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  • 1.
    Faraon, Montathar
    et al.
    Södertörn University.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Södertörn University.
    Political campaigning 2.0: the influence of online news and social networking sites on attitudes and behavior2014Inngår i: eJournal of eDemocracy & Open Government, ISSN 2075-9517, E-ISSN 2075-9517, Vol. 6, nr 3, 231-247 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to examine differences in influence between online news (e.g., New York Times) and social networking sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) on attitudes in political campaigns. In a web-based experiment, campaign, polls and election between two fictitious candidates were simulated. Participants’ explicit and implicit attitudes as well as voting behavior were assessed using self-report items and the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The results reveal that information emanating from online news had a significant influence on explicit and implicit attitudes while that of social networking sites did not. Overall, negative items had a stronger impact than positive ones, more so in online news compared to social networking sites. Negative information from either type of media was more likely to change participants’ explicit attitudes in a negative direction and as a consequence also change their vote. Practical implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed.

  • 2.
    Hansson, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    University of Gävle.
    The difficulties of measuring adolescents' food intake and behaviors 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The fundamental cause of weight-related problems, from obesity to anorexia, is an imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended. The "nutritional status" concept embraces more than food-intake. It elucidates the dynamics between supply, demand and factors that affect metabolism, energy balance and energy expenditure. In recent years, major changes in the spatial-temporal structures of everyday life that could be possible contributors to weight-related issues of adolescents have emerged. A modern life style of low activity, irregular meal times, late-night food intake, stress and sleep deprivation possibly leads to a disturbed regulation of food intake which further can generate physical and/or psychological illnesses. Traditional studies of eating behavior use food diaries focusing on the average intake of energy and nutrients (e.g. Bellisle et al., 2003). Such methods are demanding for the respondent and require details about consumed amounts. A "Meal Matrix" (Lennernas & Andersson, 1999) has been used in studies of several different Swedish cohorts (e.g. Wissing et al., 2000). The Meal Matrix consists of seven food categories and eight different meal "types". Categorization is based on visible properties (food types) but at the same time reflecting invisible properties (nutrients). In the present study the Meal Matrix was developed further to be used as part of a questionnaire in a study of eating behaviors in 1281 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old in a southern Swedish municipality. Meal patterns in adolescents were assessed in relation to time of day for intake, sleep and physical activity. The aim of the study was to 1) test a self-report concept for food based classification of eating behaviors in adolescents, 2) to evaluate the nutritional quality of food and meals among them and 3) to get information about the rhythm of eating and slee-ping in relation to time of day and the biological clock.

  • 3.
    Hansson, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Masche, J. Gowert
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Disordered eating in a general population: just an­other depressive symptom or a specific problem?2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that about 30% of adolescent girls and 15% of adolescent boys suffer from disordered eating (DE) which can be defined as problematic eating below criteria for eating disorders according to DSM-V (Hautala et al., 2008; Herpertz-Dahlman et al., 2008). Even sub-clinical unhealthy weight-control behaviors have predicted outcomes related to obesity and eating disorders five years later (Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2006). However, two issues question the validity of DE. First, in contrast to eating disorders, under- or overweight/obesity are not necessary parts of DE. Second, some symptoms and correlates of DE are similar to those of depression. E.g., parent-adolescent relationships seem to play an important role in explaining both DE (Hautala et al., 2011; Berge et al., 2010) and internalizing problems (Soenens et al., 2012). Thus, this study examined associations between DE and a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems, parent-adolescent relationship characteristics, and food intake and sleep habits in a general population of adolescents. Comparing results with and without controlling for depression reveals whether DE is a specific problem or merely a depressive symptom. This study also explored whether DE and the other variables under study are associated independently of weight status (underweight, overweight/obesity, and normal weight), specific to under- or overweight, or spurious if taking weight status into account.

    The study is based on the first wave of an on-going longitudinal study, and all measures are child-reported (N=1,281). Adolescents attending grades 7 to 10 in a Southern Swedish municipality (age 12.5 to 19.3, M = 15.2, SD = 1.2) filled out questionnaires in class.  DE was measured using the SCOFF, a five-item screening scale validated for use in general populations (e.g. Muro-Sans et al., 2008; Noma et al., 2006).

    The results of univariate ANOVAs indicate that associations with DE were largely independent of weight status. Moreover, most associations with disordered eating were spurious when controlling for depression. However, some associations remained. Above and beyond depression effects, adolescents with DE reported lower self-esteem, stronger feelings of being over-controlled by their parents and active withholding of information towards them, consumption of fewer meals during the week, and higher levels of daytime sleepiness. Boys with ED slept more hours during the week and ate more fruits and vegetables than boys without ED. In conclusion, despite an overlap between depressive symptoms and disordered eating, this study provides ample evidence that sleep, nutrition habits, self-esteem, and parental control issues distinguish eating disordered adolescents from those suffering from general depressive symptoms.

  • 4.
    Hansson, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Lunds universitet.
    Masche, J. Gowert
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Disordered eating in a general population: just an­other depressive symptom or a specific problem?2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that about 30% of adolescent girls and 15% of adolescent boys suffer from disordered eating (DE) which can be defined as problematic eating below criteria for eating disorders according to DSM-V (Hautala et al., 2008; Herpertz-Dahlman et al., 2008). Even sub-clinical unhealthy weight-control behaviors have predicted outcomes related to obesity and eating disorders five years later (Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2006). However, two issues question the validity of DE. First, in contrast to eating disorders, under- or overweight/obesity are not necessary parts of DE. Second, some symptoms and correlates of DE are similar to those of depression. E.g., parent-adolescent relationships seem to play an important role in explaining both DE (Hautala et al., 2011; Berge et al., 2010) and internalizing problems (Soenens et al., 2012). Thus, this study examined associations between DE and a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems, parent-adolescent relationship characteristics, and food intake and sleep habits in a general population of adolescents. Comparing results with and without controlling for depression reveals whether DE is a specific problem or merely a depressive symptom. This study also explored whether DE and the other variables under study are associated independently of weight status (underweight, overweight/obesity, and normal weight), specific to under- or overweight, or spurious if taking weight status into account.

    The study is based on the first wave of an on-going longitudinal study, and all measures are child-reported (N=1,281). Adolescents attending grades 7 to 10 in a Southern Swedish municipality (age 12.5 to 19.3, M = 15.2, SD = 1.2) filled out questionnaires in class.  DE was measured using the SCOFF, a five-item screening scale validated for use in general populations (e.g. Muro-Sans et al., 2008; Noma et al., 2006).

    The results of univariate ANOVAs indicate that associations with DE were largely independent of weight status. Moreover, most associations with disordered eating were spurious when controlling for depression. However, some associations remained. Above and beyond depression effects, adolescents with DE reported lower self-esteem, stronger feelings of being over-controlled by their parents and active withholding of information towards them, consumption of fewer meals during the week, and higher levels of daytime sleepiness. Boys with ED slept more hours during the week and ate more fruits and vegetables than boys without ED. In conclusion, despite an overlap between depressive symptoms and disordered eating, this study provides ample evidence that sleep, nutrition habits, self-esteem, and parental control issues distinguish eating disordered adolescents from those suffering from general depressive symptoms.

  • 5.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Madsen, Kent
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Rapport operationalized as a humanitarian interview in investigative interview settings2014Inngår i: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 21, nr 4, 591-610 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes and tests an empirical-based theoretical model of rapport in an investigative interview context. Essential in this study is whether rapport, operationalized as the humanitarian interview, in two interviews with a six-month retention interval, had any causal effects on the respective memory performance of 146 and 127 interviewees. Independent-samples t‐tests revealed, on both occasions, that a humanitarian rapport interview led to a larger amount of reported information altogether, with more central and peripheral information, than a dominant non-rapport interview did. Regardless of the interview approach, mixed between-within analysis of variance showed a substantially larger amount of reported information in the first interview than the second. The amount of false information reported in both interviews was statistically invariable, regardless of interviewing style.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Test learning as an explanation of dual task dissociations in implicit learning2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) has been used extensively to study implicit learning. In this task participants first observe letter sequences generated by a grammar. In a later test phase participants are asked to distinguish new grammatical and ungrammatical sequences. Participants are able to do this, both when the letters instantiating the grammar remain the same (standard AGL) and when the letters are changed between training and test (transfer AGL).

     

    Virtually all models of AGL assume that there is no learning during the test phase. Yet, test learning can occur in AGL and the structural constraints of a grammar can imply useful cues at test as well as at training. For example, grammatical test sequences are often more similar to each other than are ungrammatical test sequences to each other. Similarity to test sequences observed so far can then be used as a cue for classification.

     

    In the current research I used an episodic memory model, Minerva II, in order to simulate a recent study by Hendricks et al. (2013). They found that for standard AGL performing dual tasks at test was more detrimental to performance than dual tasks at training. For transfer AGL performing dual tasks at training reduced performance as much as dual tasks at test. The authors interpreted these results as revealing automatic vs. intentional process in AGL: transfer AGL requires intentional processes at both training and test, whereas standard AGL requires intentional processes at test but only automatic processes at training.

     

    I modelled these experiments using a version of Minerva II extended to learn at test. The model encodes sequences probabilistically into memory based on a learning rate at both training and test. Each test sequence is classified based on the similarity to sequences encoded in memory so far, so that test sequences also influence classification. The model does not distinguish between automatic and intentional processes. The learning rate at training was varied independently of the learning rate at test in order to simulate dual task manipulations in different phases of the task. In order to model transfer AGL I used a simple repetition coding scheme in Minerva II.

     

    For standard AGL the simulations revealed that learning rate at test had a much greater impact on classification than learning rate at training in Minerva II.  In contrast, for transfer AGL the effects of changing learning rates at training was the same as changing learning rate during test. In essence, the empirical data may not reveal automatic vs. intentional processes, but simply effects of a single similarity process. The simulation results and the notion of test learning invites useful avenues for further computational and empirical research in order to establish the processes involved in implicit learning. 

  • 7.
    Masche, J. Gowert
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Hansson, Erika
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Lunds universitet.
    It takes two to tango: teen internalizing and exter­nalizing problems are predicted by the interaction of parent and teen behaviors2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Associations between parenting behaviors of support, behavior control and overcontrol, and psychological control/disrespect with adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems have been studied extensively (Barber et al., 2012; Kerr & Stattin, 2000), and also adolescent behaviors of disclosure and secrecy in the context of these problems (Frijns et al., 2010). However, few studies have assessed how parent and child behaviors might moderate each other’s associations with problems (Keijsers et al., 2009). This study investigates interaction effects of the above-mentioned parent and adolescent behaviors when predicting depression, loneliness, and low self-esteem (internalizing), and delinquency, aggression, and drug/alcohol use (externalizing). Given the variety of behaviors and problems under study, it is hypothesized that various kinds of moderation effects will emerge.

    An ethnically diverse sample of 1,281 adolescents attending grades 7 to 10 in a Southern Swedish municipality (age 12.5 to 19.3, M = 15.2, SD = 1.2) filled out questionnaires in class. All scales have been published internationally; however, some items were added to short scales. Each of the internalizing and externalizing problems was regressed on all possible combinations of one of the four parenting variables and one of the two adolescent behaviors under study, resulting in 48 regression analyses.

    Confirming previous findings, parent psychological control and overcontrol were associated with internalizing and externalizing problems, and behavior control and insufficient support with internalizing problems. Adolescent disclosure predicted low levels of both kinds of problems and secrecy predicted high levels. Two-way interactions of parent and adolescent behaviors added significantly (p < .05) to the variance in 13 of 48 analyses which is beyond chance level (p < .001). In addition to the inspection of significant effects, t-values across all analyses were analyzed in order to distinguish between more general trends and solitary effects on specific internalizing or externalizing problems only. Confirming the hypothesis, interaction effects varied across the combinations of parent and adolescent behaviors (η2 = .26) and were further moderated by the distinction between internalizing and externalizing problems (η2 = .38). These effects were grouped into five kinds of interaction effects: In mutually enhancing and mutually exacerbating effects, two positive or two negative, respectively, behaviors increased each other’s associations with problem levels. In protection effects, usually adolescents’ behavior reduced associations between negative parenting and problems. Relationship split effects might reflect an alienated parent-adolescent relationship in which negative behaviors cannot do much additional harm. Finally, maintained relationship/sabotage means that the lowest level of problems occurred if one generation maintained the relationship by a positive behavior and the other generation abstained from “sabotaging” it by a negative behavior. Otherwise, problem behaviors increased sharply without the other generation’s behavior having any large effect any longer.

    In conclusion, analyses provide ample evidence that adolescents’ behavior moderates links between parents’ behaviors and adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. Possible causal interpretations include adolescents as “gatekeepers” of parenting efforts, families’ functional and dysfunctional adaptations, and parent and child behavior combinations as consequences of internalizing and externalizing problems.

  • 8.
    Rosander, Pia
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Personlighet, IQ och inlärningsstilar som förklaring till betygsskillnader: resultatet av tre empiriska studier2014Inngår i: Vetenskapliga perspektiv på lärande, undervisning och utbildning i olika institutionella sammanhang: utbildningsvetenskaplig forskning vid Lunds universitet / [ed] Anders Persson & Roger Johansson, Lund: Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap, Lunds universitet , 2014, 215-228 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Rosander, Pia
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    Personality traits measured at baseline can predict academic performance in upper secondary school three years late2014Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, nr 6, 611-618 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to explore the ability of personality to predict academic performance in a longitudinal study of a Swedish upper secondary school sample. Academic performance was assessed throughout a three-year period via final grades from the compulsory school and upper secondary school. The Big Five personality factors (Costa & McCrae, 1992) - particularly Conscientiousness and Neuroticism - were found to predict overall academic performance, after controlling for general intelligence. Results suggest that Conscientiousness, as measured at the age of 16, can explain change in academic performance at the age of 19. The effect of Neuroticism on Conscientiousness indicates that, as regarding getting good grades, it is better to be a bit neurotic than to be stable. The study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period. The results offer educators avenues for improving educational achievement.

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