales were sufficiently reliable (α’s ≥ .80). Because 44% of the sample had other than Swedish ethnic background – in most instances were the parents born in the Middle East –, ethnicity, gender, and their interaction were included into the analyses, but did not predict substance use or deviance.

    Although alcohol use and deviance were highly correlated, these two problem behaviors were somewhat differently associated with parenting and relationship variables: Adolescents who consumed a lot of alcohol tended to have poor relationships to psychologically controlling parents. However, deviant adolescents reported in the first place psychologically controlling parents and only to a lesser degree also a poor relationship quality. Drug use (which generally was low) was only associated with psychological control. Multiple regression analyses revealed whether each parenting and relationship variable uniquely predicted substance use and deviance. The results were similar to the bivariate correlations, confirming the general importance of psychological control. Relationship quality still predicted low alcohol use, but was not any longer important for deviance when controlled for psychological control. Behavior control did not predict any of these problem behaviors in any analysis.

    This study confirms findings questioning the role of behavior control (Kerr & Stattin, 2000; Stattin & Kerr, 2000). It tells what might be important instead. Hostile, guilt-inducing behavior was consistently associated with externalizing problems whereas a close relationship showed more specific associations. To the degree that parents affect adolescents’ externalizing behaviors rather than are affected by them, these findings suggest that parents above all should avoid being “nasty,” i.e. psychologically controlling. Being “nice,” i.e., to contribute to a close companionship with their children, also appears important, but more specifically against alcohol consumption.  

  • 36.
    Masche, J. Gowert
    et al.
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Tyskland.
    Pulido, J A
    Scheele-Heubach, C A
    Influences between parents and adolescents during the transition from middle school to the next stage of school or professional education2003Inngår i: Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, ISSN 0342-183X, Vol. 50, nr 2, 152-167 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    According to individuation theory of parent-adolescent relationships, the primary parent-child hierarchy is gradually replaced by a peer-like reciprocity of parents and adolescents. However, it is questioned whether a peer-like relationship is the aim of development. Within a time span of about half a year, 41 families with school leavers after 10th grade of non college-bound school track were interrogated three times, regarding their mutual influences. Between-subject factors were the kind of educational transition (into professional training vs. to a different school track) and. the existence of younger and of older siblings. According to the family members' statements, parental influences prevailed at all time points. Both generations influenced each other for the adolescents' benefit, especially concerning school and career. Further results indicated that greater mutuality in the parent-child relationship was more intensively pursued by the parents rather than by the adolescents.

  • 37.
    Masche-No, J. Gowert
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Adolescent internalizing symptoms worsen parenting and the parent-adolescent relationship quality, but hardly the other way around2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological control and lack of warmth are widely assumed to cause internalizing symptoms in adolescents (Hunter et al., 2015; Steinberg, 2001). However, most research has been cross-sectional, and longitudinal findings have been mixed (e.g., White et al., 2015) or the used statistical methods were not optimal to support causal conclusions (Hunter et al., 2015). Only few studies have inspected child effects on parenting (Brenning et al., 2015). Thus, evidence is lacking on whether parenting style affects adolescent internalizing symptoms such as depression, loneliness, and poor self-esteem. Moreover, from a systems perspective, further factors should be explored such as adolescents’ and parents’ perceptions of each other, goals, and strategies to change their mutual relationship. This study examines bidirectional effects of all these facets of parent-adolescent relationships and parenting behaviors and adolescent internalizing symptoms.

    Using two annual data collections (N = 1,281/1,274/824 at T1/T2/overlap, resp.) in a representative Swedish community sample of adolescents originally in grades 7-10 (Mage = 15.2, SD = 1.2), effects of perceived parenting (warmth, psychological control, behavior control, overcontrol), adolescent relationship satisfaction, goals (establishing autonomy, submission under parental authority), and strategies (disclosure, secrecy) on internalizing problems (depression symptoms, loneliness, low self-esteem) and vice versa were examined, controlling for the respective dependent variable at T1, gender, and school grade. Parental attitudes (e.g., perceived child depression, satisfaction, and feelings of giving up) were assessed at T2 in a sub-sample (N = 290), allowing for the prediction of these attitudes by T1 internalizing. In order to preserve as much information as possible, missing data were multiply imputed (20 datasets), reaching over 95% efficiency of analyses. Still, those analyses involving parent attitudes are tentative due to the lack of T1 measures and the large number of missing data, reducing power and introducing bias if data were not missing at random (e.g., non-response of dissatisfied parents being not entirely predicted by adolescent data).

    Consistent with and expanding previous research, most parenting and parent-adolescent relationship variables were cross-sectionally correlated with adolescent internalizing symptoms (see Table 1). In most instances of significant within-time associations, also the predictions over time of the respective parenting and parent-adolescent relationship variables by teen internalizing symptoms were significant (Table 1). In contrast, only three effects in the opposite direction reached or approached significance: feelings of being overly controlled by parents increased depression and tentatively reduced self-esteem, and low child disclosure increased loneliness. Supporting a systems perspective, parent-reported feelings of giving up and of low relationship satisfaction mediated effects of adolescent depression on e.g. reduced warmth and increased psychological control over time.

    Thus, the study has shown broad deteriorating effects of teen internalizing on parenting and parent-adolescent relationship quality and has provided first evidence of mediation by parent cognitions and feelings. However, parenting effects on internalizing were sparse and involved other than the expected variables. If adolescents felt overly controlled by their parents, they became depressed and their self-esteem was tentatively reduced. And if they did not disclose much information to their parents, they became lonelier over time.

  • 38.
    Masche-No, Johanna G.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Hur hänger inåtvända problem och utagerande beteenden hos ton­åringar ihop med deras föräldrarelation?2017Inngår i: Barnsliga sammanhang: Forskning om barns och ungdomars hälsa, välbefinnande och delaktighet / [ed] Bo Nilsson och Eva Clausson, Kristianstad: Kristianstad University Press , 2017, 1, 91-110 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 39.
    Masche-No, Johanna G.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Steinberg knew it: authoritative parenting does affect teen externalizing problems. But how does it work?2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on preventive effects of authoritative parenting against externalizing problems (Steinberg, 2001) has been criticized for invalid measurements of parental control (Stattin & Kerr, 2000), and that findings might reflect parental reactions rather than parental influences (Glatz et al., 2012; Kerr et al., 2012). However, few studies have assessed bidirectional effects between parenting and externalizing problems, and even less have attempted to explore how the parent-adolescent relationship might mediate these effects from a systems perspective.

    Using two annual data collections (N = 1,281/1,274/824 at T1/T2/overlap, resp.) in a representative Swedish community sample of adolescents originally in grades 7-10 (Mage = 15.2, SD = 1.2), bi-directional effects between perceived parenting (warmth, psychological control, behavior control, overcontrol), adolescent relationship satisfaction, goals (establishing autonomy, submission under parental authority), and strategies (disclosure, secrecy), and externalizing problem behaviors (drug/alcohol use, delinquency, aggression) were explored, controlling for the respective dependent variable at T1, gender, and school grade. Parental attitudes (e.g., perceived child depression, satisfaction, and feelings of giving up) were assessed at T2 in a sub-sample (N = 290), allowing for the prediction of these attitudes by T1 externalizing. Missing data were multiply imputed. Still, those analyses involving parent attitudes are tentative due to the lack of T1 measures and the large number of missing data.

    Cross-sectionally, all three externalizing behaviors were modestly associated with parenting and relationships in expected directions. However, despite large correlations between the three externalizing behaviors, longitudinal predictions differed. Aggression was not predicted and did not predict parenting and parent-adolescent relationships across time, suggesting that aggression develops at younger age.

    Both delinquency and drug/alcohol use predicted parents’ feelings of low satisfaction, poor trust, and of giving up, but none of the adolescent-reported parenting behaviors. Unexpected predictions of high submission under parental authority and of low secrecy by drug/alcohol use could be explained by a statistical suppressor effect. Thus, although parents felt bad about their externalizing children, this did not result in deteriorated parenting as observed by the adolescents, in contrast to previous research (Kerr & Stattin, 2003), and unlike parents’ reactions to internalizing problems in this study.

    Supporting parenting effects, low levels of delinquency were predicted by parental overcontrol and tentatively by parental control. Low drug/alcohol use was predicted by parental support, adolescents’ goals rather not to become autonomous but to submit under parental authority, disclosure of information, and low secrecy towards parents. Mediation analyses revealed that adolescents react to parental support by intentions to submit under parental authority and becoming less secretive, which both predicted decreased drug/alcohol use over time. The preventive effect of parental (over-)control against delinquency was found using scales developed by the Stattin/Kerr group rather than the questioned “monitoring” scale. Albeit no direct effect of control on low drug/alcohol use was revealed, a preventive effect of parental support was explained by adolescents’ willingness to accept parental authority and not to keep secrets from them. These findings support a parent-effects theory of authoritative parenting (Steinberg, 2001) and help understand how adolescents’ goals and behaviors mediate parental behaviors.

  • 40.
    Medjugorac, Tin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Hur allvarligt vi bedömer diskriminering beror på om det orsakas av ingruppsgillande eller utgruppsogillande2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Diskriminering kan bero på olika attityder, en av dem är att man ogillar medlemmar av den gruppensom man själv inte tillhör (utgruppsnegativitet), och en annan kan vara att man gillar medlemmar avsin egen grupp (ingruppspositivitet), diskriminering kan alltså ibland ske utan att man har någonnegativ attityd till den andra gruppen. I den här studien undersöktes hur allvarlig diskrimineringanses vara beroende på om den baseras på utgruppsnegativitet eller ingruppspositivitetHuvudhypotesen att diskriminerande beteende anses mer allvarligt om det orsakas avutgruppsnegativiteten än av ingruppspositiviteten fick stöd. Det vill säga att människor är merförlåtande när diskrimineringen sker därför att någon är partisk än när diskrimineringen sker därföratt någon är hatisk. Studien visade också att personer som skattar högt på social dominans skattadepersoner som diskriminerade mindre negativt. Resultaten diskuteras i relation till teorier om normermot fördomsfullhet och diskriminering.

  • 41.
    Mihov, Claire
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Elg, Markus
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Att vårda patienter med möjlig risk för posttraumatiskt stressyndrom: Utifrån sjuksköterskans kompetensområde2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Mer än två tredjedelar av befolkningen utsätts någon gång för en traumatisk händelse som är tillräckligt stark för att den utsatte skulle kunna drabbas av posttraumatiskt stressyndrom (PTSD). Inom all hälso- och sjukvård möter personalen människor med psykisk ohälsa av olika former, inklusive stressrelaterade tillstånd. Sjuksköterskan har möjlighet att i dessa möten identifiera behovet av omvårdnad, stärka patientens egna resurser och skapa möjligheter till återhämtning Syfte: Syftet var att utifrån sjuksköterskans kompetensområde belysa vad som är betydelsefullt vid vård av patienter med möjlig risk för posttraumatiskt stressyndrom. Metod: En allmän litteraturstudie genomfördes, baserad på elva kvantitativa och en kvalitativ vetenskaplig artikel. Resultat: Två kategorier framkom: Identifiering och bedömning av personer med möjlig risk för PTSD, och dess subkategorier kunskaper och verktyg, samt sjuksköterskans åtgärder vid risk för PTSD med subkategorierna debriefing och patientinformation/självhjälp. Resultatdiskussion: En av de funna riskfaktorerna för PTSD visade sig ha ett tveksamt värde, de förebyggande åtgärderna hade inga effekter men uppskattades likväl av patienterna, vilket innebär ett etiskt dilemma för sjuksköterskan. Slutsats: Mer forskning inom detta behövs. Sjuksköterskan bör vara en aktiv lyssnare, bidra med information, och hjälpa patienten att hantera de psykiska påfrestningarna efter trauma.

  • 42.
    Mohnke, Sebastian
    et al.
    Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin.
    Erk, Susanne
    Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin.
    Schnell, Knut
    University of Heidelberg.
    Schütz, Claudia
    University of Bonn.
    Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina
    Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin.
    Grimm, Oliver
    Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim.
    Haddad, Leila
    Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim.
    Pöhland, Lydia
    Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin.
    Garbusow, Maria
    Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin.
    Schmitgen, Mike M.
    University of Heidelberg.
    Kirsch, Peter
    Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim.
    Esslinger, Christine
    Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg.
    Rietschel, Marcella
    University of Heidelberg, Mannheim.
    Witt, Stephanie H.
    University of Heidelberg, Mannheim.
    Nöthen, Markus M.
    University of Bonn, Bonn.
    Cichon, Sven
    University of Bonn.
    Mattheisen, Manuel
    University of Heidelberg.
    Mühleisen, Thomas
    Research Centre Jülich.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Schott, Björn H.
    Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin.
    Maier, Wolfgang
    University of Bonn.
    Heinz, Andreas
    Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin.
    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas
    Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim.
    Walter, Henrik
    Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin.
    Further evidence for the impact of a genome-wide-supported psychosis risk variant in ZNF804A on the Theory of Mind network2014Inngår i: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 39, nr 5, 1196-1205 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1344706 in ZNF804A is one of the best-supported risk variants for psychosis. We hypothesized that this SNP contributes to the development of schizophrenia by affecting the ability to understand other people's mental states. This skill, commonly referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM), has consistently been found to be impaired in schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we previously showed that in healthy individuals rs1344706 impacted on activity and connectivity of key areas of the ToM network, including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, temporo-parietal junction, and the posterior cingulate cortex, which show aberrant activity in schizophrenia patients, too. We aimed to replicate these results in an independent sample of 188 healthy German volunteers. In order to assess the reliability of brain activity elicited by the ToM task, 25 participants performed the task twice with an interval of 14 days showing excellent accordance in recruitment of key ToM areas. Confirming our previous results, we observed decreasing activity of the left temporo-parietal junction, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and the posterior cingulate cortex with increasing number of risk alleles during ToM. Complementing our replication sample with the discovery sample, analyzed in a previous report (total N=297), further revealed negative genotype effects in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex as well as in the temporal and parietal regions. In addition, as shown previously, rs1344706 risk allele dose positively predicted increased frontal-temporo-parietal connectivity. These findings confirm the effects of the psychosis risk variant in ZNF804A on the dysfunction of the ToM network.

  • 43.
    Nilsson, Emelie
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Att leva med bipolär sjukdom.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Bipolär sjukdom innebär perioder av mani och depressioner vilket kan medföra svårigheter för personer som drabbats. För att kunna förstå och hjälpa dessa personer behöver sjukvårdspersonal kunskap om hur sjukdomen upplevs och hanteras. Syfte: att belysa hur personer med bipolär sjukdom upplever och hanterar sin sjukdom. Metod: En allmän litteraturstudie genomfördes med kvalitativa artiklar. Resultat: Personernas inställning till diagnosen och behandling varierade och relationen till sjukvårdspersonalen var betydelsefull. Svårigheterna att hantera och bemöta sjukdomen orsakade känslor av osäkerhet, okontrollerbarhet och instabilitet. Sjukdomen påverkade självförtroendet och självkänslan och orsakade upplevd stigmatisering och problem i relationer. För att kunna hantera bipolär sjukdom krävdes egen acceptans, kunskap och insikt, struktur i vardagen samt stöd från närstående. Diskussion: Resultaten diskuteras utifrån Antonovskys teori om känsla av sammanhang, KASAM. Problematiken kring acceptans av sjukdomen och motivation till fortsatt behandling är viktig kunskap för sjukvårdspersonal, liksom att sjukvårdspersonal har personernas försämrade självkänsla och upplevda stigmatisering i åtanke. Detta för att hjälpa personerna att känna KASAM och få ett mer salutogent perspektiv. Patientutbildning bör anpassas efter varje individs behov. Slutsats: Lyhördhet för hur varje individ upplever och hanterar sitt liv med bipolär sjukdom krävs, samt att vården anpassas därefter. Därvid kan patienternas KASAM ökas.

  • 44.
    Nohrenius, Peter
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Åsander, Madeleine
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Dyka efter spänning: Sensation seeking scale testad på dykare2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Är dykare spänningssökare? Är män mer spänningssökande än kvinnor? 51 dykare, 27 män och 24 kvinnor, läts fylla i enkäten Sensation seeking scale version 5 (SSS-V). Sensation seeking scale har utvecklats av Marvin Zuckerman med kollegor sedan 1960-talet och mäter graden av spänningssökande personlighetsdrag, på engelska: sensation seeking. Enkäten har visat sig valid på flera hundra studier men har bara testats på dykare ett fåtal gånger. Hypoteserna är att dykare är mer spänningssökande än normalpopulationen (H1) och att dykande män är mer spänningssökande än dykande kvinnor (H2). Kontrollgruppen består av psykologistudenter från Delware University mellan år 1986 och 1992, 410 män och 807 kvinnor. Resultatet visar med statistisk signifikant säkerhet att dykare är mer spänningssökande än normalpopulationen och att dykande män är mer spänningssökande än dykande kvinnor. Validitet och alternativ till Sensation seeking scale m.m. tas upp i diskussionsdelen.

  • 45.
    Olaison, Henrik
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Attityder till regler och regelefterlevnad på arbetsplats2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien syftar till att undersöka om medarbetares attityd till regler och regelefterlevnad på en arbetsplats varierar med faktorer som anställningstiden, kön och personalkategori. Undersökningen har genomförts som en enkätundersökning med frågeställningar som belyser olika delar av regler och regelefterlevnad, både ur ett generellt och ur ett individuellt perspektiv. Försöksdeltagarna är tjänstemän och verkstadsanställda på ett medelstort mellansvenskt företag inom tillverkningsindustrin. Undersökningen visar på att det finns en skillnad i attityden mellan grupperna och att personer med lång anställningstid har en negativare inställning till regler och regelefterlevnad är personer med kort anställningstid, men att skillnaden inte är statistiskt signifikant.

  • 46. Ottová-Jordan, Veronika
    et al.
    Smith, Otto R.F.
    Gobina, Inese
    Mazur, Joanna
    Augustine, Lilly
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO).
    Cavallo, Franco
    Välimaa, Raili
    Moor, Irene
    Torsheim, Torbjörn
    Katreniakova, Zuzana
    Vollebergh, Wilma
    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
    Trends in Multiple Recurrent health complaitns in 15-year-olds in 35 countries in Europe, North America and Israel from 1994 to 20102015Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 25, nr suppl 2, 24-27 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Health complaints are a good indicator of an individual's psychosocial health and well-being. Studies have shown that children and adolescents report health complaints which can cause significant individual burden.

    METHODS: Using data from the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study, this article describes trends in multiple recurrent health complaints (MHC) in 35 countries among N = 237 136 fifteen-year-olds from 1994 to 2010. MHC was defined as the presence of two or more health complaints at least once a week. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate trends across the five survey cycles for each country.

    RESULTS: Lowest prevalence throughout the period 1994-2010 was 16.9% in 1998 in Austria and highest in 2006 in Israel (54.7%). Overall, six different trend patterns could be identified: No linear or quadratic trend (9 countries), linear decrease (7 countries), linear increase (5 countries), U-shape (4 countries), inverted U-shape (6 countries) and unstable (4 countries).

    CONCLUSION: Trend analyses are valuable in providing hints about developments in populations as well as for benchmarking and evaluation purposes. The high variation in health complaints between the countries requires further investigation, but may also reflect the subjective nature of health complaints.

  • 47.
    Ousdal, Olga T.
    et al.
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Server, Andres
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Increased amygdala and visual cortex activity and functional connectivity towards stimulus novelty is associated with state anxiety2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 4, e96146- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel stimuli often require a rapid reallocation of sensory processing resources to determine the significance of the event, and the appropriate behavioral response. Both the amygdala and the visual cortex are central elements of the neural circuitry responding to novelty, demonstrating increased activity to new as compared to highly familiarized stimuli. Further, these brain areas are intimately connected, and thus the amygdala may be a key region for directing sensory processing resources to novel events. Although knowledge regarding the neurocircuit of novelty detection is gradually increasing, we still lack a basic understanding of the conditions that are necessary and sufficient for novelty-specific responses in human amygdala and the visual cortices, and if these brain areas interact during detection of novelty. In the present study, we investigated the response of amygdala and the visual cortex to novelty, by comparing functional MRI activity between 1st and 2nd time presentation of a series of emotional faces in an event-related task. We observed a significant decrease in amygdala and visual cortex activity already after a single stimulus exposure. Interestingly, this decrease in responsiveness was less for subjects with a high score on state anxiety. Further, novel faces stimuli were associated with a relative increase in the functional coupling between the amygdala and the inferior occipital gyrus (BA 18). Thus, we suggest that amygdala is involved in fast sensory boosting that may be important for attention reallocation to novel events, and that the strength of this response depends on individual state anxiety.

  • 48.
    Ousdal, Olga Therese
    et al.
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Specht, Karsten
    University of Bergen.
    Server, Andres
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Dolan, Ray J.
    University College London.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    The human amygdala encodes value and space during decision making2014Inngår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 101, 712-719 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Valuable stimuli are invariably localized in space. While our knowledge regarding the neural networks supporting value assignment and comparisons is considerable, we lack a basic understanding of how the human brain integrates motivational and spatial information. The amygdala is a key structure for learning and maintaining the value of sensory stimuli and a recent non-human primate study provided initial evidence that it also acts to integrate value with spatial location, a question we address here in a human setting. We measured hemodynamic responses (fMRI) in amygdala while manipulating the value and spatial configuration of stimuli in a simple stimulus-reward task. Subjects responded significantly faster and showed greater amygdala activation when a reward was dependent on a spatial specific response, compared to when a reward required less spatial specificity. Supplemental analysis supported this spatial specificity by demonstrating that the pattern of amygdala activity varied based on whether subjects responded to a motivational target presented in the ipsilateral or contralateral visual space. Our data show that the human amygdala integrates information about space and value, an integration of likely importance for assigning cognitive resources towards highly valuable stimuli in our environment.

  • 49.
    Persson, Matilda
    Högskolan Kristianstad. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Lärarutbildning.
    Ansiktsigenkänning: Holistisk och analytisk bearbetning vid ansiktsigenkänning av den egna etniska gruppen jämfört med andra etniska grupper2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract (Svenska)

    Den här undersökningen försöker ta reda på om orsaken till att människor bättre minns ansikten av sin egen etnicitet än ansikten med annan etnisk bakgrund ligger i mer holistisk än analytisk inkodning. Det testades även om kända och okända ansikten inkodas holistiskt eller analytiskt. Sammanlagt 51 personer deltog i undersökningen. Hälften av stimulusmaterialet var ljushyade (amerikaner av europeiskt ursprung) och hälften var mörkhyade (amerikaner av afrikanskt ursprung). 1/3 av stimulusmaterialet var bilder av mörka och ljusa kända personer. Uppgiften var att försöka känna igen bilderna då de visades på nytt med en förvrängning som skulle gynna antingen holistisk eller analytisk bearbetning. Resultaten visade att kända ansikten inkodades bättre än okända, och att skillnaden var större för holistisk än analytisk bearbetning. Skillnaden mellan ljusa och mörka ansikten gick i samma riktning, men var inte signifikant.

  • 50.
    Reckless, Greg E.
    et al.
    University of Oslo.
    Ousdal, Olga T.
    University of Oslo.
    Server, Andres
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Walter, Henrik
    Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin.
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    University of Oslo.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    The left inferior frontal gyrus is involved in adjusting response bias during a perceptual decision-making task2014Inngår i: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 4, nr 3, 398-407 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Changing the way we make decisions from one environment to another allows us to maintain optimal decision-making. One way decision-making may change is how biased one is toward one option or another. Identifying the regions of the brain that underlie the change in bias will allow for a better understanding of flexible decision-making.

    Methods

    An event-related, perceptual decision-making task where participants had to detect a picture of an animal amongst distractors was used during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Positive and negative financial motivation were used to affect a change in response bias, and changes in decision-making behavior were quantified using signal detection theory.

    Results

    Response bias became relatively more liberal during both positive and negative motivated trials compared to neutral trials. For both motivational conditions, the larger the liberal shift in bias, the greater the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activity. There was no relationship between individuals' belief that they used a different strategy and their actual change in response bias.

    Conclusions

    The present findings suggest that the left IFG plays a role in adjusting response bias across different decision environments. This suggests a potential role for the left IFG in flexible decision-making.

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