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  • 1.
    Aronsen Torp, Jenny
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Berggren, Vanja
    Lund university.
    Erlandsson, Lena-Karin
    Lund university.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Weight status among Somali immigrants in Sweden in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, dietary habits and physical activity2015In: Open Public Health Journal, ISSN 1874-9445, Vol. 8, 10-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Immigrants are considered globally to be a vulnerable subpopulation. Vulnerable population groups have a higher prevalence of obesity than the general population. Despite increased immigration of people from Somalia to Sweden in recent years, little research has been undertaken about obesity and obesity-related health risks among Somali immigrants. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, as well as possible relationships between weight status and socio-demographic characteristics, dietary habits and physical activity (PA) among Somali immigrants in Sweden.

    Methods:This quantitative cross-sectional study included 114 respondents. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire covering socio-demographic factors, PA and dietary habits. Weight and height were also measured.

    Results:Of the 114 respondents, 50.9% had a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or above.In bi-variate analysis, there were no statistically significant differences between those with a BMI below 25 and those with a BMI of 25 or more regarding PA or dietary habits. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that female gender and being married were associated with having a BMI of 25 or above.

    Conclusion: Socio-demographic factors may be more strongly associated with high BMI than PA or dietary habits among the targeted group and should be taken into account as an issue affecting Somali immigrants in Sweden that warrants further research.

  • 2.
    Beck, Ingela
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Increasing nurse assistants' focus on residents' situation and needs by applying a palliative care approach in residential care facilities2014In: Journal of Palliative Care, ISSN 0825-8597, Vol. 30, no 3, 238- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Beck, Ingela
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Vårdalinstiutet.
    Jakobsson, Ulf
    Lunds universitet.
    Edberg, Anna-Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Vårdalinstitutet.
    An intervention applying a palliative care approach in residential care-effects on care provision and caring climate2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The palliative care approach aims to integrate psychosocial and existential aspects as well as relationship aspects in the care and can be used in all care contexts. In residential care, nurse assistants (NAs) are the ones who are closest to the residents, but have limited prerequisites to work in accordance with the palliative care approach. We aimed to investigate the effects of an intervention applying a palliative care approach in residential care, on NAs experience of care provision and caring climate.

    Method: In this quasi-experimental study we evaluated the intervention involving NAs (n=75) and their leaders (n=9), focusing on emotional, existential and relationship aspects within the palliative care approach, in comparison with controls (n=110). Data consisted of a questionnaire that the NAs answered at three time points.

    Results: In the intervention group, effects were seen concerning the NAs reports of the care provision in that they focused more on to ease for residents to narrate about their lives, and on communication with residents in what gives them meaning in life. In the intervention group effects were also seen in that the NAs rated the residents medical and nursing care needs being less met at the facility after the intervention. No effects were seen concerning the caring climate or the possibilities to provide a more person-centered care.

    Conclusion: The intervention seemingly facilitated for the NAs to focus on relationship aspects with the residents. But the intervention was not sufficient to change the organizational prerequisites for the staff to provide a more person-centered care.

  • 4.
    Beck, Ingela
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Jakobsson, Ulf
    Lund University.
    Edberg, Anna-Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Applying a palliative care approach in residential care: effects on nurse assistants' experiences of care provision and caring climate2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 28, no 4, 830-841 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    A palliative care approach aims to integrate psychosocial and existential as well as relationship aspects in the care and is an approach that can be used in residential care. Nurse assistants are the ones who are closest to the residents but have limited prerequisites for working in accordance with the palliative care approach. We aimed to investigate the effects on nurse assistants' experiences of care provision and the caring climate of an intervention applying a palliative care approach in residential care.

    Methods

    An intervention involving nurse assistants (n = 75) and their leaders (n = 9), in comparison with controls (n = 110), was evaluated using a questionnaire at three points in time.

    Results

    In the intervention group, positive effects were seen concerning the nurse assistants' reports of the care provision in that they focused more on the residents' stories about their lives and on communicating with the residents about what gave meaning to their lives. Also, negative effects were seen when the nurse assistants rated that the residents' needs for medical and nursing care had not been met at the facility directly after the intervention. No effects were seen concerning the caring climate or the prerequisites of providing more person-centred care.

    Conclusion

    The intervention seemed to have encouraged the nurse assistants to focus on relationship aspects with the residents. So as not to jeopardise the NAs' well-being and to support NAs in keeping themselves involved in existential issues, their support most certainly needs to be continuous and ongoing. However, in spite of the leaders' involvement, the intervention was not sufficient for changing the organisational prerequisites for more person-centred care.

  • 5.
    Beck, Ingela
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Jakobsson, Ulf
    Lund University.
    Edberg, Anna-Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Applying a palliative care approach in residential care: effects on nurse assistants' work situation2015In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, E-ISSN 1478-9523, Vol. 13, no 3, 543-553 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim was to investigate the effects of an intervention that applies a palliative care approach in residential care upon nurse assistants' level of strain, job satisfaction, and view of leadership.

    Method: A quasi-experimental, pretest and posttest design was used. Study circles with workshops involving nurse assistants (n = 75) and their superiors (n = 9) focusing on emotional and existential issues in palliative care were evaluated using a questionnaire answered by the nurse assistants at baseline (November 2009), post-intervention (May 2010), and six-month follow-up (November 2010) in comparison with controls (n = 110).

    Results: Directly after the intervention, the job satisfaction of the nurse assistants decreased and they perceived the leadership more negatively than before the intervention. Six months later, strain as a result of criticism from residents and their superiors and having difficulty in balancing emotional involvement had decreased.

    Significance of results: The intervention initially seemed to decrease the well-being of the nurse assistants, which could be the result of their increased awareness of the residents' and relatives' needs, in combination with limited support. More emphasis should be placed on the role of leadership when implementing changes in practice.

  • 6.
    Bengtsson Tops, Anita
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Behov av vård och stöd2014In: Att leva med psykisk funktionsnedsättning: livsssituation och effektiva vård- och stödinsatser / [ed] David Brunt & Lars Hansson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 2, 153-170 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bengtsson Tops, Anita
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Hot och våld mot personer med psykisk funktionsnedsättning2014In: Att leva med psykisk funktionsnedsättning: livsssituation och effektiva vård- och stödinsatser / [ed] David Brunt & Lars Hansson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 2, 207-216 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bengtsson Tops, Anita
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    Ericsson, Ulf
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    Ehliasson, Kent
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Living in supportive housing for people with serious mental illness: a paradoxical everyday life2014In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 23, no 5, 409-418 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the closure of large psychiatric institutions, various types of community-based supportive housing for people with serious mental illness (SMI) have been developed. There is currently limited knowledge about users' experiences of living in supportive housing. The aim of the present study was to describe user experiences of living in supportive housing for people with SMI. Twenty-nine people living in such facilities participated in open, qualitative interviews. Data were subjected to latent content analysis. Three main themes emerged from this analysis: (i) having a nest, which included the subthemes of a place to rest and having someone to attach to; (ii) being part of a group, with the subthemes of being brought together and a community spirit; and (iii) leading an oppressive life, including the subthemes of questioning one's identity, sense of inequality, and a life of gloom. It could be concluded that user experiences of living in supportive housing are complex and paradoxical. In order to provide supportive housing, staff need to recognize and work within social group processes, and perform continual and structural evaluations of users' social and emotional needs.

  • 9.
    Bengtsson Tops, Anita
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    Hansson, L.
    Lund University.
    Landlords’ experiences of housing tenants suffering from severe mental illness: a Swedish empirical study2014In: Community mental health journal, ISSN 0010-3853, E-ISSN 1573-2789, Vol. 50, no 1, 111-119 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this Swedish study was to describe landlords' experiences of having tenants suffering from severe mental illness. Sixteen landlords working in private and public housing agencies participated in open in-depth interviews. Data were subjected to a thematic latent content analysis. The results showed that having tenants with severe mental illness entails being confronted with various difficult circumstances, ranging from mismanagement of apartments to sensitivity among neighbours as well as issues regarding provocative behaviour. It involved providing assistance that was far beyond their professional obligations and to be neglected by the community-based psychiatric service system when in need of help. In order to support landlords and to prevent evictions of individuals with severe mental illness, community-based psychiatric services need to be more pro-active in their attempts to achieve collaboration with the parties at hand.

  • 10.
    Blom, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Olsson, Ann-Christin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I.
    Persson, Irene
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I.
    Sjöberg, Marina
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I.
    Utveckling av betygskriterier till faktorer i bedömningsunderlag för verksamhetsförlagd utbildning samt att erhålla en samsyn i tolkningen av innehållet i bedömningsfaktorerna2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Blom, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I.
    Petersson, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    The SBAR model for communication between health care professionals: a clinical intervention pilot study.2015In: International Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 1791-5201, E-ISSN 1792-037X, Vol. 8, no 3, 530-535 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: SBAR has been suggested as a means to avoid unclear communication between health care professionals and in turn enhance patient safety in the healthcare sector.

     

    Aim: to evaluate hospital-based health care professionals experiences from using the Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation (SBAR) communication model.

     

    Methodology: A quantitative, descriptive, comparative pre- and post-intervention questionnaire-based pilot study before and after the implementation of SBAR at surgical hospitals wards. Open comments to questionnaire items were analyzed qualitatively.

     

    Results: The introduction of SBAR increased the experience of having a well-functioning structure for oral communication among health care professionals regarding patients’ conditions. Qualitative findings revealed the categories: Use of SBAR as a structure, Reporting time, Patient safety, and Personal aspects.

     

    Conclusions: SBAR is perceived as effective to get a structure of the content in patient reports, which may facilitate patient safety.

  • 12.
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    Petersson, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    Vårdkedjans aktörer och organisering2014In: Omvårdnadens grunder: ansvar och utveckling / [ed] Anna Ehrneberg & Lars Wallin, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2014, 2, 167-196 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Bolejko, Anetta
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Brodersen, John
    Research Unit and Section for General Practice, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen.
    Zackrisson, Sophia
    Department of Medical Imaging and Physiology, Skåne University Hospital Malmö.
    Wann-Hansson, Christine
    Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    Psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Consequences of Screening: Breast Cancer questionnaire2014In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 70, no 10, 2373-2388 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a questionnaire addressing psychosocial consequences of false-positive mammographic screening.

    BACKGROUND: The Consequences of Screening - Breast Cancer and Lung Cancer questionnaires target psychosocial consequences of false-positive cancer screening. The Consequences of Screening - Breast Cancer questionnaire and ten items not considered lung cancer specific from the Lung Cancer questionnaire have been adapted for use in mammographic screening in Sweden, but remain psychometrically untested.

    DESIGN: Instrument development paper with psychometric cross-sectional and test-retest design.

    METHODS: Twelve scales of a Swedish questionnaire version were tested by the Rasch model and traditional psychometric methods. Women with false-positive (Group I, n = 640) and negative (Group II, n = 802) screening mammography responded to the study questionnaire and the Nottingham Health Profile during 2009-2011.

    RESULTS: Iterative analyses resulted in nine scales demonstrating Rasch model fit, but all scales exhibited poor targeting with relatively large floor effects. Corrected item-total correlations exceeded the recommended criterion. Score differences between Groups I and II and correlations with Nottingham Health Profile sections followed an expected pattern. Cronbach's α and test-retest reliability was acceptable for group-level assessments for ten and seven scales, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Five scales (Sense of dejection, Anxiety, Behavioural, Sleep and Existential values) of the Swedish questionnaire version demonstrated the best psychometric properties. Other scales should be used more cautiously. Although filling an important gap, causes of concern were identified across scales. The questionnaire should therefore be considered for group-level assessments rather than for measurement of individual degrees of psychosocial consequences.

  • 14.
    Bolejko, Anetta
    et al.
    Skåne University Hospital Malmö.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Wann-Hansson, Christine
    Malmö University.
    Zackrisson, Sophia
    Skåne University Hospital Malmö.
    Prevalence, long-term development, and predictors of psychosocial consequences of false-positive mammography among women attending population-based screening2015In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 24, no 9, 1388-97 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Cancer screening aims to detect cancer at an asymptomatic stage, although side effects from screening also occur. We investigated the prevalence, longitudinal development, and predictors of psychosocial consequences of false-positive breast cancer screening.

    METHODS: Three hundred ninety-nine women with false-positive screening mammography responded to the Consequences of Screening-Breast Cancer (COS-BC) questionnaire immediately after a negative diagnosis (free from breast cancer) following recall examination(s) (baseline), and 6 and 12 months later. Age-matched controls (n = 499) with a negative mammogram responded to the COS-BC at the same occasions. Five COS-BC scales (Sense of dejection, Anxiety, Behavioral, Sleep, and Existential values) were used as outcome measures.

    RESULTS: Women with false-positive mammography had consistently higher prevalence of all five consequences compared with controls (P < 0.001). The prevalences decreased between baseline and 6 months (P < 0.001) but were stable between 6 and 12 months (P ≥ 0.136). Early recall profoundly predicted long-term consequences for all five outcomes (OR, 3.05-10.31), along with dissatisfaction with information at recall (OR, 2.28-2.56), being foreign-born (OR, 2.35-3.71), and lack of social support (OR, 1.13-1.25).

    CONCLUSION: This 1-year longitudinal study shows that women experience psychosocial consequences of false-positive screening mammography. Early recall should be performed cautiously, and provision of information as well as social support may reduce psychosocial consequences.

    IMPACT: Although delivery of population-based screening reduces breast cancer mortality, it also raises the issue of its impact on the psychosocial well-being of healthy women. Our findings identify predictors that can be targeted in future efforts to reduce the side effects of mammographic screening.

  • 15.
    Bolejko, Anetta
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Zackrisson, Sophia
    Skåne University Hospital Malmö.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    Wann-Hansson, Christine
    Department of Caring Science, Malmö University.
    A roller coaster of emotions and sense: coping with the perceived psychosocial consequences of a false-positive screening mammography2014In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 23, no 13-13, 2053-2062 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives To explore coping with the perceived psychosocial consequences of a false-positive screening mammography. Background Mammographic screening has been found effective to decrease breast cancer (BC) mortality, yet there are adverse effects. Psychosocial consequences of false-positive mammographic screening have mainly been investigated from a population-based perspective. A call for qualitative studies to further explore these consequences has thus been postulated. To date, qualitative studies have elucidated women's experiences following their recall breast examinations, but their coping with perceived psychosocial consequences of a false-positive screening mammography has not yet been explored. Design An explorative qualitative study. Methods Face-to-face interviews were held with a purposive heterogeneous sample of 13 Swedish-speaking women with a false-positive screening mammography. The transcripts were analysed by the use of an inductive content analysis. Results Coping with the perceived psychosocial consequences of a false-positive screening mammography implied a roller coaster of emotion and sense. Women described how they imagined the worst and were in a state of uncertainty feeling threatened by a fatal disease. Conversely, they felt protected, surrounded by their families and being professionally taken care of, which together with perceived sisterhood and self-empowerment evoked strength and hope. Being aware of family responsibility became a crucial matter. Experiencing false-positive screening raised thoughts of thankfulness and reappraisal of life, although an ounce of BC anxiety remained. Consequently, gained awareness about BC screening and values in life surfaced. Conclusions Experiencing a false-positive screening mammography triggers agonising experiences evoking a variety of coping strategies. Provision of screening raises the issue of responsibility for an impact on psychosocial well-being among healthy women. Relevance to clinical practice Gained knowledge might provide a basis for interventions to prevent psychosocial consequences of false-positive mammographic screening and provide support for women with a potentially compromised ability to overcome such consequences.

  • 16.
    Ericsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap.
    Ehliasson, Kenth
    Bengtsson Tops, Anita
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Meaning in work and emerging work identities of housing support workers: a quest for a comprehensible plot2016In: WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 53, no 2, 367-376 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Work and employees are often marginalized in studies on community-based psychiatric care and support systems. This paper highlights the role of the worker at congregated supported housing for people with severe mental illness (SMI). Housing support workers (HSW) are a fairly new professional role and have developed as a result of major changes in Swedish mental health care and services. The development of new roles is not unproblematic and raises intriguing questions.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to describe housing support workers’ experiences of meaning in their work, and in addition illuminate how the work identity of HSWs can be negotiated and constructed.

    METHODS: Four focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 25 participants. Additionally, three follow up sessions were conducted with the same participants. The material consists of employees from four different sites. The intepretation of the material was inspired by a constructionist approach.

    RESULTS: The analysis generated three themes: to do a good job, everyday needs and the formal role. The work identity for HSWs is complex and not easily interpreted.

    CONCLUSIONS: The experience of an unclear assignment affects the description of what is meaningful and important—the work identity and significant affiliations for HSWs. In the long run, this fragmented world can have negative implications for the HSW.

  • 17.
    Figuero, Elena
    et al.
    University Complutense, Madrid.
    Lindahl, Christel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Marín, María José
    University Complutense, Madrid.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Herrera, David
    University Complutense, Madrid.
    Ohlsson, Ola
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Wetterling, Thomas
    Central Hospital Kristianstad.
    Sanz, Mariano
    University Complutense, Madrid.
    Quantification of periodontal pathogens in vascular, blood and subgingival samples from patients with peripheral arterial disease or abdominal aortic aneurysms2014In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 85, no 9, 1182-1193 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this investigation was to quantify periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Campylobacter rectus and Tannerella forsythia) in vascular, blood and subgingival samples. As secondary objective, two molecular bacterial identification methods [nested-polimerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR)] were compared.

    Methods: Seventy consecutive patients provided a vascular lesion, a blood sample, and 36 subgingival samples. Bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted and qPCR was used to determine the prevalence and amounts of the target pathogens in each sample. Nested-PCR was only performed in the samples from vascular lesions. Periodontal examination was performed in 42 patients. U-Mann-Whitney or Chi-squared tests were used to compare microbiological results according to periodontal diagnosis.

    Results: All targeted periodontal pathogens (A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia or C. rectus) were detected in subgingival samples with a prevalence rate of 72.2%, 47.2%, 74.3% and 82.9%, respectively. In 7.1% and 11.4% of vascular and blood samples, bacterial DNA was detected. One patient was positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans in the three types of samples. No differences were found in the levels of targeted bacteria when comparing periodontitis and non-periodontitis patients. Prevalence rates obtained with nested PCR were significantly higher than those obtained by qPCR.

    Conclusions: The presence of of A. actinomycetemcomitans was demonstrated in vascular, blood and subgingival samples in one out of 36 patients. These results, although with a very low frequency, may support the hypothesis of a translocation of periodontal pathogens from subgingival microbiota to the blood stream and then to atheromatous plaques in carotid or other peripheral arteries. Nested-PCR is not an adequate method for identifying DNA of periodontal pathogens in low quantities, due to the high number of false negative results.

  • 18.
    Gardsten, Cecilia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Larsson, Å.
    Region Skåne.
    Olsson, G.
    Region Skåne.
    Challenges in daily life with type 2 diabetes2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Gardsten, Cecilia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Mörtberg, Christina
    Linneus University.
    Ethical considerations in Participatory Action Research (PAR)2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Behandlingsmål vid Parkinson: vad är viktigt för patientens livskvalitet?2015In: Parkinsonjournalen, ISSN 1104-2435, no 2, 40-42 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilka sjukdomsaspekter är väsentligast ur patienternas perspektiv? Vilka mål ska sättas för behandlingen? Livskvalitet, gångförmåga och rörlighet är några av de faktorer som visat sig viktiga att utvärdera.

  • 21.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    Testing rating scale unidimensionality using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA)/t-test protocol with the Rasch Model: the primacy of theory over statistics2014In: Open Journal of Statistics, ISSN 2161-718X, E-ISSN 2161-7198, Vol. 4, no 6, 456-465 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychometric theory requires unidimensionality (i.e., scale items should represent a common latent variable). One advocated approach to test unidimensionality within the Rasch model is to identify two item sets from a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of residuals, estimate separate person measures based on the two item sets, compare the two estimates on a person-by-person basis using t-tests and determine the number of cases that differ significantly at the 0.05-level; if ≤5% of tests are significant, or the lower bound of a binomial 95% confidence interval (CI) of the observed proportion overlaps 5%, then it is suggested that strict unidimensionality can be inferred; otherwise the scale is multidimensional. Given its proposed significance and potential implications, this procedure needs detailed scrutiny. This paper explores the impact of sample size and method of estimating the 95% binomial CI upon conclusions according to recommended conventions. Normal approximation, “exact”, Wilson, Agresti-Coull, and Jeffreys binomial CIs were calculated for observed proportions of 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10 and sample sizes from n= 100 to n= 2500. Lower 95%CI boundaries were inspected regarding coverage of the 5% threshold. Results showed that all binomial 95% CIs included as well as excluded 5% as an effect of sample size for all three investigated proportions, except for the Wilson, Agresti-Coull, and JeffreysCIs, which did not include 5% for any sample size with a 10% observed proportion. The normal approximation CI was most sensitive to sample size. These data illustrate that the PCA/t-test protocol should be used and interpreted as any hypothesis testing procedure and is dependent on sample size as well as binomial CI estimation procedure. The PCA/t-test protocol should not be viewed as a “definite” test of unidimensionality and does not replace an integrated quantitative/qualitative interpretation based on an explicit variable definition in view of the perspective, context and purpose of measurement.

  • 22.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Testing unidimensionality using the PCA/t-test protocol with the Rasch model: a cautionary note2015In: Rasch Measurement Transactions, ISSN 1051-0796, Vol. 28, no 4, 1487-1489 p.Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I.
    Towards end-user centered outcome measurement: an example from Parkinson’s disease2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical trial rating scale based outcome measures have been criticized of lacking relevance and meaning to end-users, particularly patients. This is concerning since inferences regarding the usefulness of therapies are based on rating scale derived numbers. In order to be meaningful and in accord with their purpose in clinical trials, rating scale based outcome measures should not only be rigorous measures of the variables they intend to quantify, but they also need to represent variables that are important to end-users such as patients and health care professionals. This requires an understanding of what to measure, and state-of-the-art psychometric methods to ensure that rating scale derived data represent meaningful quantitative measures. However, relatively little is known about what variables that people with, e.g. Parkinson’s disease (PD) prioritize for outcome measurement and how this compares to the views of health care professionals. These issues will be discussed and illustrated in view of recent mixed-methods (Group Concept Mapping) studies in PD. Results illustrate similarities in patients’ and health care professionals’ views in that both considered quality of life as the most important outcome variable and both ranked walking/mobility and sleeping problems among the top five outcome variables. This may serve as guidance in designing future clinical trials. However, data also illustrate important differences in conceptual perspectives. Considerations such as those revealed in these studies should be taken into account in order to render clinical trial outcomes more meaningful and interpretable from an end-user perspective.

  • 24.
    Hagell, Peter
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Broman, Jan-Erik
    Uppsala University.
    Hellström, Amanda
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Fagerström, Cecilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Willman, Ania
    Malmö University.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I.
    Measurement properties of the Minimal Insomnia Symptom Scale (MISS) as an insomnia screening tool among adults and the elderly2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Minimal Insomnia Symptom Scale (MISS) has been suggested as a brief 3-item screening tool for detecting insomnia. Each item has an ordered 5-category (0-4) response scale and the instrument yields a total score between 0-12 (higher scores = more insomnia). Available MISS evaluations have been based on classical test theory (CTT) approaches. Different cut-offs for identifying insomnia have been suggested for adults (aged 20-64) and elderly (aged 65+). For adults, a cut-off of ≥6 has been suggested, while a cut-off of ≥7 has been suggested for the elderly, as determined from applications of the Youden index.

    Aim: To test the measurement properties of the MISS using the Rasch measurement model, with special emphasis on Differential Item Functioning (DIF) by age, and to explore implications for the two suggested cut-off scores.

    Design: Cross-sectional MISS data from adult (n=1075) and elderly (n=548) populations were analysed by the unrestricted polytomous Rasch measurement model using the RUMM2030 software program. To avoid an inflated type I error rate, sample size was algebraically adjusted to 500 in the calculation of P-values while leaving all other aspects of data (e.g., locations, fit residuals) unaltered.

    Results: Mean person location was -1.095 (SD, 1.28), i.e. items tend to represent more severe levels of insomnia than that experienced by the sample. However, for the purpose of screening this may be considered acceptable. There were no statistically significant deviations from model expectations, with a non-significant overall item-trait interaction (χ2 = 26.94, P=0.173). Reliability (PSI) was 0.59 suggesting that the MISS can separate approximately two statistically distinct groups of people (1.92 strata). The highest Information Function (IF) was found at -0.2 logits. There were no disordered response category thresholds. There was uniform DIF by age for all three items, which disappeared following adjustment (split by age group) for the most pronounced DIF, suggesting that DIF was artificial for two items. Examination of raw scores-to-location estimates between the two age groups revealed differences at the lower and higher ends of the scale. The raw score cut-off of ≥6 was associated with a smaller logit difference between age groups than the ≥7 cut-off (0.09 vs. 0.23). That is, at a raw score of 6 the two age groups were comparable regarding their logit location estimates. This raw score (representing a logit value of -0.03 for the pooled sample) was also the one closest to the location of the highest IF (i.e., -0.2 logits).

    Summary and implications: This study provides general support for the measurement properties of the MISS. However, caution should be exercised in comparing MISS scores between age groups, but applying a ≥6 raw score cut-off appears to allow for valid comparisons between adults and elderly regarding the presence of insomnia. Nevertheless, additional studies are needed to determine the clinically optimal cut-score for identification of insomnia. 

  • 25.
    Hagell, Peter
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Odin, Per
    Department of Neurology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Apomorphine in Parkinson’s disease: 3rd edition2014 (ed. 3)Book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Hagell, Peter
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Smith, Steve
    Storbritannien.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I.
    Manual for translation and cultural adaptation of the Minimal Eating Observation and Nutrition Form – Version II (MEONF-II)2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the procedure for translation and cultural

    adaptation of the Minimal Eating Observation and Nutrition Form –

    Version II (MEONF-II) from Swedish or U.K. English for use in other

    languages and countries, including adaptations from Swedish and

    U.K. English to other Swedish (e.g., Finland) and English speaking

    regions (e.g., United States, Canada, Australia), respectively. The

    prescribed methodology is based on the dual-panel approach for

    patient-reported rating scales, but modified for clinical assessment

    tools used by health care professionals. The approach emphasises the

    importance of achieving conceptual rather than linguistic equivalence,

    as well as ease and immediacy of the translation. The procedure

    comprises three main steps: (1) A panel of 3-7 bilingual health care

    professionals work together to produce a first draft target language

    version; (2) Review the first draft target language version by a second

    panel of 3-7 monolingual nurses and/or final year student nurses

    native in the target language; (3) Clinical field-testing of the new

    target language version by 15-30 hospital ward nurses/final year

    student nurses using the MEONF-II with at least five patients each to

    evaluate its user-friendliness and appropriateness. Following a written

    report including all major discussions and difficulties experienced by

    the panels and during field-testing, there is a need for evidence of the

    equivalence of the translated MEONF-II relative to the original

    version, before it can be recommended for general implementation

    into clinical practice. This final step is not covered in any detail here,

    but only outlined in summary. The procedures described here provide

    an easy to follow step-by-step practically oriented manual to facilitate

    the production of high quality translations and adaptations of the

    MEONF-II into new linguistic and cultural settings. This will ease the

    process for nurses and others who are interested in implementing the

    MEONF-II as a means of improving nutritional care for hospital

    inpatients.

  • 27.
    Hagell, Peter
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I.
    Sample size and statistical conclusions from tests of fit to the Rasch measurement model according to the RUMM2030 program2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sample size is a major contributor to statistical null hypothesis testing, which is the basis for many approaches to testing Rasch model fit. To allow for taking this into account, the RUMM2030 Rasch analysis software has the ability to adjust n in the calculation of its chi-2 based fit statistics. This paper examines the effects of such post-hoc adjustments on the statistical conclusions, and explores the occurrence of type I errors with Rasch model fit statistics implemented in RUMM2030. Data simulations of Rasch model fitting 25-item dichotomous scales with sample sizes ranging from n=50-2500 were generated an analysed regarding fit with and without adjusted sample sizes corresponding to the same n values as those simulated. Results suggest that post-hoc downward sample size adjustment is a useful procedure to avoid type I errors when working with relatively large data sets (n≥500). The value of upward adjustment with small data sets is less clear, particularly regarding the total item-trait chi-2 test, which tends to falsely signal misfit. Under the assumption of Rasch model fit, our observations suggest that a sample size around 250 (up to about 500) provides a good balance for the statistical interpretation of RUMM2030 fit statistics.

  • 28.
    Hagell, Peter
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Sample size and statistical conclusions from tests of fit to the Rasch model according to the Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Model (RUMM) program in health outcome measurement2016In: Journal of Applied Measurement, ISSN 1529-7713, Vol. 17, no 4, 416-431 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sample size is a major factor in statistical null hypothesis testing, which is the basis for many approaches to testing Rasch model fit. Few sample size recommendations for testing fit to the Rasch model concern the Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Models (RUMM) software, which features chi-square and ANOVA/F-ratio based fit statistics, including Bonferroni and algebraic sample size adjustments. This paper explores the occurrence of Type I errors with RUMM fit statistics, and the effects of algebraic sample size adjustments. Data with simulated Rasch model fitting 25-item dichotomous scales and sample sizes ranging from N=50 to N=2500 were analysed with and without algebraically adjusted sample sizes. Results suggest the occurrence of Type I errors with N≥500, and that Bonferroni correction as well as downward algebraic sample size adjustment are useful to avoid such errors, whereas upward adjustment of smaller samples falsely signal misfit. Our observations suggest that sample sizes around N=250 to N=500 may provide a good balance for the statistical interpretation of RUMM fit statistics studied here with respect to Type I errors and under the assumption of Rasch model fit within the examined framed of reference (i.e., about 25 item parameters well targeted to the sample).

  • 29.
    Hagell, Peter
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Janelidze, Shorena
    Lund University.
    Hansson, Oskar
    Lund University.
    The Swedish SCOPA-SLEEP for assessment of sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease and healthy controls2016In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 25, no 10, 2571-2577 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: SCOPA-SLEEP is a rating scale for night-time sleep and daytime sleepiness (DS) proposed for use among people with Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as others. We translated it into Swedish and assessed its psychometric properties in PD and age-matched healthy controls.

    METHODS: Following translation according to the dual-panel approach, the Swedish SCOPA-SLEEP was field-tested regarding comprehensibility, relevance and respondent burden (n = 20). It was then psychometrically tested according to classical test theory (data completeness, scaling assumptions, targeting, reliability and construct validity) using data from 149 people with PD and 53 age-matched healthy controls from the prospective Swedish BioFINDER study.

    RESULTS: SCOPA-SLEEP took a mean of 3.5 min to complete and was considered easy to use and relevant. Missing item responses were <8 %, corrected item-total correlations were ≥0.47 (except for one DS item among controls), factor analyses suggested one dimension per scale, floor/ceiling effects were ≤17 %, reliability was ≥0.85 except for the DS scale among controls (0.65) and construct validity was supported.

    CONCLUSIONS: Observations concur with previous evaluations, thus providing initial support for the Swedish SCOPA-SLEEP among people with PD. Further studies are needed to establish its generic properties and to understand its measurement properties in better detail.

  • 30.
    Henriksson, Anette
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College.
    Hudson, Peter
    Australien.
    Öhlen, Joakim
    Ersta Sköndal University College.
    Thomas, Kristina
    Australien.
    Holm, Maja
    Ersta Sköndal University College.
    Carlander, Ida
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University.
    Use of the preparedness for caregiving scale in palliative care: a Rasch evaluation study2015In: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, ISSN 0885-3924, E-ISSN 1873-6513, Vol. 50, no 4, 533-541 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: Studies have shown that family carers who feel more prepared for the caregiver role tend to have more favorable experiences. Valid and reliable methods are needed to identify family carers who may be less prepared for the role of supporting a person who needs palliative care.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the original English version as well as a Swedish version of the Preparedness for Caregiving Scale (PCS).

    METHODS: The sample (n=674) was taken from four different intervention studies from Australia and Sweden, all focused on improving family carers' feelings of preparedness. Family carers of patients receiving palliative home care were selected and baseline data were used. The measurement properties of the PCS were evaluated using the Rasch model.

    RESULTS: Both the English and Swedish versions of the PCS exhibit sound measurement properties according to the Rasch model. The items in the PCS captured different levels of preparedness. The response categories were appropriate and corresponded to the level of preparedness. No significant differential item functioning for age and sex were detected. Three items demonstrated differential item functioning by language but did not impact interpretation of scores. Reliability was high (>0.90) according to the Person Separation Index.

    CONCLUSION: The PCS is valid for use among family carers in palliative care. Data provide support for its use across age and gender groups as well as across the two language versions.

  • 31.
    Höglund, A.
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Broman, J.-E.
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Uppsala University.
    Pålhagen, S.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Fredrikson, S.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Is excessive daytime sleepiness a separate manifestation in Parkinson's disease?2015In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 132, no 2, 97-104 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its role and relation to other PD features is less well understood.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential predictors of EDS in PD and to explore how EDS relates to other motor and non-motor PD features.

    METHODS: 118 consecutive persons with PD (54% men; mean age, 64) were assessed regarding EDS using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and a range of motor and non-motor symptoms. Variables significantly associated with ESS scores in bivariate analyses were used in multiple regression analyses with ESS scores as the dependent variable. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to explore the interrelationships between ESS scores and other motor and non-motor PD aspects.

    RESULTS: Among 114 persons with complete ESS data, significant independent associations were found between ESS scores and axial/postural/gait impairment, depressive symptoms, and pain (R(2) , 0.199). ESS scores did not load significantly together with any other PD features in the PCA.

    CONCLUSIONS: Only a limited proportion of the variation in EDS could be accounted for by other symptoms, and EDS did not cluster together with any other PD features in PCAs. This suggests that EDS is a separate manifestation differing from, for example, poor sleep quality and fatigue.

  • 32.
    Höglund, Arja
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Broman, JanErik
    Uppsala University.
    Pålhagen, Sven
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Fredrikson, Sten
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I.
    Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Parkinson’s Disease – relationship to motor and non-motor symptoms2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate potential predictors of Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD), and explore how EDS relates to other motor and non-motor PD features.

    Background: EDS is common in Parkinson’s disease, but its role and relation to other PD features is less well understood.

    Methods: 118 consecutive persons with PD (54% men; mean age, 64) were assessed regarding EDS using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and a range of motor and non-motor symptoms. Variables significantly associated with ESS scores in bivariate analyses were used in multiple regression analyses with ESS scores as the dependent variable. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to explore the interrelationships between ESS scores and other motor and non-motor PD aspects.

    Results: Among 114 persons with complete ESS data, significant independent associations were found between ESS scores and axial/postural/gait impairment, depressive symptoms, and pain (R2, 0.199). ESS scores did not load significantly together with any other PD features in the PCA.

    Conclusions: Only a limited proportion of the variation in EDS could be accounted for by other symptoms, and EDS did not cluster together with any other PD features in PCAs. This suggests that EDS is a separate manifestation differing from e.g. poor sleep quality and fatigue.

  • 33.
    Janlöv, Ann-Christin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    Persson, Irene
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I.
    Berg, Agneta
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    The lived experience of a 24-hour support center for persons with psychiatric disabilities: making me feel almost like an ordinary person2014In: Open Journal of Nursing, ISSN 2162-5336, E-ISSN 2162-5344, Vol. 4, no 1, 42-50 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study illuminates nine psychiatric disabled persons’ lived experience of a newly established community-based service center open around the clock. This new 24-hour support center (SC) was established in 2011 in a Swedish community to better match and facilitate the disabled persons’ needs. In order to illuminate the disabled person’s experiences individual interview was performed. A phenomenological-hermeneutical method inspired by Paul Ricoeur was used to interpret the texts. After a naive reading, a structural analysis revealed two themes: 1), becoming aware of myself as a person, and 2) having a lifeline and belongingness. The comprehensive understanding was interpreted as meaning “Making me feel almost like an ordinary person”, which incorporated the person’s past with their present together with a direction for the future and hope for a more fulfilling life.

  • 34.
    Khalaf, Atika
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Berggren, Vanja
    Lund University.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm.
    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.
    King Saud University, Riyadh.
    Prevalence and association of female weight status and dietary habits with sociodemographic factors: a cross-sectional study in Saudi Arabia2015In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 18, no 5, 784-796 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Research about the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity in the Saudi Arabian female population is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine the dietary habits and the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity and associated factors among female university students.

    DESIGN: A cross-sectional study.

    SETTING: A university centre for female students in south-western Saudi Arabia.

    SUBJECTS: The study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who self-reported their physical activities, nutritional habits and socio-economic factors. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with the students' BMI, dietary variables, underweight and overweight/obesity.

    RESULTS: The majority of the university females were normal weight (56·9 %), but a high prevalence of underweight (19·2 %) and overweight/obesity (23·8 %) occurred. Social factors significantly associated with BMI were the presence of obese parents and siblings as well as physical activity levels, marital status, number of sisters, father's level of education and more frequent intake of French fries/potato chips (>3 times/week). Several variables were found to correlate with dietary habits, underweight and overweight/obesity. Of special interest is the association between the number of siblings and the participants' BMI and dietary intake in both negative and positive ways.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this research have implications for health promotion and prevention of malnutrition among college-aged females. Health-care providers and policy makers need to involve the whole family when promoting females' physical activity. The study serves as an evidence-based background for planning and implementation of interventions targeting improvement of highly educated populations' nutritional habits.

  • 35.
    Khalaf, Atika
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa
    Berggren, Vanja
    Nurses bridging malnutrition and physical inactivity: nurses’ views and experiences of caring for malnourished patients in surgical settings in Saudi Arabia – A qualitative study2014In: BMC Nursing, Vol. 13, no 29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Although the occurrence of malnutrition in hospitals is a growing concern, little is known about how hospital staff understand the care that nurses provide to patients with malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to explore nurses’ views and experiences of caring for malnourished patients in Saudi Arabia (KSA).

    Methods

    Using a qualitative explorative design, fifteen nurses were interviewed as part of a purposive sample hospital staff. The transcripts were analyzed using latent content analysis.

    Results

    The nurses spontaneously and consistently linked malnutrition with physical inactivity. The two main categories, which emerged, were: ‘Potentials for nurses to provide good nutrition and physical activity’, and ‘Having the ability but not the power to promote proper nutrition and physical activity’. These arose from the subcategories: Good nursing implies providing appropriate health education; Acknowledging the Mourafiq (sitter) as a potential resource for the nursing, but also as a burden; Inadequate control and lack of influence; Cultural diversity and lack of dialog; and Views of women’s weight gain in KSA society.

    Conclusions

    The nurses felt they have the capacity and passion to further improve the nutrition and activity of their patients, but obstacles in the health care system are impeding these ambitions. The implications for nursing practice could be acknowledgement of the nurses’ views in the clinical practice; culturally adjusted care, improved communication and enhanced language skills.

  • 36.
    Khalaf, Atika
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm.
    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.
    King Saud University, Riyadh.
    Berggren, Vanja
    Lund University.
    Nurses' views and experiences of caring for malnourished patients in surgical settings in Saudi Arabia: a qualitative study2014In: BMC Nursing, ISSN 1472-6955, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 13, 29- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although the occurrence of malnutrition in hospitals is a growing concern, little is known about how hospital staff understand the care that nurses provide to patients with malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' views and experiences of caring for malnourished patients in Saudi Arabia (KSA).

    METHODS: Using a qualitative explorative design, fifteen nurses were interviewed as part of a purposive sample hospital staff. The transcripts were analyzed using latent content analysis.

    RESULTS: The nurses spontaneously and consistently linked malnutrition with physical inactivity. The two main categories, which emerged, were: 'Potentials for nurses to provide good nutrition and physical activity', and 'Having the ability but not the power to promote proper nutrition and physical activity'. These arose from the subcategories: Good nursing implies providing appropriate health education; Acknowledging the Mourafiq (sitter) as a potential resource for the nursing, but also as a burden; Inadequate control and lack of influence; Cultural diversity and lack of dialog; and Views of women's weight gain in KSA society.

    CONCLUSIONS: The nurses felt they have the capacity and passion to further improve the nutrition and activity of their patients, but obstacles in the health care system are impeding these ambitions. The implications for nursing practice could be acknowledgement of the nurses' views in the clinical practice; culturally adjusted care, improved communication and enhanced language skills.

  • 37.
    Larsson, Helena
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I.
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    From a diagnostic and particular approach to a person-centred approach: a development project2015In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 24, no 3-4, 465-474 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives

    To investigate changes over time in an interdisciplinary group that was engaged in development work regarding pain and pain assessment.

    Background

    The outcomes of nursing research do not always find their way to the daily care of patients. This is evident within, for instance, physical rehabilitation, where relieving patients' pain is a major challenge. To gain new understanding, develop and change, registered nurses have a great part in engaging their staff.

    Design

    A qualitative study using a participatory action research approach was used, and a hermeneutic analysis was conducted.

    Methods

    A group of three registered nurses, two assistant nurses and a physiotherapist took part in focus group sessions. This group was followed with seven repeated sessions during a period of five months from January 2010 until June 2010. A hermeneutic analysis was used.

    Results

    The participants changed their attitudes towards the patient in pain, their own caring role and the team's role towards a more person-centred care.

    Conclusions

    Participation and reflection were key aspects as means to transfer knowledge into action and establish change. The participants came to the sessions, shared actively their experiences and expressed pride in the work they accomplished. This can be seen as an expression of a need to share and a joy to be working together in a person-oriented development area. In addition, the approach seemed to contribute to increased job satisfaction.

    Relevance to clinical practice

    The participants expressed that their work resulted in a changed approach to pain and pain assessment in their daily practice at the ward. The participants were actively engaged in enhancing their work with pain and pain assessment in their own daily practice and in implementing research-based knowledge.

  • 38.
    Lindholm, Beata
    et al.
    Skåne University Hospital, Malmö.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    Hansson, Oskar
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, Maria H.
    Lund University.
    Factors associated with fear of falling in people with Parkinson’s disease2014In: BMC Neurology, ISSN 1471-2377, E-ISSN 1471-2377, Vol. 14, 19- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    This study aimed to comprehensibly investigate potential contributing factors to fear of falling (FOF) among people with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD).

    METHODS:

    The study included 104 people with PD. Mean (SD) age and PD-duration were 68 (9.4) and 5 (4.2) years, respectively, and the participants' PD-symptoms were relatively mild. FOF (the dependent variable) was investigated with the Swedish version of the Falls Efficacy Scale, i.e. FES(S). The first multiple linear regression model replicated a previous study and independent variables targeted: walking difficulties in daily life; freezing of gait; dyskinesia; fatigue; need of help in daily activities; age; PD-duration; history of falls/near falls and pain. Model II included also the following clinically assessed variables: motor symptoms, cognitive functions, gait speed, dual-task difficulties and functional balance performance as well as reactive postural responses.

    RESULTS:

    Both regression models showed that the strongest contributing factor to FOF was walking difficulties, i.e. explaining 60% and 64% of the variance in FOF-scores, respectively. Other significant independent variables in both models were needing help from others in daily activities and fatigue. Functional balance was the only clinical variable contributing additional significant information to model I, increasing the explained variance from 66% to 73%.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The results imply that one should primarily target walking difficulties in daily life in order to reduce FOF in people mildly affected by PD. This finding applies even when considering a broad variety of aspects not previously considered in PD-studies targeting FOF. Functional balance performance, dependence in daily activities, and fatigue were also independently associated with FOF, but to a lesser extent. Longitudinal studies are warranted to gain an increased understanding of predictors of FOF in PD and who is at risk of developing a FOF.

  • 39. Lindholm, Beata
    et al.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I.
    Hansson, Oskar
    Nilsson, Maria H.
    Prediction of Falls and/or Near Falls in People with Mild Parkinson's Disease2015In: PloS one, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 1, e0117018- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with future falls and/or near falls in people with mild PD.

    METHODS: The study included 141 participants with PD. Mean (SD) age and PD-duration were 68 (9.7) and 4 years (3.9), respectively. Their median (q1-q3) UPDRS III score was 13 (8-18). Those >80 years of age, requiring support in standing or unable to understand instructions were excluded. Self-administered questionnaires targeted freezing of gait, turning hesitations, walking difficulties in daily life, fatigue, fear of falling, independence in activities of daily living, dyskinesia, demographics, falls/near falls history, balance problems while dual tasking and pain. Clinical assessments addressed functional balance performance, retropulsion, comfortable gait speed, motor symptoms and cognition. All falls and near falls were subsequently registered in a diary during a six-month period. Risk factors for prospective falls and/or near falls were determined using logistic regression.

    RESULTS: Sixty-three participants (45%) experienced ≥1 fall and/or near fall. Three factors were independent predictors of falls and/or near falls: fear of falling (OR = 1.032, p<0.001) history of near falls (OR = 3.475, p = 0.009) and retropulsion (OR = 2.813, p = 0.035). The strongest contributing factor was fear of falling, followed by a history of near falls and retropulsion.

    CONCLUSIONS: Fear of falling seems to be an important issue to address already in mild PD as well as asking about prior near falls.

  • 40.
    Lindholm, Beata
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hansson, Oskar
    Lund University.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I.
    Duzynski, Wojciech
    Skåne University Hospital, Malmö.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Lund University, Lund.
    Future falls and/or near falls in people with Parkinson's disease: sensitivity and specificity of two retropulsion tests2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of two retropulsion tests for identifying individuals with Parkinson’s disease that will fall and/or experiencing near falls.

    Background: People with PD have an increased risk for falls and experiencing near falls. They are particularly unstable backwards, and different retropulsion tests exist. Item 30 of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) is most common, involving an expected shoulder pull. Others advocate using an unexpected shoulder pull, e.g. the Nutt Retropulsion test (NRT).

    Methods: The study included 104 people with PD (mean age and PD-duration, 68 and 4.7 years, respectively) visiting a neurological clinic during 2006–2011. Those >80 years of age, requiring support in standing or did not understand the instructions were excluded. UPDRS and NRT assessments were conducted in the “on” condition. Participants then registered all falls and near falls by using a diary for six months. Based on this, participants were defined as “stable” (no falls/near falls) or “unstable” (1 fall / near fall). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated.

    Results: Mean (SD) score for UPDRS III was 14.5 (8.1). Fiftyfive (53%) participants were classified as “stable” and 49 (47%) as “unstable”. Both the NRT and item 30 (UPDRS) scores differed significantly (p = 0.003) between the groups. Mean NRT and item 30 scores were 0.18 (0.51) and 0.33 (0.61) for the “stable” group versus 0.63 (0.88) and 0.71 (0.74) for the “unstable” group. Sensitivity/specificity were 37%/87% (NRT), and 55%/75% (UPDRS item 30). Positive/negative predictive values were 72%/61% (NRT) and 66%/65% (UPDRS item 30).

    Conclusions: In this mildly affected sample, both NRT and item 30 had low sensitivity in detecting prospective falls and/or near falls over six months. Our findings speak against using either of these tests alone for this purpose and support previous recommendations of using multiple tests when targeting balance problems in people with PD.

  • 41.
    Lindholm, Beata
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hansson, Oskar
    Lund University.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Lund University.
    Prediction of falls and/or near falls by using tandem gait performance in people with mild Parkinson’s disease2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate whether tandem gait test (TG) can predict future falls and/or near falls in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD).

    Background: People with PD have balance problems and an increased risk for falls. Although TG has been considered a predictor of falls, no PD-study has controlled results for demographic and disease-specific characteristics or included near falls when investigating falls prospectively.

    Methods: The study included 141 participants with PD (mean age and PD-duration, 68 and 4 years, respectively). Those >80 years of age, requiring support in standing or did not understand the instructions were excluded. TG includes taking 10 consecutive tandem steps along a straight line without walking aids and support, with eyes open. Performance was scored as follows: no side steps=0; one or more side steps=1; unable to take 4 consecutive steps=2. If TG was abnormal ("1 side steps) during the first attempt, a second trial was allowed and the best performance was registered. Anti-Parkinsonian medications were recorded from medical records. All assessments were conducted in the “on” condition. Participants thereafter registered all falls and near falls by using a diary for six months.

    Results: Mean score for UPDRS III was 14 (SD 8.0). The median (q1-q3) daily total levodopa equivalent (LDE) dose (mg) was 400 (286-600). Sixty-three participants (45%) experienced ≥1 fall and/or near fall. The median (q1-q3) TG score was 2 (1-2) for those that experienced falls and/or near falls and 0 (0-1) for those without any incidents. Logistic regression (controlling for age, gender, UPDRS III and daily LDE dose) showed that TG score 2 (OR, 5.40; 95% CI, 1.75-16.70; P=0.003) predicted falls and/or near falls. TG score 1 was not significant (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 0.84-5.98; P=0.109). This model correctly classified 39/63 (62%) of individuals with falls and/or near falls and 64/78 (82%) of individuals without any incidence, and accounted for 32% of the variability between groups.

    Conclusions: The results suggest that TG may be able to predict a future fall and/or near fall in people with mild PD. Further studies using larger samples are needed for firmer conclusions and establishment of additional properties in relation to other assessments.

  • 42.
    Lindholm, Beata
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hansson, Oskar
    Lund University.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Lund University.
    Prediction of instability in people with Parkinson's disease - clinical balance and gait tests2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To explore whether clinical balance and gait tests can predict instability (falls and/or near falls) in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD).

    Background: Current PD-studies suggest that multiple balance tests should be used in order to predict falls. However, few studies have included near falls when investigating falls prospectively as recommended.

    Methods: The study included 74 people with PD (mean age and PD-duration, 69 and 4.9 years, respectively) visiting a neurological clinic during 2006–2010. Those >80 years of age, requiring support in standing or did not understand the instructions were excluded. Assessments included: the Berg Balance Scale (BBS, 0–56 points), Nutt Retropulsion test (NRT, dichotomized; 0 = "normal”, 1 = “abnormal”), tandem gait test (TG, dichotomized; 0 = “normal”, 1 = “abnormal”), 10-meter walk test (fast speed, m/s), and Timed Up & Go test (TUG, s). All assessments were conducted in the “on” condition. Participants then registered all falls and near falls by using a diary for six months.

    Results: Mean score for UPDRS III was 14 (SD 7.5). Thirty-six participants (49%) experienced 1 fall and/or near fall (“unstable” group), whereas 38 (51%) had no incidents at all (“stable” group). Simple logistic regression analyses (controlling for age and gender) showed that (P0.05 in all instances) the NRT was the strongest predictor (OR = 5.70) followed by TG (OR = 3.45). Better BBS-scores (OR = 0.88) and gait speed (OR = 0.26) were associated with a decreased risk of instability. The longer time to perform TUG, the higher risk of being unstable (OR = 1.14). When considering all five variables (i.e. tests) simultaneously only BBS was found significant (OR = 0.91, P 5 0.04).

    Conclusions: Clinical balance and gait tests can predict a future instability in people with PD. Further studies using larger samples are needed for firmer conclusions and to establish sensitivity/specificity and cut-off values for these tests.

  • 43.
    Lindholm, Beata
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Oskar, Hansson
    Lund University.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Lund University.
    Walking difficulties is the strongest contributing factor to fear of falling among people with mild Parkinson’s disease2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Fear of falling is common among people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and may cause activity limitations and restrictions in participation. The aim of this study was to investigate contributing factors to fall-related self-efficacy in a clinical sample of people with PD.

    Methods: The study included 104 people with PD that visited a neurological clinic during 2006-2011. Those >80 years of age, requiring support in standing or that did not understand the instructions were excluded. Mean (SD) age and PD-duration were 68 (9.4) and 5 (4.2) years, respectively; the mean (SD) “on” phase UPDRS III score was 14.5 (8.1). Fall-related self-efficacy (the dependent variable) was investigated with the Swedish version of the Falls Efficacy Scale, i.e. FES(S). Multiple linear regression analysis included independent variables targeting walking difficulties in daily life, freezing of gait, dyskinesia, fatigue, need of help in daily activities, age, PD-duration, history of falls/near falls, and pain.

    Results: The median FES(S) score was 117 (q1-q3, 70129; minmax, 11130). Three significant independent variables were identified explaining 66% of the variance in FES(S) scores. The strongest contributing factor to fall-related self-efficacy was walking difficulties (explaining 60%), followed by fatigue and need for help in daily activities. These observations suggest that walking difficulties in daily life is the strongest contributing factor to fall-related selfefficacy in a mildly affected PD-sample. Targeting walking difficulties may help reduce fear of falling among people with PD.

  • 44.
    Lindskov, Susanne
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Sjoberg, Klas
    Lund University.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Weight stability in Parkinson's disease2016In: Nutritional neuroscience, ISSN 1028-415X, E-ISSN 1476-8305, Vol. 19, no 1, 11-20 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Parkinson's disease (PD) has traditionally been associated with weight loss. However, recent studies have not found any evidence of underweight in PD. Nevertheless, few studies have addressed nutritional status changes over time in relation to other clinical PD features. Here, we explore changes in nutritional status and motor and non-motor PD features (including dopaminergic drug therapy) in PD patients after 1 year. Methods: Motor and non-motor PD features, dopaminergic drug therapy, under-nutrition and malnutrition risk, and anthropometric measures (BMI, handgrip strength, triceps skin-fold, mid-arm circumference, and mid-upper arm muscle circumference) were assessed at baseline and 1 year later among 65 people with PD. Results: Disability, PD motor symptoms, dysautonomia, and dopaminergic drug therapy increased. Underweight was uncommon both at baseline (n= 3) and follow-up (n = 2); malnutrition risk was common but stable (88 and 92%), whereas triceps skin-fold increased (P = 0.030); mid-upper arm muscle circumference decreased (P = 0.002); and the proportion of people with low handgrip strength (P = 0.012) increased. Correlations between nutritional variables and motor and non-motor PD features were absent to modest. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that baseline pupillomotor functioning was associated with decreased weight and BMI, and sleep with increased weight and BMI. In addition, increases in anxiety were associated with decreased weight, BMI, and triceps skin-fold. Discussion: During the PD course, there seems to be redistribution in body composition from muscle to fat. Studies are needed to identify possible explanations for the findings. This implies that malnutrition should be regularly screened to identify those at risk of developing reduced muscle mass and increased morbidity.

  • 45.
    Lindskov, Susanne
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    Sjöberg, K.
    Lunds universitet.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    Malnutrition risk in Parkinson's disease2014In: Journal of Aging Research & Clinical Practice, ISSN 2258-8094, Vol. 3, no 2, 93-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Unintentional weight loss and undernutrition have been found common in  Parkinson’s disease but its relation to other disease aspects is unclear.

    Objectives: To explore nutritional status in relation to disease duration in Parkinson’s disease, as well as associations between nutritional status and motor and autonomic features.

    Design: Cross-sectional.

    Setting: South-Swedish outpatient Parkinson-clinic.

    Participants: Home-dwelling people with Parkinson’s disease (n=71), without significant cognitive impairment (mean age, 67.3 years; 56% men; mean disease duration, 6.3 years).

    Measurements: Parkinsonian motor symptoms, mobility, activity level, disability, dyskinesias, dysautonomia, under- and malnutrition risk screening (using MEONF II and MUST for undernutrition and SCREEN II for malnutrition) and anthropometric measures (BMI, handgrip strength, triceps skin-fold, mid-arm circumference and mid-upper arm muscle circumference) were recorded. The sample was divided into those with longer (n=34) and shorter disease duration (n=37) according to the median (5 years).

    Results: Longer disease duration was associated with more, disability, dyskinesias and dysautonomia than shorter duration (P ≤0.04). Mean (SD) body weight and BMI were 80.3 (16.3) kg and 28.1 (4.8) kg/m 2, respectively, and did not differ between duration groups (body weight, 80.9 vs. 79.6 kg; BMI, 28.0 vs. 28.3 kg/m 2; P≥0.738). There were no differences in other anthropometric measures between duration groups (P ≥0.300). BMI identified 4% and 62% as under- and overweight, respectively, and 4% exhibited  undernutrition risk, whereas 87% were at risk for malnutrition. Nutritional and motor/dysautonomic variables showed relatively weak correlations (r s, ≤ 0.33), but people with orthostatic hypotension had lower BMI (26.7 vs 29.2 kg/m 2; P=0.026) and lower handgrip strength (33.2 vs 41.6 kg; P=0.025) than those without orthostatic hypotension.

    Conclusion: Motor and autonomic features showed expected relationships with disease duration. In contrast to these observations, and to most previous reports on nutrition in PD, frequencies of underweight and undernutrition were low. However, malnutrition risk was high, emphasizing the need for regular clinical monitoring of nutritional status. The reasons for the preserved nutritional status have to be explored prospectively.

  • 46.
    Ljusbäck, Ann Margreth
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Lund University.
    Sperens, Maria
    Umeå University.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå University.
    Hariz, Gun-Marie
    Umeå University.
    Psychometric properties of a modified self-rating version of the ADL taxonomy for people with Parkinson´s disease2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the reliability and validity of a modified self-rated version of the ADL taxonomy targeting personal activities of daily living (P-ADL) for people with Parkinson’s disease (PD).

    Background: People with PD develop ADL-difficulties early on. There is a need for a reliable and valid self-administered questionnaire targeting P-ADL.

    Methods: A postal survey was sent to 282 non-demented persons with PD; 191 responded of whom 158 (mean±SD age 70±9 years, 41% women, duration of disease 6±5.5 years) answered all items of the following questionnaires: the P-ADL taxonomy, the Parkinson’s disease Activities of Daily Living Scale (PADLS), the Visual Analogue Scale of the EuroQoL-5-Dimensions Questionnaire (EQ-5DVAS), as well as demographic questions. The P-ADL taxonomy was analysed regarding corrected item-total correlations, reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) and floor/ceiling effects; Spearman’s rho (rs) was used to explore external validity relative to the PADLS and EQ-5D-VAS.

    Results: Item-total correlations were above 0.5 and Cronbach’s alpha was 0.98. Floor effect was 15% and there was no ceiling effect. The P-ADL taxonomy correlated 0.75 with the PADLS and -0.63 with the EQ-5D VAS.

    Conclusions: In this PD sample, the modified and selfadministered version of the P-ADL taxonomy showed satisfying reliability and validity; these findings suggest a promising potential for use in clinical practice and research.

  • 47.
    Nilsson, Maria H.
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I.
    Iwarsson, S
    Lunds universitet.
    Psychometric properties of the general self-efficacy scale in Parkinson's disease2015In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 132, no 2, 89-96 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). More specifically, we investigated data completeness, scaling assumptions, targeting, reliability, and construct validity.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study involves data available from two different projects that included people diagnosed with PD for at least 1 year, yielding two samples (1 and 2). The combined total sample (N = 346; 60% men) had a mean (SD) age and PD duration of 71 (8.9) and 9 years (6.3), respectively. Both samples received a self-administered survey by mail, which was administered twice in sample 2. Additional data (e.g., clinical assessments) were available for Sample 1.

    RESULTS: Total GSE scores were computable for 336 participants (97%). Corrected item-total correlations exceeded 0.4. Principal component analyses identified one component (the eigenvalue of the first component extracted was 6.9), explaining 69% of the total variance. Floor and ceiling effects were < 6%. Internal consistency (coefficient alpha) was 0.95. Analyses of test-retest reliability yielded (ICC) values from 0.69 to 0.80. The highest value refers to those (n = 47) with identical self-ratings of mobility (in the on condition) at both tests; the standard error of measurement was 3.1 points. Construct validity was further supported by correlations in accordance with a priori expectations.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides support for the validity and reliability of GSE scores in people with PD; the GSE can thus serve as a valuable outcome measurement in clinical practice and research.

  • 48.
    Nilsson, Marie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Caring as a salutogenic aspect in teachers' lives2015In: Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, ISSN 0742-051X, E-ISSN 1879-2480, Vol. 46, 51-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This inquiry explored how a group of teachers experienced resources for their well-being, both at work and in their private lives. The findings indicate that caring, for others and for oneself, is central for teachers' well-being. Caring is manifested in being present in the moment, and in actions which promote the well-being of oneself and others. Implications from the findings suggest that both school administration and teacher education should pay special attention to the caring aspects of teaching, as they influence teachers' well-being and retention, as well as the pupils' learning. Health promotion interventions could benefit from these findings.

  • 49.
    Nyberg, Maria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Pajalic, Zada
    Linnaeus University.
    Örtman, Gerd
    Linnaeus University.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    Linnaeus University.
    Blücher, Anna
    Linnaeus University.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Eating difficulties, nutrition, meal preferences and experiences among elderly: a literature overview from a Scandinavian context2015In: Journal of Food Research, ISSN 1927-0887, E-ISSN 1927-0895, Vol. 4, no 1, 22-37 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of malnutrition increases with ageing, resulting in poorer health and higher risk of disease. Eating difficulties are important risk factors for malnutrition. Moreover, independence in relation to food and meals is highly rated by the elderly and has been associated with health and well-being. The purpose of this literature overview was to provide insights into nutritional status, food choice and preferences as well as the meal situations of home-living elderly (65+) people with motoric eating difficulties focusing on Scandinavia. The overall aim is to support independence and to prevent malnutrition. Nutritional status in the elderly was found to be negatively influenced by motoric eating difficulties including problems with manipulating food on the plate and transporting food to the mouth. Motoric eating difficulties may result in practical simplifications such as use of pre-prepared meals, less advanced cooking, and omission of certain meal constituents in order to avoid e.g. mismanagement and spillage. Eating difficulties are often accompanied by feelings of guilt and shame. Choosing smaller portions, reducing the number of eating episodes and not cooking independently have been associated with a higher risk of malnutrition. The nutritional effects of eating difficulties may be exacerbated by diminished chemosensory functions. Furthermore, both past and present food preferences should be considered in order to meet nutritional needs and meal satisfaction. Development of refined and socially accepted eating aids, in combination with tasty and nutritious products, is important in order to promote healthy and independent living among home-living elderly with motoric eating difficulties.

  • 50.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Agerhem, Halina
    Ipsos, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Örtman, Gerd
    Linnaeus University.
    Pajalic, Zada
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Svensson, Therése
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Blücher, Anna
    Linnaeus University.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    Linnaeus University.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Improved everyday food for home living elderly – perception of protein and energy enrichment2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Protein-energy malnutrition can be a problem among elderly. A way to increase protein intake may be to enrich home-cooked foods. In this, special attention should be given to that the food is conveniently prepared and well accepted by the target group.

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