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  • 1. Aminoff, Sofie R
    et al.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    University of Oslo & Oslo University Hospital.
    Lagerberg, Trine V
    Andreassen, Ole A
    Melle, Ingrid
    Decreased self-reported arousal in schizophrenia during aversive picture viewing compared to bipolar disorder and healthy controls.2011Inngår i: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 185, nr 3, 309-314 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Both schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with disturbances in emotion processing. Previous studies suggest that patients with SCZ assess unpleasant pictures as less arousing than healthy controls (HC), while patients with BD assess neutral pictures as more arousing than HC. No previous studies have investigated whether there is a difference in emotional response across all three groups. Our aim was to explore whether there was a difference in the evaluation of valence and in arousal between SCZ, BD and HC for aversive and neutral pictures. We showed 72 pictures (neutral, non-socially aversive and socially aversive) from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) to 347 subjects. There was a clear interaction effect between the diagnostic group and increasing picture aversiveness for both valence and arousal. There were no significant differences in valence ratings between the different groups or in arousal ratings on any type of stimuli between BD patients and HC. However, SCZ patients reported significantly lower arousal for aversive stimuli, particularly with a social content, when compared to BD patients and HC. This was more pronounced in females. The presence of lifetime psychotic symptoms did not influence emotional responses.

  • 2. Aminoff, Sofie Ragnhild
    et al.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo & Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.
    Lagerberg, Trine Vik
    Hellvin, Tone
    Sundet, Kjetil
    Andreassen, Ole A
    Melle, Ingrid
    An association between affective lability and executive functioning in bipolar disorder.2012Inngår i: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 198, nr 1, 58-61 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies suggest altered affect regulation manifested by affective lability in manic/mixed and euthymic states in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Altered affect regulation may arise from disturbances in interactions between the cognitive and the emotional brain networks. However, the relationship between affective lability and executive function has not previously been studied. Our aim was to investigate affective lability, as measured with the Affective Lability Scale (ALS) in patients with BD (N=32) compared to healthy controls (HC) (N=60), and its relationship to executive functioning. We found significantly higher ALS scores in the BD than in the HC group, indicating a higher degree of affective lability in patients with BD. Sub-sample analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between affective lability and semantic set shifting abilities in BD only. These findings suggest that higher levels of affective lability compared with controls are a trait as well as state dependent in BD, and that disturbed affective lability may arise from an aberrant interaction between cognitive and emotional brain networks.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Hälsa och Samhälle.
    Långvarig smärta - en introduktion2010Inngår i: Smärta och smärtbehandling / [ed] Mads Werner, Ido Leden, Stockholm: Liber , 2010, 2, 387-400 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Bolstad, Ingeborg
    et al.
    Norge.
    Andreassen, Ole A
    Norge.
    Groote, Inge
    Norge.
    Server, Andres
    Norge.
    Sjaastad, Ivar
    Norge.
    Kapur, Shitij
    Storbritannien.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Effects of haloperidol and aripiprazole on the human mesolimbic motivational system: a pharmacological fMRI study2015Inngår i: European Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0924-977X, E-ISSN 1873-7862, Vol. 25, nr 12, 2252-2261 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The atypical antipsychotic drug aripiprazole is a partial dopamine (DA) D2 receptor agonist, which differentiates it from most other antipsychotics. This study compares the brain activation characteristic produced by aripiprazole with that of haloperidol, a typical D2 receptor antagonist. Healthy participants received an acute oral dose of haloperidol, aripiprazole or placebo, and then performed an active aversive conditioning task with aversive and neutral events presented as sounds, while blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was carried out. The fMRI task, targeting the mesolimbic motivational system that is thought to be disturbed in psychosis, was based on the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) animal model - a widely used test of therapeutic potential of antipsychotic drugs. In line with the CAR animal model, the present results show that subjects given haloperidol were not able to avoid more aversive than neutral task trials, even though the response times were shorter during aversive events. In the aripiprazole and placebo groups more aversive than neutral events were avoided. Accordingly, the task-related BOLD-fMRI response in the mesolimbic motivational system was diminished in the haloperidol group compared to the placebo group, particularly in the ventral striatum, whereas the aripiprazole group showed task-related activations intermediate of the placebo and haloperidol groups. The current results show differential effects on brain function by aripiprazole and haloperidol, probably related to altered DA transmission. This supports the use of pharmacological fMRI to study antipsychotic properties in humans.

  • 5. Brown, A A
    et al.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    University of Oslo & University of Oslo & Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.
    Nikolova, Y S
    Djurovic, S
    Agartz, I
    Server, A
    Ferrell, R E
    Manuck, S B
    Mattingsdal, M
    Melle, I
    Hariri, A R
    Frigessi, A
    Andreassen, O A
    Genetic variants affecting the neural processing of human facial expressions: evidence using a genome-wide functional imaging approach.2012Inngår i: Translational psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 2, e143- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human faces present crucial visual information for social interaction. Specialized brain regions are involved in the perception of faces, with the fusiform face area (FFA) a key neuronal substrate. Face processing is genetically controlled, but by which specific genes is unknown. A genome-wide approach identified common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with areas of increased brain activity in response to affective facial expressions, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. SNPs in 20 genetic regions were linked with neural responses to negative facial expressions in a Norwegian sample (n=246), which included patients with mental illness. Three genetic regions were linked with FFA activation in a further discovery experiment using positive facial expressions and involving many of the same individuals (n=284). Two of these three regions showed significant association with right FFA activation to negative facial expressions in an independent North American replication sample of healthy Caucasians (n=85, 3q26.31, P=0.004; 20p12.3, P=0.045). The activation patterns were particularly striking for the SNP in 3q26.31, which lies in a gene TMEM212; only the FFA was activated. The specialized function of this brain region suggests that TMEM212 could contribute to the innate architecture of face processing.

  • 6.
    Davidsson, P.
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, I.
    Lunds universitet.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    No effect of sleep on the generalization of fear learning2014Inngår i: Journal of sleep research, ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 23, 7- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Sleep has been shown to be involved both in emotion regulation and in the active processing of information. We combined these two concepts and tested if sleep affected the generalization of fear learning.

    Methods: In a fear conditioning paradigm, participants were shown images of a small and a big circle where one of them was paired with an aversive sound, making it the CS+. Fear was measured with skin conductance responses. Participants were then randomly divided into a sleep or a wake group. The sleep group took a 2 h nap while the wake group rested for 2 h. Participants were then exposed to the two circles seen before, combined with 8 novel circles that gradually varied in size from the small one to the big one. We looked at how many circle sizes away from the CS+ that participants still exhibited a fear response, and if this differed between the sleep and the wake group.

    Results: We found no effect of sleep on the slope of the generalization across the different circles. There was a main effect of circle size, F(1,25) = 10.42, P = 0.01, but no main effect of sleep/wake, F (1,25) = 0.40, P = 0.54, and no interaction between sleep/wake X circle size, F(1,25) = 0.62, P = 0.44.

    Conclusions: The fear conditioning manipulation worked, with a gradual increase of fear depending on the stimuli’s similarity to the CS+. However, there was no effect of sleep or wake, which could possibly be explained by that just a 2 h nap not being a sufficient sleep manipulation to detect any differences.

  • 7.
    Delfin, Carl
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    The neural basis of aberrant salience attribution in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Due to abnormal functioning of the brain’s reward and prediction system patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders are thought to assign salience to non-relevant objects and events and to form context-inappropriate associations. The brain’s ventral striatum is critical in the formation of associations, and aberrant associations are believed to create delusional content during psychosis. The study wanted to examine the neural response, particularly in the ventral striatum, combined with subjective reports as patients learn associations in an aversive Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. The stimuli were randomized and involved circles of different colors. The conditioned stimuli (CS+) was followed by an unconditioned stimuli (US), consisting of an unpleasant sound, in 50% of events. The unconditioned (CS-) stimuli was followed by a low, not unpleasant sound in 50% of events. The degree of striatal activation was thought to be associated with the severity of patient’s illness. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) responses were examined in eleven unmedicated non-institutionalized patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 15 matched healthy controls. No significant within group differences in neural or subjective response to the [CS+ > CS-] contrast were found. No significant associations between severity of illness and degree of striatal activation in response to CS+ or CS- were found. Significant differences in neural activation for the [CS+ > CS-] contrast were found in the ventral striatum, the right inferor frontal gyrus, and the right angular gyrus, with patients exhibiting stronger activation compared to controls. The results and implications are discussed along with suggestions for future research.

  • 8. Diaconescu, Andreea Oliviana
    et al.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada & Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.
    Wang, Hongye
    Willeit, Matthäus
    Menon, Mahesh
    Kapur, Shitij
    McIntosh, Anthony R
    Aberrant Effective Connectivity in Schizophrenia Patients during Appetitive Conditioning2011Inngår i: Frontiers in human neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 4, 239- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has recently been suggested that schizophrenia involves dysfunction in brain connectivity at a neural level, and a dysfunction in reward processing at a behavioral level. The purpose of the present study was to link these two levels of analyses by examining effective connectivity patterns between brain regions mediating reward learning in patients with schizophrenia and healthy, age-matched controls. To this aim, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and galvanic skin recordings (GSR) while patients and controls performed an appetitive conditioning experiment with visual cues as the conditioned (CS) stimuli, and monetary reward as the appetitive unconditioned stimulus (US). Based on explicit stimulus contingency ratings, conditioning occurred in both groups; however, based on implicit, physiological GSR measures, patients failed to show differences between CS+ and CS- conditions. Healthy controls exhibited increased blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activity across striatal, hippocampal, and prefrontal regions and increased effective connectivity from the ventral striatum to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC BA 11) in the CS+ compared to the CS- condition. Compared to controls, patients showed increased BOLD activity across a similar network of brain regions, and increased effective connectivity from the striatum to hippocampus and prefrontal regions in the CS- compared to the CS+ condition. The findings of increased BOLD activity and effective connectivity in response to the CS- in patients with schizophrenia offer insight into the aberrant assignment of motivational salience to non-reinforced stimuli during conditioning that is thought to accompany schizophrenia.

  • 9. Diaconescu, Andreea Oliviana
    et al.
    Menon, Mahesh
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oslo and Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway.
    Kapur, Shitij
    McIntosh, Anthony Randal
    Dopamine-induced changes in neural network patterns supporting aversive conditioning.2010Inngår i: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 1313, 143-161 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present paper is to assess the effects of altered dopamine (DA) transmission on the functional connectivity among brain regions mediating aversive conditioning in humans. To this aim, we analyzed a previous published data set from a double-blind design combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings in which healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three drug groups: amphetamine (an indirect DA agonist), haloperidol (DA D2 receptor antagonist), and placebo. Participants were exposed to an aversive classical conditioning paradigm using cutaneous electrical stimulation as the unconditioned stimulus (US), and visual cues as the conditioned stimuli (CS) where one colour (CS+) was followed by the US in 33% of the trials and another colour (CS-) had no consequences. All participants reported awareness of stimulus contingencies. Group analysis of fMRI data revealed that the left ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala activated in response to the CS+ in all the three groups. Because of their activation patterns and documented involvement in aversive conditioning, both regions were used as seeds in the functional connectivity analysis. To constrain the functional networks obtained to relate to the conditioned response, we also correlated seed activity with the Galvanic Skin Response (GSR). In the placebo group, the right ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN), bilateral caudate, right parahippocampal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule (IPL), bilateral postcentral gyrus, bilateral middle frontal (BA 46), orbitofrontal, and ventromedial prefrontal cortices (PFC, BA 10/11) correlated with the VS and amygdala seeds in response to the CS+ compared to the CS-. Enhancing dopamine transmission via amphetamine was associated with reduced task differences and significant functional connectivity for both CS+ and CS- conditions between the left VS seed and regions modulated by DA, such as the left VTA/SN, right caudate, left amygdala, left middle frontal gyrus (BA 46), and bilateral ventromedial PFC (BA 10). Blocking dopamine transmission via haloperidol was associated with significant functional connectivity across an alternate network of regions including the left amygdala seed and the right insula, the left ACC (BA 24/32), bilateral IPL (BA 40), precuneus (BA 7), post-central gyrus, middle frontal gyrus (BA 46), and supplementary motor area (SMA, BA 6) to the CS+ versus the CS-. These data provide insight into the distinct effects of DA agents on the functional connectivity between striatal, limbic, and prefrontal areas.

  • 10.
    Edberg, Anna-Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    Omvårdnad vid kognitiv svikt2011Inngår i: Kognitiv medicin / [ed] Wahlund, Lara-Olof; Nilsson, Christer; Wallin, Anders, Stockholm: Norstedts Förlag, 2011, 418-429 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 11.
    Fich, Lars Brorson
    et al.
    Aalborg University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
    Aarhus University.
    Wallergård, Mattias
    Lund University.
    Garde, Anne Helene
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Hansen, Åse
    University of Copenhagen.
    Can architectural design alter the physiological reaction to psychosocial stress?: a virtual TSST experiment2014Inngår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 135, 91-97 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been established, that views to natural scenes can a have a dampening effect on physiological stress responses. However, as people in Europe, Canada and North America today spent 50-85% of their time indoors, attention might also be paid to how the artificial man-made indoor environment influences these mechanisms. The question that this study attempts to start addressing is therefore whether certain design, characteristics of indoor spaces can make a difference to the physiological stress response as well. Using a virtual version of the Trier Social Stress Test, in which the space is computer generated and properties of the space therefore can be systematically varied, we measured saliva cortisol and heart rate variability in participants in a closed room versus a room with openings. As shown by a significant linear contrast interaction between groups and TSST conditions, participants in the closed room responded with more pronounced cortisol reactivity to stress induction, and continued to show higher levels throughout recovery, compared to participants in the open room. No differences were found regarding any part of the autonomic nervous system.

  • 12.
    Haatveit, Beathe
    et al.
    Norge.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Psykologi. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Alnæs, Dag
    Norge.
    Kaufmann, Tobias
    Norge.
    Brandt, Christine L.
    Norge.
    Thoresen, Christian
    Norge.
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Norge.
    Melle, Ingrid
    Norge.
    Ueland, Torill
    Norge.
    Westlye, Lars T.
    Norge.
    Reduced load-dependent default mode network deactivation across executive tasks in schizophrenia spectrum disorders2016Inngår i: NeuroImage: Clinical, ISSN 0353-8842, E-ISSN 2213-1582, Vol. 12, 389-396 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with cognitive impairment and brain network dysconnectivity. Recent efforts have explored brain circuits underlying cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia and documented altered activation of large-scale brain networks, including the task-positive network (TPN) and the task-negative default mode network (DMN) in response to cognitive demands. However, to what extent TPN and DMN dysfunction reflect overlapping mechanisms and are dependent on cognitive state remain to be determined.

    METHODS: In the current study, we investigated the recruitment of TPN and DMN using independent component analysis in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (n = 29) and healthy controls (n = 21) during two different executive tasks probing planning/problem-solving and spatial working memory.

    RESULTS: We found reduced load-dependent DMN deactivation across tasks in patients compared to controls. Furthermore, we observed only moderate associations between the TPN and DMN activation across groups, implying that the two networks reflect partly independent mechanisms. Additionally, whereas TPN activation was associated with task performance in both tasks, no such associations were found for DMN.

    CONCLUSION: These results support a general load-dependent DMN dysfunction in schizophrenia spectrum disorder across two demanding executive tasks that is not merely an epiphenomenon of cognitive dysfunction.

  • 13.
    Hagell, Peter
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön PRO-CARE.
    Smith, Steve
    School of Nursing Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of East Anglia, Norwich.
    Why psychometrics is important - a response to: Aubeeluck, Buchanan & Stupple (2013) Journal of Huntington's Disease 2(4) 453–4542013Inngår i: Journal of Huntington's Disease, ISSN 1879-6397, Vol. 2, nr 4, 455-457 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Hansson, Maria
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Lunds universitet.
    Estimation of HRV spectrogram using multiple window methods focussing on the high frequency power2006Inngår i: Medical Engineering and Physics, ISSN 1350-4533, E-ISSN 1873-4030, Vol. 28, nr 8, 749-761 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the results of different multiple window spectrum analysis methods are compared in the estimation of heart rate variability (HRV) power spectra, in the high frequency band (HF), around 0.25 Hz, related to respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). The evaluation is performed by simulating different spectrum shapes and peak frequency locations and calculating the mean squared error of a frequency range close around the strongest spectral peak. The results show that it is preferable to use the Peak Matched Multiple Windows in most situations, but the Welch method and the Sinusoid Multiple Windows can be as reliable in certain aspects.

  • 15.
    Höglund, A.
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Broman, J.-E.
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Uppsala University.
    Pålhagen, S.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Fredrikson, S.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Hagell, Peter
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön PRO-CARE.
    Is excessive daytime sleepiness a separate manifestation in Parkinson's disease?2015Inngår i: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 132, nr 2, 97-104 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its role and relation to other PD features is less well understood.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential predictors of EDS in PD and to explore how EDS relates to other motor and non-motor PD features.

    METHODS: 118 consecutive persons with PD (54% men; mean age, 64) were assessed regarding EDS using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and a range of motor and non-motor symptoms. Variables significantly associated with ESS scores in bivariate analyses were used in multiple regression analyses with ESS scores as the dependent variable. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to explore the interrelationships between ESS scores and other motor and non-motor PD aspects.

    RESULTS: Among 114 persons with complete ESS data, significant independent associations were found between ESS scores and axial/postural/gait impairment, depressive symptoms, and pain (R(2) , 0.199). ESS scores did not load significantly together with any other PD features in the PCA.

    CONCLUSIONS: Only a limited proportion of the variation in EDS could be accounted for by other symptoms, and EDS did not cluster together with any other PD features in PCAs. This suggests that EDS is a separate manifestation differing from, for example, poor sleep quality and fatigue.

  • 16.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    et al.
    University of Oslo & Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo.
    Kapur, S.
    Salience and psychosis: moving from theory to practise2009Inngår i: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 39, nr 2, 197-198 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    et al.
    PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Baycrest Geriatric Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    McIntosh, Anthony R
    Crawley, Adrian P
    Mikulis, David J
    Remington, Gary
    Kapur, Shitij
    Direct activation of the ventral striatum in anticipation of aversive stimuli.2003Inngår i: Neuron, ISSN 0896-6273, E-ISSN 1097-4199, Vol. 40, nr 6, 1251-1257 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The brain "reward" system, centered on the limbic ventral striatum, plays a critical role in the response to pleasure and pain. The ventral striatum is activated in animal and human studies during anticipation of appetitive/pleasurable events, but its role in aversive/painful events is less clear. Here we present data from three human fMRI studies based on aversive conditioning using unpleasant cutaneous electrical stimulation and show that the ventral striatum is reliably activated. This activation is observed during anticipation and is not a consequence of relief after the aversive event. Further, the ventral striatum is activated in anticipation regardless of whether there is an opportunity to avoid the aversive stimulus or not. Our data suggest that the ventral striatum, a crucial element of the brain "reward" system, is directly activated in anticipation of aversive stimuli.

  • 18.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    et al.
    Malmö högskola.
    Nilsson, Lise-Lotte
    Malmö högskola.
    Levander, Sten
    Malmö högskola.
    Neurocognitive and psychopathological correlates of self-monitoring ability in schizophrenia.2004Inngår i: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, ISSN 0940-1334, E-ISSN 1433-8491, Vol. 254, nr 5, 312-317 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous study reported by our group one salient finding was that many patients with schizophrenia appeared to be unable to judge their own quality of life (QoL) and that this inability was associated with negative symptoms. The association between negative symptoms, poor self-monitoring capacity and lack of insight might be explained by a common underlying factor, i.e. neurocognitive impairment. Fifty schizophrenic patients were examined by symptom ratings and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. The cognitive performance of the patients was very poor. The major findings of the present study were the association between clinically rated Lack of judgement (PANSS G12) and 1) a set of standard performance and executive indices of the computerised tests, and 2) difference scores between objective performance/strategies and self-ratings of the same attributes. There appears to be a substantial contribution of cognitive and executive problems to the poor judgement and lack of insight of schizophrenic patients, and these problems can to some extent be assessed objectively.

  • 19.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    et al.
    Schizophrenia Program and the PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada.
    Smith, Andrew J
    Willeit, Matthäus
    Crawley, Adrian P
    Mikulis, David J
    Vitcu, Irina
    Kapur, Shitij
    Separate brain regions code for salience vs. valence during reward prediction in humans.2007Inngår i: Human Brain Mapping, ISSN 1065-9471, E-ISSN 1097-0193, Vol. 28, nr 4, 294-302 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicting rewards and avoiding aversive conditions is essential for survival. Recent studies using computational models of reward prediction implicate the ventral striatum in appetitive rewards. Whether the same system mediates an organism's response to aversive conditions is unclear. We examined the question using fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent measurements while healthy volunteers were conditioned using appetitive and aversive stimuli. The temporal difference learning algorithm was used to estimate reward prediction error. Activations in the ventral striatum were robustly correlated with prediction error, regardless of the valence of the stimuli, suggesting that the ventral striatum processes salience prediction error. In contrast, the orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula coded for the differential valence of appetitive/aversive stimuli. Given its location at the interface of limbic and motor regions, the ventral striatum may be critical in learning about motivationally salient stimuli, regardless of valence, and using that information to bias selection of actions.

  • 20.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    et al.
    Schizophrenia Program and the PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada & Department of Psychiatry, Ullevål University Hospital and Oslo University, Oslo, Norway.
    Willeit, Matthäus
    Zipursky, Robert B
    Savina, Ioulia
    Smith, Andrew J
    Menon, Mahesh
    Crawley, Adrian P
    Kapur, Shitij
    The formation of abnormal associations in schizophrenia: neural and behavioral evidence.2008Inngår i: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 33, nr 3, 473-479 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is hypothesized that due to an abnormal functioning of the reward system patients with schizophrenia form context-inappropriate associations. It has been shown that the dopamine target regions, especially the ventral striatum, are critical in the formation of reward associations. We wanted to examine how the ventral striatum responds as patients learn reward-related associations and how this neural response is linked to objective and subjective behavioral measures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses were examined using aversive Pavlovian learning in 13 medicated patients with schizophrenia and 13 matched healthy controls. Colored circles served as conditioned stimulus (CS+) while a loud, individually adjusted, noise served as the unconditioned stimulus. Circles of another color served as neutral comparators (CS-). Subjective indices were assessed by a post-scan self-report, and galvanic skin responses (GSR) were used as objective measures of associative learning. fMRI data were analyzed using a random effects model in SPM2. Patients showed inappropriately strong activations in the ventral striatum in response to the neutral stimulus (CS-) as compared to the healthy controls. Consistent with this neural evidence of aberrant learning, patients also showed evidence of abnormal learning by self-report and as indexed by GSR. The main finding here is that patients with schizophrenia, when exposed to neutral stimuli in a threatening situation, show an abnormal pattern of learning. The aberrant activations and response are consistent with the idea that patients aberrantly assign motivational salience to neutral stimuli, and this process may be one of the aberrations that predisposes them to psychosis.

  • 21.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Lunds universitet.
    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a function of state anxiety in healthy individuals2007Inngår i: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 63, nr 1, 48-54 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was examined in relation to state and trait anxiety in healthy individuals. Time-frequency analyses of HR-power spectrum in the high frequency region (0.12-0.40 Hz), related to RSA, were examined in 43 women and 39 men. Based on median split, the participants were divided into high and low state and trait anxiety groups. The main result showed that high state anxious individuals had higher RSA-magnitude (HF-power) than low state anxious individuals. The higher RSA-magnitude in the former group was interpreted as reflecting increased attention or vigilance together with motor and behavioural inhibition. No significant effects of trait anxiety or gender were found.

  • 22.
    Jönsson, Peter
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Sonnby-Borgström, Marianne
    Lunds universitet.
    The effects of pictures of emotional faces on tonic and phasic autonomic cardiac control in women and men2003Inngår i: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 62, nr 2, 157-173 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine autonomic function in response to negatively and positively valenced pictures under different levels of conscious recognition. Heart period variability (HPV) and heart rate (HR) reactivity were studied in 53 males and females who were being shown pictures of angry and happy faces. The pictures, which were backwardly masked, were presented once every 30 s during a 5-min period and under three conditions (counterbalanced for type of facial expression): below the level of conscious recognition (17 ms), at an intermediate level (56 ms), and at a clearly recognizable level (2370 ms). Analyses of HR power spectrum (for 5 min in each condition) in the high frequency region (HF: 0.15-0.5 Hz) that reflects respiratory sinus arrhythmia, as well as analysis of phasic heart rate responses (7.5 s in 0.5 epochs following every picture presentation) were carried out. The main findings were that HF-power was higher, and cardiac midinterval acceleration lower, in response to angry as opposed to happy faces, a result obtained only for the men, however. No interaction effect between facial expression and the three exposure conditions was found, suggesting that the pictures induced emotional activation both subliminally and supraliminally. The results were discussed in terms of increased attention to aversive stimuli.

  • 23. Menon, Mahesh
    et al.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Schizophrenia Program and PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada & Department of Psychiatry, Ullevål University Hospital, Oslo University, Oslo, Norway.
    Vitcu, Irina
    Graff-Guerrero, Ariel
    Crawley, Adrian
    Smith, Mark A
    Kapur, Shitij
    Temporal difference modeling of the blood-oxygen level dependent response during aversive conditioning in humans: effects of dopaminergic modulation.2007Inngår i: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 62, nr 7, 765-772 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The prediction error (PE) hypothesized by the temporal difference model has been shown to correlate with the phasic activity of dopamine neurons during reward learning and the blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response during reward and aversive conditioning tasks. We hypothesized that dopamine would modulate the PE related signal in aversive conditioning and that haloperidol would reduce PE related activity, while an acute dose of amphetamine would increase PE related activity in the ventral striatum.

    METHODS: Healthy participants took an acute dose of amphetamine, haloperidol, or placebo. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the BOLD signal while they carried out an aversive conditioning task, using cutaneous electrical stimulation as the unconditioned stimulus (US) and yellow and blue circles as conditioned stimulus (CS+ and CS-, respectively).

    RESULTS: Prediction error related BOLD activity was seen only in the ventral striatum in the placebo subjects. The subjects given amphetamine showed a wider network of PE related BOLD activity, including the ventral striatum, globus pallidus, putamen, insula, anterior cingulate, and substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area. Haloperidol subjects did not show PE related activity in any of these regions.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the first demonstration that the modulation of dopamine transmission affects both the physiological correlates and PE related BOLD activity during aversive learning.

  • 24.
    Nilsson, Maria H.
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Hagell, Peter
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön PRO-CARE. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I.
    Iwarsson, S
    Lunds universitet.
    Psychometric properties of the general self-efficacy scale in Parkinson's disease2015Inngår i: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 132, nr 2, 89-96 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). More specifically, we investigated data completeness, scaling assumptions, targeting, reliability, and construct validity.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study involves data available from two different projects that included people diagnosed with PD for at least 1 year, yielding two samples (1 and 2). The combined total sample (N = 346; 60% men) had a mean (SD) age and PD duration of 71 (8.9) and 9 years (6.3), respectively. Both samples received a self-administered survey by mail, which was administered twice in sample 2. Additional data (e.g., clinical assessments) were available for Sample 1.

    RESULTS: Total GSE scores were computable for 336 participants (97%). Corrected item-total correlations exceeded 0.4. Principal component analyses identified one component (the eigenvalue of the first component extracted was 6.9), explaining 69% of the total variance. Floor and ceiling effects were < 6%. Internal consistency (coefficient alpha) was 0.95. Analyses of test-retest reliability yielded (ICC) values from 0.69 to 0.80. The highest value refers to those (n = 47) with identical self-ratings of mobility (in the on condition) at both tests; the standard error of measurement was 3.1 points. Construct validity was further supported by correlations in accordance with a priori expectations.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides support for the validity and reliability of GSE scores in people with PD; the GSE can thus serve as a valuable outcome measurement in clinical practice and research.

  • 25. Ousdal, O T
    et al.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    University of Oslo.
    Server, A
    Hariri, A R
    Nakstad, P H
    Andreassen, O A
    The human amygdala is involved in general behavioral relevance detection: evidence from an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging Go-NoGo task.2008Inngår i: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 156, nr 3, 450-455 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The amygdala is classically regarded as a detector of potential threat and as a critical component of the neural circuitry mediating conditioned fear responses. However, it has been reported that the human amygdala responds to multiple expressions of emotions as well as emotionally neutral stimuli of a novel, uncertain or ambiguous nature. Thus, it has been proposed that the function of the amygdala may be of a more general art, i.e. as a detector of behaviorally relevant stimuli [Sander D, Grafman J, Zalla T (2003) The human amygdala: an evolved system for relevance detection. Rev Neurosci 14:303-316]. To investigate this putative function of the amygdala, we used event related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a modified Go-NoGo task composed of behaviorally relevant and irrelevant letter and number stimuli. Analyses revealed bilateral amygdala activation in response to letter stimuli that were behaviorally relevant as compared with letters with less behavioral relevance. Similar results were obtained for relatively infrequent NoGo relevant stimuli as compared with more frequent Go stimuli. Our findings support a role for the human amygdala in general detection of behaviorally relevant stimuli.

  • 26. Ousdal, Olga Therese
    et al.
    Anand Brown, Andrew
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway & University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway & Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.
    Nakstad, Per H
    Melle, Ingrid
    Agartz, Ingrid
    Djurovic, Srdjan
    Bogdan, Ryan
    Hariri, Ahmad R
    Andreassen, Ole A
    Associations between variants near a monoaminergic pathways gene (PHOX2B) and amygdala reactivity: a genome-wide functional imaging study.2012Inngår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics, ISSN 1832-4274, E-ISSN 1839-2628, Vol. 15, nr 3, 273-285 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the amygdala is part of the phylogenetic old brain, and its anatomical and functional properties are conserved across species, it is reasonable to assume genetic influence on its activity. A large corpus of candidate gene studies indicate that individual differences in amygdala activity may be caused by genetic variants within monoaminergic signaling pathways such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. However, to our knowledge, the use of genome-wide data to discover genetic variants underlying individual differences in adult amygdala activity is novel. In the present study, the combination of genome-wide data and functional imaging phenotypes from an emotional faces task yielded a significant association between rs10014254 and the amygdala using a region of interest approach. This single nucleotide polymorphism is located in a regulatory region upstream of the Paired-like homeobox 2b (PHOX2B) gene; therefore it could affect the expression of this gene. PHOX2B regulates the expression of enzymes necessary for the synthesis of several monoamines and is essential for the development of the autonomic nervous system. However, an attempt to replicate the finding in an independent sample from North America did not succeed. The synthesis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and genome-wide data takes a hypothesis-free approach as to which genetic variants are of interest. Therefore, we believe that an undirected finding within such a plausible region is of interest, and that our results add further support to the hypothesis that monoaminergic signaling pathways play a central role in regulating amygdala activity.

  • 27. Ousdal, Olga Therese
    et al.
    Reckless, Greg E
    Server, Andres
    Andreassen, Ole A
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway & University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway & Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.
    Effect of relevance on amygdala activation and association with the ventral striatum.2012Inngår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 62, nr 1, 95-101 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While the amygdala historically has been implicated in emotional stimuli processing, recent data suggest a general role in parceling out the relevance of stimuli, regardless of their emotional properties. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested the relevance hypothesis by investigating human amygdala responses to emotionally neutral stimuli while manipulating their relevance. The task was operationalized as highly relevant if a subsequent opportunity to respond for a reward depended on response accuracy of the task, and less relevant if the reward opportunity was independent of task performance. A region of interest analysis revealed bilateral amygdala activations in response to the high relevance condition compared to the low relevance condition. An exploratory whole-brain analysis yielded robust similar results in bilateral ventral striatum. A subsequent functional connectivity analysis demonstrated increased connectivity between amygdala and ventral striatum for the highly relevant stimuli compared to the less relevant stimuli. These findings suggest that the amygdala's processing profile goes beyond detection of emotions per se, and directly support the proposed role in relevance detection. In addition, the findings suggest a close relationship between amygdala and ventral striatal activity when processing relevant stimuli. Thus, the results may indicate that human amygdala modulates ventral striatum activity and subsequent behaviors beyond that observed for emotional cues, to encompass a broader range of relevant stimuli.

  • 28.
    Reckless, Greg E.
    et al.
    Norge.
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Norge.
    Server, Andres
    Norge.
    Østefjells, Tiril
    Norge.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Negative symptoms in schizophrenia are associated with aberrant striato-cortical connectivity in a rewarded perceptual decision-making task2015Inngår i: NeuroImage: Clinical, ISSN 0353-8842, E-ISSN 2213-1582, Vol. 8, 290-297 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Negative symptoms in schizophrenia have been associated with structural and functional changes in the prefrontal cortex. They often persist after treatment with antipsychotic medication which targets, in particular, the ventral striatum (VS). As schizophrenia has been suggested to arise from dysfunctional connectivity between neural networks, it is possible that residual aberrant striato-cortical connectivity in medicated patients plays a role in enduring negative symptomology. The present study examined the relationship between striato-cortical connectivity and negative symptoms in medicated schizophrenia patients.

    Methods

    We manipulated motivation in a perceptual decision-making task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparing healthy controls (n = 21) and medicated patients with schizophrenia (n = 18) we investigated how motivation-mediated changes in VS activation affected functional connectivity with the frontal cortex, and how changes in connectivity strength from the neutral to motivated condition related to negative symptom severity.

    Results

    A pattern of aberrant striato-cortical connectivity was observed in the presence of intact VS, but altered left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) motivation-mediated activation in patients. The more severe the patient's negative symptoms, the less the connectivity strength between the right VS and left IFG changed from the neutral to the motivated condition. Despite aberrant striato-cortical connectivity and altered recruitment of the left IFG among patients, both patients and healthy controls adopted a more liberal response strategy in the motivated compared to the neutral condition.

    Conclusions

    The present findings suggest that there is a link between dysfunctional striato-cortical connectivity and negative symptom severity, and offer a possible explanation as to why negative symptoms persist after treatment with antipsychotics.

  • 29.
    Sigvartsen, Niels Petter
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    University of Oslo, Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Temporal difference modelling of aversive conditioning and extinction: An fMRI study2009Inngår i: Front. Neur. Conference Abstract: Neuroinformatics 2009, 2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The prediction error (PE) signal from temporal difference (TD) models have been shown to correlate with activity in specific brain regions in both human and animals during conditioning tasks. One of the key regions involved is the ventral striatum (VS). The purpose of this study was to investigate how the TD model predicted VS activations during aversive conditioning and extinction. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Blood-Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) data were acquired on a 1.5 T GE Signa scanner. Thirty-three healthy subjects completed a 33% partially reinforced classical conditioning paradigm using coloured circles as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and aversive cutaneous electrical stimulation (CES) as the unconditioned stimulus (US). After a short break a second scanning session was performed where the subjects were divided into three groups (N=11 in each group): 1) a control group that repeated the paradigm; 2) an extinction group that repeated the paradigm with the CES turned off without their knowledge; and 3) an intervention group that were told that the CES would be turned off before they repeated the paradigm. Thus, in the second session the extinction and intervention groups saw the CS but without US. A modified TD algorithm was used to generate a salience PE signal vector which was used as a regressor in the fMRI analyses. Pre-processing and analyses of data were done using SPM5. Final analysis of the first session and preliminary analysis of the control and extinction groups from the second session are reported here. Analysis of the first session included all 33 subjects and PE activations bilaterally in the VS, anterior insula and anterior cingulate were obtained. Analyses from the second session showed that activations were predicted by salience PE bilaterally in the VS and the anterior insula in the control group while the extinction group recruited the VS and the ventro-medial PFC. The findings from the first session and the control group in the second session replicated previous studies. However, the results of the second session in the extinction group extend that fMRI BOLD behave according to salience PE to a more general level in aversive learning ranging from acquisition to maintenance to extinction of associations.

  • 30. Thoresen, Christian
    et al.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Oslo University Hospital & University of Oslo & Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.
    Sigvartsen, Niels Petter B
    Bolstad, Ingeborg
    Server, Andres
    Nakstad, Per H
    Andreassen, Ole A
    Endestad, Tor
    Arousal Modulates Activity in the Medial Temporal Lobe during a Short-Term Relational Memory Task.2011Inngår i: Frontiers in human neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 5, 177- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effect of arousal on short-term relational memory and its underlying cortical network. Seventeen healthy participants performed a picture by location, short-term relational memory task using emotional pictures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal relative to task. Subjects' own ratings of the pictures were used to obtain subjective arousal ratings. Subjective arousal was found to have a dose-dependent effect on activations in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and in higher order visual areas. Serial position analyses showed that high arousal trials produced a stronger primacy and recency effect than low arousal trials. The results indicate that short-term relational memory may be facilitated by arousal and that this may be modulated by a dose-response function in arousal-driven neuronal regions.

  • 31. Thormodsen, Rune
    et al.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Oslo University Hospital & University of Oslo, Norway & Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.
    Holmèn, Aina
    Juuhl-Langseth, Monica
    Emblem, Kyrre Eeg
    Andreassen, Ole Andreas
    Rund, Bjørn Rishovd
    Prefrontal hyperactivation during a working memory task in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders: an fMRI study.2011Inngår i: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 194, nr 3, 257-262 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Working memory (WM) dysfunction is increasingly recognized as a core feature of schizophrenia, but few studies have investigated prefrontal activation during WM tasks in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorder (EOS). Our aim was to explore prefrontal activation during a WM-task in EOS patients compared to healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifteen patients with EOS and 15 matched healthy controls performed a 0-back and a 2-back task while fMRI data were acquired. Results indicated that even though performance between patients and controls was comparable on both tasks, there was a hyperactivation in patients' ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) during the 2-back task compared to healthy controls. This pattern of activation suggests that, in patients with EOS, the VLPFC compensated in order to match performance of the controls. The activations in the EOS group may reflect the use of a compensatory, cognitive strategy while solving WM-tasks.

  • 32. Welander-Vatn, Audun S
    et al.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Institute of Psychiatry, University of Oslo & Department of Psychiatry, Ulleval University Hospital, Oslo.
    Lycke, Christine
    Agartz, Ingrid
    Server, Andres
    Gadmar, Øystein Bech
    Melle, Ingrid
    Nakstad, Per Hjalmar
    Andreassen, Ole A
    No altered dorsal anterior cingulate activation in bipolar II disorder patients during a Go/No-go task: an fMRI study.2009Inngår i: Bipolar Disorders, ISSN 1398-5647, E-ISSN 1399-5618, Vol. 11, nr 3, 270-279 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: It has been reported that one of the core features in patients with bipolar disorder II (BD II) is increased impulsivity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with BD II showed decreased activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as compared to healthy controls when performing a task sensitive to impulsivity.

    METHODS: Twenty-seven BD II patients and 28 healthy controls performed a Go/No-go task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. Eleven of the patients were unmedicated, and possible group differences between medicated and unmedicated patients were also assessed. Results: The groups did not differ in behavioral performance on the Go/No-go task. Both BD II subjects and healthy controls demonstrated dACC activity during the task, and analyses revealed no statistically significant group differences. Medicated and unmedicated patients also did not differ in the degree of fMRI activation.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings do not support the hypothesis of abnormal dACC activity during a Go/No-go task in BD II patients.

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