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  • 1. Aminoff, Sofie R
    et al.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    University of Oslo & Oslo University Hospital.
    Lagerberg, Trine V
    Andreassen, Ole A
    Melle, Ingrid
    Decreased self-reported arousal in schizophrenia during aversive picture viewing compared to bipolar disorder and healthy controls.2011Inngår i: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 185, nr 3, 309-314 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Both schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with disturbances in emotion processing. Previous studies suggest that patients with SCZ assess unpleasant pictures as less arousing than healthy controls (HC), while patients with BD assess neutral pictures as more arousing than HC. No previous studies have investigated whether there is a difference in emotional response across all three groups. Our aim was to explore whether there was a difference in the evaluation of valence and in arousal between SCZ, BD and HC for aversive and neutral pictures. We showed 72 pictures (neutral, non-socially aversive and socially aversive) from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) to 347 subjects. There was a clear interaction effect between the diagnostic group and increasing picture aversiveness for both valence and arousal. There were no significant differences in valence ratings between the different groups or in arousal ratings on any type of stimuli between BD patients and HC. However, SCZ patients reported significantly lower arousal for aversive stimuli, particularly with a social content, when compared to BD patients and HC. This was more pronounced in females. The presence of lifetime psychotic symptoms did not influence emotional responses.

  • 2. Aminoff, Sofie Ragnhild
    et al.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo & Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.
    Lagerberg, Trine Vik
    Hellvin, Tone
    Sundet, Kjetil
    Andreassen, Ole A
    Melle, Ingrid
    An association between affective lability and executive functioning in bipolar disorder.2012Inngår i: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 198, nr 1, 58-61 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies suggest altered affect regulation manifested by affective lability in manic/mixed and euthymic states in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Altered affect regulation may arise from disturbances in interactions between the cognitive and the emotional brain networks. However, the relationship between affective lability and executive function has not previously been studied. Our aim was to investigate affective lability, as measured with the Affective Lability Scale (ALS) in patients with BD (N=32) compared to healthy controls (HC) (N=60), and its relationship to executive functioning. We found significantly higher ALS scores in the BD than in the HC group, indicating a higher degree of affective lability in patients with BD. Sub-sample analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between affective lability and semantic set shifting abilities in BD only. These findings suggest that higher levels of affective lability compared with controls are a trait as well as state dependent in BD, and that disturbed affective lability may arise from an aberrant interaction between cognitive and emotional brain networks.

  • 3.
    Andersen, Marie Louise M.
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Vaziri-Sani, Fariba
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Lunds universitet.
    Delli, Ahmed
    Skåne University Hospital .
    Pörksen, Sven
    Danmark.
    Jacobssen, Emma
    Skåne University Hospital .
    Thomsen, Jane
    Danmark.
    Svensson, Jannet
    Danmark.
    Petersen, Jacob Steen
    Danmark.
    Hansen, Lars
    Danmark.
    Lernmark, Ake
    Skåne University Hospital .
    Mortensen, Henrik B
    Danmark.
    Nielsen, Lotte B
    Danmark.
    Association between autoantibodies to the Arginine variant of the Zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) and stimulated C-peptide levels in Danish children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes2012Inngår i: Pediatric Diabetes, ISSN 1399-543X, E-ISSN 1399-5448, Vol. 13, nr 6, 454-462 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) was recently identified as a common autoantigen in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and inclusion of ZnT8 autoantibodies (ZnT8Ab) was found to increase the diagnostic specificity of T1D.

    Objectives

    The main aims were to determine whether ZnT8Ab vary during follow-up 1 year after diagnosis, and to relate the reactivity of three types of ZnT8Ab to the residual stimulated C-peptide levels during the first year after diagnosis. Subjects A total of 129 newly diagnosed T1D patients <15 years was followed prospectively 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis.

    Methods

    Hemoglobin A1c, meal-stimulated C-peptide, ZnT8Ab, and other pancreatic autoantibodies were measured at each visit. Patients were genotyped for the rs13266634 variant at the SLC30A8 gene and HLA-DQ alleles. Results The levels of all ZnT8Ab [ZnT8Arg (arginine), ZnT8Trp (tryptophan), ZnT8Gln (glutamine)] tended to decrease during disease progression. A twofold higher level of ZnT8Arg and ZnT8Gln was associated with 4.6%/5.2% (p = 0.02), 5.3%/8.2% (p = 0.02) and 8.9%/9.7% (p = 0.004) higher concentrations of stimulated C-peptide 3, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis. The TT genotype carriers of the SLC30A8 gene had 45.8% (p = 0.01) and 60.1% (p = 0.002) lower stimulated C-peptide 6 and 12 months after diagnosis compared to the CC and the CT genotype carriers in a recessive model.

    Conclusions

    The levels of the Arg variant of the ZnT8 autoantibodies are associated with higher levels of stimulated C-peptide after diagnosis of T1D and during follow-up. Carriers of the TT genotype of the SLC30A8 gene predict lower stimulated C-peptide levels 12 months after diagnosis.

  • 4.
    Andersson, C
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Larsson, K
    Deparment of Paediatrics, Kristianstad hospital.
    Vaziri-Sani, Fariba
    Lund University.
    Lynch, K
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, A
    Lund University.
    Cedervall, E
    Ängelholm hospital.
    Jönsson, B
    Ystad hospital.
    Neiderud, J
    Helsingborg hospital.
    Månsson, M
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, A
    Lund University.
    Lernmark, Å
    Lund University.
    Elding Larsson, H
    Lund Univeristy.
    Ivarsson, SA
    Lund University.
    The three ZNT8 autoantibody variants together improve the diagnostic sensitivity of childhood and adolescent type 1 diabetes2011Inngår i: Autoimmunity, ISSN 0891-6934, E-ISSN 1607-842X, Vol. 44, nr 5, 394-405 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: We tested whether autoantibodies to all three ZnT8RWQ variants, GAD65, insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2), insulin and autoantibodies to islet cell cytoplasm (ICA) in combination with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) would improve the diagnostic sensitivity of childhood type 1 diabetes by detecting the children who otherwise would have been autoantibody-negative.

    Methods: A total of 686 patients diagnosed in 1996–2005 in Skåne were analyzed for all the seven autoantibodies [arginin 325 zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8RA), tryptophan 325 zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8WA), glutamine 325 Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8QA), autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), Autoantibodies to islet-antigen-2 (IA-2A), insulin autoantibodies (IAA) and ICA] in addition to HLA-DQ genotypes.

    Results: Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody to either one or all three amino acid variants at position 325 (ZnT8RWQA) was found in 65% (449/686) of the patients. The frequency was independent of age at diagnosis. The ZnT8RWQA reduced the frequency of autoantibody-negative patients from 7.5 to 5.4%—a reduction by 28%. Only 2 of 108 (2%) patients who are below 5 years of age had no autoantibody at diagnosis. Diagnosis without any islet autoantibody increased with increasing age at onset. DQA1-B1*X-0604 was associated with both ZnT8RA (p = 0.002) and ZnT8WA (p = 0.01) but not with ZnT8QA (p = 0.07). Kappa agreement analysis showed moderate (>0.40) to fair (>0.20) agreement between pairs of autoantibodies for all combinations of GADA, IA-2A, ZnT8RWQA and ICA but only slight ( < 0.19) agreement for any combination with IAA.

    Conclusions: This study revealed that (1) the ZnT8RWQA was common, independent of age; (2) multiple autoantibodies were common among the young; (3) DQA1-B1*X-0604 increased the risk for ZnT8RA and ZnT8WA; (4) agreement between autoantibody pairs was common for all combinations except IAA. These results suggest that ZnT8RWQA is a necessary complement to the classification and prediction of childhood type 1 diabetes as well as to randomize the subjects in the prevention and intervention of clinical trials.

  • 5.
    Andersson, C
    et al.
    Lund Univeristy.
    Vaziri-Sani, Fariba
    Lunds universitet.
    Delli, AJ
    Lund University.
    Lindblad, B
    The Queen Silvia Children's Hospital .
    Carlsson, A
    Lund University.
    Forsander, G
    The Queen Silvia Children's Hospital .
    Ludvigsson, J
    Linköping University.
    Marcus, C
    Karolinska Institute.
    Samuelsson, U
    Linköping Univeristy Hospital.
    Ivarsson, SA
    Lund University.
    Lernmark, Å
    Lund University.
    Elding Larsson, H
    Lund Univeristy.
    Triple specificity of ZnT8 autoantibodies in relation to HLA and other islet autoantibodies in childhood and adolescent type 1 diabetes2013Inngår i: Pediatric Diabetes, ISSN 1399-543X, E-ISSN 1399-5448, Vol. 14, nr 2, 97-105 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To establish the diagnostic sensitivity of and the relationships between autoantibodies to all three Zinc transporter 8 (Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody to either one, two, or all three amino acid variants at position 325, ZnT8A) variants to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ and to autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2A), and insulin (IAA).

    Methods

    We analyzed 3165 patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the Better Diabetes Diagnosis study for HLA-DQ genotypes and all six autoantibodies (ZnT8RA, arginine 325 Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody; ZnT8WA, tryptophan 325 Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody; ZnT8QA, glutamine 325 Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody; GADA, IA-2A, and IAA).

    Results

    ZnT8A was found in 65% of the patients and as many as 108 of 3165 (3.4%) had 1–3 ZnT8A alone. None had ZnT8QA alone. Together with GADA (56%), IA-2A (73%), and IAA (33%), 93% of the T1D patients were autoantibody positive. All three ZnT8A were less frequent in children below 2 yr of age (p < 0.0001). All three ZnT8A were associated with DQA1-B1*X-0604 (DQ6.4) and DQA1-B1*03-0302 (DQ8). ZnT8WA and ZnT8QA were negatively associated with DQA1-B1*05-02 (DQ2).

    Conclusions

    Analysis of ZnT8A increased the diagnostic sensitivity of islet autoantibodies for T1D as only 7% remained islet autoantibody negative. The association between DQ6.4 and all three ZnT8A may be related to ZnT8 antigen presentation by the DQ6.4 heterodimer.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Hälsa och Samhälle.
    Långvarig smärta - en introduktion2010Inngår i: Smärta och smärtbehandling / [ed] Mads Werner, Ido Leden, Stockholm: Liber , 2010, 2, 387-400 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Hälsa och Samhälle.
    Rehabilitering vid långvarig smärta2010Inngår i: Smärta och smärtbehandling / [ed] Mads Werner, Ido Leden, Stockholm: Liber , 2010, 2, 401-409 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Aupée, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Lunds universitet.
    Age-related changes of phasic heart rate responses to affective pictures2008Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, nr 4, 325-331 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined age differences in phasic heart rate in response to neutral, negative and positive pictures. Heart rate changes and subjective ratings were analyzed in 22 middle-aged (40-55 years) and 30 older (56-78 years) participants. The effects of valence on the HR pattern across time were similar to that obtained by Bradley and co-workers. Conversely to previous studies, we did not report any age-related reduction in cardiac reactivity. Instead, when viewing positive pictures, the triphasic wave form appeared in the group of older adults, but for younger participants, it was replaced by a sustained deceleration. These results were interpreted in the light of the socioemotional selectivity theory.

  • 9.
    Barclay, C J
    et al.
    Australien.
    Widén, Cecilia
    Australien.
    Mellors, L J
    Australien.
    Initial mechanical efficiency of isolated cardiac muscle2003Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 206, nr Pt 16, 2725-32 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the initial mechanical efficiency (ratio of work output to initial metabolic cost) of isolated cardiac muscle is over 60%, as has been reported previously, or whether it is approximately 30%, as suggested by an estimate based on the well-established net mechanical efficiency (ratio of work output to total, suprabasal energy cost) of 15%. Determination of initial efficiency required separation of the enthalpy output (i.e. heat + work) into initial and recovery components. The former corresponds to energy produced by reactions that use high-energy phosphates and the latter to energy produced in the regeneration of high-energy phosphates. The two components were separated mathematically. Experiments were performed in vitro (30 degrees C) using preparations dissected from rat left ventricular papillary muscles (N=13). Muscle work output and heat production were measured during a series of 40 contractions using a contraction protocol designed to mimic in vivo papillary muscle activity. Net mechanical efficiency was 13.3+/-0.7%. The total enthalpy output was 2.16 times greater than the initial enthalpy output, so that initial mechanical efficiency was 28.1+/-1.2%.

  • 10.
    Bauden, Monika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Tassidis, Helena
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Ansari, Daniel
    Lund University.
    In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of HDAC inhibitor Apicidin in pancreatic carcinoma cells subsequent time and dose dependent treatment2015Inngår i: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 236, nr 1, 8-15 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Apicidin is a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) that selectively binds to histone deacetylases (HDACs) class I and interferes with the deacetylation process, which results in modification of acetylation level of cellular proteins. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential time and dose dependent cytotoxicity of the test compound, Apicidin, in pancreatic cancer cells Capan-1 and Panc-1 as well as estimate maximal tolerable dose (MTD) of the test agent and determine EC50 using four complementary colorimetric cytotoxicity or viability assays. The cells were treated with increasing concentrations of Apicidin (0-5000nM) for 2, 4 and 6h (short term exposure) or 24, 48 and 72h (long term exposure) before conducting cytotoxic analyses with lactate dehydrogenase assay or viability analyses with sulforhodamine B (SRB), methyl tetrazolium (MTT) and crystal violet (CV) assays. In order to investigate whether Apicidin irreversibly affects the cells already during the short term exposure, the medium containing Apicidin was removed and replaced with fresh culturing medium after 6h of treatment. The cells were then incubated for additional 24, 48 or 72h before carrying out the analysis. The results obtained from cytotoxicity and viability assays indicated, that Apicidin was well tolerated by both cell lines at concentrations below 100nM at any given time point and at all applied concentrations during the short term (6h or less) treatment. Continuous prolonged term exposures (48h or greater) of the cells to Apicidin with concentration exceeding 100nM resulted in significantly increasing cytotoxicity and sustained significant loss of cell viability. Moreover, long term exposure of pancreatic cancer cells Capan-1 and Panc-1 to Apicidin concentrations exceeding 100nM showed an initial anti-proliferative effect before cytotoxicity onset. In summary, MTD was exposure time dependent and estimated to 100nM for long term treatment and to at least 5000nM for treatment not greater than 6h. EC50 concentration of Apicidin was established after long term treatment, however with some variation when comparing the different assays and cell lines. Results from this study may encourage reinvestigating the capacity of potent HDACI Apicidin as an attractive agent for interfering with the deacetylation process catalyzed by HDACs for potential pancreatic cancer intervention.

  • 11.
    Bolstad, Ingeborg
    et al.
    Norge.
    Andreassen, Ole A
    Norge.
    Groote, Inge
    Norge.
    Server, Andres
    Norge.
    Sjaastad, Ivar
    Norge.
    Kapur, Shitij
    Storbritannien.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Effects of haloperidol and aripiprazole on the human mesolimbic motivational system: a pharmacological fMRI study2015Inngår i: European Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0924-977X, E-ISSN 1873-7862, Vol. 25, nr 12, 2252-2261 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The atypical antipsychotic drug aripiprazole is a partial dopamine (DA) D2 receptor agonist, which differentiates it from most other antipsychotics. This study compares the brain activation characteristic produced by aripiprazole with that of haloperidol, a typical D2 receptor antagonist. Healthy participants received an acute oral dose of haloperidol, aripiprazole or placebo, and then performed an active aversive conditioning task with aversive and neutral events presented as sounds, while blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was carried out. The fMRI task, targeting the mesolimbic motivational system that is thought to be disturbed in psychosis, was based on the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) animal model - a widely used test of therapeutic potential of antipsychotic drugs. In line with the CAR animal model, the present results show that subjects given haloperidol were not able to avoid more aversive than neutral task trials, even though the response times were shorter during aversive events. In the aripiprazole and placebo groups more aversive than neutral events were avoided. Accordingly, the task-related BOLD-fMRI response in the mesolimbic motivational system was diminished in the haloperidol group compared to the placebo group, particularly in the ventral striatum, whereas the aripiprazole group showed task-related activations intermediate of the placebo and haloperidol groups. The current results show differential effects on brain function by aripiprazole and haloperidol, probably related to altered DA transmission. This supports the use of pharmacological fMRI to study antipsychotic properties in humans.

  • 12.
    Bredie, Wender L. P.
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen.
    Tan, Hui Shan Grace
    University of Copenhagen.
    Wendin, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    A comparative study on facially expressed emotions in response to basic tastes2014Inngår i: Chemosensory Perception, ISSN 1936-5802, Vol. 7, nr 1, 1-9 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Facially expressed emotions play a role in communication between individuals. They form another means of expressing oneself besides verbal expressions or self-reporting of feelings and perceptions on psychometric scales and are implicit in nature. This study aimed to evaluate the extent and specificity of evoking facial expressed emotions by basic tastes and to evaluate if facially expressed emotions provide additional information to explicit measures. The emotions were characterised upon tasting the five basic tastes in aqueous solutions at three different concentrations levels. The sensory and emotional responses reported were obtained from a 21-membered taste panel. Facial reactions and facially expressed emotions depended on the taste quality and taste intensity. However, the facially expressed emotions were generally weak even for the relatively strong taste intensities. Bitter (caffeine), sour (citric acid) and salty (sodium chloride) lead to clear disgust and surprise responses, whereas, sweet (sucrose) and umami (glutamic acid monosodium salt) taste gave weakly noticeable facially expressed emotions. Although correlations between the expressed emotions and hedonic responses were observed, the affective experience had a limited predictive ability for the facially expressed emotion at the individual level. In conclusion, psychometric rating of the hedonic response is easier to assess than facially expressed emotions although it may not completely represent the dimensions of the emotional experience.

  • 13.
    Brorsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Vaziri-Sani, Fariba
    Lund University.
    Bergholdt, Regine
    Danmark.
    Eising, Stefanie
    Danmark.
    Nilsson, Anita
    Lund University.
    Svensson, Jannet
    Danmark.
    Lernmark, Ake
    Lund University.
    Pociot, Flemming
    Danmark.
    Correlations between islet autoantibody specificity and the SLC30A8 genotype with HLA-DQB1 and metabolic control in new onset type 1 diabetes2011Inngår i: Autoimmunity, ISSN 0891-6934, E-ISSN 1607-842X, Vol. 44, nr 2, 107-114 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We hypothesised that the correlation between autoantibody specificity for the ZnT8 Arg325Trp isoforms and the type 2 diabetes-associated rs13266634 may affect beta-cell function at type 1 diabetes (T ID) onset. To study this, we tested 482 newly diagnosed diabetic probands and 478 healthy siblings from the Danish population-based T1D registry for autoantibodies to ZnT8 (ZnT8A) in addition to GAD65 and IA-2. The prevalence and titres of autoantibodies were correlated with genotypes for rs13266634 and HLA-DQB1, age at diagnosis (AAD) and insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c), as a proxy for residual beta-cell function. We replicated the correlation between rs13266634 genotypes and specificity for the ZnT8-Argenine (ZnT8R) and ZnT8-Tryptophan (ZnT8W) isoforms previously reported. ZnT8A overlapped substantially with autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GADA) and IA-2 (IA-2A) and correlated significantly with IA-2A prevalence (p < 2e-16). No effect on IDAA1c was demonstrated for ZnT8A or rs13266634. We found a correlation between ZnT8R positivity and HLA-DQB1*0302 genotypes (p = 0.016), which has not been shown previously. Furthermore, significantly lower ZnT8R and GADA prevalence and titres was found among probands with AAD < 5 years (prevalence: p = 0.004 and p = 0.0001; titres: p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively). The same trend was observed for IA-2A and ZnT8W; however, the difference was non-significant. Our study confirms ZnT8 as a major target for autoantibodies at disease onset in our Danish T1D cohort of children and adolescents, and we have further characterised the relationship between autoantibody specificity for the ZnT8 Arg325Trp epitopes and rs13266634 in relation to established autoantibodies, AAD, measures of beta-cell function and HLA-DQB1 genotypes in T1D.

  • 14. Brown, A A
    et al.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    University of Oslo & University of Oslo & Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.
    Nikolova, Y S
    Djurovic, S
    Agartz, I
    Server, A
    Ferrell, R E
    Manuck, S B
    Mattingsdal, M
    Melle, I
    Hariri, A R
    Frigessi, A
    Andreassen, O A
    Genetic variants affecting the neural processing of human facial expressions: evidence using a genome-wide functional imaging approach.2012Inngår i: Translational psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 2, e143- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human faces present crucial visual information for social interaction. Specialized brain regions are involved in the perception of faces, with the fusiform face area (FFA) a key neuronal substrate. Face processing is genetically controlled, but by which specific genes is unknown. A genome-wide approach identified common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with areas of increased brain activity in response to affective facial expressions, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. SNPs in 20 genetic regions were linked with neural responses to negative facial expressions in a Norwegian sample (n=246), which included patients with mental illness. Three genetic regions were linked with FFA activation in a further discovery experiment using positive facial expressions and involving many of the same individuals (n=284). Two of these three regions showed significant association with right FFA activation to negative facial expressions in an independent North American replication sample of healthy Caucasians (n=85, 3q26.31, P=0.004; 20p12.3, P=0.045). The activation patterns were particularly striking for the SNP in 3q26.31, which lies in a gene TMEM212; only the FFA was activated. The specialized function of this brain region suggests that TMEM212 could contribute to the innate architecture of face processing.

  • 15.
    Casas, Monica Escolà
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Hansen, Martin
    Danmark.
    Krogh, Kristine A.
    Danmark.
    Styrishave, Bjarne
    Danmark.
    Björklund, Erland
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Analytical sample preparation strategies for the determination of antimalarial drugs in human whole blood, plasma and urine2014Inngår i: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 962, 109-131 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Antimalarial drugs commonly referred to as antimalarials, include a variety of compounds with different physicochemical properties. There is a lack of information on antimalarial distribution in the body over time after administration, e.g. the drug concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and urine, which must be improved in order to advance curing the parasitic disease malaria. A key problem also lies in that pharmacokinetic studies not always are performed in patient groups that may benefit most of the treatment such as children, pregnancy and lower-weight ethnic populations. Here we review the available sample preparation strategies combined with liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis to determine antimalarials in whole blood, plasma and urine published over the last decade. Sample preparation can be done by protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction or dilution. After LC separation, the preferred detection tool is tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) but other detection methods have been used e.g. UV, fluorescence and electrochemical detection. Major trends for sample preparation of the different groups of antimalarials for each matrix and its detection have been summarized. Finally, the main problems that the researchers have dealt with are highlighted. This information will aid analytical chemists in the development of novel methods for determining existing antimalarials and upcoming new drugs

  • 16.
    Davidsson, P.
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, I.
    Lunds universitet.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    No effect of sleep on the generalization of fear learning2014Inngår i: Journal of sleep research, ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 23, 7- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Sleep has been shown to be involved both in emotion regulation and in the active processing of information. We combined these two concepts and tested if sleep affected the generalization of fear learning.

    Methods: In a fear conditioning paradigm, participants were shown images of a small and a big circle where one of them was paired with an aversive sound, making it the CS+. Fear was measured with skin conductance responses. Participants were then randomly divided into a sleep or a wake group. The sleep group took a 2 h nap while the wake group rested for 2 h. Participants were then exposed to the two circles seen before, combined with 8 novel circles that gradually varied in size from the small one to the big one. We looked at how many circle sizes away from the CS+ that participants still exhibited a fear response, and if this differed between the sleep and the wake group.

    Results: We found no effect of sleep on the slope of the generalization across the different circles. There was a main effect of circle size, F(1,25) = 10.42, P = 0.01, but no main effect of sleep/wake, F (1,25) = 0.40, P = 0.54, and no interaction between sleep/wake X circle size, F(1,25) = 0.62, P = 0.44.

    Conclusions: The fear conditioning manipulation worked, with a gradual increase of fear depending on the stimuli’s similarity to the CS+. However, there was no effect of sleep or wake, which could possibly be explained by that just a 2 h nap not being a sufficient sleep manipulation to detect any differences.

  • 17.
    Delfin, Carl
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    The neural basis of aberrant salience attribution in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Due to abnormal functioning of the brain’s reward and prediction system patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders are thought to assign salience to non-relevant objects and events and to form context-inappropriate associations. The brain’s ventral striatum is critical in the formation of associations, and aberrant associations are believed to create delusional content during psychosis. The study wanted to examine the neural response, particularly in the ventral striatum, combined with subjective reports as patients learn associations in an aversive Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. The stimuli were randomized and involved circles of different colors. The conditioned stimuli (CS+) was followed by an unconditioned stimuli (US), consisting of an unpleasant sound, in 50% of events. The unconditioned (CS-) stimuli was followed by a low, not unpleasant sound in 50% of events. The degree of striatal activation was thought to be associated with the severity of patient’s illness. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) responses were examined in eleven unmedicated non-institutionalized patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 15 matched healthy controls. No significant within group differences in neural or subjective response to the [CS+ > CS-] contrast were found. No significant associations between severity of illness and degree of striatal activation in response to CS+ or CS- were found. Significant differences in neural activation for the [CS+ > CS-] contrast were found in the ventral striatum, the right inferor frontal gyrus, and the right angular gyrus, with patients exhibiting stronger activation compared to controls. The results and implications are discussed along with suggestions for future research.

  • 18.
    Delli, Ahmed J.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Vaziri-Sani, Fariba
    Lund University.
    Lindblad, Bengt
    University of Gothenburg.
    Elding Larsson, H
    Lund Univeristy.
    Carlsson, Annellie
    Lund University.
    Forsander, Gun
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Ivarsson, Sten A.
    Lund University.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University.
    Kockum, Ingrid
    Karolinska Institute.
    Marcus, Claude
    Karolinska Institute.
    Samuelsson, Ulf
    Linköping University Hospital.
    Örtqvist, Eva
    Karolinska Institute.
    Groop, Leif
    Lund University.
    Bondinas, George P.
    Grekland.
    Papadopoulos, George K.
    Grekland.
    Lernmark, Ake
    Lund University.
    Zinc Transporter 8 Autoantibodies and Their Association With SLC30A8 and HLA-DQ Genes Differ Between Immigrant and Swedish Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes in the Better Diabetes Diagnosis Study2012Inngår i: Diabetes, ISSN 0012-1797, E-ISSN 1939-327X, Vol. 61, nr 10, 2556-2564 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined whether zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies (ZnT8A; arginine ZnT8-RA, tryptophan ZnT8-WA, and glutamine ZnT8-QA variants) differed between immigrant and Swedish patients due to different polymorphisms of SLC30A8, HLA-DQ, or both. Newly diagnosed autoimmune (>= 1 islet autoantibody) type 1 diabetic patients (n = 2,964, <18 years, 55% male) were ascertained in the Better Diabetes Diagnosis study. Two subgroups were identified: Swedes (n = 2,160, 73%) and immigrants (non-Swedes; n = 212, 7%). Non-Swedes had less frequent ZnT8-WA (38%) than Swedes (50%), consistent with a lower frequency in the non-Swedes (37%) of SLC30A8 CT+TT (RW+WW) genotypes than in the Swedes (54%). ZnT8-RA (57 and 58%, respectively) did not differ despite a higher frequency of CC (RR) genotypes in non-Swedes (63%) than Swedes (46%). We tested whether this inconsistency was due to HLA-DQ as 2/X (2/2; 2/y; y is anything but 2 or 8), which was a major genotype in non-Swedes (40%) compared with Swedes (14%). In the non-Swedes only, 2/X (2/2; 2/y) was negatively associated with ZnT8-WA and ZnT8-QA but not ZnT8-RA. Molecular simulation showed nonbinding of the relevant ZnT8-R peptide to DQ2, explaining in part a possible lack of tolerance to ZnT8-R. At diagnosis in non-Swedes, the presence of ZnT8-RA rather than ZnT8-WA was likely due to effects of HLA-DQ2 and the SLC30A8 CC (RR) genotypes.

  • 19. Diaconescu, Andreea Oliviana
    et al.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada & Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.
    Wang, Hongye
    Willeit, Matthäus
    Menon, Mahesh
    Kapur, Shitij
    McIntosh, Anthony R
    Aberrant Effective Connectivity in Schizophrenia Patients during Appetitive Conditioning2011Inngår i: Frontiers in human neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 4, 239- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has recently been suggested that schizophrenia involves dysfunction in brain connectivity at a neural level, and a dysfunction in reward processing at a behavioral level. The purpose of the present study was to link these two levels of analyses by examining effective connectivity patterns between brain regions mediating reward learning in patients with schizophrenia and healthy, age-matched controls. To this aim, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and galvanic skin recordings (GSR) while patients and controls performed an appetitive conditioning experiment with visual cues as the conditioned (CS) stimuli, and monetary reward as the appetitive unconditioned stimulus (US). Based on explicit stimulus contingency ratings, conditioning occurred in both groups; however, based on implicit, physiological GSR measures, patients failed to show differences between CS+ and CS- conditions. Healthy controls exhibited increased blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activity across striatal, hippocampal, and prefrontal regions and increased effective connectivity from the ventral striatum to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC BA 11) in the CS+ compared to the CS- condition. Compared to controls, patients showed increased BOLD activity across a similar network of brain regions, and increased effective connectivity from the striatum to hippocampus and prefrontal regions in the CS- compared to the CS+ condition. The findings of increased BOLD activity and effective connectivity in response to the CS- in patients with schizophrenia offer insight into the aberrant assignment of motivational salience to non-reinforced stimuli during conditioning that is thought to accompany schizophrenia.

  • 20. Diaconescu, Andreea Oliviana
    et al.
    Menon, Mahesh
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oslo and Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway.
    Kapur, Shitij
    McIntosh, Anthony Randal
    Dopamine-induced changes in neural network patterns supporting aversive conditioning.2010Inngår i: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 1313, 143-161 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present paper is to assess the effects of altered dopamine (DA) transmission on the functional connectivity among brain regions mediating aversive conditioning in humans. To this aim, we analyzed a previous published data set from a double-blind design combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings in which healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three drug groups: amphetamine (an indirect DA agonist), haloperidol (DA D2 receptor antagonist), and placebo. Participants were exposed to an aversive classical conditioning paradigm using cutaneous electrical stimulation as the unconditioned stimulus (US), and visual cues as the conditioned stimuli (CS) where one colour (CS+) was followed by the US in 33% of the trials and another colour (CS-) had no consequences. All participants reported awareness of stimulus contingencies. Group analysis of fMRI data revealed that the left ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala activated in response to the CS+ in all the three groups. Because of their activation patterns and documented involvement in aversive conditioning, both regions were used as seeds in the functional connectivity analysis. To constrain the functional networks obtained to relate to the conditioned response, we also correlated seed activity with the Galvanic Skin Response (GSR). In the placebo group, the right ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN), bilateral caudate, right parahippocampal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule (IPL), bilateral postcentral gyrus, bilateral middle frontal (BA 46), orbitofrontal, and ventromedial prefrontal cortices (PFC, BA 10/11) correlated with the VS and amygdala seeds in response to the CS+ compared to the CS-. Enhancing dopamine transmission via amphetamine was associated with reduced task differences and significant functional connectivity for both CS+ and CS- conditions between the left VS seed and regions modulated by DA, such as the left VTA/SN, right caudate, left amygdala, left middle frontal gyrus (BA 46), and bilateral ventromedial PFC (BA 10). Blocking dopamine transmission via haloperidol was associated with significant functional connectivity across an alternate network of regions including the left amygdala seed and the right insula, the left ACC (BA 24/32), bilateral IPL (BA 40), precuneus (BA 7), post-central gyrus, middle frontal gyrus (BA 46), and supplementary motor area (SMA, BA 6) to the CS+ versus the CS-. These data provide insight into the distinct effects of DA agents on the functional connectivity between striatal, limbic, and prefrontal areas.

  • 21.
    Edberg, Anna-Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    Omvårdnad vid kognitiv svikt2011Inngår i: Kognitiv medicin / [ed] Wahlund, Lara-Olof; Nilsson, Christer; Wallin, Anders, Stockholm: Norstedts Förlag, 2011, 418-429 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 22.
    El-Schich, Zahra
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Mölder, Anna
    Phase Holographic Imaging AB, Lund.
    Tassidis, Helena
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Härkönen, Pirkko
    Finland.
    Miniotis, Maria Falck
    Malmö University.
    Gjörloff Wingren, Anette
    Malmö University.
    Induction of morphological changes in death-induced cancer cells monitored by holographic microscopy2015Inngår i: Journal of Structural Biology, ISSN 1047-8477, E-ISSN 1095-8657, Vol. 189, nr 3, 207-212 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We are using the label-free technique of holographic microscopy to analyze cellular parameters including cell number, confluence, cellular volume and area directly in the cell culture environment. We show that death-induced cells can be distinguished from untreated counterparts by the use of holographic microscopy, and we demonstrate its capability for cell death assessment. Morphological analysis of two representative cell lines (L929 and DU145) was performed in the culture flasks without any prior cell detachment. The two cell lines were treated with the anti-tumour agent etoposide for 1-3days. Measurements by holographic microscopy showed significant differences in average cell number, confluence, volume and area when comparing etoposide-treated with untreated cells. The cell volume of the treated cell lines was initially increased at early time-points. By time, cells decreased in volume, especially when treated with high doses of etoposide. In conclusion, we have shown that holographic microscopy allows label-free and completely non-invasive morphological measurements of cell growth, viability and death. Future applications could include real-time monitoring of these holographic microscopy parameters in cells in response to clinically relevant compounds.

  • 23.
    Fich, Lars Brorson
    et al.
    Aalborg University.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
    Aarhus University.
    Wallergård, Mattias
    Lund University.
    Garde, Anne Helene
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Hansen, Åse
    University of Copenhagen.
    Can architectural design alter the physiological reaction to psychosocial stress?: a virtual TSST experiment2014Inngår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 135, 91-97 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been established, that views to natural scenes can a have a dampening effect on physiological stress responses. However, as people in Europe, Canada and North America today spent 50-85% of their time indoors, attention might also be paid to how the artificial man-made indoor environment influences these mechanisms. The question that this study attempts to start addressing is therefore whether certain design, characteristics of indoor spaces can make a difference to the physiological stress response as well. Using a virtual version of the Trier Social Stress Test, in which the space is computer generated and properties of the space therefore can be systematically varied, we measured saliva cortisol and heart rate variability in participants in a closed room versus a room with openings. As shown by a significant linear contrast interaction between groups and TSST conditions, participants in the closed room responded with more pronounced cortisol reactivity to stress induction, and continued to show higher levels throughout recovery, compared to participants in the open room. No differences were found regarding any part of the autonomic nervous system.

  • 24. Flannick, Jason
    et al.
    Thorleifsson, Gudmar
    Beer, Nicola L.
    Jacobs, Suzanne B. R.
    Grarup, Niels
    Burtt, Noel P.
    Mahajan, Anubha
    Fuchsberger, Christian
    Atzmon, Gil
    Benediktsson, Rafn
    Blangero, John
    Bowden, Don W.
    Brandslund, Ivan
    Brosnan, Julia
    Burslem, Frank
    Chambers, John
    Cho, Yoon Shin
    Christensen, Cramer
    Douglas, Desiree A.
    Duggirala, Ravindranath
    Dymek, Zachary
    Farjoun, Yossi
    Fennell, Timothy
    Fontanillas, Pierre
    Forsen, Tom
    Gabriel, Stacey
    Glaser, Benjamin
    Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.
    Hanis, Craig
    Hansen, Torben
    Hreidarsson, Astradur B.
    Hveem, Kristian
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Isomaa, Bo
    Johansson, Stefan
    Jorgensen, Torben
    Jorgensen, Marit Eika
    Kathiresan, Sekar
    Kong, Augustine
    Kooner, Jaspal
    Kravic, Jasmina
    Laakso, Markku
    Lee, Jong-Young
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lindgren, Cecilia M.
    Linneberg, Allan
    Masson, Gisli
    Meitinger, Thomas
    Mohlke, Karen L.
    Molven, Anders
    Morris, Andrew P.
    Potluri, Shobha
    Rauramaa, Rainer
    Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus
    Richard, Ann-Marie
    Rolph, Tim
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Segre, Ayellet V.
    Skaerstrand, Hanna
    Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur
    Stringham, Heather M.
    Sulem, Patrick
    Tai, E. Shyong
    Teo, Yik Ying
    Teslovich, Tanya
    Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur
    Trimmer, Jeff K.
    Tuomi, Tiinamaija
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Vaziri-Sani, Fariba
    Lunds universitet.
    Voight, Benjamin F.
    Wilson, James G.
    Boehnke, Michael
    McCarthy, Mark I.
    Njolstad, Pal R.
    Pedersen, Oluf
    Groop, Leif
    Cox, David R.
    Stefansson, Kari
    Altshuler, David
    Loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A8 protect against type 2 diabetes2014Inngår i: Nature Genetics, ISSN 1061-4036, E-ISSN 1546-1718, Vol. 46, nr 4, 357-363 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Loss-of-function mutations protective against human disease provide in vivo validation of therapeutic targets1-3, but none have yet been described for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Through sequencing or genotyping of -150,000 individuals across 5 ancestry groups, we identified 12 rare protein-truncating variants in SLC30A8, which encodes an islet zinc transporter (ZnT8) 4 and harbors a common variant (p. Trp325Arg) associated with T2D risk and glucose and proinsulin levels5-7. Collectively, carriers of protein-truncating variants had 65% reduced T2D risk (P = 1.7 x 10(-6)), and non-diabetic Icelandic carriers of a frameshift variant (p. Lys34Serfs* 50) demonstrated reduced glucose levels (-0.17 s. d., P = 4.6 x 10(-4)). The two most common proteintruncating variants (p. Arg138* and p. Lys34Serfs* 50) individually associate with T2D protection and encode unstable ZnT8 proteins. Previous functional study of SLC30A8 suggested that reduced zinc transport increases T2D risk(8,9), and phenotypic heterogeneity was observed in mouse Slc30a8 knockouts(10-15). In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in humans provide strong evidence that SLC30A8 haploinsufficiency protects against T2D, suggesting ZnT8 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in T2D prevention.

  • 25. Gillman, Anna
    et al.
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    Söderström, Hanna
    Holmberg, Fredrik
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Tolf, Conny
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Olsen, Björn
    Järhult, Josef D
    Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Strain with an H274Y Mutation in Neuraminidase Persists without Drug Pressure in Infected Mallards2015Inngår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 81, nr 7, 2378-2383 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Influenza A virus (IAV) has its natural reservoir in wild waterfowl and emerging human IAVs often contain gene segments from avian viruses. The active drug metabolite of oseltamivir (oseltamivir carboxylate (OC)), stockpiled as Tamiflu® for influenza pandemic preparedness, is not removed by conventional sewage treatment and has been detected in river water. There, it may there exert evolutionary pressure on avian IAV in waterfowl, resulting in development of resistant viral variants. A resistant avian IAV can circulate among wild birds only if resistance does not restrict viral fitness and if the resistant virus can persist without continuous drug pressure. In this in vivo Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) study we tested if an OC-resistant avian IAV strain (A(H1N1)/NA-H274Y) could retain resistance while drug pressure was gradually removed. Successively infected Mallards were exposed to decreasing levels of OC, and fecal samples were analyzed for neuraminidase sequence and phenotypic resistance. No reversion to wild-type virus was observed during the experiment, which included 17 days of viral transmission in 10 ducks exposed to OC concentrations below resistance induction levels. We conclude that resistance in avian IAV, induced by OC exposure of the natural host, can persist in absence of the drug. Thus, there is a risk that human pathogenic IAVs that evolve from IAVs circulating among wild birds may contain resistance mutations. An oseltamivir resistant pandemic IAV would be a substantial public health threat. Therefore, our observations underscore the need for prudent oseltamivir use, upgraded sewage treatment and resistance surveillance of IAV in wild birds.

  • 26. Grey, Carl
    et al.
    Widen, Cecilia
    Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology Balsgård, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Kristianstad.
    Adlercreutz, Patrick
    Rumpunen, Kimmo
    Duan, Rui-Dong
    Antiproliferative effects of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) extracts on human colon and liver cancer cell lines2010Inngår i: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 120, nr 4, 1004-1010 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sea buckthorn berries contain many bioactive compounds that have anticancer properties. To investigate whether the anti proliferative effects Could be associated with the presence of certain compounds. a sequential extraction was performed. The extraction started with heptane followed by ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water. A second protocol using ethanol:water (1:1) was also used. The contents of the extracts were determined and their effects on cell proliferation were investigated in both Caco-2 and Hep G2 cells. The ethyl acetate fraction was exclusively found to contain high levels of ursolic acid, together with low amounts of phenolics. The ethanol:water extracts contained high levels of phenolic compounds and proanthyocyanidin, but little ursolic acid. When the antiproliferative effects were examined, the strongest inhibitory effect was found in the ethyl acetate extract for the Caco-2 cells and in the ethanol:water extract for the Hep G2 cells. The antiproliferative effects were in both cases dose-dependent and were in the case of the ethyl acetate extract associated with an increase in apoptosis. The results obtained show that the choice of extraction solvent is of considerable importance and that ursolic acid might be more important than the polyphenols in inhibiting the cancer cell proliferation. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 27. Gustafson, D
    et al.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Blennow, K
    Steen, B
    Skoog, I
    An 18-year follow-up of overweight and risk of Alzheimer disease2003Inngår i: Archives of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0003-9926, E-ISSN 1538-3679, Vol. 163, nr 13, 1524-1528 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background  Overweight and obesity are epidemic in Western societies and constitute a major public health problem because of adverse effects on vascular health. Vascular factors may play a role in the development of a rapidly growing disease of late life, Alzheimer disease (AD). Using body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), we examined whether overweight is a risk factor for dementia and AD.

    Methods  The relationship between BMI and dementia risk was investigated in a representative cohort of 392 nondemented Swedish adults who were followed up from age 70 to 88 years, with the use of neuropsychiatric, anthropometric, and other measurements. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses included BMI, blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, cigarette smoking, socioeconomic status, and treatment for hypertension.

    Results:  During the 18-year follow-up (4184.8 risk-years), 93 participants were diagnosed as having dementia. Women who developed dementia between ages 79 and 88 years were overweight, with a higher average BMI at age 70 years (27.7 vs 25.7; P = .007), 75 years (27.9 vs 25.0; P<.001), and 79 years (26.9 vs 25.1; P = .02) compared with nondemented women. A higher degree of overweight was observed in women who developed AD at 70 years (29.3; P = .009), 75 years (29.6; P<.001), and 79 years (28.2; P = .003) compared with nondemented women. For every 1.0 increase in BMI at age 70 years, AD risk increased by 36%. These associations were not found in men.

    Conclusions  Overweight is epidemic in Western societies. Our data suggest that overweight at high ages is a risk factor for dementia, particularly AD, in women. This may have profound implications for dementia prevention.

  • 28.
    Haatveit, Beathe
    et al.
    Norge.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Psykologi. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Alnæs, Dag
    Norge.
    Kaufmann, Tobias
    Norge.
    Brandt, Christine L.
    Norge.
    Thoresen, Christian
    Norge.
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Norge.
    Melle, Ingrid
    Norge.
    Ueland, Torill
    Norge.
    Westlye, Lars T.
    Norge.
    Reduced load-dependent default mode network deactivation across executive tasks in schizophrenia spectrum disorders2016Inngår i: NeuroImage: Clinical, ISSN 0353-8842, E-ISSN 2213-1582, Vol. 12, 389-396 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with cognitive impairment and brain network dysconnectivity. Recent efforts have explored brain circuits underlying cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia and documented altered activation of large-scale brain networks, including the task-positive network (TPN) and the task-negative default mode network (DMN) in response to cognitive demands. However, to what extent TPN and DMN dysfunction reflect overlapping mechanisms and are dependent on cognitive state remain to be determined.

    METHODS: In the current study, we investigated the recruitment of TPN and DMN using independent component analysis in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (n = 29) and healthy controls (n = 21) during two different executive tasks probing planning/problem-solving and spatial working memory.

    RESULTS: We found reduced load-dependent DMN deactivation across tasks in patients compared to controls. Furthermore, we observed only moderate associations between the TPN and DMN activation across groups, implying that the two networks reflect partly independent mechanisms. Additionally, whereas TPN activation was associated with task performance in both tasks, no such associations were found for DMN.

    CONCLUSION: These results support a general load-dependent DMN dysfunction in schizophrenia spectrum disorder across two demanding executive tasks that is not merely an epiphenomenon of cognitive dysfunction.

  • 29.
    Hagell, Peter
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön PRO-CARE.
    Smith, Steve
    School of Nursing Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of East Anglia, Norwich.
    Why psychometrics is important - a response to: Aubeeluck, Buchanan & Stupple (2013) Journal of Huntington's Disease 2(4) 453–4542013Inngår i: Journal of Huntington's Disease, ISSN 1879-6397, Vol. 2, nr 4, 455-457 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 30.
    Hansson, Maria
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Lunds universitet.
    Estimation of HRV spectrogram using multiple window methods focussing on the high frequency power2006Inngår i: Medical Engineering and Physics, ISSN 1350-4533, E-ISSN 1873-4030, Vol. 28, nr 8, 749-761 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the results of different multiple window spectrum analysis methods are compared in the estimation of heart rate variability (HRV) power spectra, in the high frequency band (HF), around 0.25 Hz, related to respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). The evaluation is performed by simulating different spectrum shapes and peak frequency locations and calculating the mean squared error of a frequency range close around the strongest spectral peak. The results show that it is preferable to use the Peak Matched Multiple Windows in most situations, but the Welch method and the Sinusoid Multiple Windows can be as reliable in certain aspects.

  • 31.
    Hansson-Sandsten, Maria
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Lunds universitet.
    Multiple window correlation analysis of HRV power and respiratory frequency2007Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 0018-9294, E-ISSN 1558-2531, Vol. 54, nr 10, 1770-1779 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we evaluate the correlation estimate, based on multiple window spectrum analysis, between the respiratory center frequency and the high-frequency band of the heartrate variability (HRV) power. One aim is to examine whether a more restricted frequency range would better capture respiratory related HR variation, especially when the HR variation is changing rapidly. The respiratory peak is detected and a narrow-banded measure of the high-frequency (HF) band of the HRV is defined as the respiratory frequency +/-0.05 Hz. We compare the mean square error of the correlation estimate between the frequency of the respiratory peak and the power of the HRV with the power in the usual 0.12-0.4 Hz frequency band. Different multiple window spectrum techniques are used for the estimation of the respiratory frequency as well as for the power of the HRV. We compare the peak-matched multiple windows with the Welch method while evaluating the two different HF-power estimates mentioned above. The results show that using a more narrow band for the power estimation gives stronger correlation which indicates that the estimate of the power is more robust.

  • 32.
    Hartvig, Ditte L.
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Hausner, Helene
    Danmark.
    Wendin, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Ritz, Christian
    Danmark.
    Bredie, Wender L. P.
    Danmark.
    Initial liking influences the development of acceptance learning across repeated exposure to fruit juices in 9–11 year-old children2015Inngår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 39, 228-235 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In several studies, it has been found that repeated exposure to a novel food increases children’s acceptance of the exposure food. The present study, investigated how repeated exposure influences the acceptance of two Nordic berry juices, and whether the development depends on initial liking of the product, in 9–11 year-old children. The study had 317 participants. Two groups of children were exposed to either sea-buckthorn (n = 92) or aronia (n = 105) juice eight times, and performed two follow-up sessions 3 and 6 months after the 8th exposure. A third group (n = 120) served as controls. During pre and post-test sessions all participating children evaluated acceptance of both juices.

    Intake of sea-buckthorn juice increased significantly over the eight exposures (55.1 ± 7.3 till 108.8 ± 12.3) and remained high after 6 months (131.1 ± 13.2). Intake of aronia juice was only increased at follow-up sessions. Liking did not develop significantly for any of the juices across exposures. When children were grouped by their initial liking increased intake across exposures was observed regardless of initial liking of sea-buckthorn. Liking developed similarly for both juices. A significant increase was found for the ‘initial dislikers’ only. This study demonstrates how exposure effects are influenced by initial liking; it appears that changes in familiarity explain the changes seen for sea-buckthorn among ‘dislikers’. ‘Initial dislikers’ had the most benefit from repeated exposures, but did not reach ‘initial likers’ across eight exposures; more exposures in the group of ‘initial dislikers’ had possibly led to even higher liking and intake. The increased intake observed for ‘neutral likers’ and ‘initial likers’ of sea-buckthorn was not explained by increased familiarity or increased liking.

  • 33.
    Henmyr, Viktor
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Vandeplas, Griet
    University Hospital Ghent.
    Halldén, Christer
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Säll, Torbjörn
    Lund University.
    Olze, Heidi
    Charité Berlin.
    Bachert, Claus
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Cardell, Lars Olaf
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Replication study of genetic variants associated with chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis2014Inngår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 133, nr 1, 273-275 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 34.
    Henriksson, Olle
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Rasmusson, Margareta
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Fysiologi: med relevant anatomi2007 (oppl. 2)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Krång, Anna-Sara
    University of Gothenburg.
    Baden, Susanne
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bacteriostatic suppression in Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) exposed to manganese or hypoxia under pressure of ocean acidification2015Inngår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 159, 217-224 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Future ocean acidification (OA) and warming following climate change elicit pervasive stressors to the inhabitants of the sea. Previous experimental exposure to OA for 16 weeks at pH levels predicted for 2100, has shown to result in serious immune suppression of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus. The lobsters are currently affected by stressors such as periodical hypoxia inducing high levels of bioavailable manganese (Mn). Here, we aimed to investigate possible effects of interactions between OA and these stressors on total hemocyte counts (THC) and on recovery of inoculated bacteria in the lobsters, measured as a proxy for bacteriostatic response. The effects were judged by following numbers of culturable Vibrio parahaemolyticus in hepatopancreas, 4 and 24 h post inoculation in lobsters kept in replicate tanks with six different treatments; either ambient (pCO2∼ 500 μatm/pH∼8.1 units) or CO2 manipulated seawater (OA; pCO2 1550 μatm/pH∼7.6 units) for 8 weeks. During the last two weeks additional stress of either hypoxia (∼23% oxygen saturation) or Mn (∼9 mgL−1) was added except in control treatments. Our results showed clear effect on bacteriostatic response in Norway lobsters exposed to these stressors. In lobster kept in ambient seawater without additional stressors the number of culturable bacteria in hepatopancreas was reduced by ∼ 34%. In combined treatment of ambient seawater and hypoxia the reduction was ∼23%, while in the Mn-exposed animals, there was no reduction at all. This was also the case in all OA-treatments where mean numbers of culturable V. parahaemolyticus tended to increase. In lobsters from ambient seawater with or without hypoxia, the total hemocyte count (THC) was not significantly different as was also the case in OA without additional stressors. However, in OA-treatments combined with either hypoxia or Mn, THC was reduced by ∼ 35%.While the reduction of culturable V. parahaemolyticus in lobsters was clearly affected by these stressors, we found no notable effects on growth, survival or hemolytic properties of the bacteria itself. Thus, we conclude that this predicted stress scenario is beneficial for the pathogen in its interaction with the host. As OA proceeds, it may force the health of the ecologically and economically important N. norvegicus to a tipping point if exposed to more short-term stressors such as the periodical events of hypoxia and Mn. This could impact lobster condition and biomass and may as well increase the risk for bacterial transmission to consumers.

  • 36.
    Höglund, A.
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Broman, J.-E.
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Uppsala University.
    Pålhagen, S.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Fredrikson, S.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Hagell, Peter
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön PRO-CARE.
    Is excessive daytime sleepiness a separate manifestation in Parkinson's disease?2015Inngår i: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 132, nr 2, 97-104 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its role and relation to other PD features is less well understood.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential predictors of EDS in PD and to explore how EDS relates to other motor and non-motor PD features.

    METHODS: 118 consecutive persons with PD (54% men; mean age, 64) were assessed regarding EDS using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and a range of motor and non-motor symptoms. Variables significantly associated with ESS scores in bivariate analyses were used in multiple regression analyses with ESS scores as the dependent variable. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to explore the interrelationships between ESS scores and other motor and non-motor PD aspects.

    RESULTS: Among 114 persons with complete ESS data, significant independent associations were found between ESS scores and axial/postural/gait impairment, depressive symptoms, and pain (R(2) , 0.199). ESS scores did not load significantly together with any other PD features in the PCA.

    CONCLUSIONS: Only a limited proportion of the variation in EDS could be accounted for by other symptoms, and EDS did not cluster together with any other PD features in PCAs. This suggests that EDS is a separate manifestation differing from, for example, poor sleep quality and fatigue.

  • 37.
    Ingemansson, Sofie
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Vaziri-Sani, Fariba
    Lund University.
    Lindblad, Ulf
    University of Gothenburg.
    Gudbjornsdottir, Soffia
    The Nordic Research Academy for Global Health.
    Törn, Carina
    Lund University.
    Long-term sustained autoimmune response to beta cell specific zinc transporter (ZnT8, W, R, Q) in young adult patients with preserved beta cell function at diagnosis of diabetes2013Inngår i: Autoimmunity, ISSN 0891-6934, E-ISSN 1607-842X, Vol. 46, nr 1, 50-61 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine whether autoantibodies to: ZnT8-Tryptophan (ZnT8WA), ZnT8-Arginine (ZnT8RA) or ZnT8-Glutamine (ZnT8QA) correlated with C-peptide or other autoantibodies and to assess diagnostic sensitivity of ZnT8WRQA. Specimens from 270 newly diagnosed diabetic subjects (age 15-34 years) and after 5 years duration of disease were examined. Four linear regression models were used to dissect the importance of different factors from diagnosis for the respective difference of (logZnT8WA), (logZnT8RA) and (logZnT8QA); A) unadjusted model for: initial C-peptide, age, BMI, gender, clinical classification, ICA, GADA, IA-2A, (ZnT8WA/ZnT8RA/ZnT8QA); B) C-peptide corrected for clinical factors; C) C-peptide corrected for autoantibodies; D) C-peptide corrected for all factors. The least decrease of ZnT8WA was observed in patients with high initial C-peptide in all models A) p = 0.054; B) p = 0.021; C) p = 0.047 and D) p = 0.017. A less statistically significant decrease of ZnT8RA was observed in patients with high initial C-peptide in A) p = 0.038 and C) p = 0.047, but this finding was not confirmed in B or D. The decrease of ZnT8QA levels was not related to C-peptide in any model but correlated to age D) p = 0.049. Furthermore, patients with unclassifiable diabetes showed the least decrease in D) p = 0.035. ZnT8WA, ZnT8RA or ZnT8QA were identified as a single autoantibody in 3.8% (10/266) of patients, thereby increasing diagnostic sensitivity from 79.3% (211/266) to 83.1% (221/266). In conclusion, high initial C-peptide was the most important factor even after adjusting for other factors in patients positive for ZnT8WA or ZnT8RA to remain autoantibody positive 5 years after diagnosis.

  • 38.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    et al.
    University of Oslo & Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo.
    Kapur, S.
    Salience and psychosis: moving from theory to practise2009Inngår i: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 39, nr 2, 197-198 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    et al.
    PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Baycrest Geriatric Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    McIntosh, Anthony R
    Crawley, Adrian P
    Mikulis, David J
    Remington, Gary
    Kapur, Shitij
    Direct activation of the ventral striatum in anticipation of aversive stimuli.2003Inngår i: Neuron, ISSN 0896-6273, E-ISSN 1097-4199, Vol. 40, nr 6, 1251-1257 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The brain "reward" system, centered on the limbic ventral striatum, plays a critical role in the response to pleasure and pain. The ventral striatum is activated in animal and human studies during anticipation of appetitive/pleasurable events, but its role in aversive/painful events is less clear. Here we present data from three human fMRI studies based on aversive conditioning using unpleasant cutaneous electrical stimulation and show that the ventral striatum is reliably activated. This activation is observed during anticipation and is not a consequence of relief after the aversive event. Further, the ventral striatum is activated in anticipation regardless of whether there is an opportunity to avoid the aversive stimulus or not. Our data suggest that the ventral striatum, a crucial element of the brain "reward" system, is directly activated in anticipation of aversive stimuli.

  • 40.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    et al.
    Malmö högskola.
    Nilsson, Lise-Lotte
    Malmö högskola.
    Levander, Sten
    Malmö högskola.
    Neurocognitive and psychopathological correlates of self-monitoring ability in schizophrenia.2004Inngår i: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, ISSN 0940-1334, E-ISSN 1433-8491, Vol. 254, nr 5, 312-317 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous study reported by our group one salient finding was that many patients with schizophrenia appeared to be unable to judge their own quality of life (QoL) and that this inability was associated with negative symptoms. The association between negative symptoms, poor self-monitoring capacity and lack of insight might be explained by a common underlying factor, i.e. neurocognitive impairment. Fifty schizophrenic patients were examined by symptom ratings and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. The cognitive performance of the patients was very poor. The major findings of the present study were the association between clinically rated Lack of judgement (PANSS G12) and 1) a set of standard performance and executive indices of the computerised tests, and 2) difference scores between objective performance/strategies and self-ratings of the same attributes. There appears to be a substantial contribution of cognitive and executive problems to the poor judgement and lack of insight of schizophrenic patients, and these problems can to some extent be assessed objectively.

  • 41.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    et al.
    Schizophrenia Program and the PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada.
    Smith, Andrew J
    Willeit, Matthäus
    Crawley, Adrian P
    Mikulis, David J
    Vitcu, Irina
    Kapur, Shitij
    Separate brain regions code for salience vs. valence during reward prediction in humans.2007Inngår i: Human Brain Mapping, ISSN 1065-9471, E-ISSN 1097-0193, Vol. 28, nr 4, 294-302 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicting rewards and avoiding aversive conditions is essential for survival. Recent studies using computational models of reward prediction implicate the ventral striatum in appetitive rewards. Whether the same system mediates an organism's response to aversive conditions is unclear. We examined the question using fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent measurements while healthy volunteers were conditioned using appetitive and aversive stimuli. The temporal difference learning algorithm was used to estimate reward prediction error. Activations in the ventral striatum were robustly correlated with prediction error, regardless of the valence of the stimuli, suggesting that the ventral striatum processes salience prediction error. In contrast, the orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula coded for the differential valence of appetitive/aversive stimuli. Given its location at the interface of limbic and motor regions, the ventral striatum may be critical in learning about motivationally salient stimuli, regardless of valence, and using that information to bias selection of actions.

  • 42.
    Jensen, Jimmy
    et al.
    Schizophrenia Program and the PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada & Department of Psychiatry, Ullevål University Hospital and Oslo University, Oslo, Norway.
    Willeit, Matthäus
    Zipursky, Robert B
    Savina, Ioulia
    Smith, Andrew J
    Menon, Mahesh
    Crawley, Adrian P
    Kapur, Shitij
    The formation of abnormal associations in schizophrenia: neural and behavioral evidence.2008Inngår i: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 33, nr 3, 473-479 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is hypothesized that due to an abnormal functioning of the reward system patients with schizophrenia form context-inappropriate associations. It has been shown that the dopamine target regions, especially the ventral striatum, are critical in the formation of reward associations. We wanted to examine how the ventral striatum responds as patients learn reward-related associations and how this neural response is linked to objective and subjective behavioral measures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses were examined using aversive Pavlovian learning in 13 medicated patients with schizophrenia and 13 matched healthy controls. Colored circles served as conditioned stimulus (CS+) while a loud, individually adjusted, noise served as the unconditioned stimulus. Circles of another color served as neutral comparators (CS-). Subjective indices were assessed by a post-scan self-report, and galvanic skin responses (GSR) were used as objective measures of associative learning. fMRI data were analyzed using a random effects model in SPM2. Patients showed inappropriately strong activations in the ventral striatum in response to the neutral stimulus (CS-) as compared to the healthy controls. Consistent with this neural evidence of aberrant learning, patients also showed evidence of abnormal learning by self-report and as indexed by GSR. The main finding here is that patients with schizophrenia, when exposed to neutral stimuli in a threatening situation, show an abnormal pattern of learning. The aberrant activations and response are consistent with the idea that patients aberrantly assign motivational salience to neutral stimuli, and this process may be one of the aberrations that predisposes them to psychosis.

  • 43.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Lunds universitet.
    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a function of state anxiety in healthy individuals2007Inngår i: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 63, nr 1, 48-54 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was examined in relation to state and trait anxiety in healthy individuals. Time-frequency analyses of HR-power spectrum in the high frequency region (0.12-0.40 Hz), related to RSA, were examined in 43 women and 39 men. Based on median split, the participants were divided into high and low state and trait anxiety groups. The main result showed that high state anxious individuals had higher RSA-magnitude (HF-power) than low state anxious individuals. The higher RSA-magnitude in the former group was interpreted as reflecting increased attention or vigilance together with motor and behavioural inhibition. No significant effects of trait anxiety or gender were found.

  • 44.
    Jönsson, Peter
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Sonnby-Borgström, Marianne
    Lunds universitet.
    The effects of pictures of emotional faces on tonic and phasic autonomic cardiac control in women and men2003Inngår i: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 62, nr 2, 157-173 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine autonomic function in response to negatively and positively valenced pictures under different levels of conscious recognition. Heart period variability (HPV) and heart rate (HR) reactivity were studied in 53 males and females who were being shown pictures of angry and happy faces. The pictures, which were backwardly masked, were presented once every 30 s during a 5-min period and under three conditions (counterbalanced for type of facial expression): below the level of conscious recognition (17 ms), at an intermediate level (56 ms), and at a clearly recognizable level (2370 ms). Analyses of HR power spectrum (for 5 min in each condition) in the high frequency region (HF: 0.15-0.5 Hz) that reflects respiratory sinus arrhythmia, as well as analysis of phasic heart rate responses (7.5 s in 0.5 epochs following every picture presentation) were carried out. The main findings were that HF-power was higher, and cardiac midinterval acceleration lower, in response to angry as opposed to happy faces, a result obtained only for the men, however. No interaction effect between facial expression and the three exposure conditions was found, suggesting that the pictures induced emotional activation both subliminally and supraliminally. The results were discussed in terms of increased attention to aversive stimuli.

  • 45.
    Jönsson, Peter
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Wallergård, Mattias
    Osterberg, Kai
    Hansen, Ase Marie
    Johansson, Gerd
    Karlson, Björn
    Cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity and habituation to a virtual reality version of the Trier Social Stress Test: a pilot study2010Inngår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 35, nr 9, 1397-1403 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a widely used protocol to induce stress in laboratory settings. Briefly, in the TSST, the test participant is asked to hold a speech and to do an arithmetic task in front of an audience. In the present pilot study, we examined endocrine and autonomic reactivity and habituation to repeated stress provocations using a virtual reality (VR) version of TSST. The VR system was a CAVE™ system with three rear projected walls (4 m×3 m), and one floor projection. The system also included a head tracking system and passive stereoscopy. The virtual audience consisted of one woman, and two men. Ten healthy men, mean age 28.3 years (24-38 years), were confronted with the test twice (1 week between sessions), during which salivary cortisol, heart rate (HR), high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV, parasympathetic activity), and T-wave amplitude (TWA, suggested to be related to sympathetic influence on myocardial performance) were assessed. Cortisol secretion showed a marked increase (88% vs. baseline) during the first stress provocation, but habituated in the second session. The magnitude of HR and TWA reactivity during stress provocation was approximately the same at both sessions, implying a stable increase in sympathetic activity. Heart rate showed a maximum increase of 40% at the first session, and 32% at the second. TWA showed a maximum decrease of 42% at the first session, and 39% at the second. The results resemble those obtained in prior studies using the real-life TSST. If these results can be replicated with larger samples, VR technology may be used as a simple and standardized tool for social stress induction in experimental settings.

  • 46. Kanatsuna, Norio
    et al.
    Taneera, Jalal
    Vaziri-Sani, Fariba
    Lund University.
    Wierup, Nils
    Larsson, Helena Elding
    Delli, Ahmed
    Skarstrand, Hanna
    Balhuizen, Alexander
    Bennet, Hedvig
    Steiner, Donald F.
    Torn, Carina
    Fex, Malin
    Lernmark, Ake
    Autoimmunity against INS-IGF2 Protein Expressed in Human Pancreatic Islets2013Inngår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 288, nr 40, 29013-29023 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Insulin is a major autoantigen in islet autoimmunity and progression to type 1 diabetes. It has been suggested that the insulin B-chain may be critical to insulin autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes. INS-IGF2 consists of the preproinsulin signal peptide, the insulin B-chain, and eight amino acids of the C-peptide in addition to 138 amino acids from the IGF2 gene. We aimed to determine the expression of INS-IGF2 in human pancreatic islets and autoantibodies in newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes and controls. INS-IGF2, expressed primarily in beta cells, showed higher levels of expression in islets from normal compared with donors with either type 2 diabetes (p = 0.006) or high HbA1c levels (p < 0.001). INS-IGF2 autoantibody levels were increased in newly diagnosed patients with type 1 diabetes (n = 304) compared with healthy controls (n = 355; p < 0.001). Displacement with cold insulin and INS-IGF2 revealed that more patients than controls had doubly reactive insulin-INS-IGF2 autoantibodies. These data suggest that INS-IGF2, which contains the preproinsulin signal peptide, the B-chain, and eight amino acids of the C-peptide may be an autoantigen in type 1 diabetes. INS-IGF2 and insulin may share autoantibody-binding sites, thus complicating the notion that insulin is the primary autoantigen in type 1 diabetes.

  • 47.
    Karpman, D
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Manea, M
    Lunds universitet.
    Vaziri-Sani, Fariba
    Lunds universitet.
    Stahl, A L
    Lunds universitet.
    Kristoffersson, A C
    Lunds universitet.
    Platelet activation in hemolytic uremic syndrome2006Inngår i: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, ISSN 0094-6176, E-ISSN 1098-9064, Vol. 32, nr 2, 128-145 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Platelet consumption in platelet-fibrin aggregates leading to thrombocytopenia and small vessel obstruction are major features of the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Although thrombocytopenia has been correlated to poor prognosis, the mechanisms by which thrombocytopenia develops in HUS have not been completely elucidated. However, plausible explanations have been platelet contact with thrombogenic surfaces and/or direct contact with an aggregating agent. This article summarizes several mechanisms of platelet activation, interactions with leukocytes, chemokine release, complement activation, and antimicrobial defense. Specific mechanisms are outlined by which platelets may be activated, leading to thrombocytopenia during HUS. In diarrhea-associated HUS Shiga toxin has been shown to injure the endothelium, thus exposing the subendothelium, releasing tissue factor, and rendering the vessel wall prothrombotic. Shiga toxin also binds to and activates platelets. The toxin may activate endothelial cells and platelets simultaneously. In atypical HUS the alternative complement pathway is activated because of mutations in complement regulatory proteins. Mutated factor H does not bind to endothelium and platelets efficiently, enabling complement activation on these cells. In thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, intravascular platelet clotting Occurs due to dysfunction of the von Willebrand factor (VWF)-cleaving protease ADAMTS13. Thrombi are formed by binding of platelets to ultralarge VWF multimers.

  • 48.
    Khashayar, Mahdavisabet
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Påverkan på PK(INR)-värdet efter olika preanalytiska behandlingar i venöst humanblod.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Venous thromboembolism that cause blood clotting in blood vessels, prevent blood circulation, depending on changes in one or more of the coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X. Patients who have had a blood clot or cardiovascular diseases are treated with oral anti-vitamin K (Warfarin®) to reducing and prevent relapse. Warfarin is also used as a preventive treatment before the disease. An overdose of Warfarin® may cause bleeding-complications and low dose cause blood clotting. The dosage of the drug is controlled by measuring prothrombin in plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate if prothrombin-complex value changes due to re-spinning and re-analysis after six hours. Fitty whole blood samples from warfarin-treated patients were divided into three subgroups, those with protrombinkomplex-values of 2-4 (n=20), >4 (n=15) and <2 (n=15). The samples were centrifugated and measured (Method A), re-centrifugated and measured (Method B) or re-analysed after six hours (Method C). All results were compared in a Bland-Altman plot as follows: Method B vs. Method A and Method C vs. Method A. The scatter graph yielded a strong correlation between Method A and Method B (R2=0.9984) and Method A and Methods C (R2=0.9977). The results from t-test showed a significance level (p<0.001) for both analyses (statistical significance=p<0.05). In this study we showed that prothrombin complex value ware stable after re-centrifugation and re-measurement after six hours. Statistical calculations yielded a strong correlation between the methods (A, B, C), and there was no significance difference between the methods.

  • 49.
    Kjellerås, Jennifer
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Vaziri-Sani, Fariba
    Lunds universitet.
    Agardh, Daniel
    Lunds universitet.
    Improved efficacy by using the pTnT-rhtTG plasmid for the detection of celiac disease specific tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies in radioligand binding assays2011Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686, Vol. 71, nr 8, 701-704 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) autoantibodies are serological markers for celiac disease. The aim was to study the efficacy of the pTnT-rhtTG plasmid and subsequent diagnostic accuracy of tTG autoantibodies for childhood celiac disease using radioligand binding assays.

    Methods: Coupled in vitro transcription and translation of tTG were performed by pTnT-rhtTG as well as by the pGEMt Easy-rhtTG vectors using the TNT SP6 Coupled Reticulocyte Lysate System in the presence of [(35)S] methionine. Sera from 190 celiac disease children and 74 controls were measured for tTG autoantibodies in two separate radioligand binding assays using anti-human IgA agarose and protein A sepharose beads for the detection of IgA-tTG and IgG-tTG, respectively.

    Results: Median incorporation of [(35)S] methionine into the pTnT-rhtTG was 26% compared to 16% for the pGEMt Easy-rhtTG plasmid (p = 0.0016). Using pTnT-rhtTG (as compared to pGEMt Easy-rhtTG), sensitivities were IgA-tTG = 96.3% (95.7%) and IgG-tTG = 95.8% (97.3%) and specificities were IgA-tTG = 91.9% (90.5%) and IgG-tTG = 94.6% (98.4%). According to receiver operator characteristics for the pTnT (pGEMt Easy) assays, area under the curves were IgA-tTG = 98.4% (98.4%) and IgG-tTG = 97.7% (97.2%), respectively.

    Conclusion: The pTnT-rhtTG plasmid increased the efficacy of tTG antigen usage without reducing the diagnostic accuracy of IgA-tTG and IgG-tTG for childhood celiac disease. The pTnT-rhtTG plasmid is therefore recommended over the pGEMt Easy-rhtTG for the assessment of IgA-tTG and IgG-tTG using radioligand binding assays.

  • 50.
    Magnusson, Elin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Distal och proximal placering av armelektroder: påverkan på EKG och klinisk betydelse2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Elektrokardiogram (EKG) är en av de viktigaste undersökningsmetoderna för upptäckt och diagnostisering av hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar. Med hjälp av elektroder som placeras på kroppen efter väldefinierade system kan hjärtats elektriska aktivitet registreras och observeras i ett EKG. Syftet med studien var att undersöka om EKG påverkades om man använde distal eller proximal armelektrodplacering, om skillnaderna var kliniskt signifikanta och om skillnader uppstod mellan mjukvarans respektive läkarens tolkning av EKG. EKG togs på 100 patienter med medelålder på 66 år, 44 kvinnor och 56 män. Sex elektroder placerades på bröstkorgen och extremitetselektroderna placerades distalt för ett EKG och förflyttades därefter upp proximalt för ytterligare ett EKG. Utifrån erhållna EKG jämfördes den distal och proximala placeringen för R-amplitud, PQ-tid, QRS-duration, elaxel, mjukvarutolkning, läkartolkning och muskelstörningar. Jämförelse gjordes för helgrupp (n=100) och i undergrupperna: normala (n=28), grenblock (n=19), repolarisationsavvikelser (n=14) och hypertrofi (n=15). Statistiskt signifikanta skillnader observerades för R-amplitud i avledning I och III, för PQ-tid och elaxel. 80% av mjukvarutolkningarna erhöll samma tolkning respektive 98% för läkartolkade EKG. Muskelstörningar blev oförändrade för 78%, mer störningar uppstod distalt för 21% och mer störningar proximalt uppstod för 1% I denna och andra liknande studier erhölls större R- amplitud i avledning III vid en proximal placering av extremitetselektroderna vilket kan bero på placeringen närmre hjärtat. En större R-amplitud kunde även observeras i avledning I, men vid distal placering jämfört med proximal för denna studie vilket är svårförklarat. Mindre muskelstörningar observerades vid en proximal armelektrodplacering vilket troligtvis beror på den kortare mätsträckan. Slutsatsen blir att för en proximal armelektrodplacering uppstod statistiskt signifikanta skillnader, men som endast har ringa klinisk betydelse i den studerade populationen då avvikelserna låg inom normalvärden och att placeringen gav reducering av muskelstörningar. 

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