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  • 1.
    Hansson, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    University of Gävle.
    The difficulties of measuring adolescents' food intake and behaviors 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The fundamental cause of weight-related problems, from obesity to anorexia, is an imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended. The "nutritional status" concept embraces more than food-intake. It elucidates the dynamics between supply, demand and factors that affect metabolism, energy balance and energy expenditure. In recent years, major changes in the spatial-temporal structures of everyday life that could be possible contributors to weight-related issues of adolescents have emerged. A modern life style of low activity, irregular meal times, late-night food intake, stress and sleep deprivation possibly leads to a disturbed regulation of food intake which further can generate physical and/or psychological illnesses. Traditional studies of eating behavior use food diaries focusing on the average intake of energy and nutrients (e.g. Bellisle et al., 2003). Such methods are demanding for the respondent and require details about consumed amounts. A "Meal Matrix" (Lennernas & Andersson, 1999) has been used in studies of several different Swedish cohorts (e.g. Wissing et al., 2000). The Meal Matrix consists of seven food categories and eight different meal "types". Categorization is based on visible properties (food types) but at the same time reflecting invisible properties (nutrients). In the present study the Meal Matrix was developed further to be used as part of a questionnaire in a study of eating behaviors in 1281 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old in a southern Swedish municipality. Meal patterns in adolescents were assessed in relation to time of day for intake, sleep and physical activity. The aim of the study was to 1) test a self-report concept for food based classification of eating behaviors in adolescents, 2) to evaluate the nutritional quality of food and meals among them and 3) to get information about the rhythm of eating and slee-ping in relation to time of day and the biological clock.

  • 2.
    Rosander, Ulla
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Rumpunen, Kimmo
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Åström, Mikael
    StatCons.
    Rosander, Pia
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Wendin, Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Methodological considerations in a pilot study on the effects of a berry enriched smoothie on children's performance in school2016Inngår i: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 60, nr 1, Poster presentation no. P307Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: In many countries, the consumption of fruit, berries, and vegetables is about half the recommended. Berries contain bioactive compounds that may affect cognitive functions. School children are often hungry and thirsty during the lectures before lunch and this affects performance. Could a berry-smoothie decrease thirst and hunger, and thereby affect school performance? The aim was to investigate if a cross-over design can be used to study the effects of a smoothie on performance in a school setting.

    Methods: Methodological challenges included developing an appetizing berry-smoothie and choosing a suitable experimental design that could be adapted to school conditions.

    In the pilot study, 236 Swedish children aged 10–12 years participated in a cross-over design and were administered either a berry-smoothie or a fruit-based placebo after the midmorning break. Both beverages provided 5% of the daily energy intake. Performance was assessed using the d2 Test of Attention measuring attention span and concentration. Statistical analyses were performed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test in StatXact v 10.3.

    Results: The consumption of both the smoothie and the placebo increased the attention span and concentration significantly.

    Conclusion: The children's performance in the d2 Test of Attention was positively affected by beverage consumption. The effect was attributed to the supplementation of water and energy. In this design, the study did not permit any conclusive results regarding the effect of bioactive compounds on performance. In a coming study, a third group, receiving no beverage, should be included aiming to identify the cause of the effect.

  • 3.
    Westin, J.
    et al.
    Computer Science, Dalarna University.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Development of a test for spatial working memory in Parkinson's disease: sensitivity to medication induced periodic performance changes2012Inngår i: European Journal of Neurology, ISSN 1351-5101, E-ISSN 1468-1331, Vol. 19, nr Suppl. 1, 551-551 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Spatial working memory is susceptible to impairment early on in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Later on, the wearing off phenomenon of motor function during dopaminergic treatment seems to carry over into working memory.

    Aim: To initialize development of a test capable of capturing the variation in spatial working memory within a patient’s daily functioning.

    Methods: The test consisted of 192 instances of n-back, yes/no tasks, with correctness and latency of response automatically recorded. We collected data from two persons, one PD patient and one healthy control, relatively evenly sampled regarding time-of-day. The patient took levodopa once every three hours and performed tests on 70 occasions (the healthy control on 33 occasions). A frequency band containing period lengths from 2 to 4 hours was defined as the region of interest in regard to the medication cycle. The resulting  time  series  were  digitally  band-pass  filtered allowing only the relevant frequencies to pass. Reasoning that filtering would preserve essential information if the time series were periodic, but eradicate it if they were not, we used as our primary outcome measure the correlations between filtered and unfiltered data.

    Results: Correlations between the pass-band relating to the levodopa intake schedule and the full data were positive and significantly larger for the patient than for the control. These differences applied to both latency and accuracy.

    Conclusion: This supports the hypothesis that the test is able to detect levodopa-dependent variations in spatial working memory.

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