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  • 1.
    Bosaeus, Ingvar
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Wilcox, Gisela
    Monash University.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Strauss, Boyd J
    Monash University.
    Skeletal muscle mass in hospitalized elderly patients: comparison of measurements by single-frequency BIA and DXA2014Inngår i: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 33, nr 3, 426-431 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is increasing interest in estimating skeletal muscle mass (SMM) in clinical practice. We aimed to validate a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) prediction equation for SMM, developed in a different healthy elderly population, in a population of hospital patients aged 70 and over, by comparison with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) SMM estimates. Comparison was also made with two other previously published BIA muscle prediction equations.

    METHODS: Muscle measurements by BIA and DXA were compared in 117 patients with a range of clinical conditions (45 female, 72 male, mean age 75 years).

    RESULTS: The BIA equation used yielded an accurate estimate of DXA-derived SMM. Mean (SD) difference was 0.26(1.79) kg (ns). The two other BIA equations over-estimated SMM compared to DXA (both p < 0.001), but all equations were highly correlated.

    CONCLUSIONS: The BIA equation used, developed in a different healthy elderly population, gave an accurate estimate of DXA-derived SMM in a population with various clinical disorders. BIA appears potentially capable to estimate SMM in clinical disorders, but the optimal approach to its use for this purpose requires further investigation.

  • 2.
    Edberg, Anna-Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Du kan själv ta hand om besvär med hälsan2009Inngår i: Livslots för äldre, Vårdalsinstitutet , 2009, 46-63 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 3.
    Edberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    Landahl, Sten
    Hur du använder läkemedel2009Inngår i: Livslots för seniorer, Stockholm: Hjälpmedelsinstitutet , 2009, 1, 65-75 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 4. Eiben, G
    et al.
    Andersson, C S
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sundh, V
    Steen, B
    Lissner, L
    Secular trends in diet among elderly Swedes: cohort comparisons over three decades2004Inngår i: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 7, nr 5, 637-644 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare dietary practices among different birth cohorts of 70-year-old Swedes, who were examined between 1971 and 2000.

    Setting: Göteborg, Sweden.

    Design: Four population-based samples of 1360 70-year-olds, born in 1901, 1911, 1922 and 1930, have undergone health examinations and dietary assessments over a period of almost three decades. One-hour diet history (DH) interviews were conducted in 1971, 1981, 1992 and 2000 with a total of 758 women and 602 women. The formats and contents of the dietary examinations were similar over the years. Statistical analysis of linear trends was conducted, using year of examination as the independent variable, to detect secular trends in food and nutrient intakes across cohorts.

    Results: At the 2000 examination, the majority of 70-year-olds consumed nutritionally adequate diets. Later-born cohorts consumed more yoghurt, breakfast cereals, fruit, vegetables, chicken, rice and pasta than earlier-born cohorts. Consumption of low-fat spread and milk also increased, along with that of wine, light beer and candy. In contrast, potatoes, cakes and sugar were consumed less in 2000 than in 1971. The ratio of reported energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate did not show any systematic trend over time in women, but showed a significant upward trend in men.

    Conclusions: The diet history method has captured changes in food selections in the elderly without changing in general format over three decades. Dietary quality has improved in a number of ways, and these findings in the elderly are consistent with national food consumption trends in the general population.

  • 5. Eiben, G
    et al.
    Dey, D K
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Steen, B
    Bjorkelund, C
    Bengtsson, C
    Lissner, L
    Obesity in 70-year-old Swedes: Secular changes over 30 years2005Inngår i: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 29, nr 7, 810-817 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    Secular increases in obesity have been widely reported in middle-aged adults, but less is known about such trends among the elderly. The primary purpose of this paper is to document the most recent wave of the obesity epidemic in population-based samples of 70-y-old men and women from Göteborg. Additionally, we will investigate the influences of physical activity, smoking and education on these secular trends.

    POPULATIONS AND METHODS:

    Five population-based samples of 3702 70-y-olds (1669 men and 2033 women) in Göteborg, Sweden, born between 1901 and 1930, were examined in the Gerontological and Geriatric Population Studies (H70) between 1971 and 2000. Cohort differences in anthropometric measures were the main outcomes studied. Physical activity, smoking habits and education were assessed by comparable methods in all cohorts. Subsamples of the women in the latest two cohorts (birth years 1922 and 1930) were also part of the Prospective Population Study of Women in Göteborg. In these women, it was possible to examine body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR) longitudinally since 1968.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:

    Significant upward trends were found for height, weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC), WHR, prevalence of overweight (BMI25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI30 kg/m2) across cohorts in both sexes. In 2000, 20% of the 70-y-old men born in 1930 were obese, and the largest increment (almost doubling) had occurred between the early 1980s and the early 1990s. In 70-y-old women the prevalence of obesity was 24% in 2000, a 50% increase compared to the cohort born 8 y earlier. BMI increased over time in all physical activity, smoking and education groups, with the exception of never-smoking men. Although 70-y-old women in 2000 were heavier than cohorts examined 8 y previously, data from the women studied longitudinally revealed that these differences were already present in earlier adulthood. In conclusion, the elderly population is very much part of the obesity epidemic, although secular trends in BMI were detected slightly earlier in men than in women. The health implications of these secular trends should be focused on in future gerontological research

  • 6.
    Giacalone, Davide
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Wendin, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Kremer, Stefanie
    Nederländerna.
    Bom Frøst, Michael
    Danmark.
    Bredie, Wender L. P.
    Danmark.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Otto, Marie H.
    Danmark.
    Skjoldborg, Signe
    Danmark.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Risvik, Einar
    Norge.
    Health and quality of life in an aging population – food and beyond2016Inngår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 47, nr Part B, 166-170 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe the percentage of citizens aged 65 and over is increasing at an unprecedented rate, and is expected to account for over 30% of the population by 2050. Coupled with an increase in life expectancy, this massive demographic change calls for a major effort to ensure quality of life in our older population. A thorough understanding of the elderly as food consumers, their nutritional needs, their food perception and preferences are increasingly needed. The role of food in healthy aging was a prominent theme at the 6th European Conference on Sensory and Consumer Research, which had quality of life across the life span as a focal point. This short paper is based on a workshop held at the EuroSense meeting, focusing on research from sensory and consumer scientists. The workshop featured contributions focusing on food-related perception, needs and behavior of the elderly, and aimed at demonstrating the relevance of sensory and consumer scientists in promoting food-related well-being in an aging population. The workshop contributions are here reviewed and summarized three main themes: nutritional needs, food perception and aging, and behavioral drivers of food consumption.

  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology/Occupational Therapy, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Edberg, Anna-Karin
    Vårdalsinstitutet och Lunds universitet.
    Johansson, Boo
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
    The Vårdal Institute, The Swedish Institute for Health Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Multi-component health promotion and disease prevention for community-dwelling frail elderly persons: a systematic review2009Inngår i: European Journal of Ageing, ISSN 1613-9372, E-ISSN 1613-9380, Vol. 6, nr 4, 315-329 s.Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to investigate definitions of frailty used in studies of multi-component health promotion and disease-preventive (HPDP) intervention programmes for community-dwelling frail elderly persons and to review the content, organisation and effects of HPDP interventions. A systematic review of 19 articles was made, and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was used as a structural framework for the analysis. The result shows that a consensus was reached on including various aspects of impairments in body functions and structures as an integral part of the frailty concept, with the exception of one subgroup: mental/cognitive functions. Additionally, opinions varied quite consistently regarding aspects of activity limitations and participation restrictions, personal and environmental factors. Ten of the 14 HPDP programmes covered various intervention elements referring to all four ICF components. Eleven programmes involved registered personnel only, while a more divergent pattern was seen in the remaining organisational aspects of the interventions: length of interventions and location plus age segments, participatory approach and contextual information, as well as the theoretical foundation of the interventions. Measures of body functions and structures were significantly improved in 5 out of 17 (29%) targeted aspects. For activity and participation, 12 out of 32 (38%) targeted aspects were positively changed, while the score for environmental factors was 7 out of 22 (32%), and for personal factors 8 out of 22 (36%). Our review suggests that further research is needed to explore and disentangle the complex interrelationships between various interventions and outcomes.

  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg.
    Eklund, Kajsa
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg.
    Wilhelmson, Katarina
    Vårdalinstitutet, The Swedish Institute for Health Sciences, Gothenburg/Lund.
    Edberg, Anna-Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    Johansson, Boo
    Vårdalinstitutet, The Swedish Institute for Health Sciences, Gothenburg/Lund.
    Häggblom Kronlöf, Greta
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg.
    Gosman-Hedström, Gunilla
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg.
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg.
    Long-term outcome for ADL following the health-promoting RCT: elderly persons in the risk zone2013Inngår i: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 53, nr 4, 654-663 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To examine independence in activities of daily living (ADL) at the 1- and 2-year follow-ups of the health-promoting study Elderly Persons in the Risk Zone.

    Design and Method: A randomized, three-armed, single-blind, and controlled study. A representative sample of 459 independent and community-dwelling older adults, 80 years and older, were included. A preventive home visit was compared with four weekly multiprofessional senior group meetings including a follow-up home visit.

    Results: Analysis showed a significant difference in favor of the senior meetings in postponing dependence in ADL at the 1-year follow-up (odds ratio [OR] = 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19–3.10) and also in reducing dependence in three (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.31–0.86) and four or more ADL (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.22–0.72) at the 2-year follow-up. A preventive home visit reduced dependence in two (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.24–0.68) and three or more ADL (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.17–0.80) after 1 year.

    Implications: A long-term evaluation of Elderly Persons in the Risk Zone showed that both senior meetings and a preventive home visit reduced the extent of dependence in ADL after 1 year. The senior meetings were superior to a preventive home visit since additional significant effects were seen after 2 years. To further enhance the long-term effects of the senior meetings and support the process of self-change in health behavior, it is suggested that booster sessions might be a good way of reinforcing the intervention.

  • 9. Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Wilhelmson, Katarina
    Eklund, Kajsa
    Gosman-Hedström, Gunilla
    Zidén, Lena
    Kronlöf, Greta H
    Højgaard, Betina
    Slinde, Frode
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Landahl, Sten
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
    Health-promoting interventions for persons aged 80 and older are successful in the short term: results from the randomized and three-armed Elderly Persons in the Risk Zone study2012Inngår i: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 60, nr 3, 447-454 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the outcomes of the Elderly Persons in the Risk Zone study, which was designed to evaluate whether it is possible to delay deterioration if a health-promoting intervention is made when an older adult (≥80) is at risk of becoming frail and whether a multiprofessional group intervention is more effective in delaying deterioration than a single preventive home visit with regard to frailty, self-rated health, and activities of daily living (ADLs) at 3-month follow-up.

    DESIGN: Randomized, three-armed, single-blind, controlled trial performed between November 2007 and May 2011.

    SETTING: Two urban districts of Gothenburg, Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred fifty-nine community-living adults aged 80 and older not dependent on the municipal home help service.

    INTERVENTION: A preventive home visit or four weekly multiprofessional senior group meetings with one follow-up home visit.

    MEASUREMENTS: Change in frailty, self-rated health, and ADLs between baseline and 3-month follow-up.

    RESULTS: Both interventions delayed deterioration of self-rated health (odds ratio (OR) = 1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.12-3.54). Senior meetings were the most beneficial intervention for postponing dependence in ADLs (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.14-3.33). No effect on frailty could be demonstrated.

    CONCLUSION: Health-promoting interventions made when older adults are at risk of becoming frail can delay deterioration in self-rated health and ADLs in the short term. A multiprofessional group intervention such as the senior meetings described seems to have a greater effect on delaying deterioration in ADLs than a single preventive home visit. Further research is needed to examine the outcome in the long term and in different contexts.

  • 10.
    Hadid, Kadija
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Lindberg, Tatiana
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Vi tackar för maten!: ensamstående äldres upplevda matsituation med hemtjänst2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Andelen äldre personer i Sverige ökar och beräkningar visar att det kommer finnas över en miljon personer i Sverige som är över 80 år 2045. Det är fler och fler äldre personer som väljer att bo i ordinärt boende vilket betyder att det kommer att behövas fler resurser för att bemöta deras behov. Att undersöka vårdtagarnas upplevda matsituation är viktigt för att förstå de hälsomässiga, sociala och samhällsekonomiska risker en bristfällig matförsörjning kan resultera i.

    Syfte: Syftet är att undersöka och beskriva den upplevda matsituationen bland äldre ensamstående vårdtagare som bor i ordinärt boende med hemtjänst för att få en förståelse för vilka förbättrande åtgärder som behövs. Fokus läggs på måltidsordning, känslorna kring matsituationen och måltidsmiljön.

    Material och metod: En kvalitativ studie gjordes i form av djupintervjuer med enskilda individer samt observationer av serverad mat och befintlig mat i hemmet. Intervjuerna spelades in samt transkriberades. Informanterna bestod av sex vårdtagare mellan 77 och 96 år från Höör och Simrishamn.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att informanterna är nöjda med maten de får av hemtjänsten. Det finns dock ett underliggande missnöje med hur maten serveras, anpassning till hemtjänstens scheman samt brist på sällskap under måltiderna.

    Slutsats: Utifrån studien har det visats att vårdtagarna är tacksamma för den hjälp de får av hemtjänsten men det finns tecken på att det behövs förbättringar gällande hemtjänstens kunskap och planeringen av måltiderna. Det är inte möjligt att generalisera resultaten på grund av den begränsade omfattningen dock finns det möjligheter för framtida insatser och forskning kring exempelvis äldres speciella behov när det gäller matens innehåll, konsistens och måltidsordning.

  • 11.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Experience of dietary assessment and validation from three Swedish studies in the elderly2009Inngår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 63 Suppl 1, S64-S68 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The elderly are a growing part of the population. The objectives have been to describe the dietary assessment methods undertaken, and to evaluate the different validation methods and their performance in free-living elderly populations.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants were from three studies, the Johanneberg, H70 and Nordic Research on Ageing (NORA) studies undertaken in Sweden. The mean age across these studies ranged from 70 to 80 years, and cohort size ranged from n=173 to a total of 1360 in the four cohorts of the H70 geriatric population study. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used in Johanneberg and a diet history (DH) in H70 and NORA. Validation was undertaken using a 4-day food record (FR), four 24-h urinary nitrogen (UN) collections and energy intake/basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR) cutoffs in Johanneberg, EI/BMR cutoffs, total energy expenditure (TEE) estimated by heart rate monitoring, activity diary and doubly labelled water in H70, and EI/BMR cutoffs in NORA.

    RESULTS: The FFQ provided higher intakes of EI and nutrients vs FR, confirmed by UN for protein. Compared with EI/BMR cutoffs, overestimation of EI was moderate. DH showed that slight underestimation vs heart rate was in accordance with activity diary, but compared with doubly labelled water, DH underestimated EI by 12%. In NORA, EI/BMR was high compared with EI/BMR cutoffs. Validation methods detected under- and over-reporting. EI and nutrient intake were in accordance with recommendations.

    CONCLUSIONS: Elderly up to their 80s can perform well in dietary studies. However, people over the age of 80 years may tend to report food habits from earlier in life.

  • 12.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Bosaeus, I G
    Steen, B C
    Energy expenditure at age 73 and 78: a five year follow-up2003Inngår i: Acta Diabetologica, ISSN 0940-5429, E-ISSN 1432-5233, Vol. 40, S134-S138 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is limited knowledge concerning the energy turnover and energy requirements of the elderly. The aim of this study was to measure resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE), and to define activity energy expenditure (AEE) and physical activity level (PAL) in 11 78-year-old individuals. A further aim was to compare these measures with the same measures taken from the 11 subjects at age 73 years. Total body water (TBW) averaged 30.8 kg (SD 3.2) at age 73 and 28.8 kg (SD 3.5) at age 78 years (p<0.01). RMR was measured with a ventilated-hood system and averaged 5.60 MJ/day (SD 0.66) at age 73 and 4.77 MJ/day (SD 0.32) at 78 years (p<0.001). TEE, measured using the doubly labeled water method, averaged 9.64 MJ/day (SD 1.10) at age 73 and 8.30 MJ/day (SD 1.45) at 78 years (p<0.05). AEE averaged 4.04 MJ/day (SD 0.44) at age 73 and 3.53 MJ/day (1.13) at 78 years (ns). PAL averaged 1.74 at both ages. TBW, TEE, and RMR decreased, whereas AEE and PAL did not change substantially during the 5-year follow-up. The PAL values indicated a physically active lifestyle for the age group.

  • 13.
    Stenzelius, Karin
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Westergren, Albert
    Lund University.
    Mattiasson, Anders
    Lund University.
    Rahm Hallberg, Ingalill
    Lund University.
    Older women and men with urinary symptoms2006Inngår i: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 43, nr 2, 249-265 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to compare urinary symptoms and their influence on daily life among elderly (75+) women and men in a sample that previously had reported difficulties controlling urine (urine incontinence (UI)) and/or other urinary symptoms (OU). A further aim was to find underlying structures of urinary symptoms and to identify symptomsthat had an impact on seeking medical help and need of help in daily activities (dependency). In total, 771persons (352menand419women) over75 years answered a questionnaire, addressed to those (n = 1881) who in a previous population-based study had reported having symptoms of UIand/orOUusing theBristolFemaleLower UrinaryTractSymptoms(BF-LUTS) questionnaire and International Continence Society male (ICSmale) questionnaire. The groups with UI, OU, women and men reported similar symptoms of frequency, day and night, as well as influence on social life, and avoidance of places and situations due to the urinary symptoms although they differed in storage and voiding symptoms. Feeling incomplete emptying of bladder differed between the UI, OU, and mixed symptoms (MS) groups but not between genders. Of the whole sample, 43.3% had sought medical help.Factoranalysis of similarquestions inBF-LUTSandICSmalequestionnaire resulted inthe factors labeled voiding, storage, pain, frequency, and daily life. Predictors of the urinary symptoms for needing help in daily activities were frequent micturition day and night (OR 3.2) when aged was controlled for. Influence on daily life(OR2.5), storage symptoms(OR2.2), and pain symptoms(OR2.1)predicted seeking medical help. The results show that urinary symptoms are equally bothersome among men and women. There is a need to encourage elderly to seek medical help and to obtain treatment or alleviations for symptoms that give most bother and indicate dependency, such as frequent micturition day and night and difficulties to reach the toilet in time without leakage.

  • 14. Tognon, Gianluca
    et al.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Sundh, Valter
    Winkvist, Anna
    Lissner, Lauren
    Does the Mediterranean diet predict longevity in the elderly?: A Swedish perspective2011Inngår i: Age (Omaha), ISSN 0161-9152, E-ISSN 1574-4647, Vol. 33, nr 3, 439-450 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary pattern analysis represents a useful improvement in the investigation of diet and health relationships. Particularly, the Mediterranean diet pattern has been associated with reduced mortality risk in several studies involving both younger and elderly population groups. In this research, relationships between dietary macronutrient composition, as well as the Mediterranean diet, and total mortality were assessed in 1,037 seventy-year-old subjects (540 females) information. Diet macronutrient composition was not associated with mortality, while a refined version of the modified Mediterranean diet index showed a significant inverse association (HR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.89; 0.98). As expected, inactive subjects, smokers and those with a higher waist circumference had a higher mortality, while a reduced risk characterized married and more educated people. Sensitivity analyses (which confirmed our results) consisted of: exclusion of one food group at a time in the Mediterranean diet index, exclusion of early deaths, censoring at fixed follow-up time, adjusting for activities of daily living and main cardiovascular risk factors including weight/waist circumference changes at follow up. In conclusion, we can reasonably state that a higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern, especially by consuming wholegrain cereals, foods rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a limited amount of alcohol, predicts increased longevity in the elderly.

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