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  • 1. Albinsson, Berit
    et al.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Åström, Annika
    Handbok i sensorisk analys2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den första utgåvan av Birgit Lundgrens Handbok i Sensorisk Analys utkom 1981. Den har sedan dess blivit en klassiker inom sensoriska kretsar och i ordets verkliga bemärkelse blivit använd som just en handbok – en bok att hålla fast vid i alla typer av sensoriska sammanhang. Vi vill med denna uppdaterade nyutgåva beskriva de traditionella metoderna med dagens termer samt komplettera med några nya metoder.

  • 2.
    Albinsson, Berit
    et al.
    RISE.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Åström, Annika
    SP.
    Handbook on Sensory Analysis2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The original of this handbook is the Swedish Handbok i Sensorisk Analys, which was

    an updated edition of an older sensory analysis handbook written by Birgit Lundgren

    back in 1981. The handbook was revised in 2013 by Berit Albinsson, Karin Wendin

    and Annika Åström. Both these handbooks were written at SIK – The Swedish Institute

    of Food and Bioscience, which is now part of RISE – Research Institutes of Sweden.

    The revised edition of the handbook has proved popular in both industry and in the

    teaching world. At university level, it has been used by students as a complement to

    the academic literature in sensory science programmes. There has been a growing demand

    among international students at Swedish universities for the handbook to be

    translated. In 2016, Kristianstad University entered into an agreement with the research

    body RISE to translate the handbook into English. The translation was made

    by Patrick O’Malley.

    The handbook was translated and printed with permission from the co-authors.

  • 3.
    Andersson, J.
    et al.
    Norge.
    Hulander, E.
    Norge.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Iversen, P. Ole
    Norge.
    Effect on body weight, quality of life and appetite following individualized, nutritional counselling to home-living elderly after rehabilitation: an open randomized trial2017In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 21, no 7, 811-818 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: We examined if individually-adapted nutritional counselling could prevent > 5% weight loss among elderly patients 3 months after discharge from a rehabilitation institution. In addition we assessed quality of life (QoL) and appetite. Design: An open, randomized trial. Setting: Godthaab Health and Rehabilitation Institution in Bærum, Norway. Participants: Patients identified as being undernourished or at risk of disease-related malnutrition using the Nutritional Risk Screening tool NRS-2002. Intervention: Shortly before discharge, patients in the intervention group received an individually-tailored nutrition plan. During the subsequent 3 months these patients were contacted 3 times via telephone calls and they received one visit at their homes, for nutrition counselling. Focus on this counselling was on optimizing meal environment, improving appetite, increasing food intake, advice on food preparation, and motivation and support. Measurements: In addition to weight, QoL and appetite were assessed using the EQ-5D questionnaire and a modified version of the Disease-Related Appetite Questionnaire, respectively. Results: Among 115 considered eligible for the study, 100 were enrolled (72 women and 28 men), with a mean age of 75 years and a mean body mass index of 20 kg/m2. Two in the intervention group (n = 52) and 5 in the control group (n = 48) lost > 5% of their body weight, giving an odds ratio of 0.34 (95% CI: 0.064 – 1.86; p = 0.22). We did not detect any significant differences in the QoL- or appetite scores between the two study groups after three months. Conclusion: An individually-adapted nutritional counselling did not improve body mass among elderly patients 3 months after discharge from a rehabilitation institution. Neither quality of life nor appetite measures were improved. Possibly, nutritional counselling should be accompanied with nutritional supplementation to be effective in this vulnerable group of elderly. The trial is registered in Clinical Trials (ID: NCT01632072).

  • 4.
    Berg, Johan
    et al.
    RISE.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Langton, Maud
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Josell, Åsa
    Atria Scandinavia AB.
    Davidsson, Fredrik
    Geoloc AB.
    State Of The Art report -: insects as food and feed2017In: Annals of Experimental Biology, ISSN 2348-1935, Vol. 5, no 2, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FAO has considered insects as food since 2003 [1] and is promoting consumption of insects (entomophagy) in the Western world because of the possibilities for sustainable production it offers. Insects as food are considered to leave smaller ecological footprints than conventional livestock (beef, pigs, and poultry) regarding feed, land and water needs, as well as greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions [2-7]. As an example regarding water, taken from a recent TV documentary, if a family of four people got their protein need from insects one day a week instead of from conventional livestock, over a year they would save the planet about a million Liters of water [8]. This is in agreement with figures above.

  • 5.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Nordén, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Amiryaramhadi, Nata
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Hiller, Carolina
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Emardson, Ragne
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    New light on indoorenvironments: development of sensory methods for lightning2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Bosaeus, Ingvar
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Nutrition and physical activity for the prevention and treatment of age-related sarcopenia2016In: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, ISSN 0029-6651, E-ISSN 1475-2719, Vol. 75, no 2, 174-180 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sarcopenia, defined as loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, is associated with adverse outcomes such as physical disability, impaired quality of life and increased mortality. Several mechanisms are involved in the development of sarcopenia. Potentially modifiable factors include nutrition and physical activity. Protein metabolism is central to the nutritional issues, along with other potentially modifying nutritional factors as energy balance and vitamin D status. An increasing but still incomplete knowledge base has generated recent recommendations on an increased protein intake in the elderly. Several factors beyond the total amount of protein consumed emerge as potentially important in this context. A recent summit examined three hypotheses: (1) A meal threshold; habitually consuming 25-30 g protein at breakfast, lunch and dinner provides sufficient protein to effectively stimulate muscle protein anabolism; (2) Protein quality; including high-quality protein at each meal improves postprandial muscle protein synthesis; and (3) performing physical activity in close temporal proximity to a high-quality protein meal enhances muscle anabolism. Optimising the potential for muscle protein anabolism by consuming an adequate amount of high-quality protein at each meal, in combination with physical activity, appears as a promising strategy to prevent or delay the onset of sarcopenia. However, results of interventions are inconsistent, and well-designed, standardised studies evaluating exercise or nutrition interventions are needed before guidelines can be developed for the prevention and treatment of age-related sarcopenia.

  • 7.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Barazzoni, R.
    Italien.
    Austin, Peter
    Storbritannien.
    Ballmer, Peter
    Schweiz.
    Biolo, G.
    Italien .
    Bischoff, Stephan C.
    Tyskland.
    Compher, C.
    USA.
    Correia, Isabel
    Brasilien.
    Higashiguchi, T.
    Japan.
    Hoist, Mette
    Danmark.
    Jensen, Gordon L.
    USA.
    Malone, Ainsley
    USA.
    Muscaritoli, Maurizio
    Italien.
    Nyulasi, I.
    Australien.
    Pirlich, Matthias
    Tyskland.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Schindler, Karin
    Österrike.
    Schneider, Stephane M.
    Frankrike.
    de van der Schueren, M. A. E.
    Nederländerna.
    Sieber, Cornel
    Tyskland.
    Valentini, L.
    Tyskland.
    Yu, J. C.
    Kina.
    Van Gossum, André
    Belgien.
    Singer, Pierre
    Israel.
    ESPEN guidelines on definitions and terminology of clinical nutrition2017In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 36, no 1, 49-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    A lack of agreement on definitions and terminology used for nutrition-related concepts and procedures limits the development of clinical nutrition practice and research.

    Objective

    This initiative aimed to reach a consensus for terminology for core nutritional concepts and procedures.

    Methods

    The European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) appointed a consensus group of clinical scientists to perform a modified Delphi process that encompassed e-mail communication, face-to-face meetings, in-group ballots and an electronic ESPEN membership Delphi round.

    Results

    Five key areas related to clinical nutrition were identified: concepts; procedures; organisation; delivery; and products. One core concept of clinical nutrition is malnutrition/undernutrition, which includes disease-related malnutrition (DRM) with (eq. cachexia) and without inflammation, and malnutrition/undernutrition without disease, e.g. hunger-related malnutrition. Over-nutrition (overweight and obesity) is another core concept. Sarcopenia and frailty were agreed to be separate conditions often associated with malnutrition. Examples of nutritional procedures identified include screening for subjects at nutritional risk followed by a complete nutritional assessment. Hospital and care facility catering are the basic organizational forms for providing nutrition. Oral nutritional supplementation is the preferred way of nutrition therapy but if inadequate then other forms of medical nutrition therapy, i.e. enteral tube feeding and parenteral (intravenous) nutrition, becomes the major way of nutrient delivery.

    Conclusion

    An agreement of basic nutritional terminology to be used in clinical practice, research, and the ESPEN guideline developments has been established. This terminology consensus may help to support future global consensus efforts and updates of classification systems such as the International Classification of Disease (ICD). The continuous growth of knowledge in all areas addressed in this statement will provide the foundation for future revisions.

  • 8.
    Dahl Lassen, Anne
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke
    Danmark.
    Haapala, Irja
    Finland.
    Lennernäs Wiklund, Maria
    University of Gävle.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Beck, Anne Marie
    Danmark.
    Fagt, Sisse
    Danmark.
    Food at Work around the Clock – The Nordic Model: report from a Nordic Workshop, November 4, 2016, Copenhagen, Denmark2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report brings together 12 invited presentations and outcomes of a workshop on food and meals for employees working irregular hours “around the clock”. The workshop, “Food at work around the clock – The Nordic Model”, was hosted by the National Food Institute at the Technical University of Denmark on November 4, 2016, in Lyngby, near Copenhagen, Denmark. This was a culmination of the collaboration started in 2015 between researchers from the hosts institute, Gävle University and Kristianstad University in Sweden, and the School of Applied Educational Sciences and Teacher Education in Finland. The workshop was funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers.

  • 9.
    Faxén Irving, Gerd
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Geriatrisk nutrition2016 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Geriatrisk nutrition utkom första gången 2010. Denna bok är en reviderad upplaga, som har förändrats på flera sätt både avseendeinnehåll, struktur och lay-out. Boken riktar sig både till studenter inom olika vårdutbildningar och till yrkesverksamma inomvård och omsorg av äldre. Den har ambitionen att ge en förståelse för hur åldrandet påverkar kroppens funktioner och hälsan.Fokus i boken ligger på mat, näring och nutrition och de specifika nutritionsproblem som följer med åldrandet. Boken vill ävenge en medicinsk bakgrund till olika sjukdomar som är vanliga hos äldre, vilket är förutsättningen för att förstå sjukdomsspecifiknutritionsbehandling. Boken tar också upp regelverk, organisation och kvalitet samt etiska och kulturella aspekter på nutritionsomhändertagandeav äldre. Helt nytt är ett kapitel om centrala begrepp och termer samt ett separat kapitel om kulturella aspekteroch ett utökat avsnitt som behandlar D vitamin. Boken är faktagranskad av personer med specifika kompetenser inom olikaområden som boken tar upp.

  • 10.
    Faxén Irving, Gerd
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Lukt, smak och aptit2016In: Geratrisk nutrition / [ed] Faxén Irving, G., Karlström, B., & Rothenberg, E., Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, 2, 67-78 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Gerberich, Johanna
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humaniora.
    Müller- Hansen, Bitte
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Höijer, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Promoting creativity in Food and Meal Science educations at Kristianstad University2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Gerberich, Johanna
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Sepp, Hanna
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Recipe development of snack recipes for children: Snacks of the Season (Årstidernas mellis)2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Germundsson, Lisa
    et al.
    SLU Partnerskap Alnarp.
    Jönsson, Håkan
    Lund University .
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö Högskola.
    Moen, Ann
    Lund University .
    Johansson, Eva
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    FOCUS - Food Knowledge Community Skåne-Blekinge: förstudie 20162016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Focus förstudieprojekt syftar till att utreda förutsättningarna för att stärka och utveckla innovationsinfrastrukturen för livsmedelssystemet i Skåne och Blekinge, för att bidra till ökad tillväxt, sysselsättning, attraktionskraft och långsiktig hållbarhet.

    Utifrån syftet ovan och ambitionen att stärka samarbetet mellan lärosätena i Skåne och Blekinge inom livsmedelsområdet ska förstudien besvara följande frågeställningar:

    1. Hur ser förutsättningarna ut för forskning, utbildning och samverkan/innovation inom livsmedelsområdet i Skåne och Blekinge?

    2. Vilka är de mest angelägna behoven avseende forskning, utbildning och samverkan/innovation för livsmedelsnäringen och offentliga aktörer?

    3. Hur kan regionala framtidssatsningar och strategier inom forskning, utbildning och samverkan inom livsmedelsområdet utformas, för att bidra till ett samlat utbud av akademisk kompetens riktat till företag och andra aktörer i hela livsmedelssystemet?

  • 14.
    Giacalone, Davide
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Bom Fröst, Michael
    University of Copenhagen.
    Bredie, Wender
    University of Copenhagen.
    Kremer, Stephanie
    WUR.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Otto, Marie
    University of Copenhagen.
    Skjoldborg, Signe
    University of Copenhagen.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    SP.
    Risvik, Einar
    Nofima.
    Health and quality of life in an aging population: food and beyond2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, as in much of the Western world, the number of citizens aged 65 and over has grown at an unprecedented rate and is expected to account for over 30% of the total population by 2060. Coupled with a steady increase in life expectancy, this massive demographic change calls for a major effort to ensure quality of life in our older population. A thorough understanding of the elderly as food consumers, their nutritional needs, and their food perception and preferences is increasingly recognized as key areas for future research.

    Food perception change at a later age as a result of the psychophysiological changes that occur with aging, such as decreased appetite and chemosensory acuity. The latter generally decrease food intake and the pleasure that the elderly derive from their meals, making the identification of possible compensation strategies (e.g., flavor enhancement, textural changes, etc.) essential to food producers interested in developing products for this increasingly important segment. Promoting food satisfaction among the elderly is also paramount to ensuring adequate nutritional intake. This aspect has major public health implications, such as preventing malnutrition and sarcopenia, which are leading causes of decreased independence and lower quality of life. Additionally, the importance of social and psychological factors is increasingly recognized. Many conditions related to aging (e.g., tiredness, loneliness) may prevent elderly people from preparing and enjoying meals, calling for alternative vehicles – such as tailor-made distribution channels, social food preparation and eating situations – for promoting healthy eating.

    In this workshop, a range of international speakers with relevant professional experience will present their latest work. More generally, it is our intention with this workshop to raise awareness of how sensory and consumer research can contribute to promote well-being among the elderly, and ultimately to expand the number of healthy life years as we age.

     

  • 15.
    Granberg, Albina
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Att lära laga mat: matlagning i hem- och konsumentkunskap2016Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Granberg, Albina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Brante, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment. University of Gothenburg.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Mattsson Sydner, Ylva
    Uppsala universitet.
    Knowing how to use and understand recipes:: what arithmetical understanding is needed when students with mild intellectual disabilities use recipes in practical cooking lessons in Home Economics?2017In: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 41, no 5, 494-500 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore what arithmetical understanding is needed when students with mild intellectual disabilities use recipes during practical cooking lessons in Home Economics. The settings were compulsory schools in Sweden attended by students with intellectual disabilities. Sixteen lessons in Home Economics during which cooking took place were observed. In total, 37 students and three teachers participated. All students had a mild intellectual disability. Their ages varied, but most were between 13 and 14 years old. The sociocultural perspective on learning, combined with a literacy framework, was used as a theoretical foundation for the study. Main findings are that students need an arithmetical understanding of (i) how to interpret numbers, (ii) how to interpret and use units, and (iii) how to compute when using recipes. The knowledge and skills needed to be able to use a recipe are featured in the concept recipe literacy, capturing both theoretical, declarative knowledge and the more practical, procedural knowledge. Recipe literacy can be used to theorize the use of recipes when learning to cook, as in Home Economics.

  • 17.
    Granberg, Albina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Brante, Göran
    University of Gothenburg.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humaniora.
    Mattsson Sydner, Ylva
    Uppsala University.
    Learning how to cook in Home Economics Education: the role of recipes as learning tools2016In: Childhood in Everyday Life: abstract book, 2016, 63- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The school subject Home Economics is a potential context for children to learn how to cook and to master artefacts in the cooking practice. Recipes, used as leaning tools, are part of the Swedish syllabus of Home Economics and an integral part of today’s cooking culture. Despite being a central artefact during cooking lessons, it is known that children have various difficulties using recipes.

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to investigate what kind of barriers that occur when children with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) use recipes in order to learn how to cook in Home Economics.

    Methods

    With an ethnographic inspired design, sixteen accompanying observations were used at lessons in Home Economics. The observations were carried out in kitchen classroom settings where teaching and learning about cooking took place. The field notes were thematically analyzed. 

    Result

    The findings reveal that there were many barriers in the children´s use of recipes. Foremost, attention was drawn to the complex set of knowledge needed to be able to use and understand a recipe in order to learn how to cook. The design and the purport of the recipe has to be comprehended, and in addition, it´s interpretation requires arithmetical knowledge. We therefore suggest that the knowledge needed to make use of a recipe can be conceptualized in the novel concept of recipe literacy.

    Conclusion

    Recipes turned out to be difficult for the children to use and this must be taken in consideration by the teachers. The concept of recipe literacy can be useable when discussing the use of recipes as learning tools in cooking in Home Economics.

     

  • 18.
    Granberg, Albina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Uppsala University.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Mattsson Sydner, Ylva
    Uppsala University.
    Teaching and learning cooking skills in Home Economics: what do teachers for students with mild intellectual disabilities consider important to learn?2017In: British Food Journal, ISSN 0007-070X, E-ISSN 1758-4108, Vol. 119, no 5, 1067-1078 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore which elements of cooking skills Home Economics (HE) teachers in schools for students withmild intellectual disability (ID) consider important for their students to learn. Design/methodology/approach - In total, 22 qualitative interviews with HE teachers of students with mild ID were conducted. The transcripts were analyzed thematically using the sociocultural approach on learning and knowledge as a theoretical framework. Findings - The elements of cooking skills that were emphasized included mastering the language of cooking, measuring, following recipes, representing an instrumental and task-centered - knowledge on cooking. Practical implications - The results of this study provide an insight into cooking lessons in HE in schools, not only regarding the focus that teachers give to cooking skills, but also to how cooking skills can be understood on a theoretical level. This has implications for both regular schools and schools for students with mild IDs since the elements that teachers consider important then guide what the students are given to learn. Teachers should be conscious that the planning of lessons should also be based on the students' specific circumstances and context. Originality/value - To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that provides knowledge about how HE teachers reason regarding which cooking skills they consider important for students to learn. HE is taught to both children and adolescents, and it is important to investigate teachers' perceptions about the subject and how the teaching is organized, including cooking skills.

  • 19.
    Granberg, Albina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Mattsson Sydner, Ylva
    Uppsala universitet.
    The recipe literacy concept: capturing important aspects of learning how to cook in school2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    In Sweden, the school subject Home Economics (HE) is a potential context for children to learn how to cook and to master artefacts in the cooking practice. The learning process entails a number of events that can be coupled to the children themselves, to the teachers and to various learning tools, like the recipes.

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to investigate various aspects of the process that occur when children with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) learn how to cook in the subject of Home Economics.

    Methods

    Data was collected using two different methods; firstly, using an ethnographic inspired design, sixteen accompanying observations were implemented at lessons in HE. The observations were carried out in kitchen classroom settings where teaching and learning about cooking took place. The field notes were thematically analyzed.

    Secondly, in total 22 qualitative interviews with HE teachers of students with mild ID were conducted. The transcripts were analyzed thematically using the sociocultural approach on learning and knowledge as a theoretical framework.

    Result

    The findings reveal both that recipes are central artefacts during the cooking lessons and that the students have various difficulties using the recipes. Regarding the teachers, it was found that the skills that they emphasized in relation to learning how to cook included mastering the language of cooking, measuring and following recipes.

    Conclusion

    The results provide an insight into cooking lessons in HE in schools, not only regarding the focus that teachers give to cooking skills, but also to how cooking skills can be understood on a theoretical level. Attention was drawn to the complex set of knowledge needed to be able to use and understand a recipe in order to learn how to cook. We therefore suggest that the knowledge needed to make use of a recipe can be conceptualized in the novel concept of recipe literacy.

     

  • 20.
    Henric, Wichmann
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Linköpings universitet.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Stene, Christina
    Sånevård Sund.
    Bosaeus, Ingvar
    Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset.
    Fortfarande klara brister i nutritionsbehandling på sjukhus: enkätstudie med jämförelse mellan åren 2004 och 20142016In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 113, no 16, 798-801 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    An experimental investigation of the probability distribution of turbulent fragmenting stresses in a high-pressure homogenizer2018In: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 177, 139-150 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high-pressure homogenizer (HPH) is, together with the rotor–stator mixer (RSM), the standard equipment for emulsification in many fields of chemical processing. Both give rise to intense turbulence which, in turn, gives rise to drop breakup. Previous investigations focus on average turbulent disruptive stress. However, turbulence is a stochastic phenomenon and drop breakup will be characterized by instantaneous stresses, or more specifically by the probability distribution of instantaneous turbulent stresses.

    This study uses high-resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) data to measure the probability distribution of turbulent stresses in the HPH. It is concluded that stress distributions approximately follow a lognormal model and that the skewness of the distributions decreases with increasing distance from the gap exit until a constant distribution shape is obtained at the position where the turbulence is fully developed. This converged stress distribution is similar to that obtained for RSMs in previous studies, suggesting that stress distribution shape is a general property. Moreover, large differences are observed when comparing these experimental stress distributions to the most widely used expression for describing this stochastic effect in fragmentation rate models. This indicates that the traditionally used fragmentation rate models can be fundamentally flawed, at least in relation to RSM and HPH emulsification.

  • 22.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Are food advertisements promoting more unhealthy foods and beverages over time?: evidence from three Swedish food magazines, 1995-20142017In: Ecology of Food and Nutrition, ISSN 0367-0244, E-ISSN 1543-5237, Vol. 56, no 1, 45-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unhealthy food in advertising has been suggested as a mediator for the increase in diet-related illness. This study quantitatively investigates changes in food advertising between 1995 and 2014 in terms of food categories promoted, macronutrient content, and percentage of foods classified as heathy or unhealthy from a sample of 7,199 ads from three Swedish food magazines. With the exception of increased alcoholic beverage and decreased carbohydrate-rich-food promotion, no monotonic trends of increasingly unhealthy food advertisement are found. From these findings, it is argued that food magazine advertising is not a mediator of the adverse dietary trend.

  • 23.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Professor: därför är skatt på socker fel väg2017In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 31 januariArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Scale-down failed: dissimilarities between high-pressure-homogenizers of different scales due to failed mechanistic matching2017In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 195, 31-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high-pressure homogenizer (HPH) is used extensively in the processing of non-solid foods. Food researchers and producers use HPHs of different scales, from laboratory-scale (∼10 L/h) to the largest production-scale machines (∼50 000 L/h). Hence, the process design and interpretation of academic findings regarding industrial condition requires an understanding of differences between scales. This contribution uses theoretical calculations to compare the hydrodynamics of the different scales and interpret differences in the mechanism of drop-breakup.

    Results indicate substantial differences between HPHs of different scales. The laboratory-scale HPH operates in the laminar regime whereas the production-scale is in the fully turbulent regime. The smaller scale machines are also less prone to cavitation and differ in their pressure profiles. This suggest that the HPHs of different scales should be seen as principally different emulsification processes. Conclusions on the effect or functionality of a HPH can therefore not readily be translate between scales.

  • 25.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Andersson, Ronnie
    Chalmers University.
    Mortensen, Hans-Henrik
    Tetra Pak .
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak .
    Experimental investigations of turbulent fragmenting stresses in a rotor-stator mixer. Part 2: probability distributions of instantaneous stresses2017In: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 171, 638-649 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drop fragmentation in high intensity turbulent emulsification processing equipment-such as rotor-stator mixers (RSMs)-has traditionally been described in terms of a stress balance; between the stabilizing stress of the drop and the time-averaged turbulent stress at the most intense position of the flow. As shown in part 1 of this series, this approach is often a fruitful first approximation. However, the instantaneous local stress experienced by drops differs,from the time-averaged local stress due to hydrodynamics in general and the stochastic nature of a turbulent flow in particular. This study estimates the probability distribution of instantaneous turbulent stresses in an RSM from velocity fields obtained using particle image velocimetry. Results show that regions with low average stress still have a substantial probability of having instantaneously high stresses. This explains why low probability breakup is observed at these positions in visualization experiments. Results also show that the probability distribution of instantaneous stresses is approximately lognormal. The results are compared to two commonly used models for how to take the stochastic variations into account: the exponential decay model, and the multifractal emulsification model. It is concluded that both models predict reasonable distributions shapes but underestimate the width of the stress distribution.

  • 26.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Arlov, Dragana
    Tetra Pak Proc Syst AB.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    FS Dynam AB.
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak Proc Syst AB & Lund University .
    Hydrodynamic difference between inline and batch operation of a rotor-stator mixer head: a CFD approach2017In: Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, ISSN 0008-4034, E-ISSN 1939-019X, Vol. 95, no 4, 806-816 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rotor-stator mixers (RSMs) can be operated in either batch or inline mode. When operating a rotor-stator geometry in batch mode, it typically experiences an order of magnitude higher volumetric flow through the stator than in inline mode. This is expected to cause differences in the flow and turbulence in the rotor-stator region. This study uses computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to study the hydrodynamic differences in and near the stator hole as a function of volumetric flow rates between those experienced in inline and batch modes of operation. It is concluded that both radial flow profiles and turbulent kinetic energy across a range of rotor speeds and flow rates can be described by a velocity ratio: average tangential fluid velocity in the stator hole divided by the rotor tip speed. Moreover, the position where dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy takes place-and hence the effective region of dispersion or mixing-differs between the two modes of operation. The relative importance of the two regions can be described in terms of the velocity ratio and the transition can be predicted based on the relative power input due to rotational and pumping power of the mixer. This study provides a starting point for understanding differences between emulsification efficiency between inline and batch modes of operation with relevance for both equipment design and process scale-up.

  • 27.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak AB & Lund University.
    The dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy and its relation to pumping power in inline rotor-stator mixers2017In: Chemical Engineering and Processing, ISSN 0255-2701, E-ISSN 1873-3204, Vol. 115, 46-55 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theoretical understanding of inline rotor-stator mixer (RSM) efficiency, described in terms of the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy as a function of mixer design and operation, is still poor. As opposed to the correlations for shaft power draw, where a substantial amount of experimental support for the suggested correlations exists, the previously suggested correlations for the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy have not been experimentally validated based on primary hydrodynamic measurements. This study uses energy conservation to reformulate the previously suggested dissipation rate correlations in terms of pumping power which allows for empirical testing. The dimensionless pumping power of three investigated geometrically dissimilar inline RSMs were found to be qualitatively similar to that of centrifugal pumps and decrease linearly with the inline RSM flow number. The previously suggested models for turbulent dissipation in inline RSMs are inconsistent with this observation. Using this reformulation approach, the previously suggested correlation for power-draw is extended to a correlation for dissipation. A new model is suggested based on conservation of energy and angular momentum, and the empiric pumping power relationship. The new model compares well to CFD simulations of total dissiaption and show reasonable agreement to emulsification drop size scaling.

  • 28.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Mortensen, Hans Henrik
    Tetra Pak.
    Andersson, Ronnie
    Chalmers University.
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak & Lund University.
    Experimental investigations of turbulent fragmenting stresses in a rotor stator mixer. Part 1.: estimation of turbulent stresses and comparison to breakup visualizations2017In: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 171, 625-637 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite large industrial relevance, the relation between rotor-stator geometry, hydrodynamics and drop breakup is poorly understood, partly since no methods for measuring the fragmenting stresses acting on drops have been established. This study attempts to bridge this gap by developing, applying and evaluating two approaches for estimating local turbulent stresses based on particle image velocimetry data: namely one traditional but indirect approach based on the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, and another more direct approach based on the spatial turbulent spectrum that has proven useful in other high-intensity emulsification processing. The approaches are evaluated in terms of validity of underlying assumptions, how they compare to breakup visualizations in the same geometry and with regard to the reliability of primary measurables. Results show three consistent regions of high stress in the rotor-stator region: in a plume extending into the stator-hole from the trailing edge, in the shear layers of the jet exiting the hole and in the macroscopic flow structure formed after the rotor blocks a stator hole. Following, a drop travelling along an average velocity flow field, the measurement predict disrupting stresses exceeding the stabilizing stress at the stator hole exit, at approximately the same position where drop breakup is observed in breakup visualizations. Both methods are therefore able to predict the most likely breakup positions. It is also concluded that both methods have limitations, and that average stress alone cannot describe all aspects of the fragmentation process in rotor-stator mixers. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 29.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Zishan, Chaudhry
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems AB.
    Fredrik, Innings
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems AB.
    Model emulsions to study the mechanism of industrial mayonnaise emulsification2016In: Food and Bioproducts Processing, ISSN 0960-3085, E-ISSN 1744-3571, Vol. 98, 189-195 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanistic understanding of industrial food-emulsification is necessary for optimal operation and design. Industrial mayonnaise production is yet poorly understood, partly due to a lack of experimental data and partly due to the complexity of the product.

    This study suggests a systematic method for building mechanistic insight, by investigating successively more complex model emulsions in industrial rotor–stator mixers, comparing to idealized theories identifying points of departure. As a first step, a high volume fraction (>50%) and high viscosity (>100 mPa s) model emulsion with a non-ionic surfactant acting as emulsifier is investigated in two industrial-scale mixers (one batch and one continuous inline mixer) at varying rotor tip-speeds.

    The resulting drop diameter to rotor tip-speed scaling suggest turbulent viscous fragmentation of the model emulsion in both mixers despite the high volume fraction of disperse phase which could be expected to lead to significant non-idealities such as extensive coalescence and concentration effect-dominated fragmentation. If the other non-idealities (e.g. egg yolk emulsifying system and non-Newtonian rheology) would not influence the emulsification, this suggests the same mechanism for mayonnaise emulsification. An outline for continued work on successively more complex model-emulsions is discussed in order to further enhance understanding.

  • 30.
    Höglund, Evelina
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Albinsson, Berit
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Appetizing muffins designed for nutritional needs of older adults2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Due to good living conditions, the population of older adults is growing. Increased age increases prevalence of diseases and thereby also the risk of disease related malnutrition (DRM) increases. Appetizing and nutritious food products are needed to counteract DRM. One possible way to enable increased nutritional intake for older people with poor appetite is to offer energy/protein rich snacks between meals. In Sweden, afternoon coffee is an appreciated part of the day. It has also been shown that different varieties of muffins are a popular choice to eat with the coffee among older adults. Developing muffins to suit older adults’ nutritional needs along with their sensory cravings may contribute to decreased DRM. The aim of this study was to investigate added nutritional content along with the sensorial effects of increased fat/protein content in muffins.

    Methods: Design of four different muffins were developed and produced according to a processing scheme where fat and proteins were added. Sensory evaluation and nutritional calculations were performed. Further moisture content, water activity, weight loss and size of the muffins were measured.

    Results: The fat and protein additions affected the sensory properties and nutritional value of the muffins:

    Muffin type

    Content (g/100g   muffin)

    Sensory properties

    fat

    protein

    Reference

    27

    4,9

    soft, smooth

    With added fat

    42

    3,8

    flat, moist, fatty mouth

    With added protein (whey)

    23

    12,4

    feel hard, compact, pointy, low

    flavors

    With added fat and protein

    37

    10,2

    a bit hard, compact, fatty mouth feel   effects of protein are dominant

    Discussion: It can be concluded that muffins with added nutrients and sensorialy designed for older adults’ is promising.  However, further recipe/process development in order to increase appetizing sensory properties may be achieved.

  • 31.
    Höglund, Evevlina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Albinsson, Berit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Stuhr-Olsson, Gunnel
    Findus Special Foods.
    Signäs, Michael
    Medirest Compass AB.
    Karlsson, Christina
    ICA Sverige.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Protein and energy enriched muffins designed for nutritional needs of older adults2017In: Nutrition & Food Sceince, ISSN 2474-767X, Vol. 2, no 4, 555592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disease related malnutrition is a common problem among older adults which results in human suffering and high health care costs. One way to counteract this condition is to offer appetizing and nutritious food products adapted to the needs of older adults. However, macronutrient enrichment of food products is not straight forward as it affects flavour and texture properties. In this study, muffins were fortified with rape seed oil and whey powder to reach increased fat and/or protein content and the nutritional value, sensory properties and physical parameters were investigated. The results showed that ingredients could be added to significantly increase the energy and protein density, but enrichment affected on appearance and other sensory properties. Extra fat made the muffins flat and moist with a smooth and fatty mouth feel, while whey powder addition resulted in high/pointy muffins with shiny appearance, hard texture and altered flavours. For co-addition of fat and protein the effects of added protein dominated. The specific role of muffin/cake batter compounds, and their transformation during the baking process, needs to be further investigated. Hence, more research is needed in order to offer older adult appealing foods with high energy and nutrient density.

  • 32.
    Höijer, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Kulinarisk kultur2017In: Förskoletidningen, ISSN 0348-0364, Vol. 22, no 3, 6-8 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Höijer, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Köttet som norm2017In: Nordisk Nutrition, ISSN 1654-8337, Vol. 2017, no 3, 6-9 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Johannesson, J.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. University of Gothenburg.
    Dahlin Ivanoff, S.
    Slinde, F.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Gender differences in practice: knowledge and attitudes regarding food habits and meal patterns among community dwelling older adults2016In: Journal of Aging Research & Clinical Practice, ISSN 2273-421X, Vol. 5, no 4, 220-228 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study gender differences in older adults according to practice, knowledge and attitudes regarding food habits and meal patterns. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Two urban districts of Gothenburg, Sweden. Participants: A total of 297 individuals were included, 102 men and 195 women. They were 80 years or older and living in ordinary housing without being dependent upon the municipal home help services or help from another person in Activities of Daily Life, and cognitively intact, defined as having a score of 25 or higher in the Mini Mental State Examination. Measurements: Telephone interviews regarding food habits and meal patterns were conducted. Results: Almost all participants (99%) ate their main meal at home and men preferred company at meals more often (p<0.001). Women had the sole responsibility to shop for food more often (p<0.000), and generally regarded cooking as a routine or something they just had to do. Among men, few (13%) took a great interest in cooking and 36 % of the men stated that cooking was something they were not capable of performing (p<0.000). Men had company at meals every day more often (71% vs 40%). Respondents stated that loneliness took away the enjoyment of cooking and changed their habits when becoming a widow or widower. Conclusion: Women take greater responsibility for the household than men, regardless of marital status. A large proportion of the men thought cooking was something they were not able to do. The findings in this study may indicate a possible gender difference in the need for societal support.

  • 35.
    Lindberg, Siv
    et al.
    RISE.
    Edström, Karin
    RISE.
    Tholander, Hanna
    NINE.
    Grari, irjam
    RISE.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    THEME ELDERLY- Attractive food for elderly: the role of inspiring and informative packaging2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Malnutrition is common among elderly due to low appetite. Appetite is highly connected to age, health and social activities. For home-living elderly, readymade meals are often served for both lunch and dinner. When appetite is reduced, apart from the food itself, the packaging should stimulate appetite by enhancing the attractiveness of the packaged food. The food itself has to fulfil the sensory expectations.

    Aim: To identify important packaging attributes that will increase attractiveness of readymade meals for elderly.

    Method: Iterative design in which consumer tests, focus group discussions and deep interviews for evaluation of prototypes were held with elderly (65-88 years) focussing on food and food packaging. Sensory factors were of specific interest.

    Results: The packaging and the meal inside must attract all senses in order to stimulate appetite, mainly visual and tactile senses were of importance. Although many claim they would like to be able to see the food, photographs of the packed meal are preferred over transparency. The photographs have to be truthful. Easy to read is the most important factor, information should be clearly visible (contrast and size) and not be too verbose. Furthermore, easy to open and handle and consequently, size and weight of the packaging, are also important factors.

    Discussion: The stepwise iterative design of the study included several user tests with different generations of developed prototypes as well as benchmarking against commercial products were useful in identifications of important packaging attributes. A high level of consumer interaction was reached and it became clear that the packaging had a profound impact on the appetite of readymade meals.

    Conclusion: Visual factors are of highest importance as well as tactile properties. Pictures clearly showing the meal in a true and attractive way as well as clearly visible and informative information, size and weight were deemed important.

  • 36.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    Högskolan Borås.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    Högskolan Borås.
    Sundström, Malin
    Högskolan Borås.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Consumer perception and behaviour in the retail foodscape: a study of chilled groceries2018In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, Vol. 40, 1-7 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to provide a functional foodscape in the grocery store, chilled products need to be stored in cabinets according to the regulations. Doors on display cabinets are energy-efficient but can also be perceived as a barrier by consumers.

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to an understanding of how consumers behave and what they perceive when shopping chilled groceries from cabinets with doors and without doors in the supermarket.

    Based on a qualitative research approach, combining in-store observations and focus group interviews, and focusing on three environmental variables in the servicescape: ambient conditions, space and functions, and signs, symbols and artifacts, the results indicate that consumers’ behavior and perceptions differ when there are doors or no doors on cabinets. The results further show how doors lead to different forms of approach or avoidance behavior in terms of accessibility and that consumers’ vision, olfaction and tactility all influence consumers’ perceptions of freshness and cleanliness in relation to doors or no doors. Our results also have practical implications for retailers who are designing new stores or considering changes in existing store layouts.

  • 37.
    Lindblad, Amanda
    et al.
    Gothenburg Univeristy.
    Johannesson, Julie
    Gothenburg Univeristy.
    Dahlin-Ivanhoff, Synnove
    Gothenburg Univeristy.
    Höglund, Evelina
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Ekman, Susanne
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Stuhr Olsson, Gunnel
    Findus.
    Karlsson, Christina
    ICA.
    Signäs, Michael
    Medirest, Compass Group.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Preferences and attitudes regarding food choices and meal patterns among older adults: a cross-sectional study2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Magnusson, Emma
    et al.
    HKR.
    Prim, Mia
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Identification of basic tastes in foods beforeand after training among 4-6 year old children: a pilot study2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The individual perception of taste differs to a great extent and is due to both ability to detect basic tastes and to taste concentrations. Taste preferences and identification, including verbalisation of the taste experience may be improved by learning, either via the socialisation process or strategical learning procedures.

    The aim of this study was to examine 4-6-year old children’s abilities to identify basic tastes in foods before and after training with basic taste solutions. Further, to study the children’s abilities to verbalise their taste experiences before and after the training.

    Methods: Eleven children aged 4-6 years participated in the study conducted at a Swedish preschool. The study consisted of four parts:

    1: Discussion about basic tastes.

    2: Taste session of ten different foods while discussing the tastes.

    3: Training session in which the children learned to recognise the basic tastes sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami by tasting basic taste solutions.

    4: Identification test: The children were asked to answer which of basic tastes they could identify in different foods. It was further studied how the children verbalised the tastes of the foods.

    Results: The children had a significantly higher ability to identify salty taste compared to other basic tastes, both before and after training. Training did improve the children’s abilities to detect and verbalise all basic tastes after basic taste training. Due to verbalisation the children went from naming the tastes as “tasty” or “disgusting” to being able to put words on, and to identify many of the basic tastes in each food.

    Discussion: A strategy to make children more curious and interested of foods and tastes is to conduct training sessions with basic taste solutions. This may benefit young children gaining a positive approach towards new tastes and flavours and also to foods in general.

  • 39.
    Magnusson, Emma
    et al.
    HKR.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Identification of basic tastes in foods before and after training among 4-6 year old children – a pilot study2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human beings have an innate preference for sweet taste and aversion towards bitter. However, the individual perception of taste differs to a great extent and is due to both the ability to detect basic tastes and to the taste concentrations. Taste preferences and identification as well as verbalisation of the taste experience may be improved by learning. Either more or less conscious via the socialisation process or via strategically learning procedures.

    The aim of this pilot study was to examine 4-6-year old children’s abilities to identify basic tastes in foods before and after training with basic taste solutions. Further, to note the children’s abilities to verbalise their taste experiences before and after the training.

    This study was conducted at a Swedish preschool, where eleven children aged 4-6 years participated in the four different parts of the study. The first part was a discussion about basic tastes and the second was to test ten different foods while further discussing the tastes. The third was a training part where the children learned to recognise the basic tastes sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami by tasting basic taste solutions. The last part were a basic taste test in which the children were asked to answer which basic tastes they could identify in each food. Further, it was noted how the children verbalised the tastes of the foods.

    From the results it could be concluded that the children had a significantly higher ability to identify salty taste compared to other basic tastes, both before and after training. Improved abilities both to detect and to verbalise all basic tastes after basic taste training was shown. Due to verbalisation the children went from naming the tastes as "tasty" or "disgusting" to being able to put words on, and to identify many of the basic tastes in each food.

    A simple strategy to make children more curious of foods and tastes is to perform training sessions with basic taste solutions. This may benefit young children by contribution of a more positive approach towards new flavours and foods in general.

  • 40.
    Mortensen, Hans Henrik
    et al.
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems.
    Arlöv, Dragana
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems.
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems & Lund University.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    A validation of commonly used CFD methods applied to rotor stator mixers using PIV measurements of fluid velocity and turbulence2017In: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been applied extensively for studying rotor-stator mixers (RSM) in the past, both as a design-tool and in modelling mixing and emulsification. Modelling is always a balance between accuracy and computational cost. The theoretically soundest methods (i.e. fully resolved transient simulations) have often been deemed unfeasible, and the majority of previously published studies use severe simplifications (i.e. k-ε models for turbulence and multiple reference frame for rotation). High quality experimental validation is in great need, but are rare, due to the lack of local fluid velocity measurement.

    Experimental validations of CFD on RSMs have previously been provided using laser Doppler aneometry. This study provides the first validation using particle image velocimetry, allowing for substantially higher spatial resolution than with the previously used techniques. The objective of this study is to map the possibilities and limitations of these commonly used CFD modelling approaches for RSMs. Special emphasis is put on validating the dissiaption rate of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Despite being the parameter used for linking CFD to mixing or dispersion models, this has not been the subject of experimental validation in previous studies.

    Based on the validations, a list of best practice recommendations are given (in terms of turbulence model, mesh resolution and rotation formulation). When adhering to these, the CFD model accurately captures power draw, flow number, and the detailed velocity field inside the region where mixing and dispersion takes place. The dissipation rate of TKE is captured qualitatively but underestimate experimental values. Implications in terms of limitations are discussed in detail, including estimations of accuracy implications for emulsification and mixing modelling.

  • 41.
    Mortensen, Hans Henrik
    et al.
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems AB.
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems AB & Lund University.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    The effect of stator design on flowrate and velocity fields in a rotor-stator mixer: an experimental investigation2017In: Chemical engineering research & design, ISSN 0263-8762, E-ISSN 1744-3563, Vol. 121, 245-254 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rotor-stator mixers (RSMs) are available in different designs, e.g. with different number of stator slots and slot dimensions. However, the relationship between stator design and the RSM hydrodynamics is not well understood. Consequently, manufacturers still base design and stator screen recommendations on trial-and-error.

    This study reports experimental measurements of how the flowrate through the stator slots, and velocity profiles in the region of relevance for mixing and breakup, is influenced by the stator slot width, using particle image velocimetry. It is concluded that the flowrate can be described by a design dependent flow number for all investigated geometries and that the flow number decreases with increasing slot width. Moreover, by studying the velocity profiles at different rotor speeds and designs, it is concluded that the velocity profile, its skewness and the proportion of back-flow (fluid re-entering the slot) scales with the flow number of the design. This suggests that the flow number, in addition to rotor speed, is a highly relevant parameter for describing the effect of design on batch RSM hydrodynamics.

  • 42.
    Müller- Hansen, Bitte
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Utveckling av en modell för nät/distansundervisning inom områdena hantverk och kreativitet2016Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43.
    Nilsson, Ulla
    et al.
    Virgo konsult.
    Hagström, Gun
    Lyssna AB.
    Uggla, Madeleine
    SLU.
    Olsson, Marie
    SLU.
    Biörklund, Maria
    Livsmedelsakademin.
    Arinder, Pernilla
    SP.
    Knutsson, Hans
    Lunds universitet.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Styrketår för seniorer: ett pilotprojekt2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Nilsson, Ulla
    et al.
    Virgo Consulting.
    Hagström, Gun
    Lyssna AB.
    Uggla, Madeleine
    SLU.
    Olsson, Marie
    SLU.
    Biörklund, Maria
    Livsmedelsakademin.
    Arinder, Pernilla
    SP.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Designed Energy Smoothie for Elderly2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Creative research methods for studying the public meal experience among children and people with intellectual disabilities2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A great part of the meals are consumed in institutions like schools, pre-schools, workplaces, and in special care homes for disabled and elderly people. Studies have shown that public meals have a great impact on health, equality in health as well as on individual well-being. However, the experience of these public meals are not thoroughly examined. The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of various creative participatory research methods in order to understand the meal experience among young children in pre-school and people with intellectual disabilities in social institutions. A literature overview has been conducted which is the result of the first part of a collaboration project between Kristianstad University, Sweden and the Copenhagen House of Food, Denmark. Empirical field work is ongoing. The overview showed how researchers during recent years have used a variety of creative visual methods, such as drawings, paintings, photographing and filming, as well as using material props like toys and dolls, in order to understand and visualize experiences, thoughts and ideas. This implies a greater focus on ability rather than lack of ability and on showing rather than talking. This might give confidence to people, which also creates conditions for empowerment. However, studies focusing on the specific meal experience have been limited, especially in relation to people with intellectual disabilities. From this perspective it is important to test and evaluate methods that can provide further knowledge about the food and meal experience, as well as to enable participation in food and meal research.

  • 46.
    Nyberg, Maria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Lennernäs Wiklund, Maria
    University of Gävle.
    Impossible meals?: the food and meal situation of flight attendants in Scandinavia: a qualitative interview study2017In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 113, 162-171 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The working conditions of flight attendants (FAs) often involve extended and irregular working hours, short rest periods, difficulties in planning for breaks and high demands of service provision. Moreover, work schedules including early check-in, shifts during circadian low and time-zone transitions imply constant exposure to alterations in circadian systems and related health risks. The aim of this explorative study was to investigate how the organisation of work, time and place influence the food and meal situation of FAs when at work, focusing on patterns, form and social context of meals. The research questions posed were how food and meals at work were characterised and perceived among the FAs, and what strategies were adopted to manage the food and meal situation. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with fourteen FAs working in Scandinavia. The results indicated that the organisation of work, time and place have a major influence on the meal situation at work, and how food and meals are perceived and managed by FAs. The work was defined as fragmented and inconsistent regarding time and place resulting in scattered meals and a more snack-based form of eating. The meal situation was characterised by irregularity as well as unpredictability. Eating took place when food was available and when there was enough time to eat, rather than being guided by hunger or social context. Various strategies such as eating in prevention, using emergency food, avoiding certain food and drinks or eating little or nothing at all were used to manage the unpredictability of the meal situation as well as the gap between organisational and individual times. The findings demonstrated the individual responsibility to solve the meal at work, e.g. to solve organisational times.

  • 47.
    Nyberg, Maria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humaniora.
    Örtman, Gerd
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Pajalic, Zada
    Norge.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Blücher, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Lindborg, Ann-Louise
    Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    The meal as a performance: food and meal practices beyond health and nutrition2016In: Ageing & Society, ISSN 0144-686X, E-ISSN 1469-1779, Vol. 30 August, 1-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proportion of elderly people in the population is increasing, presenting a number of new challenges in society. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate how elderly persons with motoric eating difficulties perceive and perform their food and meal practices in everyday life. By using Goffman's concept of performance as a theoretical framework together with Bourdieu's thinking on habitus, a deeper understanding of food and meal practices is obtained. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 elderly people (aged between 67 and 87 years) and meal observations were carried out with 11 of these people. Participants were found to manage food and meal practices by continuously adjusting and adapting to the new conditions arising as a result of eating difficulties. This was displayed by conscious planning of what to eat and when, avoiding certain foods and beverages, using simple eating aids, but also withdrawing socially during the meals. All these adjustments were important in order to be able to demonstrate proper food and meal behaviour, to maintain the façade and to act according to the perceived norms. As well as being a pleasurable event, food and meals were also perceived in terms of being important for maintaining health and as ‘fuel’ where the main purpose is to sustain life. This was strongly connected to the social context and the ability to enjoy food and meals with family members and friends, which appeared to be particularly crucial due to the impending risk of failing the meal performance.

  • 48.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Food and meal related techniques for healthy and independent eating2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

  • 49.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Forsberg, Sarah
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Purhagen, Jeanette
    Perten Instruments, Lund.
    Svensson, Therése
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Mayonnaise processed for appealing sensory properties2017In: PROCEEDINGS 10th International Conference on Culinary Arts and Sciences: exploring future foodscapes / [ed] Bent Egberg Mikkelsen, Kwabena Titi Ofei,Tenna Doktor Olsen Tvedebrink, Annette Quinto Romani, Frantisek Sudzina, Köpenhamn, 2017, 392- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Mayonnaise is an oil in water emulsion, generally produced in high intensity rotor-stator mixers. The taste and texture is appreciated by consumers but local markets value different sensory properties. The effects of processing conditions on appearance, texture and taste are not fully understood. However, it can be hypothesized to primarily depend on mixing intensity (i.e. the rotor tip-speed) and processing time (i.e. the average number of rotor-stator passages)

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mixing intensity on the characteristics of mayonnaise.

    Methods

    A standard recipe for mayonnaise was processed in a rotor-stator mixer using two different mixing intensities (rotor tip-speeds of 4.7 m/s and 7.1 m/s). The processing time was chosen to give the same number of average rotor-stator passages for each rotor speed. Sensory properties were profiled using a trained analytical panel

    2 in a sensory laboratory (ISO 8589). Texture was measured instrumentally as curdled consistency by back extrusion (TVT Texture Analyzer, Perten Instruments)3.

    Results

    The higher mixing intensity (7.1 m/s) led to a more yellow appearance compared to the lower intensity (4.7 m/s). It also resulted in higher resistance to stirring when assessed by the panel and a higher Peak Force A (N) and Adhesiveness (J) measured instrumentally. No effect on taste-related sensory properties was found.

    Conclusion

    By varying the mixing speed the appearance and texture of mayonnaise was affected, a higher mixing intensity led to a more yellow and firm product. The alterations in processing conditions had no effect on the taste of the mayonnaise.

    References

    1. Håkansson, A., Chaudhry, Z., Innings, F. Model emulsions to study the mechanism of industrial mayonnaise emulsification. Food and Bioproducts Processing 2016;98: 189-195.

    2. Institute SS. Sensory analysis – Methodology – General guidance for establishing a sensory profile (ISO 13299:2016). Stockholm, Sweden: SIS, Swedish Standards Institute; 2016.

    3. Perten Instrument Method Description. TVT Method 24-01.01.

  • 50.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Forsberg, Sarah
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Purhagen, Jeanette
    Perten Instruments, Sweden.
    Svensson, Therése
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    The effect of processing on sensory properties of mayonnaise2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Mayonnaise is an oil in water emulsion, generally produced in high intensity rotor-stator mixers. The taste, flavour and texture is appreciated by consumers but local markets value different sensory properties. The effects of processing conditions on these properties are not fully understood. However, it can be hypothesized to primarily depend on mixing intensity (i.e. the rotor tip-speed) and processing time (i.e. the average number of  rotor-stator  passages).

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mixing intensity on sensory and instrumental characteristics of mayonnaise.

    Methods

    A standard recipe for mayonnaise was processed in a rotor-stator mixer using two different mixing intensities (rotor tip-speeds of 4.7 m/s and 7.1 m/s respectively). The processing time was chosen to give the same number of average rotor-stator passages for each rotor speed. Sensory properties were evaluated using an analytical panel and Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). In addition, texture was measured instrumentally as curdled consistency by back extrusion (TVT Texture Analyzer, Perten Instruments). Results The higher mixing intensity (7.1 m/s) led to a more yellow appearance compared to the lower intensity (4.7 m/s). It also resulted in an altered texture, both when assessed as by hand manipulation and in-mouth. Processed at higher speed, the mayonnaise was e.g. more  resistant to stirring corresponding to a higher Peak Force A (N) and Adhesiveness (J) when measured instrumentally. No effect on taste and flavour related sensory properties was found.

    Discussion and conclusion

    The result indicate that there is a potential to tailor the texture characteristics of mayonnaise through processing. By varying the mixing speed the appearance and texture of mayonnaise was affected, a higher mixing intensity led to a more yellow and firm product. The alterations  in processing conditions had however no effect on taste and flavour of the mayonnaise.

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