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  • 1.
    Asplund, Maria E.
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
    Baden, Susanne P.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
    Russ, Sarah
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
    Ellis, Robert P.
    College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter.
    Gong, Ningping
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
    Hernroth, Bodil E.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Ocean acidification and host–pathogen interactions: blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, encountering Vibrio tubiashii2014Inngår i: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 16, nr 4, 1029-1039 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ocean acidification (OA) can shift the ecological balance between interacting organisms. In this study, we have used a model system to illustrate the interaction between a calcifying host organism, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and a common bivalve bacterial pathogen, Vibrio tubiashii, with organisms being exposed to a level of acidification projected to occur by the end of the 21st century. OA exposures of the mussels were carried out in relative long-term (4 months) and short-term (4 days) experiments. We found no effect of OA on the culturability of V. tubiashii, in broth or in seawater. OA inhibited mussel shell growth and impaired crystalline shell structures but did not appear to affect mussel immune parameters (i.e haemocyte counts and phagocytotic capacity). Despite no evident impact on host immunity or growth and virulence of the pathogen, V. tubiashii was clearly more successful in infecting mussels exposed to long-term OA compared to those maintained under ambient conditions. Moreover, OA exposed V. tubiashii increased their viability when exposed to haemocytes of OA-treated mussel. Our findings suggest that even though host organisms may have the capacity to cope with periods of OA, these conditions may alter the outcome of host–pathogen interactions, favouring the success of the latter.

  • 2.
    Bengtsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Khalaf, Atika
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön PRO-CARE.
    Khalaf, Hazem
    Örebro University.
    Secreted gingipains from P. gingivalis colonies exert potent immunomodulatory effects on human gingival fibroblasts2015Inngår i: Microbiological Research, ISSN 0944-5013, Vol. 178, 18-26 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Periodontal pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, can form biofilms in dental pockets and cause inflammation, which is one of the underlying mechanisms involved in the development of periodontal disease, ultimately leading to tooth loss. Although P. gingivalis is protected in the biofilm, it can still cause damage and modulate inflammatory responses from the host, through secretion of microvesicles containing proteinases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of cysteine proteinases in P. gingivalis colony growth and development, and subsequent immunomodulatory effects on human gingival fibroblast. By comparing the wild type W50 with its gingipain deficient strains we show that cysteine proteinases are required by P. gingivalis to form morphologically normal colonies. The lysine-specific proteinase (Kgp), but not arginine-specific proteinases (Rgps), was associated with immunomodulation. P. gingivalis with Kgp affected the viability of gingival fibroblasts and modulated host inflammatory responses, including induction of TGF-β1 and suppression of CXCL8 and IL-6 accumulation. These results suggest that secreted products from P. gingivalis, including proteinases, are able to cause damage and significantly modulate the levels of inflammatory mediators, independent of a physical host-bacterial interaction. This study provides new insight of the pathogenesis of P. gingivalis and suggests gingipains as targets for diagnosis and treatment of periodontitis.

  • 3.
    Blomqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Section of Clinical Bacteriology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Christerson, Linus
    Section of Clinical Bacteriology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Section for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Lindberg, Peter
    Department of Contaminant Research, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm.
    Helander, Björn
    Department of Zoology, Gothenburg University.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Herrman, Björn
    Section of Clinical Bacteriology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Olsen, Björn
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden2012Inngår i: Infection Ecology and Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 2, 8435- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  • 4. Blomqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Christerson, Linus
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Lindberg, Peter
    Helander, Björn
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Herrman, Björn
    Olsen, Björn
    Prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci in Swedish birds2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Bruze, Amanda
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    A comparison of nutrient reduction between activated carbon and cocout fibre in wastewater treatment2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Two batch mesocosms were created on site in Da Nang, Vietnam to reduce nutrients in wastewater from fish processing factories. The mesocosms contained either activated carbon or coconut fibre which in earlier studies has shown promising results in wastewater treatment. Three aspects of the materials were compared; Chemical content, which measured levels of COD, total-nitrogen and total-phosphorus. Rate of biofilm formation, where biofilm were measured visually and through weight. The last aspect was microbiological presence where fours species of microorganisms were cultivated. The experiment showed no obvious difference between the materials but concludes that this is an experiment that could and should be developed further.

  • 6.
    Collin, Betty
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Characterization and persistence of potential human pathogenic vibrios in aquatic environments2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrio spp., natural inhabitants of aquatic environments, are one of the most common causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world, being spread to humans via the ingestion of seafood, contaminated drinking water or exposure to seawater. The majority of Vibrio spp. are avirulent, but certain strains may sporadically be human pathogenic. Vibrio cholerae may cause cholera and fatal wound infections, Vibrio parahaemolyticus may cause gastroenteritis and Vibrio vulnificus may cause wound infections and sepsis. To expand current knowledge of the occurrence, ecological niche and persistence of potential human pathogenic Vibrio spp. in aquatic environments, occurrence and laboratory studies were performed. The seasonal variation of Vibrio spp. in clams and mussels from Mozambique and Sweden were studied, with isolated strains characterized and compared with those isolated from water samples collected in India. Results showed that the numbers of Vibrio spp. in Mozambican clams peaked during the warmer rainy season and that the dominating species was V. parahaemolyticus. Biochemical fingerprinting and virulence screened by PCR revealed a high similarity among strains from the different aquatic environments. However, isolate functional hemolytic analyses and antibiotic resistance patterns differed between strains; Swedish and Indian strains were less sensitive to the tested antibiotics and had a lower hemolytic capacity than those from Mozambique. Molecular analysis of bacterial DNA from Swedish mussels showed the presence of the three Vibrio spp. most commonly linked with human illness, as well as their associated virulence genes. The strains isolated from marine and clinical environments were equally and highly harmful to the tested eukaryotic cells. The persistence of clinical V. cholerae in aquatic environments was investigated in vivo. Strains were exposed to mussels, with bacterial uptake and elimination then examined. The mussels were able to avoid the most potent strain by complete closure of shells. The less potent strain was accumulated in mussel tissue in low levels and one marine control strain to a higher degree. Mussels eliminated the pathogenic strain less efficiently than they did the marine strain. One clinical and one marine strain were then exposed to 4°C for 21 days, with the temperature then increased to 20°C. The clinical strain was more prone to lose culturability than the marine strain at 4°C, the former performed significantly better in regaining culturability after the temperature up-shift. Subsequently, the persistence of the clinical strain in natural bottom sediment, incubating as above, was studied and results showed a similar decrease in culturable numbers in the sediment as in the water. As the clinical V. cholerae strains did not carry any of the standard set of virulence genes, the ability to change from non-culturable to culturable may be of great importance to strain pathogenicity. The results also show that natural bottom sediment may be a potential reservoir of human pathogenic Vibrio spp.

  • 7.
    Collin, Betty
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Occurrence and potential pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus on the South Coast of Sweden2011Inngår i: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 78, nr 2, 306-313 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the summer of 2006, several wound infections - of which three were fatal caused by Vibrio cholerae were reported from patients who had been exposed to water from the Baltic Sea. Before these reports, we initiated a sampling project investigating the occurrence of potential human pathogenic V. cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in The Sound between Sweden and Denmark. The Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was used as an indicator to follow the occurrence of vibrios over time. Molecular analyses showed high frequencies of the most potent human pathogenic Vibrio spp.; 53% of mussel samples were positive for V. cholerae (although none were positive for the cholera toxin gene), 63% for V. vulnificus and 79% for V. parahaemolyticus (of which 47% were tdh(+) and/or trh(+)). Viable vibrios were also isolated from the mussel meat and screened for virulence by PCR. The mortality of eukaryotic cells when exposed to bacteria was tested in vivo, with results showing that the Vibrio strains, independent of species and origin, were harmful to the cells. Despite severe infections and several deaths, no report on potential human pathogenic vibrios in this area had been published before this study.

  • 8.
    Collin, Betty
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Ehn Börjesson, Stina-Mina
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Mussagy, Aidate
    Department of Biological Sciences, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Characteristics of potentially pathogenic vibrios from subtropical Mozambique compared with isolates from tropical India and boreal Sweden2013Inngår i: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 83, nr 2, 255-264 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reported outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus have increased worldwide, particularly in regions of high seafood consumption. In Mozambique, seafood constitutes an important food resource and diarrheal diseases are common among its inhabitants. Edible clams were collected in Maputo Bay during both the dry and rainy seasons, with the results showing the number of viable counts of vibrios in clams to peak during the latter. Vibrio parahaemolyticus was the predominant species identified among the isolated strains. Although only one of 109 total strains carried the tdh virulence gene, 69% of isolates showed evidence of hemolytic capacity when subjected to a functional test. Similar virulence patterns and biochemical properties were found in strains isolated from Indian and Swedish marine waters. Antibiotic resistance was, however, more pronounced in strains isolated from these latter two environments.

  • 9.
    Faurby, Sören
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Rebecchi, L.
    Italien.
    Funch, P.
    Danmark.
    Variation in anhydrobiotic survival of two eutardigrade morphospecies: a story of cryptic species and their dispersal2008Inngår i: Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0952-8369, E-ISSN 1469-7998, Vol. 275, nr 2, 139-145 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of geographic variation in anhydrobiotic tolerance may increase our understanding of the population dynamics of terrestrial meiofauna and the relative importance of local adaptation and microhabitat niche separation. Although anhydrobiosis in tardigrades has been studied extensively, few studies have dealt with intraspecific variation in survival and none of these included genetic data to validate the intraspecific nature of the comparisons. Such data are necessary when working with meiofauna as cryptic species are common. We analysed the anhydrobiotic survival and genetic variation in cytochrome oxidase subunit I of two eutardigrades (Richtersius coronifer and Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri) from Italy and Sweden to detect possible local adaptation. Survival was analysed as a multidimensional contingency table and showed that anhydrobiotic survival was higher in Sweden for Ra. oberhaeuseri whereas no significant geographic variation was found for Ri. coronifer. Our genetic analysis indicated the coexistence of two cryptic species of Ra. oberhaeuseri in Italy, only one of which was found in Sweden. It could not be determined whether the variation in Ramazzottius is intra- or interspecific due to the presence of these cryptic species. We suggest that geographic variation in anhydrobiotic survival may be a general phenomenon in tardigrades but further research is necessary to determine the degree of intraspecific variation. The genetic analysis showed indications of long-term isolation of the individual populations of Ri. coronifer but recent dispersal in one of the cryptic species of Ramazzottius. We found higher survival in Ra. oberhaeuseri than in Ri. coronifer. These results indicate a possible coupling between anhydrobiotic survival and dispersal rate.

  • 10. Gillman, Anna
    et al.
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    Söderström, Hanna
    Holmberg, Fredrik
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Tolf, Conny
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Olsen, Björn
    Järhult, Josef D
    Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Strain with an H274Y Mutation in Neuraminidase Persists without Drug Pressure in Infected Mallards2015Inngår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 81, nr 7, 2378-2383 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Influenza A virus (IAV) has its natural reservoir in wild waterfowl and emerging human IAVs often contain gene segments from avian viruses. The active drug metabolite of oseltamivir (oseltamivir carboxylate (OC)), stockpiled as Tamiflu® for influenza pandemic preparedness, is not removed by conventional sewage treatment and has been detected in river water. There, it may there exert evolutionary pressure on avian IAV in waterfowl, resulting in development of resistant viral variants. A resistant avian IAV can circulate among wild birds only if resistance does not restrict viral fitness and if the resistant virus can persist without continuous drug pressure. In this in vivo Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) study we tested if an OC-resistant avian IAV strain (A(H1N1)/NA-H274Y) could retain resistance while drug pressure was gradually removed. Successively infected Mallards were exposed to decreasing levels of OC, and fecal samples were analyzed for neuraminidase sequence and phenotypic resistance. No reversion to wild-type virus was observed during the experiment, which included 17 days of viral transmission in 10 ducks exposed to OC concentrations below resistance induction levels. We conclude that resistance in avian IAV, induced by OC exposure of the natural host, can persist in absence of the drug. Thus, there is a risk that human pathogenic IAVs that evolve from IAVs circulating among wild birds may contain resistance mutations. An oseltamivir resistant pandemic IAV would be a substantial public health threat. Therefore, our observations underscore the need for prudent oseltamivir use, upgraded sewage treatment and resistance surveillance of IAV in wild birds.

  • 11.
    Godhe, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, University of Agricultural Sciences, Mangalore, India.
    Otta, S. K.
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, University of Agricultural Sciences, Mangalore, India.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Clinical Bacteriology, Göteborg University.
    Karunasagar, Indrani
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, University of Agricultural Sciences, Mangalore, India.
    Karunasagar, Iddya
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, University of Agricultural Sciences, Mangalore, India.
    Polymerase chain reaction in detection of Gymnodinium mikimotoi and Alexandrium minutum in field samples from Southwest India2001Inngår i: Marine Biotechnology, ISSN 1436-2228, E-ISSN 1436-2236, Vol. 3, nr 2, 152-162 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were constructed for the detection of two toxic dinoflagellate species, Gymnodinium mikimotoi and Alexandrium minutum. The primers amplified a product of expected size from cultured cells of G. mikimotoi and A. minutum. The species-specific primers targeting G. mikimotoi did not yield any product with a wide range of other cultured algae used as negative controls. Primers designed for A. minutum were species-group-specific since it PCR yielded a product from the closely related species A. ostenfeldii and A. andersonii, but not from other species of this genus tested. The confirmation of PCR products was performed by digestion of the products with restriction enzymes. Sensitivity analyses of the primers on DNA template from cultured cells was positive by PCR at a DNA template concentration of 1.5 x 10(-4) ng/microl (0.3 cells/L) for A. minutum, and at a DNA concentration of 2.5 x 10(-2) ng/microl (697 cells/L) for G. mikimotoi. The PCR method for detection of G. mikimotoi and A. minutum was applied on field samples collected with a plankton net. Gymnodinium mikimotoi could be detected in 11 field samples by microscopy, and all these field samples were positive by PCR. The cell counts of G. mikimotoi in simultaneously collected water samples ranged from 306 to 2077/L. Alexandrium minutum could be detected by microscopy in 3 different field samples. The cell counts in water samples collected at the same time as the net samples ranged from 115 to 1115 cells/L. Alexandrium minutum was detected by PCR in these field samples, with the exception of the sample displaying the lowest cell count (115 cells/L). Plankton samples that were negative by microscopy for any of the two target species were also negative by PCR. All the PCR products from field samples were confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion. The application of PCR-based detection of harmful algal bloom species for aquaculture and monitoring purposes in natural field samples is discussed.

  • 12.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Section for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Hobson, Keith
    ldlife and Landscape Science, Environment Canada, Saskatoon.
    Steven, Van Wilgenburg
    ldlife and Landscape Science, Environment Canada, Saskatoon.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Olsen, Björn
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala.
    Fouchier, Ron
    Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Section for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Disease dynamics and bird migration: linking mallards Anas platyrhynchos and subtype diversity of the influenza A virus in time and space2012Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 4, e35679- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mallard Anas platyrhynchos is a reservoir species for influenza A virus in the northern hemisphere, with particularly high prevalence rates prior to as well as during its prolonged autumn migration. It has been proposed that the virus is brought from the breeding grounds and transmitted to conspecifics during subsequent staging during migration, and so a better understanding of the natal origin of staging ducks is vital to deciphering the dynamics of viral movement pathways. Ottenby is an important stopover site in southeast Sweden almost halfway downstream in the major Northwest European flyway, and is used by millions of waterfowl each year. Here, mallards were captured and sampled for influenza A virus infection, and positive samples were subtyped in order to study possible links to the natal area, which were determined by a novel approach combining banding recovery data and isotopic measurements (δ2H) of feathers grown on breeding grounds. Geographic assignments showed that the core natal areas of studied mallards were in Estonia, southern and central Finland, and northwestern Russia. This study demonstrates a clear temporal succession of latitudes of natal origin during the course of autumn migration. We also demonstrate a corresponding and concomitant shift in virus subtypes. Acknowledging that these two different patterns were based in part upon different data, a likely interpretation worth further testing is that the early arriving birds with more proximate origins have different influenza A subtypes than the more distantly originating late autumn birds. If true, this knowledge would allow novel insight into the origins and transmission of the influenza A virus among migratory hosts previously unavailable through conventional approaches.

  • 13.
    Järhult, Josef D.
    et al.
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    Section of Bacteriology and Food Safety, Department of.
    Wahlgren, John
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control and Karolinska Institute.
    Söderström, Hanna
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Orozovic, Goran
    Section for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Bröjer, Caroline
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Section for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Fick, Jerker
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Grabic, Roman
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Lennerstrand, Johan
    Section of Clinical Virology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Section for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control and Karolinska Institute.
    Olsen, Björn
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Environmental levels of the antiviral oseltamivir induce development of resistance mutation H274Y in influenza A/H1N1 Virus in mallards2011Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 9, e24742- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) is the most widely used drug against influenza infections and is extensively stockpiled worldwide as part of pandemic preparedness plans. However, resistance is a growing problem and in 2008–2009, seasonal human influenza A/H1N1 virus strains in most parts of the world carried the mutation H274Y in the neuraminidase gene which causes resistance to the drug. The active metabolite of oseltamivir, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), is poorly degraded in sewage treatment plants and surface water and has been detected in aquatic environments where the natural influenza reservoir, dabbling ducks, can be exposed to the substance. To assess if resistance can develop under these circumstances, we infected mallards with influenza A/H1N1 virus and exposed the birds to 80 ng/L, 1 mg/L and 80m g/L of OC through their sole water source. By sequencing the neuraminidase gene from fecal samples, we found that H274Y occurred at 1 mg/L of OC and rapidly dominated the viral population at 80 mg/L. IC50 for OC was increased from 2–4 nM in wild-type viruses to 400–700 nM in H274Y mutants as measured by a neuraminidase inhibition assay. This is consistent with the decrease in sensitivity to OC that has been noted among human clinical isolates carrying H274Y. Environmental OC levels have been measured to 58–293 ng/L during seasonal outbreaks and are expected to reach mg/L-levels during pandemics. Thus, resistance could be induced in influenza viruses circulating among wild ducks. As influenza viruses can cross species barriers, oseltamivir resistance could spread to human-adapted strains with pandemic potential disabling oseltamivir, a cornerstone in pandemic preparedness planning. We propose surveillance in wild birds as a measure to understand the resistance situation in nature and to monitor it over time. Strategies to lower environmental levels of OC include improved sewage treatment and, more importantly, a prudent use of antivirals.

  • 14.
    Kaur-Kahlon, G.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Kumar, S.
    Indien.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Rai, A.
    Indien.
    Bhavya, P. S.
    Indien.
    Edler, L.
    WEAQ Lab, Ängelholm.
    Singh, A.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Andersson, B.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Karunasagar, I.
    Indien.
    Ramesh, R.
    Indien.
    Godhe, A.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Response of a coastal tropical pelagic microbial community to changed salinity and temperature2016Inngår i: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 77, nr 1, 37-50 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on the responses of tropical microbial communities to changing hydrographic conditions are presently poorly represented. We present here the results from a mesocosm experiment conducted in southwest (SW) coastal India to investigate how changes in temperature and salinity may affect a coastal tropic microbial community. The onset of algal and bacterial blooms, the maximum production and biomass, and the interrelation between phytoplankton and bacteria were studied in replicated mesocosms. The treatments were set up featuring ambient conditions (28 °C, 35 PSU), hyposalinity (31 PSU), warming (31 °C) and a double manipulated treatment with warming and hyposalinity (31 °C, 31 PSU). The hyposaline treatment had the most considerable influence manifested as significantly lower primary production, and the most dissimilar microphytoplankton species community. The increased temperature acted as a catalyst in the double manipulated treatment and higher primary production was maintained. We investigated the dynamics of the microbial community with a structural equation model approach, and found a significant interrelation between phytoplankton biomass and bacterial abundance. Using this methodology, it became evident that temperature and salinity changes, individually and together, mediate direct and indirect effects that influence different compartments of the microbial loop. In the face of climate change, we suggest that in relatively nutrient replete tropical coastal zones, salinity and temperature changes will affect nutrient assimilation with subsequent significant effects on the quantity of microbial biomass and production.

  • 15. Lacoursière, Jean O.
    et al.
    Charpentier, G
    Laboratory study of the influence of water temperature and pH on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis efficacy against black fly larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae)1988Inngår i: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, ISSN 8756-971X, E-ISSN 1943-6270, Vol. 4, nr 1, 64-72 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis was used in the laboratory to assess the influence of water temperature and pH on the relationship between concentration, duration of exposure, and mortality of the northern black fly species Simulium decorum and Prosimulium mixtum/fuscum group. Mortality increases in both species with increases in duration of exposure, concentration, temperature and pH. Onset of death is shortened by increase in concentration and temperature. As temperature rises, the concentration of B. t. i required to induce mortality decreases; the sharpest decline occurring between 12 and 18 degree C for S. decorum , and between 4 and 8 degree C for P. mixtum/fuscum larvae. Lower pH induces a loss of efficacy of the B. t. i. formulation on S. decorum larvae at 4 and 12 degree C.

  • 16.
    Norén, Fredrik
    et al.
    Dept. Botany, Göteborg University.
    Moestrup, Öjvind
    Dept. Phycology, University of Copenhagen.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Dept. Clinical Bacteriology, Göteborg University,.
    Larsen, Jacob
    Dept. Botany, Göteborg University.
    Worldwide occurrence and host specificity of Parvilucifera infectans: a parasitic flagellate capable of killing toxic dinoflagellates2001Inngår i: Harmful algal blooms: proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Harmful Algal Blooms / [ed] Ed. by G.M. Hallegraeff, S.I. Blackburn, C.J. Bolch & R.J. Lewis, Paris: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO , 2001, 481-483 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Parvilucifera infectans Norén et Moestrup, 1999 has been shown to kil1 several species of toxic dino-flagellates. Based on our present knowledge we know 26 microalgal species which are susceptible to infection. A report is provided on the known geographical distribution of Parvilucifera which seems to be worldwide from Australia in south to Norway in north.

  • 17.
    Norén, Fredrik
    et al.
    Department of Marine Botany, Göteborg University.
    Moestrup, Øjvind
    Department of Phycology, University of Copenhagen.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Department of Clinical Bacteriology, Göteborg University.
    Parvilucifera infectans norén et moestrup gen. et sp. nov. (perkinsozoa phylum nov.): a parasitic flagellate capable of killing toxic microalgae1999Inngår i: European Journal of Protistology, ISSN 0932-4739, E-ISSN 1618-0429, Vol. 35, nr 3, 233-254 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis, collected on the Swedish West Coast, was found to contain round bodies previously interpreted as the result of sexual reproduction. After two weeks of darkness in the refrigerator, all Dinophysis had died, however, and round bodies were present. These proved to be sporangia of a parasitic protist, here named Parvilucifera infectans gen. et sp. nov. Its identity was examined by LM, EM, and DNA sequencing. It is related to Perkinsus, an oyster-killing protist, and Colpodella, a phagocytic protist. Perkinsus has been indicated by 18S rRNA sequencing to be related to dinoflagellates, and the opportunity was taken to examine the ultrastructure of the flagellar apparatus of Parvilucifera in detail. Parvilucifera and its allies, known as perkinsids, share features with both dinoflagellates and apicomplexans. They do not fit readily into any of these groups but appear to form a missing link between them. They are described as a taxon on level with the other alvelolate phyla, as Perkinsozoa phylum nov. Infection studies showed that Parvilucifera infectans infects several other dinoflagellates, notably Alexandrium spp. which are responsible for PSP (paralytic shellfish poisoning). A discussion of the ecological role, in terms of biocontrol of harmful algal blooms, is included.

  • 18.
    Rehnstam, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, University of Umeå.
    Bäckman, Stina
    Department of Microbiology, University of Umeå.
    Smith, David C.
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography 0202, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla.
    Azam, Farooq
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography 0202, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla.
    Hagström, Åke
    Department of Microbiology, University of Umeå.
    Blooms of sequence-specific culturable bacteria in the sea1993Inngår i: FEMS Microbiology Letters, ISSN 0378-1097, E-ISSN 1574-6968, Vol. 102, nr 3-4, 161-166 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using specific deoxyoligonucleotide probes we have discovered seasonally strong (up to ∼ 100%) dominance of bacteria hybridizing to a single probe, in near shore waters off Scripps pier (32°53′N; 117°15′W). The probes were designed from partially sequenced 16S rRNA (V3 domain) of isolated marine bacteria. The results indicate that this approach may be used for studies of bacterial populations in the marine environment. We have shown that a number of genotypes that at times are dominant in the natural assemblages are culturable (and not, ‘viable-but-unculturable’). Additionally, our data suggests that the discrepancy between viable counts and direct counts in sea water samples can be explained by low plating efficiency.

  • 19.
    Rehnstam, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Universitv of Umeå.
    Norqvist, Anders
    Department of Microbiology, Universitv of Umeå.
    Wolf-Watz, Hans
    Department of Microbiology, Universitv of Umeå.
    Hagström, Åke
    Department of Microbiology, Universitv of Umeå.
    Identification of Vibrio anguillarum in fish by using partial 16S rRNA sequences and a specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probe1989Inngår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 55, nr 8, 1907-1910 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    16S rRNA from seven different Vibrio anguillarum strains was partially sequenced and compared. From this sequence information we could design a 25-base-long oligonucleotide and use it as a specific probe for identification of V. anguillarum. This was determined by RNA-DNA colony hybridization and slot-blot hybridization. Strong, specific hybridization to the probe was observed for all V. anguillarum strains tested. Furthermore, no cross-hybridization could be seen against five other bacterial species. The detection limit was 5 x 10(3) bacteria per ml. It was even possible to detect V. anguillarum, by slot-blot hybridization, directly in a homogenized kidney from a fish that had died of vibriosis. The partial sequence information revealed small but significant differences between strains of the same species. These sequence differences are sufficiently significant to allow serotyping on the RNA level. Comparing strains of different serotypes revealed a 10-base and an 11-base difference in V. anguillarum serotypes O8 and O9, respectively, in a 122-base partial sequence.

  • 20.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Department of Microbiology, Umeå University.
    Use of 16S ribosomal RNA probes for the detection of marine bacteria1994Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Atnur, V.
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg.
    Godhe, A.
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg.
    Defining the niche of Vibrio parahaemolyticus during pre- and post-monsoon seasons in the coastal Arabian Sea2014Inngår i: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 67, nr 1, 57-65 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important component of coastal ecosystems worldwide, and in recent years, V. parahaemolyticus has caused several cases of food-borne gastroenteritis. However, research investigating which parameters are important in regulating V. parahaemolyticus abundance in tropical areas with relatively stable temperatures and salinity are largely lacking. The objective here was to investigate which environmental forces are driving elevated abundances of V. parahaemolyticus in a tropical oligotrophic coastal area in the Arabian Sea. We analysed a large number of environmental parameters in parallel with cell densities of V. parahaemolyticus and Vibrio spp. Abundance data was obtained using real-time PCR, during two different sampling periods, representative for two distinct seasons. Water temperature and salinity were stable during and between sampling periods, but V. parahaemolyticus abundances were on average six times higher during the first sampling period in December, compared to the second period in February–March. V. parahaemolyticus abundance was found to be positively correlated to inorganic phosphate concentration and copepod abundance. We thus hypothesise that these are important factors regulating V. parahaemolyticus abundance in coastal tropical areas during these periods.

  • 22.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Umeå University.
    Azam, Farooq
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla.
    Bäckman, Stina
    Hagström, Åke1500060038987015000600389870
    Specificity of 16S rDNA determinative probes for the detection of heterotrophic bacteria in seawaterManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Collin, Betty
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Vibrio-arter i sydsvenska vatten orsakade badsårsfeber: ökande frekvens av bakterierna, visar studier på musslor2009Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 106, nr 7, 435-438 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrios are autochthonous in estuarine and seawater environments, and have an important role in the decomposition of both particulate and dissolved organic matter. A considerable number of pathogenic strains have been described, including important human pathogens. Analyses of V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus genes in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from southern Sweden were conducted during summer-autumn 2006. 61% of the samples were positive for non-O1/O139 V. cholera (toxR positives), but all were negative for the choleratoxin gene ctx. 89% of the mussel samples contained V. parahaemolyticus and 61% of these were positive for the virulence genes tdh and trh. V. vulnificus were detected in 72% of the samples. Ongoing studies include analyses of Vibrio-phytoplankton interrelationships and survival of clinical Vibrio strains in the marine environment.

  • 24. Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Hagström, Å.
    Identifikation av Vibrio anguillarum i fisk med hjälp av partiellt sekvenserat 16S rRNA samt en artspecifik 16S rRNA probe. Oral presentation at Svenska Havsforskarföreningen, Göteborg1988Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25.
    Schill, Ralph O.
    et al.
    Tyskland.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Pfannkuchen, Martin
    Tyskland.
    Brümmer, Franz
    Tyskland.
    Food of tardigrades: a case study to understand food choice, intake and digestion2011Inngår i: Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, ISSN 0947-5745, E-ISSN 1439-0469, Vol. 49, nr Suppl. 1, 66-70 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosses are an excellent habitat for tardigrades because of their ability to ensure a high humidity and to provide a rich food supply for both carnivorous and herbivorous species. Food choice can be correlated with the morphology of the buccal apparatus, and consequentially, their distribution is sometimes linked to food availability (nematodes, rotifers, plant cells, algae, yeast and bacteria). In many species, material containing chlorophyll is often observed in the midgut. However, little information has been available until now on the actual food preference of tardigrades. Since trophic interactions within soil food webs are difficult to study, here we use a polymerase chain reaction–based approach as a highly sensitive detection method. The study was carried out to investigate the presence of chlorophyll matter in the gut of active specimens, based on sequence analyses of the chloroplast ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) gene from mosses and algae. The sequences found in the gut of Macrobiotus sapiens were derived from the moss families Pottiaceae and Erpodiaceae, in Macrobiotus persimilis and Echiniscus granulatus from the moss family Grimmiaceae, and in Richtersius coronifer from the green algae genus Trebouxia. Furthermore, we show the emission of green autofluorescence from the chloroplasts in the algae within the gut of tardigrades and followed the progress of digestion over a 48-h period. The autofluorescent emission level declined significantly, and after 2 days, the signal level was similar to the level of the starved control.

  • 26.
    Svensson, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Zoophysiology, Göteborg University.
    André, Carl
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Clinical Bacteriology, Göteborg University.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Tjärno Marine Biological Laboratory, Strömstad.
    A case of consistent spatial differences in content of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST) among three bivalve species: Mytilus edulis, Ostrea edulis and Cerastoderma edule2000Inngår i: Journal of Shellfish Research, ISSN 0730-8000, E-ISSN 1943-6319, Vol. 19, nr 2, 1017-1020 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Content of diarrhetic .shellfi.sh toxins (DST) was compared among mussels (Mytilus edulis), oysters (Ostrea edulis). and cockles (Cercuioderma edule) at two spatial scales: regions (100 km apart) and locations within regions (5 km apart). Samples were analysed for DST using protein phosphatase inhibiton assay in individual digestive glands. Concentrations of DST in all oysters and cockles were below the detection limit in the assay, whereas mussels from both regions and all locations contained mean levels of DST above the regulation limit for harvest and marketing. Thus interspecific differences in content of DST were found along the Swedish west coast. Some behavioral and physiological phenomena are proposed to explain the differences among species. These include differential uptake and processing of toxic algae, biotransformation of toxins, and reduced filtration at low temperatures. These findings may have some implications for harvest and cultivation of bivalves and suggest a possibility that cockles and oysters could be marketed for human consumption during periods of elevated levels of DST in mussels.

  • 27.
    Tolf, Conny
    et al.
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Wille, Michelle
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Grosbois, Vladimir
    Centre de coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), Montpellier.
    Hasselquist, Dennis
    Department of Biology, Lund University.
    Olsen, Björn
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Individual variation in influenza A virus infection histories and long-term immune responses in mallards2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 4, e61201- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild dabbling ducks (genus Anas) are the main reservoir for influenza A virus (IAV) in the Northern Hemisphere. Current understanding of disease dynamics and epidemiology in this virus-host system has primarily been based on populationlevel ,surveillance studies and infection experiments conducted in laboratory settings. Using a combined experimentalnatural approach with wild-strain captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), we monitored individual IAV infection histories and immunological responses of 10 birds over the course of 15 months. This is the first detailed study to track natural IAV infection histories over several seasons amongst the same individuals growing from juvenile to adults. The general trends in the infection histories of the monitored birds reflected seasonal variation in prevalence at the population level. However, within the study group there were significant differences between individuals in infection frequency as well as in short and long term anti-IAV antibody response. Further observations included individual variation in the number of infecting virus subtypes, and a strong tendency for long-lasting hemagglutinin-related homosubtypic immunity. Specifically, all infections in the second autumn, except one, were of different subtypes compared to the first autumn. The variation among birds concerning these epidemiologically important traits illustrates the necessity for IAV studies to move from the level of populations to examine individuals in order to further our understanding of IAV disease and epidemiology.

  • 28.
    Turk, Valentina
    et al.
    Marine Biological Station, Institute of Biology,Piran, Slovenia.
    Rehnstam, Ann-Sofi
    Department of Microbiology, University of Umeå.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Umeå Marine Sciences Centre, University of Umeå.
    Hagström, Åke
    Department of Microbiology, University of Umeå.
    Release of bacterial DNA by marine nanoflagellates, an intermediate step in phosphorus regeneration1992Inngår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 58, nr 11, 3744-3750 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of dissolved DNA and nanoflagellates were found to covary during a study of diel dynamics of the microbial food web in the Adriatic Sea. This observation was further investigated in a continuous seawater culture when nanoflagellates were fed bacteria grown in filtered seawater. Analysis of dissolved organic phosphorus and dissolved DNA showed a sixfold increase of dissolved DNA in the presence of the nanoflagellates (Ochromonas sp.). The amount of DNA released suggested that the majority of the consumed bacterial DNA was ejected. Phagotrophic nanoflagellates thus represent an important source of origin for dissolved DNA. The rate of breakdown of dissolved DNA and release of inorganic phosphorus in the pelagic ecosystem is suggested to be dependent on the ambient phosphate pool. In the P-limited northern Adriatic Sea, rapid degradation of the labelled DNA could be demonstrated, whereas the N-limited southern California bight water showed a much lower rate. Phosphorus originating from dissolved DNA was shown to be transferred mainly to organisms in the <3-μm-size fractions. On the basis of the C/P ratios, we suggest that a significant fraction of the phosphorus demand by the autotrophs may be sustained by the released DNA during stratified conditions. Thus, the nucleic acid-rich bacterial biomass grazed by protozoa plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus in the marine environment.

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