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  • 1.
    Ekstrand, Britten
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Arbete i skolan (AiS).
    Hjort, Marie-Louise
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Lindahl, Ingrid
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Early education research: a question of the relationship to the school according to educational journals in Sweden. Paper presented at NERA's 35th Congress, Turkku2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Ekstrand, Britten
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Arbete i skolan (AiS).
    Malmström, Elisabet
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Nadarevic, Sanela
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Arbete i skolan (AiS).
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö.
    International research articles as used and misused quality indicators in higher education2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Fridberg, Marie
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Thulin, Susanne
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Redfors, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Preschool children’s collaborative science learning scaffolded by tablets: a teachers view2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Gustavsson, Laila
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Different ways of handling learning objects in science when pre-school children and their teachers are visiting nature2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to contribute to knowledge about pre-school teachers´ qualitative different ways of handling a learning object in science when children 4-5 years old are visiting nature. Learning is here seen as a change in the learners’ possibility to experience the world in a certain way and it takes place everywhere. It can be both planned and unplanned.The framework used, variation theory, states for learning to occur, critical aspects of the learning object have to be simultaneously discerned and focused on. The learning object is seen as a capability and it can be defined by its critical features. When playing and interacting with others, a space of variation is constituted that decides what is possible to learn concerning a delimited learning object. When teachers make differences in the children’s´ earlier experiences visible it may contribute to, critical aspects that the learner has not been previously able to discern becomes visible. The data is collected by video observations (20 hours). A group of children and their teachers were videotaped during their stay in nature (a total of 9 days). The research builds on ordinary preschool activities and is not an experiment designed by the researcher. A qualitative analysis seeks to discern how teachers can maintain children’s interest of the phenomena and contribute to develop the children´s knowledge. All parents were informed and had to give their written permission for the children to take part in the research. Every time when starting the video recording the children were asked if it was OK to observe them and they were informed it was freely for them to stop the recording whenever they wanted. The teachers were informed they also had permission to stop the observation whenever they wanted. All participants were guaranteed preservation of anonymity. Three qualitatively different ways of dealing with a learning object is found. In the presentation possible reasons for the teachers´ different ways of handling the learning object will be discussed. Implication for practice is to show the teacher´s role in children’s learning of science. The curriculum points out science learning as an important question for pre-school teacher to handle, but teachers often lack a strategy for this mission.

     

  • 5.
    Gustavsson, Laila
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik.
    Dilemman i praxisnära forskning2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Gustavsson, Laila
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Learning in pre-school – building on variation2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to describe qualitatively different ways in which teachers offer children (aged 4-5) to learn about phenomena in nature when visiting nature. The empirical data consist of video observations of children and teachers communicating with one another. 

    Variation theory is presented as a framework for analysing the data. The theory assumes that variation is needed to support learning. However, the variation is not in methods but in variation of critical aspects needed to understand the object of learning. This means that how the specific content of learning is dealt with has effect on student learning. The object of learning can be differentiated in three types, the intended object of learning, the enacted object of learning and the lived object of learning. In this study the interest is about the enacted object of learning, i.e. what it was possible for the students to learn.

    The study identifies two qualitatively different ways to present the object of learning to the students. One way is based on the principle of opening up dimensions of variation and the second way is built on presumed shared previous experience as a resource for making sense of a novel observation.

    The implication of the different approaches for children´s learning is discussed.

                                                                                                                                   

  • 7.
    Gustavsson, Laila
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik.
    The important differences between what and how-aspects in a learning situation2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Gustavsson, Laila
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Variation theory - Possibilities in early childhood education2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Gustavsson, Laila
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik.
    Holmqvist, Mona
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    What is the difference between a lesson study and a learning study?: empirical findings from an intended learning study that turned into a lesson study2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Gustavsson, Laila
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Jonsson, Agneta
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Forskning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP).
    Ljung-Djärf, Agneta
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning Design (LeaD). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Forskning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP).
    Thulin, Susanne
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Ways of dealing with children's questions about nature: a study based on Swedish preschool practice2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Gustavsson, Laila
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Thulin, Susanne
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    The role of science in Swedish pre-schools: how in-service preschool teachers´ change the way they speak about teaching during a science project in pre-school2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Hjort, Marie-Louise
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Kvalificerade samtal mellan handledare i ett VFU-projekt. Presentation på Nätverket ”Specialpedagogik och kvalificeradesamtal” Mälardalens högskola2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Hjort, Marie-Louise
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Practitioners' voices regarding pre-school and professional dialogues with student teachers. Paper presented at the EECERA (European Early Childhood Educational Association) Conference, Birmingham 6 - 8 September, 20102010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Hjort, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Steen, Ann
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Samtal i mötet mellan teori och praktik: en väg att synliggöra den verksamhetsförlagda utbildningen mot förskola och förskoleklass2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Hjorth, Marie-Louise
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Children's thoughts about play: a study of how children conceptualize play in preschool1998Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16.
    Hjorth, Marie-Louise
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Handledares röster om förskolans verksamhet i relation till handledning av lärarstudenter2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Hjorth, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    de Jong, M.
    Gender differenses with regard to choice of play space in a Swedish day care center. Paper presented at the international conference “Building identies. Gender perspectives on children and urban space” 11-13 April 1995 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands1995Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Jonsson, Agneta
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Arbete i skolan (AiS).
    Ad hoc i lärarvardagen med IKT som intention och realitet2006Inngår i: Education widens democracy: Nordisk Förening för Pedagogisk Forskning (NFPF) 34:e kongress, Örebro, Sverige, 9-11 mars 2006, 2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Jonsson, Agneta
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Forskning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP).
    Communication with young children in preschool: the complex matter dealing with child perspectives and curriculum2012Inngår i: 22nd EECERA conference: pre-birth to three: identities, learning, diversities, 2012, 218- s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation aims to share results from a study concerning the preschool teacher as a curriculum-maker to preschool. The research question addressed is “what is characteristic for the curriculum offered, as it appears in one teacher’s verbal communication with 1-3 year old children?”. The study is carried out in Sweden and the research area is motivated by the need for knowledge about the implications that a goal-oriented preschool curriculum and broad discretion for teachers might imply for activities in preschool. A qualitative case study with a narrative approach has been adopted and follows the Swedish research council guidelines and ethical rules in social science research. Empirical data consists of videotaped observations of communication between a single teacher and a number of children aged between 1 and 3 during one morning in preschool. The results show that the teacher has an idea of bringing up and to conceptualize children’s near surroundings. Further on there is an idea of inclusion and to teach children different abilities. They also show that the teacher frequently uses questions as a means of communication, where a large number of shifts between different children and different issues are particularly characteristic. Although this contributes to a child perspective, it also implies a teacher-centred position and a fragmented way of exercising the discretion vis-à-vis the curriculum. The findings are discussed and related to curriculum theory and to early childhood perspectives. This research is expected to have impact on understandings of how preschool teachers deal with their teaching assignment for the youngest children in preschool.

  • 20.
    Jonsson, Agneta
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Creating curriculum in preschool context: focus on qualitative differences in teachers' communication with the youngest children2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze how teachers ways to communicate with children in preschool contribute to conditions for children's learning and development, and thereby to how curriculum is created. The curriculum as concept (Gundem, 1997; Vallberg Roth, 2001) is used both for the policy documents concerning preschool and for what is actually said and done in pedagogical contexts. Central to the preschool educational work is the communication that takes place between teachers and children. Hundeide (2002) describes communication as a dialogic interaction with verbal, non-verbal and physical interaction between adults and children. This means that adults’, in this case teachers, speech and actions are considered dependent on what children express and a sense of caring is created between people who interact (ibid.). Communication can in turn be said to contribute to the shaping of a social structure which, according to Giddens (1984) takes place at different levels of consciousness and whose duration varies. With that as a starting point communication between children and teachers in preschool can be studied as a contribution to the preschool curriculum is created, maintained and changed over time, but also as a contribution to how children's learning conditions here and now can be understood. The underlying data is from an observational study conducted in Swedish preschool where teachers communicate with 1-3 year old children. 4 teachers were shadowed (Czarniawska, 2007) and filmed during their everyday work in preschool. Ethical issues in research in all events are crucial (Research Council, 2002) and especially when it involves people who, like the youngest children, can not make their case or assess potential research impact (Heikkilä & Sahlström, 2003). This has been the subject of specific ethical considerations in this study. Shiers model (2001) for children's participation has in a qualitative analysis inspired the construction and use of analytical concepts. The study's results show qualitative differences in teachers' communication of content and in how they listen into and make use of children's own expressions. Overall, it contributes to a curriculum in which teachers' awareness of and challenge of children's perspectives and opportunities in conjunction with the formulated intentions of the curriculum seems both limiting and expanding. The discussion highlights the findings related to curriculum theory (Evans, 1975, 1982), social theory (Giddens, 1984), and childhood perspectives (Halldén, 2003; Pramling Samuelsson & Asplund Carlsson, 2003).

  • 21.
    Jonsson, Agneta
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Forskning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP).
    Förskollärares handlingsutrymme och barns perspektiv i förskola för de yngsta barnen2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 22.
    Jonsson, Agneta
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Forskning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP).
    Preschool teachers talk about curriculum for the youngest children: What happened to aesthetics in preschool?2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The intention of this presentation is to discuss the role of education in preschool for children 1-3 years of age. It´s one angle of a study made in some Swedish preschools in 2009. The main study aims to develop knowledge concerning what the curriculum looks like that is described by teachers working with the youngest children in early childhood education. Focus is on descriptions of the what and the how in the curriculum, eg. what children should learn and how they can learn and also what is characteristic for early childhood education concerning the youngest children. A theoretical mapping of Scandinavian preschool research shows that only a few of the studies concern the youngest children, which contributes to the direction of this study’s interest. An interviewstudy with semistructured questions was carried out with 15 teachers who are working with children 1-3 years old in five different preschools. In this presentation I discuss and analyze some of the findings from the main study related to curriculumtheory and to different paradigms holding childhood perspectives. Childhood sociology, childhood psychology and childhood pedagogy constitutes a background to questions concerning child perspectives and the children and teachers as actors doing preschool. The results show that teaching assignment seem to be unique while the responsibility is to deal with and manage a large amount of care, education and learning on the spot. One concept evolved from the study is “a didactic in terms of the present moment”. It’s closely connected to the didactic questions what, how, why, who, where and when and important aspects are time, concreteness and a child perspective. In these teacher’s descriptions, children’s interests and needs seem to be more strong guidelines than intentions of the curriculum. Corresponding to childhood perspectives (Sommer, Pramling Samuelsson & Hundeide, 2010; Corsaro, 2005), this indicates a view of the child as competent and having the equal rights as adults. Another result is teacher’s sayings that self-esteem and self-confidence are prime abilities for children to achieve before they can learn anything else. This at the same time indicates an opposing view of the child as incompetent to learn until they reach certain amounts of these abilities. Further in these teachers’s outspoken curriculum the role of play is described as essential in preschool as science and mathematics while aestethics is hardly mentioned. I argue that this is can be seen as a sign of an approach to more school-like activities. This is in contrast to  other research where preschool teachers position themselves as being against “schoolifying” in preschool (Enö, 2005). Related to curriculumtheory (Evans, 1982) for the youngest the results show a childcentered position and a broad interpretation of what are characteristic grounds for preschool activities. Teachers in preschool have an important work in order to achieve quality in children’s learning and development (Sheridan, 2001). Therefore it’s essential to discuss what could be the consequences if children never choose or are interested in some pedagogical content as aestethics and if teachers follow children’s intentions more than the curriculum.

  • 23.
    Jonsson, Agneta
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Forskning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP).
    Preschool teachers talk about curriculum for the youngest children. What is essential to learn in preschool?2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The intention of this presentation is to discuss the role of education in preschool for children 1-3 years of age. It´s one angle of a study made in some Swedish preschools in 2009. The main study aims to develop knowledge concerning what the curriculum looks like that is described by teachers working with the youngest children in early childhood education. Focus is on descriptions of the what and the how in the curriculum, eg. what children should learn and how they can learn and also what is characteristic for early childhood education concerning the youngest children. A theoretical mapping of Scandinavian preschool research shows that only a few of the studies concern the youngest children, which contributes to the direction of this study’s interest. An interviewstudy with semistructured questions was carried out with 15 teachers who are working with children 1-3 years old in five different preschools. In this presentation I discuss and analyze some of the findings from the main study related to curriculumtheory and to different paradigms holding childhood perspectives. Childhood sociology, childhood psychology and childhood pedagogy constitutes a background to questions concerning child perspectives and the children and teachers as actors doing preschool. The results show that teaching assignment seem to be unique while the responsibility is to deal with and manage a large amount of care, education and learning on the spot. One concept evolved from the study is “a didactic in terms of the present moment”. It’s closely connected to the didactic questions what, how, why, who, where and when and important aspects are time, concreteness and a child perspective. In these teacher’s descriptions, children’s interests and needs seem to be more strong guidelines than intentions of the curriculum. Corresponding to childhood perspectives (Sommer, Pramling Samuelsson & Hundeide, 2010; Corsaro, 2005), this indicates a view of the child as competent and having the equal rights as adults. Another result is teacher’s sayings that self-esteem and self-confidence are prime abilities for children to achieve before they can learn anything else. This at the same time indicates an opposing view of the child as incompetent to learn until they reach certain amounts of these abilities. Further in these teachers’s outspoken curriculum the role of play is described as essential in preschool as science and mathematics. I argue that this is can be seen as a sign of an approach to more school-like activities. This is in contrast to  other research where preschool teachers position themselves as being against “schoolifying” in preschool (Enö, 2005). Related to curriculumtheory (Evans, 1982) for the youngest the results show a childcentered position and a broad interpretation of what are characteristic grounds for preschool activities. Teachers in preschool have an important work in order to achieve quality in children’s learning and development (Sheridan, 2001). Therefore it’s essential to discuss what could be the consequences if children never choose or are interested in some pedagogical content and if teachers follow children’s intentions more than the curriculum.

  • 24.
    Jonsson, Agneta
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Forskning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP).
    What is special for preschool education?2010Inngår i: Active citizenship: abstracts, Malmö: Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA) , 2010, 41- s.Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 25.
    Jonsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Thulin, Susanne
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Gustavsson, Laila
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Forskning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Ljung Djärf, Agneta
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Ways of dealing with science learning: a study based on Swedish early childhood education practice2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish school system offers curriculum-based early childhood education (ECE) organised as preschool (for 0–5-year-olds) and preschool class (for 6-year-olds).The intention to create a playful and educational environment based on children ’s perspectives, interests, and questions is strongly based on historical and cultural traditions. This article develops knowledge of ECE teachers ’approaches to science-learning situations. The study applies a phenomenographic approach.The analysis is based on approximately 9.5 hours of video documentation of teacher-led and child-initiated Swedish ECE science activities. We identified two descriptive categories and four subcategories dealing with science-learning situations: (A) making anything visible, containing the three subcategories (Aa) addressing everyone, (Ab) addressing everything, and (Ac) addressing play and fantasy; and (B) creating a shared space for learning (Ba) addressing common content. These categories are related to how efforts to take advantage of children ’s perspectives are interpreted and addressed in educational practice. The article discusses and exemplifies the use of various categories and their potential implications for ECE learning practice.

  • 26.
    Jonsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Forskning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP).
    Williams, Pia
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Teaching toddlers in preschool2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 27.
    Lenninger, Sara M.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Forskning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Lunds Universitet.
    Inverting cultures: the pictorial ceremonial of a suicide bomber and the“unhomeliness” of the photographic picture2017Inngår i: 13th IASS-AIS World Congress of Semiotics ” / 10thconference for The Nordic Association for Semiotic Studies (NASS), 2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    On the 14th of January in 2004, Reem Raiyshi killed herself and four Israeli soldiers in a terrorist attack at a border crossing between Israel and Gaza. Soon after the deed, pictures on Reem and her young son were sent to media agencies in Europe - and to circulate on the Internet. Although the picture of Reem is her picture, it is not unique but forms part of a subculture: the ceremonial of the suicide bombers seemed, at that time, to require the pictorial rendering of the perpetrator/victim in his or her declaration of the action before completing the act. Published on Internet, and circulating in mass media, the picture addresses not only the Ego culture of the perpetrator /victim, but also that of the attacked culture. To come into speaking terms with the external culture - or to alter between being "alien" or to be "one of ones own” for teh other – one must submit to a meaning already known by the other culture (Lotman 2009). To insert  “alien” elements, integrated with the meaning taken for granted, can be understood as a strategy in pictorial rhetoric in order to evade norm grounded predictability and invert cultural hierarchies.This case study adds to the complication of when the same picture confirming both to the status of Ego culture and as the “threat” of an intruding other-culture in the dynamics of regulating the perception of “us and them”.

  • 28.
    Lindahl, Ingrid
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Encountering without measuring the creative and competent child in preschool. Paper presented at OMEP conference, 6-8 May, Nicosia2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Ljung-Djärf, Agneta
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning Design (LeaD).
    Thulin, Susanne
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Gustavsson, Laila
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Variation theory in early childhood education – focus on learning. Symposium organiserat vid World association of lesson and learning studies (WALS), september 2013, Göteborg2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    Malmström, Elisabet
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljö med inriktning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP).
    Action research with small children: aesthetic learning processes in contex2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of learning to become through handmade productions to sufficient respond to the complexities of the Self is unlikely to occur without guidance from relation with others. The main purpose of this paper is to inquire into teachers’ support to small children’s aesthetic learning processes. How may children’s aesthetic learning processes emerge and support the children’s becoming through questions to and from the children? The article highlights the small children’s approach to science by managing aesthetic material, colour and form and the teachers’ approach to good questioning. The methodology is inspired by deconstructive pragmatism and the design from action research. The methodology is further grounded in Charles Sanders Peirce’s triadic transdisciplinary pragmatic theory of semiotics where the interpretant relation between the child and the teacher is on focus. Understanding that Peirce semiotics, science of signs differs from two-valued logic and thus very well may incorporate feeling and aesthetics.  It was necessary to reconstruct the theories of Peirce for an actual appliance to the area of Aesthetic Learning processes. Mediation of the theme, to connect sign - action and mind builds on a hermeneutic model of mediation made by the author where sign features of icon, index, symbols and logical, social and emotional action codes are a few important tools of analysis.  The result from step one in this research shows that teachers’ questions are made to meet children’s different processes of orientation to sign-mindedness, from differentiation of Self from others as fundamental to more advanced, socially- shared sign meaning. This connects to the importance to relate to children as ‘educater’ in relation to the teacher and a link to relational education. The teachers’ were overwhelmed by the children’s knowledge and were stimulated to progress themselves in questioning. The result from step two shows that teachers’ questioning (to support children’s constructions of meanings to become) may be reachable at different levels of hermeneutic understanding. This support the teachers’ questioning quality of wholeness. This scientific understanding from a semiotic-cognitive perspective on children’s meaning emergence and teachers’ supported questioning and conversation could have consequences for the field of aesthetic learning processes in pre-school in the future.

  • 31.
    Malmström, Elisabet
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Integrative art: inquiry into meaning in early childhood fine art education2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The background of this article is that the educational sciences of today give priority to a wide concept of the text and researchers in Sweden proclaim a horizontal concept of the text for the same purpose of giving equal epistemological status to verbal and semiotic sign-action. Today’s ‘language turn’ and ‘visual turn’ do not only include the linguistic and the figurative picture but also the materials and its texture. The idea of this study is to inquire how small children use aesthetic materials for action and meaning and what teachers do and think about this. The meaning potential is the tension between the image’s character levels, the child’s lifeworld and the teachers’ subject-specific discourse with the child. The main purpose is to learn about how the zone of proximal communication between children and children’s pictures and teachers might become more stable. Therefore I find the meaning potential of interest to a pragmatic inquiry. The design is inspired from action research. The result features the children’s orientation to sign-mindedness from the ages of one to five as well as the teachers’ reflections on their own progress in meeting young children’s action regarding material to give them support in learning and development.

  • 32.
    Thulin, Susanne
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Anthropomorphically speaking: on communication between teachers and children in early childhood biology education2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a particular kind of figurative language, so-called anthropomorphic speech, is analysed in the context of science activities in a preschool setting. Anthropomorphism means speaking about something non-human in human terms. Can any systematic pattern be seen with regard to when such speech is used? Do children and/or teachers introduce this kind of talking and how is it responded to by the interlocutor(s)? Of 128 instances of anthropomorphism found, 24 were made by the children and 104 by the teachers. Children sometimes respond in line with the introduction of such speech but they also at times reject this way of speaking. Anthropomorphic speech is discussed as a strategy for the teachers in handling the dilemma of how to connect with children’s experiences and terms, on the one hand, and developing children’s understanding, on the other hand.

  • 33.
    Thulin, Susanne
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Children's questions during a science activity in preschool2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study children’s questions during a science activity concerning what soil is, are analysed. The empirical study has its background in research on children’s learning (Pramling Samuelsson & Asplund Carlsson, 2003, 2008) and a new view of the Swedish preschool’s commissions (Ministry of Education and science, 1998; memorandum U2008). Children are seen as active in their own learning and as developing on the basis of their own experiences in communication with the surrounding world (Pramling Samuelsson & Asplund Carlsson, 2003). In preschool, children shall develop knowledge about different contents, areas of knowledge. One such content is science (Ministry of Education and Science, 1998).  Through the history of preschool, the object of learning has seldom been in focus of the activity. Instead, methods and attitudes have been given precedence (Pramling Samuelsson & Asplund Carlsson, 2008).  The ideal of preschool education has over time been characterized as a tradition where children’s development of personality has been given priority over children’s knowledge development (Thulin, 2006). On the basis of Fritzell’s (2004) interpretation of the education concept, it can be expressed as preschool has had its focus on “who you will become” rather than “what you will know”. With the curriculum of preschool and the government’s claim about an emphasised pedagogically task for the preschool (memorandum U2008/6144/S) the concern on children’s learning of different contents in preschool has increased. For these reasons, there is a need of a discussion about what a changed commission can mean and what pedagogical consequences it may have for activities in preschools and teachers actions. Questions about what may constitute a relevant content and didactic are on the agenda (Persson, 2008; Pramling Samuelsson et al., 2008; Thulin, 2006). In teaching contexts, the importance of the teacher’s questions is often pointed out. Several researchers call attention to the importance of so-called open questions where the child generates a reply, in contrast to so-called closed questions where there is a correct and expected answer on behalf of the teacher (Doverborg & Pramling Samuelsson, 2003). In an investigation into what happens with the object of learning in preschool (Thulin, 2006), the analysis of the teacher-child conversation showed a discussing climate. However, when the communication was studied more in detail, a traditional pedagogy of an asking teacher and a replying child was visible. Questions by a child were often met by another (new) question from the teacher and the child’s question remained unanswered. The result of the study (Thulin, 2006) also showed that when the teacher’s questions seemed to get precedence in a learning situation, children risked to be left to their one own search after sense and meaning. The results imply the importance of a more close analysis of what children ask questions about during work with a specific content. In this study, children’s questions during a work with a scientific phenomenon (what soil is) in preschool are studied. Children’s questions are here seen as an expression of their experiences and search for sense and understanding (cf. Marton & Booth, 2000; Siraj-Blachford & Mac Leod-Brudenell, 2003). The empirical data of the study has been generated through video observations of scientific activities in preschool. Twelve children (3-5 years) and three teachers participate in the study. The results are presented on the basis of the focus of the children’s questions and discussed in relation to children’s perspectives, learning and the theme work over time. The results show that children to large extent have the actual (intended) content in focus and that children’s questions constitute an important didactic starting point when interacting about a specific content.

     

  • 34.
    Thulin, Susanne
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Children’s questions during a science activity in preschool2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 35.
    Thulin, Susanne
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik.
    Communication about natural science in early childhood education in Sweden.2013Inngår i: Research school in Childhood, Learning and Didactics: Framework and ongoing research Part II / [ed] Ingegerd Tallberg Broman, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 36.
    Thulin, Susanne
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik.
    How to deal with a specific content?: Teachers and children communicate about ecological phenomena in a Swedish preschool2013Inngår i: Variation theory in early childhood education focus on learning: focus on learning / [ed] Agneta Ljung Djärf, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    On the basis of a new view of the Swedish preschool’s commissions it has been argued that preschool children (1-6 years) shall develop knowledge of different content areas. For these reasons, there is a need of a discussion about what a changed commission can mean and what pedagogical consequences it may have for activities in preschools and teachers actions. Questions about what may constitute a relevant content and didactic are on the agenda.

    One content area the commission highlighted is natural science and one important aspect of this is to make ecological phenomena visible in children’s everyday life. The aim of the present paper is to report on a study of verbal communication between teachers and children in preschool about ecological phenomena. Children are here seen as active in their own learning and that develops on the basis of their own experiences in communication with the surrounding world. A preschool unit was followed by video observation during two months when working on themes about life in a tree stump. 21 children (3-6 years) and three teachers participate in the study. The empirical data consists of video observations. Focusing the verbal communication the data observations have been transcribed. The transcriptions were analysed from the know-what and the know-how aspect of learning. The result is presented on the basis of the communication of the what-perspective and is discussed in terms of what is noticed and how the children’s understandings are communicated.  The connections between children’s ability to understand and communicate their observations, as well as the role of the preschool teacher dealing with a specific content are finally discussed.

  • 37.
    Thulin, Susanne
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Gustavsson, Laila
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik.
    Att beskriva och analysera kvalitativa förändringar i pedagogers sätt att tala om undervisning och naturvetenskap som innehåll i förskolans verksamhet2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att beskriva och analysera kvalitativa förändringar i pedagogers sätt att tala om undervisning och naturvetenskap som innehåll i förskolans verksamhet

    Qualitative changes in teachers’ ways of talking about teaching and science as content in preschool practice

    Laila Gustavsson och Susanne Thulin, Kristianstad University

    The aim of the research project presented here is to analyze and describe how pre-school teachers during an in-service training period develop theoretical knowledge about focusing the content when planning for teaching science in pre-school. This particular training period can be seen as needed due to a new school 16

     

    law and a revised curriculum for Swedish pre-schools in 2011, where the concept teaching in pre-school is used for the first time and different content areas as mathematics and science is highlighted. The variation theory is here used as a framework for analysis as well as for the pre-school teachers planning for teaching in pre-school (Marton & Booth, 1997). The theory is developed from the phenomenographic approach and can be described in terms of learning object, critical aspects, discernment, simultaneity, variation and a shared space of learning (Marton, 2014). The results in a phenomenographic study is an outcome space of categories describing qualitatively different ways of experiencing the same phenomenon. 30 pre-school teachers from 10 different pre-schools in nine different municipalities participated in the project. The empirical material consist of a questionnaire with open ended questions as the preschool teachers answered in the beginning and in the end of the training period, and of group reports as were written from scientific projects. The study has followed the ethical guidelines of the Swedish Research Council (2002). The results can be discussed as a number of critical aspects in relation to teachers' learning as: ways of understand the concept of variation, to discern the object of learning and a shared space of learning. One important factor to point out concerning the design of in-service training is the importance of keeping together theories of children’s learning and the learning object (science).

    References

    Marton, F. (2014). Necessary Conditions of Learning. New York: Routledge.

    Marton, F., & Booth, S. (1997). Learning and awarness. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.

    Swedish Research Council. (2002). Forskningsetiska principer inom humanistisk och samhällsvetenskaplig forskning [Ethical Guidelines for Humanities and Social Science. Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet.

     

  • 38.
    Thulin, Susanne
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Gustavsson, Laila
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik.
    Qualitative changes in teachers’ ways of talking about teaching and science as content in preschool practice2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Qualitative changes in teachers’ ways of talking about teaching and science as content in preschool practicepresentationsformat: Muntlig presentationabstract: The aim of the research project presented here is to analyze and describe how pre-school teachers during an in-service training period develop theoretical knowledge about focusing the content when planning for teaching science in pre-school. This particular training period can be seen as needed due to a new school law and a revised curriculum for Swedish pre-schools in 2011, where the concept teaching in pre-school is used for the first time and different content areas as mathematics and science is highlighted. The variation theory is here used as a framework for analysis as well as for the pre-school teachers planning for teaching in pre-school (Marton & Booth, 1997). The theory is developed from the phenomenographic approach and can be described in terms of learning object, critical aspects, discernment, simultaneity, variation and a shared space of learning (Marton, 2014). The results in a phenomenographic study is an outcome space of categories describing qualitatively different ways of experiencing the same phenomenon. 30 pre-school teachers from 10 different pre-schools in nine different municipalities participated in the project. The empirical material consist of a questionnaire with open ended questions as the preschool teachers answered in the beginning and in the end of the training period, and of group reports as were written from scientific projects. The study has followed the ethical guidelines of the Swedish Research Council (2002). The results can be discussed as a number of critical aspects in relation to teachers' learning as: ways of understand the concept of variation, to discern the object of learning and a shared space of learning. One important factor to point out concerning the design of in-service training is the importance of keeping together theories of children’s learning and the learning object (science).Key-word: Preschool teacher, In-service training, Teaching, Science, Variation theory, Phenomenography

  • 39.
    Thulin, Susanne
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Hellberg, Lina
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik.
    Redfors, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Backman, Anna
    Gothenburg University.
    Science communication in Early Childhood Education: examples from Swedish preschools2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Preschool in Sweden is a voluntary school form entailing education and play. A national curriculum with learning goals regulates educational activities, and prescribes covering science. This mission affects practices, teachers' knowledge, and competences. Didactical approaches, in relation to children's learning are on the agenda. We will discuss and problematize teaching of science based on three research reports. The research adheres to the ethical guidelines of the Swedish Research Council.

    (1) Science communication – children and teachers

    Firstly we report from a design-based research project where viable science practices were developed and implemented with a focus on communication. Collected video data was analysed based on phenomenography and developmental pedagogy. Analysis of teachers’ planning of consecutive activities with children focusing the intended object of learning (forces and motion) is presented. The importance of content,  educational knowledge, and teachers' experiences of their mission is discussed.

    (2) Science communication – children and tablets

    Secondly we report on a study of the potential of tablets as scaffolds in collaborative inquiry-based science learning in preschools. Specifically, we have investigated the role of Time-lapse photography and Slowmation production in scaffolding communication and learning. The theoretical framework is phenomenography  and developmental pedagogy. Video and qualitative data measures were collected. The potential of teachers, children and researchers jointly developing, enacting and evaluating learning processes supported by tablets in preschool is discussed.

    (3) Science communication – booktalks about shadows

    Thirdly we report on a study about opportunities for children in preschool to discern the physical phenomenon ‘shadow’ in conversations from various children's books. The theoretical framework is variation theory with phenomenography as an analysing method. Research results based on children´s perspective will be discussed in order to show how children perceived shadow, when talking about literature that contains fiction, visual art as well as scientific illustrations. 

  • 40.
    Thulin, Susanne
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Helldén, Gustav
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Teachers and children communicate about ecological phenomena in a Swedish prescool2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    On the basis of an increasing awareness about the importance of ecological questions and the need for a sustainable development, it has been argued that Swedish preschool children shall develop knowledge also about natural science. One important aspect of this is to make ecological phenomena visible in children’s every day life. The aim of the present paper is to report on a study of verbal communication between teachers and children in preschool about ecological phenomena. Children are here seen as active in their own learning and that develops on the basis of their own experiences in communication with the surrounding world. 21 children (3-6 years) and three teachers participate in the study. Six of the 21 children do not have Swedish as their first language.  A preschool unit was followed by video observation during two months when working on themes about life in a tree stump and decomposition of leaves. Focusing the verbal communication the data observations have been transcribed. Then the transcriptions were analysed from the know-what and the know-how aspect of learning. The result is presented on the basis of the communication of the what-perspective and is discussed in terms of what is noticed and how the children’s understandings are communicated.  Finally we discuss the connections between children’s ability to understand and communicate their observations, as well as the role of the preschool teacher and education for a sustainable development.

  • 41.
    Thulin, Susanne
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Jonsson, Agneta
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Forskning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP).
    An aesthetic dimension of children’s experienced world?2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation we want to elucidate children’s own experiences and the other is an aesthetic dimension of learning. In modern education children’s experiences are considered to be a starting point for their learning and development. To take advantage of and make use of each child’s knowledge seems to be a pedagogical consequence in the learning processes. The concept of aesthetics has often got a one-sided interpretation as a methodical support for learning and development. The tendency is to view aesthetic expressions as a method related to children’s development and acquisition of knowledge. The purpose of this study is to find out how aesthetics can be seen as one dimension of children’s experienced world. The study took place in a pre-school setting with children 3-5 year of age. The data consist of video observations in situations where teachers and children work with science content or more specifically they investigated; “What is soil?” The data are analyzed qualitatively. Three categories of children’s experienced world can be discerned and seen as related to three different ways of acting. On a general level one conclusion is, that aesthetics is a natural part of children’s experienced world and that it is of importance for children equal right in their meaning making. Strong or weak aesthetics in a learning situation will be further discussed and problemized.

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