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  • 1.
    Abdel–Khalik, Jonas
    et al.
    Storbritannien.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Hansen, Martin
    USA.
    Development of a solid phase extraction method for the simultaneous determination of steroid hormones in H295R cell line using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry2013In: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 935, no September, 61-69 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The H295R in vitro cell line produces the majority of the steroidogenesis, for which reason it is commonly used as a screening tool for endocrine disrupting chemicals. Simultaneous determination of the precursor cholesterol and key steroid hormones could give a broad insight into the mechanistic disruption of the steroidogenesis. Steroid hormones have primarily been extracted from H295R incubation medium by means of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and the obtained recoveries and matrix effects have typically not been stated or assessed. In the present study a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous extraction of cholesterol and five key steroid hormones pregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, cortisol and aldosterone from H295R incubation medium, and finally detected by LC-MS/MS. Cholesterol was recovered at a level of 55.7%, while steroid hormone recoveries ranged from 98.2 to 109.4%. Matrix effects varied between -0.6% and 62.8%. Intra-day precision was deemed acceptable, but the inter-day precision for pregnenolone and aldosterone exceeded the precision limit of 15% RSD. Although LLE has been the most frequently used extraction method in H295R studies, however, our investigation has shown that SPE may relatively easily extract and recover steroid hormones, potentially replacing LLE.

  • 2.
    Abdel-Khalik, Jonas
    et al.
    England.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Nielsen, Frederik Knud
    Danmark.
    Hansen, Martin
    Danmark.
    Incorporation of (14)C-cholesterol in human adrenal corticocarcinoma H295R cell line and online-radiodetection of produced (14)C-steroid hormone metabolites2017In: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 145, 569-575 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study demonstrates the addition of (14)C-cholesterol to the human cell line H295R will in-situ form radiolabeled steroid hormones allowing for new mechanistic and metabolic insights. The aim of the present study was to in-situ radiolabel steroid hormones from cell line-incorporated (14)C-cholesterol using the OECD guideline 456, H295R steroidogenesis in-vitro assay. Radiodetection of the steroid metabolites of the steroidogenic pathway allows for an improved understanding of the various enzymatic mechanisms involved without necessarily being dependent on quantification. Generated radiolabeled steroids were analyzed using HPLC hyphenated with a Flow Scintillation Analyzer (FSA). H295R cells were incubated with radiolabeled cholesterol and cell media were collected and prepared by solid phase extraction and analyzed with HPLC-FSA. For successful radiolabeling of the steroids in the steroidogenesis of H295R cells, radioactive cholesterol may potentially only need to be added just before the cells are incubated for 72h in well plates. Based on the obtained HPLC-FSA chromatograms, and confirmation of the observations by studies in the literature, a qualitative time profile for the production of steroid hormones was estimated. Multiple radiolabeled steroid hormones were identified by means of analytical standards and UV (ultraviolet) co-chromatography, though the elucidation of multiple metabolites remains unresolved. Although online radiodetection proved to suffer from suboptimal sensitivity, the concept of radiolabeling the steroidogenesis in H295R cells with (14)C-cholesterol and detecting the radiolabeled steroid hormones online was proved and may assist in further toxicological studies.

  • 3.
    Björklund, Erland
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Svahn, Ola
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Bak, Søren
    Danmark.
    Bekoe, Samuel Oppong
    Ghana.
    Hansen, Martin
    USA.
    Pharmaceutical residues affecting the UNESCO biosphere reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike wetlands: sources and sinks2016In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 71, no 3, 423-436 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is the first to investigate the pharmaceutical burden from point sources affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden. The investigated Biosphere Reserve is a >1000 km(2) wetland system with inflows from lakes, rivers, leachate from landfill, and wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). We analysed influent and treated wastewater, leachate water, lake, river, and wetland water alongside sediment for six model pharmaceuticals. The two WWTPs investigated released pharmaceutical residues at levels close to those previously observed in Swedish monitoring exercises. Compound-dependent WWTP removal efficiencies ranging from 12 to 100 % for bendroflumethiazide, oxazepam, atenolol, carbamazepine, and diclofenac were observed. Surface-water concentrations in the most affected lake were ≥100 ng/L for the various pharmaceuticals with atenolol showing the highest levels (>300 ng/L). A small risk assessment showed that adverse single-substance toxicity on aquatic organisms within the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve is unlikely. However, the effects of combinations of a large number of known and unknown pharmaceuticals, metals, and nutrients are still unknown.

  • 4.
    Casas, Monica Escolà
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Hansen, Martin
    Danmark.
    Krogh, Kristine A.
    Danmark.
    Styrishave, Bjarne
    Danmark.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Analytical sample preparation strategies for the determination of antimalarial drugs in human whole blood, plasma and urine2014In: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 962, 109-131 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antimalarial drugs commonly referred to as antimalarials, include a variety of compounds with different physicochemical properties. There is a lack of information on antimalarial distribution in the body over time after administration, e.g. the drug concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and urine, which must be improved in order to advance curing the parasitic disease malaria. A key problem also lies in that pharmacokinetic studies not always are performed in patient groups that may benefit most of the treatment such as children, pregnancy and lower-weight ethnic populations. Here we review the available sample preparation strategies combined with liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis to determine antimalarials in whole blood, plasma and urine published over the last decade. Sample preparation can be done by protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction or dilution. After LC separation, the preferred detection tool is tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) but other detection methods have been used e.g. UV, fluorescence and electrochemical detection. Major trends for sample preparation of the different groups of antimalarials for each matrix and its detection have been summarized. Finally, the main problems that the researchers have dealt with are highlighted. This information will aid analytical chemists in the development of novel methods for determining existing antimalarials and upcoming new drugs

  • 5.
    Henmyr, Viktor
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin. Lund University.
    Carlberg, Daniel
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Manderstedt, Eric
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Lund University.
    Lind-Halldén, Christina
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Säll, T.
    Lund University.
    Cardell, L. O.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Halldén, Christer
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Genetic variation of the toll-like receptors in a Swedish allergic rhinitis case population2017In: BMC Medical Genetics, ISSN 1471-2350, E-ISSN 1471-2350, Vol. 18, no 1, 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Variation in the 10 toll-like receptor (TLR) genes has been significantly associated with allergic rhinitis (AR) in several candidate gene studies and three large genome-wide association studies. These have all investigated common variants, but no investigations for rare variants (MAF ≤ 1%) have been made in AR. The present study aims to describe the genetic variation of the promoter and coding sequences of the 10 TLR genes in 288 AR patients.

    METHODS: Sanger sequencing and Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing was used to identify polymorphisms in a Swedish AR population and these were subsequently compared and evaluated using 1000Genomes and Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) data.

    RESULTS: The overall level of genetic variation was clearly different among the 10 TLR genes. The TLR10-TLR1-TLR6 locus was the most variable, while the TLR7-TLR8 locus was consistently showing a much lower level of variation. The AR patients had a total of 37 promoter polymorphisms with 14 rare (MAF ≤ 1%) and 14 AR-specific polymorphisms. These numbers were highly similar when comparing the AR and the European part of the 1000Genomes populations, with the exception of TLR10 where a significant (P = 0.00009) accumulation of polymorphisms were identified. The coding sequences had a total of 119 polymorphisms, 68 were rare and 43 were not present in the European part of the 1000Genomes population. Comparing the numbers of rare and AR-specific SNPs in the patients with the European part of the 1000Genomes population it was seen that the numbers were quite similar both for individual genes and for the sum of all 10 genes. However, TLR1, TLR5, TLR7 and TLR9 showed a significant excess of rare variants in the AR population when compared to the non-Finnish European part of ExAC. In particular the TLR1 S324* nonsense mutation was clearly overrepresented in the AR population.

    CONCLUSIONS: Most TLR genes showed a similar level of variation between AR patients and public databases, but a significant excess of rare variants in AR patients were detected in TLR1, TLR5, TLR7, TLR9 and TLR10. This further emphasizes the frequently reproduced TLR10-TLR1-TLR6 locus as being involved in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis.

  • 6.
    Mårtensson, A.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Ivarsson, S.
    Lund University.
    Letelier, A.
    Lund University.
    Manderstedt, Eric
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Halldén, Christer
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Ljung, R.
    Lund University.
    Origin of mutation in sporadic cases of severe haemophilia A in Sweden2016In: Clinical Genetics, ISSN 0009-9163, E-ISSN 1399-0004, Vol. 90, no 1, 63-68 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many newly diagnosed Swedish severe haemophilia A (HA) patients are sporadic cases. Some genotypically non-carrier mothers have gone on to have two descendants with the same mutation, presumably because of mosaicism.

    AIMS: To define the origin of mutation in sporadic cases of HA, reveal possible sex-specific differences in mutagenesis and identify potential mosaics among non-carrier mothers.

    METHOD: Sanger sequencing characterized the mutations and microsatellite haplotyping determined the origin of the X chromosome carrying the mutation in 3 generations of 45 families with sporadic severe HA. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) was used in five cases to reveal that mosaicism mutations are not found on conventional DNA sequencing.

    RESULTS: In 23 out of 45 families, the mother carried the mutation and in 5 out of 28 families, the grandmother was also a carrier. The X chromosome was of grandpaternal origin in 17 out of 23 cases. One of five tested mothers was a mosaic with a mutation frequency of 7%.

    CONCLUSION: In 40 out of 45 families, the sporadic case resulted from a mutation in the last two generations. In 82% (23/28), the carrier mothers had a de novo mutation where the X chromosome was of paternal origin in 74% (17/23). ddPCR is a potentially powerful and promising analysis for mosaicism in HA.

  • 7.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Halling-Sørensen, Bent
    Danmark.
    Hansen, Martin
    Danmark.
    Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones2013In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 180, 368-371 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g−1 dry weight or 22.5 mg kg−1 N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones.

  • 8.
    Styrishave, Bjarne
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Pedersen, Kathrine Eggers
    Danmark.
    Clarke, Olivier
    Danmark.
    Hansen, Martin
    Danmark.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. University of Copenhagen.
    Sonne, Christian
    Danmark.
    Dietz, Rune
    Danmark.
    Steroid hormones in multiple tissues of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)2017In: Polar Biology, ISSN 0722-4060, E-ISSN 1432-2056, Vol. 40, no 1, 37-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is threatened by climate changes and also from persistent organic pollutants affecting polar bear endocrinology governing growth and reproduction. To provide further insight into basic polar bear endocrinology, we determined the levels of steroids in multiple tissues and plasma from East Greenland polar bears. Tissue samples from 10 polar bears, 5 males (2 adults, 3 juveniles) and 5 females (all juveniles) were obtained from the Inuit hunt in Scoresby Sound during springtime. Eleven steroids: pregnenolone, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, 17 alpha-estradiol and 17 beta-estradiol were determined in brain, adrenal cortex, testis, testicular vein, plasma, and ovary using GC-MS/MS. In brain tissue, the neuroactive progestagen pregnenolone (11.9 +/- 4.4 ng/g ww) and dehydroepiandrosterone (2.26 +/- 0.43 ng/g ww) were found in high concentrations. Very high levels of testosterone and androstenedione were observed in testes (> 100 ng/g ww) and plasma from testicular vein (testosterone: 108 +/- 41 ng/ml; androstenedione: 35.2 +/- 11.1 ng/ml). Additionally, a strong correlation was found between the levels of steroids in testes and testicular vein plasma. Progestagens were found in very high levels in ovaries from juvenile females (> 100 ng/g ww). Finally, our study indicates that polar bears synthesize androstenedione via the a dagger-4 pathway. The present study adds new insight to our knowledge on polar bear endocrinology, which may be used in future studies on polar bear ecology and studies on some of the threats from pollution and climate changes that these animals are facing.

  • 9.
    Svahn, Ola
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Lund University.
    Tillämpad miljöanalytisk kemi för monitorering och åtgärder av antibiotika- och läkemedelsrester i Vattenriket2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Svahn, Ola
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Describing sorption of pharmaceuticals to lake and river sediments, and sewage sludge from UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike by chromatographic asymmetry factors and recovery measurements2015In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 415, 73-82 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past 30 years a vast number of studies have demonstrated the presence of pharmaceutical residues in the environment. But still knowledge is scarce regarding the interaction of these emerging pollutants with various matrices in nature. A chromatographic system with on-line detection was developed to perform a sorption study of six selected pharmaceuticals to four natural sediments and dewatered digested sewage treatment plant sludge with differing physicochemical characteristics. Sorption effects, measured as asymmetry factors and recoveries, differed pronouncedly among the pharmaceuticals and between the matrices, which could be explained by basic physicochemical properties of the investigated compounds in relation to matrix characteristics. Protonated and deprotonated molecular properties had the greatest importance for sorbate–sorbent interactions. Atenolol, with cationic properties, showed the highest degree of sorption regardless of the matrix studied. Diclofenac and furosemide, both acids, showed the least tendency towards interactions to natural matrices. Among the neutral compounds bendroflumethiazide, carbamazepine and oxazepam, weaker forces, such as van der Waals, aromatic electron donor–acceptor interactions, and hydrogen forces, seemed more important to determine sorption differences. Results revealed that sorption of pharmaceuticals on natural sediments decreased in the order: atenolol (+) > bendroflumethiazide > oxazepam > carbamazepine > diclofenac (−) > furosemide(–). The matrix content of organic matter measured as total organic carbon (TOC) clearly dictated drug sorption. Beside from studying matrix interaction, these results and the developed technique and methodology might find use in the development of new removal processes of pharmaceuticals from wastewater based on improved knowledge concerning chemical interactions to filter materials.

  • 11.
    Svahn, Ola
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Increased electrospray ionization intensities and expanded chromatographic possibilities for emerging contaminants using mobile phases of different pH2016In: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 1033-1034, 128-137 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work the habitual behaviour of low pH in environmental organic trace analysis is challenged by investigating the full potential of building a multi-component UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method adapted to cover common emerging contaminants of many different polarities, minimizing the elements of compromise in the performance of the final analytical separation and detection. Contributes have been made by taking advantage of common commercially available technology in understanding the impact from solvent components and the ionization of analytes which can facilitate future development of robust, sensitive and precise UHPLC-MS/MS methods. All contaminants were evaluated and optimized without prejudices regarding historical residence in terms of chromatographic conditions and ESI mode; increasing multi-method's flexibility that can be implemented in routine analysis in response to new requests as well as to emerging contaminants yet to be discovered. Our data strongly supports the questioning of the assumption that equilibrium concentrations of ions in solution reflect those produced during the electrospray process. ESI responses of [M+H](+) and limits of detection were comparable, or often better at high pH compared to acidic eluents. Presence of nitrogen basic groups such as tertiary and secondary amines in a compound increased the intensity of the ESI+ signal, and was even further elevated in basic eluent. The proton affinity probably changes for many nitrogen-containing compounds during the ionization process, making the gas-phase processes very important in generation of these ions by ESI+. There were also an unexpected large number of compounds showing their highest response at pH 7 and weak ionic strength. A flow optimized, buffert free, neutral UHPLC-MS/MS method enhanced the sensitivity for the environmental important synthetic hormone ethinyl estradiol significantly.

  • 12.
    Svahn, Ola
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Interkalibrerad läkemedelsanalys 2017: ett samarbetsprojekt för ökad analyskvalité2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Läkemedelsverket gav i september 2015 ut en rapport med titeln ”Miljöindikatorer inom ramen för nationella läkemedelsstrategin (NLS)”. Rapporten indikerar bland annat stora kvalitetsbrister i tidigare utförda analyser av läkemedel i miljön under åren 2002-2013, men betonar också vikten av att samordna framtida nationella läkemedelsanalyser för att bättre använda våra offentliga resurser. I rapporten skriver man följande: ”Allra högst prioriterad ansåg arbetsgruppen att indikatorn ”mäta halter av läkemedelssubstanser i miljö” vara. Detta beroende på att det utöver att det är av stor vikt att följa utvecklingen av läkemedelsrester i miljön över tid för att utvärdera effekten av genomförda insatser, så ansåg arbetsgruppen att det finns stora möjligheter att optimera användningen av de offentliga resurserna genom en bättre samordning av mätningar i miljön. Många mätningar har gjorts historiskt av olika offentliga aktörer utan någon samordning.” Mot bakgrund av detta, och som svar på ett nationellt behov, åtog sig Högskolan Kristianstad (HKR) genom Ola Svahn och Erland Björklund, båda verksamma vid MoLab, Krinova Incubator and Science Park i Kristianstad, att leda denna interkalibreringsstudie för läkemedelsanalys i miljö-vattenprover av olika typ. Arbetet har skett på uppdrag av Havs- och Vattenmyndigheten som finansierat arbetet via bidrag ur havs- och vattenmiljöanslaget och i samarbete med fyra andra analyslaboratorier vid Umeå Universitet (UU), Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet Uppsala (SLU), Svenska miljöinstitutet Stockholm (IVL) samt Aarhus Universitet Danmark (AU). Total deltog därmed 5 laboratorier, alla med tidigare erfarenhet av läkemedelsanalys i miljöprover.

  • 13.
    Svahn, Ola
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Läkemedelsutsläpp från Skånska avloppsreningsverk 2017: ett uvecklings- och samarbetsprojekt på Högskolan Kristianstad i samarbete med Region Skåne och 6 skånska reningsverksaktörer2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I projektet LUSKA (Läkemedelsutsläpp från Skånska Avloppsreningsverk) deltog 6 olika reningsverksorganisationer,    geografiskt fördelade över hela Skåne; Höganäs, Klippan, Höör/Hörby, Svedala, Kristianstad och Simrishamn. Provtagning utfördes i april 2017 på fyra platser vid varje reningsverk. Tre av dessa platser valdes enligt förslag från Länsstyrelsen Skånes tillsynsvägledning; uppströms, nedströms och utgående vatten från reningsverket. Dessutom ingick en fjärde provpunkt bestående av inkommande vatten till reningsverken. I studien analyserades total 21 av 22 läkemedel enligt Läkemedelsverkets föreslagna lista på ämnen från 2015. Analysresultaten från de 8 avloppsreningsverken, samt tillhörande recipient i form av åar och sjöar visar tydligt att stora mängder läkemedel hamnar i våra omgivande skånska vatten varje år. Detta sker som en konsekvens av att reningsverken inte förmår rena läkemedelsutsläpp med befintlig teknik baserad på aktivt slam. Studien visade att de 8 reningsverken släpper ut minst 71 kg läkemedel varje år till skånska vatten enbart av dessa 21 ämnen. Den stora bulken av de uppmätta ämnena utgjordes av blodtryckssänkaren metoprolol och smärtstillaren diklofenak. Men även ämnen som karbamazepin, losartan, naproxen och oxazepam förekom i betydande koncentrationer i avloppsvattnet. Dessa ämnen innefattar flera läkemedelstyper och representerar tre generella och relativt vanliga sjukdomstillstånd som högt blodtryck, inflammation och smärta, samt depression och ångest. Baserat på resultaten i LUSKA-projektet kan man uppskatta att när ett reningsverk behandlar en miljon kubikmeter (1 000 000 m3) avloppsvatten passerar det samtidigt ut ca 4 kg av de 21 läkemedel som Läkemedelsverket tagit upp på sin övervakningslista. Enligt en grov beräkning, innefattande en majoritet av de skånska reningsverken, skulle detta innebära att nästan 600 kg kilo läkemedel läcker ut varje år från skånska reningsverk av Läkemedelsverkets föreslagna ämnen. Samtidigt måste man beakta att dessa 21 ämnen endast utgör en liten del av flera hundra läkemedelssubstanser som används för behandling av sjukdomar. Med stor sannolikhet läcker ett till flera ton läkemedel ut årligen i skånsk recipient. Mätningar i åar och sjöar visar att även om koncentrationerna sjunker nedströms verken som  en konsekvens av företrädesvis utspädning så finns det lokaler där koncentrationerna är an-märkningsvärt höga utifrån ett hållbarhetsperspektiv.

  • 14.
    Svahn, Ola
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Thermal stability assessment of antibiotics in moderate temperature and subcriticalwater using a pressurized dynamic flow-through system2015In: International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, ISSN 2028-9324, Vol. 11, no 4, 872-880 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal degradation of antibiotics has been studied for decades in a broad range of disciplines including food production, agriculture and analytical chemistry. Yet, there is a lack of thermal stability data for many antibiotics. Here we systematically investigated the thermal stability of ten commonly prescribed antibiotics applying a laborsaving automated inhouse pressurized dynamic flow-through system. The design of the system allowed a fast access to a large number of data at medium to subcritical water temperatures, ranging from 50-250 °C. The five ß-lactams cefadroxil, cefuroxime, amoxicillin, penicillin V, and penicillin G showed a high degree of stability with a maximum degradation of less than 30 % at 150 °C. The two quinolones ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin showed a very high thermal stability up to 200 °C, as did trimethoprim andsulfamethoxazole. At 250 °C all antibiotics were either partly of fully removed. The tetracycline doxycycline showed a specific removal pattern probably involving both binding to metal surfaces at lower temperatures as well as degradation at increased temperatures.

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