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  • 1.
    Abdel–Khalik, Jonas
    et al.
    Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University.
    Björklund, Erland
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Hansen, Martin
    Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Stanford University.
    Simultaneous determination of endogenous steroid hormones in human and animal plasma and serum by liquid or gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry2013Inngår i: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 928, nr June, 59-77 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Analytical methodologies based on liquid or gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of two or more endogenous steroid hormones in human and animal plasma and serum has received increased attention the last few years. Especially in the clinical setting steroid profiling is of major importance in disease diagnostics. This paper discusses recent findings in such multi-steroid hormone procedures published from 2001 to 2012. The aim was to elucidate possible relationships between chosen analytical technique and the obtained analyte sensitivity for endogenous steroid hormones. By evaluating the success, at which the currently applied techniques have been utilized, more general knowledge on the field is provided. Furthermore the evaluation provides directions in which future studies may be interesting to conduct.

  • 2.
    Abdel-Khalik, Jonas
    et al.
    England.
    Björklund, Erland
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Nielsen, Frederik Knud
    Danmark.
    Hansen, Martin
    Danmark.
    Incorporation of (14)C-cholesterol in human adrenal corticocarcinoma H295R cell line and online-radiodetection of produced (14)C-steroid hormone metabolites2017Inngår i: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 145, 569-575 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study demonstrates the addition of (14)C-cholesterol to the human cell line H295R will in-situ form radiolabeled steroid hormones allowing for new mechanistic and metabolic insights. The aim of the present study was to in-situ radiolabel steroid hormones from cell line-incorporated (14)C-cholesterol using the OECD guideline 456, H295R steroidogenesis in-vitro assay. Radiodetection of the steroid metabolites of the steroidogenic pathway allows for an improved understanding of the various enzymatic mechanisms involved without necessarily being dependent on quantification. Generated radiolabeled steroids were analyzed using HPLC hyphenated with a Flow Scintillation Analyzer (FSA). H295R cells were incubated with radiolabeled cholesterol and cell media were collected and prepared by solid phase extraction and analyzed with HPLC-FSA. For successful radiolabeling of the steroids in the steroidogenesis of H295R cells, radioactive cholesterol may potentially only need to be added just before the cells are incubated for 72h in well plates. Based on the obtained HPLC-FSA chromatograms, and confirmation of the observations by studies in the literature, a qualitative time profile for the production of steroid hormones was estimated. Multiple radiolabeled steroid hormones were identified by means of analytical standards and UV (ultraviolet) co-chromatography, though the elucidation of multiple metabolites remains unresolved. Although online radiodetection proved to suffer from suboptimal sensitivity, the concept of radiolabeling the steroidogenesis in H295R cells with (14)C-cholesterol and detecting the radiolabeled steroid hormones online was proved and may assist in further toxicological studies.

  • 3.
    Abegão, Daniel
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Roger, Kevin
    Laboratoire de Physique et Mécanique des Milieux Hétérogènes & Laboratoire de Colloïdes et Matériaux Divisés, ESPCI, Paris.
    Holdaway, James
    Lunds universitet.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Lunds universitet.
    Vernhet, Aude
    Campus SupAgro-INRA, Frankrike.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Cabane, Bernard
    Laboratoire PMMH, CNRS-ESPCI, Frankrike.
    Schillén, Karin
    Lunds universitet.
    Nylander, Tommy
    Lunds universitet.
    Characterization of three tanninic samples: an approach to the tannin-tannin and protein-tannin colloidal interactions2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Ahlm, Isabelle
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Johansson, Åsa
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Toftaholms utmark: en inventering av natur- och kulturvärden två år efter stormen Gudrun2008Inngår i: Tsunami, ISSN 1651-5803, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med stormen Gudrun 2005 föll 70-75 miljoner m³ skog i Sverige. Många människor drabbades hårt ekonomiskt och känslomässigt, men finns det inte också något positivt i tragiken? Vilka fördelar skulle kunna uppstå ur denna omfattande och omskakande händelse i skogssverige? Rapporten om Toftaholms utmark syftar till att synliggöra de natur- och kulturvärden som bildats eller fått möjlighet att framlyftas tack vare stormen. En undersökning har gjorts av vilka naturvärden som uppkom i Toftaholmsområdet samt hur de skiljer sig åt mellan Natura 2000-området och produktionsskogen intill. ”Följde” Gudrun de rekommendationer som finns för skogsvård angående naturvärden? Många kulturvärden har varit gömda i hektar av granskog. Då stormen skapade fält av rotvältor framträder dessa kulturhistoriska skatter tydligare. När de stormfällda ytorna nu återplanteras finns risken att de åter faller i glömska. Vad kan vi göra för att dessa värden inte ska döljas och kanske gå förlorade? Finns det möjlighet att efter stormen sammanföra och kombinera olika intressen så som natur- kultur- och ekonomi, och på så sätt bevara flera av landskapets värden?

  • 5.
    Ahlzén, Karl Fredrik
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Kan problemen vara lösningen?: en studie om elevers olikheter i metoden att lösa ett bestämt matematiskt problem i årskurs 9.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen är främst skriven till grundskolelärare för årskurs 6-9 i matematik. Uppsatsen behandlar rika matematiska problem och niondeklassares olika strategier och representationer som eleverna uppvisar för att lösa rika matematiska problem.

    Bakgrunden till uppsatsen grundar sig på mitt eget stora intresse för att undervisning skall vara utformad för att se och bemöta elevers olikheter som något positivt. Undervisning där man ser och utgår ifrån elevers olikheter och erfarenheter gör att elever kommer att vara olika djupt och långt i kursen. Här är det viktigt för läraren att vara uppmärksam och stötta alla elever, så att ingen kommer efter i lärandet. Att göra undervisningen mer personlig och meningsfull kan vara ett steg i riktning mot att höja intresset för matematik men kommer givetvis krävas mera av läraren.

    I teoridelen redogörs delar av rika matematiska problem och dess historia. Vidare tar jag upp vikten av att se till den enskilda individen och dess förutsättningar, samt olika möjligheter till att möta den enskilda individen i matematikundervisningen.

    Det empiriska materialet hanteras anonymt för att garantera anonymitet. Problemen löstes av samtliga elever i årskurs 9 på en skola i södra Sverige. Resultatet visade att det förekommer olika representationer för hur elever tänker kring ett bestämt problem. Att nivågrupperingar skulle vara att föredra kan inte bekräftas ur resultatet. Resultatet visade att den blandade gruppen hade en djupare förståelse totalt sett.

  • 6.
    Ahlén, Ingemar
    et al.
    SLU.
    Angelstam, Per
    SLU.
    Bensch, Staffan
    Lunds universitet.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Enemar, Anders
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Fagerström,, Torbjörn
    SLU.
    Green, Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet.
    Gustafsson, Lena
    SLU.
    Mikael, Hake
    SLU.
    Dennis, Hasselquist,
    Lunds universitet.
    Hedenström, Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    H-Lindgren, Christina
    Umeå universitet.
    Lindberg, Peter
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lindström, Åke
    Lunds universitet.
    Michanek, Gabriel
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Nilsson, Leif
    Lunds universitet.
    Nilsson, Sven G
    Lunds universitet.
    Pärt, Tomas
    SLU.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Svensson, Sören
    Lunds universitet.
    Tjernberg, Martin
    SLU.
    Ulfstrand, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Brusewitz, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet.
    Edman, Stefan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Jonsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet.
    Landell, Nils-Erik
    Wahlstedt, Jens
    Emanuelsson, Urban
    Centrum för biologisk mångfald.
    Ingelög, Torleif
    Artdatabanken.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Svenska naturskyddsföreningen.
    Kristoferson, Lars
    WWF.
    Lindell, Lars
    Sveriges Ornitologiska Förening.
    Nya järnvägen hotar unikt naturområde2002Inngår i: Aftonbladet, ISSN 1103-9000Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 7.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    A semiotic analysis of the disciplinary affordances of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram in astronomy2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the central characteristics of disciplines is that they create their own particular ways of knowing the world. This process is facilitated by the specialization and refinement of disciplinary-specific semiotic resources over time. Nowhere is this truer than in the sciences, where it is the norm that disciplinary-specific representations have been introduced and then refined by a number of different actors. As a consequence, many of the semiotic resources used in the sciences today still retain some traces of their historical roots.

    In this paper we analyse one such disciplinary-specific semiotic resource from the field of Astronomy—the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We audit the potential of this semiotic resource to provide access to disciplinary knowledge—what Fredlund et al (2012) have termed its disciplinary affordances. Our analysis includes consideration of the use of scales, labels, symbols, sizes and colour. We show how, for historical reasons, the use of these aspects in the resource may differ from what might be expected by a newcomer to the discipline.

    We suggest that some of the issues we highlight in our analysis may, in fact, be contributors to alternative conceptions and therefore propose that lecturers pay particular attention to the disambiguation of these features for their students.

  • 8.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    What do you see here?: using an analysis of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram in astronomy to create a survey of disciplinary discernment2014Inngår i: Book of abstracts: The First Conference of the International Association for Cognitive Semiotics(IACS-2014), September 25-27, 2014 Lund University, 2014, 52-53 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Becoming part of a discipline involves learning to interpret and use a range of disciplinary-specific semiotic resources (Airey, 2009). These resources have been developed and assigned particular specialist meanings over time. Nowhere is this truer than in the sciences, where it is the norm that disciplinary-specific representations have been introduced and then refined by a number of different actors in order to reconcile them with subsequent empirical and theoretical advances. As a consequence, many of the semiotic resources used in the sciences today still retain some (potentially confusing) traces of their historical roots. However, it has been repeatedly shown that university lecturers underestimate the challenges such disciplinary specific semiotic resources may present to undergraduates (Northedge, 2002; Tobias, 1986).

    In this paper we analyse one such disciplinary-specific semiotic resource from the field of Astronomy—the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. First, we audit the potential of this semiotic resource to provide access to disciplinary knowledge—what Fredlund et al (2012) have termed its disciplinary affordances. Our analysis includes consideration of the use of scales, labels, symbols, sizes and colour. We show how, for historical reasons, the use of these aspects in the resource may differ from what might be expected by a newcomer to the discipline. Using the results of our analysis we then created an online questionnaire to probe what is discerned (Eriksson, Linder, Airey, & Redfors, in press) with respect to each of these aspects by astronomers and physicists ranging from first year undergraduates to university professors.

    Our findings suggest that some of the issues we highlight in our analysis may, in fact, be contributors to the alternative conceptions of undergraduate students and we therefore propose that lecturers pay particular attention to the disambiguation of these features for their students.

  • 9.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet.
    On the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources2014Inngår i: Book of abstracts: The First Conference of the International Association for Cognitive Semiotics(IACS-2014), September 25-27, 2014 Lund University, 2014, 54-55 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 70’s Gibson (1979) introduced the concept of affordance. Initially framed around the needs of an organism in its environment, over the years the term has been appropriated and debated at length by a number of researchers in various fields. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman (1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when they are perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Linder (2013) for a recent example). Here, Kress et al. (2001) have claimed that different modes have different specialized affordances. Then, building on this idea, Airey and Linder (2009) suggested that there is a critical constellation of modes that students need to achieve fluency in before they can experience a concept in an appropriate disciplinary manner. Later, Airey (2009) nuanced this claim, shifting the focus from the modes themselves to a critical constellation of semiotic resources, thus acknowledging that different semiotic resources within a mode often have different affordances (e.g. two or more diagrams may form the critical constellation).

    In this theoretical paper the concept of disciplinary affordance (Fredlund et al., 2012) is suggested as a useful analytical tool for use in education. The concept makes a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the discernment of one individual, it refers to the disciplinary community as a whole. Put simply, the disciplinary affordances of a given semiotic resource are determined by those functions that the resource is expected to fulfil by the disciplinary community. Disciplinary affordances have thus been negotiated and developed within the discipline over time. As such, the question of whether these affordances are inherent or discerned becomes moot. Rather, from an educational perspective the issue is whether the meaning that a semiotic resource affords to an individual matches the disciplinary affordance assigned by the community. The power of the term for educational work is that learning can now be framed as coming to discern the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources.

    In this paper we will briefly discuss the history of the term affordance, define the term disciplinary affordance and illustrate its usefulness in a number of educational settings.

  • 10.
    Alagic, Amir
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för teknik.
    BookZone web shop2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    My task was to create an e-commerce solution or web shop that is integrated with PayPal system. The intent of this paper is to show how this e-commerce web application was built and integrated with the PayPal system.

    The underlying technology used in the implementation of the application includes .Net 2.0 framework (ASP.Net 2.0 and C# 2005 and Express edition of SQL Server 2005)

  • 11.
    Alho, Jussi S.
    et al.
    Ecological Genetics Research Unit, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki.
    Herczeg, Gábor
    Ecological Genetics Research Unit, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki.
    Söderman, Fredrik
    Population and Conservation Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.
    Laurilla, Anssi
    Population and Conservation Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Merilä, Juha
    Ecological Genetics Research Unit, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki.
    Increasing melanism along a latitudinal gradient in a widespread amphibian: local adaptation, ontogenic or environmental plasticity?2010Inngår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 10, 317- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThe thermal benefits of melanism in ectothermic animals are widely recognized, but relatively little is known about population differentiation in the degree of melanism along thermal gradients, and the relative contributions of genetic vs. environmental components into the level of melanism expressed. We investigated variation in the degree of melanism in the common frog (Rana temporaria; an active heliotherm thermoregulator) by comparing the degree of melanism (i) among twelve populations spanning over 1500 km long latitudinal gradient across the Scandinavian Peninsula and (ii) between two populations from latitudinal extremes subjected to larval temperature treatments in a common garden experiment.

    ResultsWe found that the degree of melanism increased steeply in the wild as a function of latitude. Comparison of the degree of population differentiation in melanism (PST) and neutral marker loci (FST) revealed that the PST > FST, indicating that the differences cannot be explained by random genetic drift alone. However, the latitudinal trend observed in the wild was not present in the common garden data, suggesting that the cline in nature is not attributable to direct genetic differences.

    ConclusionsAs straightforward local adaptation can be ruled out, the observed trend is likely to result from environment-driven phenotypic plasticity or ontogenetic plasticity coupled with population differences in age structure. In general, our results provide an example how phenotypic plasticity or even plain ontogeny can drive latitudinal clines and result in patterns perfectly matching the genetic differences expected under adaptive hypotheses. 

  • 12.
    Ali, Hayder
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Spets, Rasmus
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Virtualisering av skrivbordsmiljöer: en teknisk jämförelse2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete syftar till en jämförelse av olika skrivbordsvirtualiserings produkter och hur respektive miljö ser ut. I utredandeavsnittet presenteras information om skrivbordsvirtualiserings olika lösningar och hur de fungerar. Arbetet redogör för de två stora aktörerna inom detta område, Citrix och VMware. Utredandeavsnittet presenterar även lite information om Nvidias grafiklösningar i de olika miljöerna. Genomförandeavsnittet presenterar information från intervjuer med representanter från de två stora aktörerna. Arbetet presenterar även information från en representant från Nvidia, USA. Intervjuerna har skett via e-mail eftersom personligt möte varit väldigt svårt att lösa. Intervjuerna behandlar frågor om respektive lösning om hur de fungerar och även om användarvänlighet och åtkomst för användare. Fokus ligger på användarvänlighet och åtkomst för användare i respektive lösning. Efter arbetet kan det dras några slutsatser. Främst att de två miljöerna som undersökts är ganska lika när det gäller virtualisering av skrivbord. De är uppbyggda på liknande sätt och fungerar på nästan samma sätt när det gäller åtkomst för användare.

  • 13.
    al-Rifaie, Fatimah Majid
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    al-Rifaie, Mohammad Majid
    Storbritannien.
    Maximising overlap score in DNA sequence assembly problem by Stochastic Diffusion Search2016Inngår i: Intelligent systems and applications: extended and selected results from the SAI Intelligent Systems Conference (IntelliSys) 2015 / [ed] Yaxin Bi,Supriya Kapoor, Rahul Bhatia, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2016, 301-321 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a novel study on the performance of Stochastic DiffusionSearch (SDS) – a swarm intelligence algorithm – to address DNA sequence assembly problem. This is an NP-hard problem and one of the primary problems in computational molecular biology that requires optimisation methodologies to reconstruct the original DNA sequence. In this work, SDS algorithm is adapted for this purpose and several experiments are run in order to evaluate the performance of the presented technique over several frequently used benchmarks. Given the promising results of the newly proposed algorithm and its success in assembling the input fragments, its behaviour is further analysed, thus shedding light on the process through which the algorithm conducts the task. Additionally, the algorithm is applied to overlap score matrices which are generated from the raw input fragments; the algorithm optimises the overlap score matrices to find better results. In these experiments realworld data are used and the performance of SDS is compared with several other algorithms which are used by other researchers in the field, thus demonstrating its weaknesses and strengths in the experiments presented in the paper.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Anders-Petter
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan.
    Cappelen, Birgitta
    The Oslo School of Architecture and Design.
    Musical interaction for health improvement2014Inngår i: Oxford handbook of interactive audio / [ed] Karen Collins, Bill Kapralos, Holly Tessler, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2014, 247-262 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decade, tangible sensor technologies have matured and become less expensive and easier to use, leading to an explosion of innovative musical designs within video games, smartphone applications, and interactive art installations. Interactive audio has become an important design quality in commercially successful games like Guitar Hero , and a range of mobile phone applications motivating people to interact, play, dance, and collaborate with music. Parallel to the game, phone, and art scenes, an area of music and health research has grown, showing the positive results of using music to promote health and wellbeing in everyday situations and for a broad range of people, from children and elderly to people with psychological and physiological disabilities. Both quantitative medical and ecological humanistic research show that interaction with music can improve health, through music’s ability to evoke feelings, motivate people to interact, master, and cope with difficult situations, create social relations and experience shared meaning. Only recently, however, the music and health field has started to take interest in interactive audio, based on computer-mediated technologies’ potential for health improvement. Here, we show the potential of using interactive audio in what we call interactive musicking in the computer-based interactive environment Wave. Interactive musicking is based on musicologist Christopher Small’s concept “musicking”, meaning any form of relation-building that occurs between people, and people and things, related to activities that include music. For instance, musicking includes dancing, listening, and playing with music (in professional contexts and in amateur, everyday contexts). We have adapted the concept of "musicking" on the design of computer-based musical devices. The context for this chapter is the research project RHYME. RHYME is a multidisciplinary collaboration between the Centre for Music and Health at the Norwegian Academy of Music, the Oslo School of Architecture and Design (AHO), and Informatics at the University of Oslo. Our target group is families with children with severe disabilities. Our goal is to improve health and wellbeing in the families through everyday musicking activities in interactive environments. Our research approach is to use knowledge from music and health research, musical composition and improvisation, musical action research, musicology, music sociology, and soundscape studies, when designing the tangible interactive environments. Our focus here is interaction design and composition strategies, following research-by-design methodology, creating interactive musicking environments. We describe the research and design of the interactive musicking environment Wave, based on video documentation, during a sequence of actions. Our findings suggest some interactive audio design strategies to improve health. We base the design strategies on musical actions performed while playing an instrument, such as impulsive or iterative hitting, or sustainable stroking of an instrument. Musical actions like these can also be used for musicking in everyday contexts, creating direct sound responses to evoke feelings that create expectations and confirm interactions. In opposition to a more control-oriented, instrument and interface perspective, we argue that musical variation and narrative models can be used to design interactive audio, where the audio is seen as an actor taking many different roles, as instrument, co-musician, toy, etc. In this way, the audio and the interactive musicking environments will change over time, answering with direct response, as well as nose-thumbing and changing response, motivating creation, play, and social interaction. Musical variation can also be used to design musical backgrounds and soundscapes that can be used for creating layers of ambience. These models create a safe environment and contribute to shared meaning.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Anders-Petter
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Hälsa och Samhälle.
    Cappellen, Birgitta
    The Oslo School of Architecture and Design.
    Same but different: composing for interactivity2008Inngår i: Audio Mostly Conference: A Conference on Interaction with Sound, October 22-23 2011, Luleå University, Interactive Institute, Sonic, 2008, 80-85 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on experiences from practical design work, we try to show, what we believe, are the similarities and differences, between composing music for interactive media compared to linear music. In our view, much is the same, built on traditions that have been around for centuries within music and composition. The fact that the composer writes programming code is an essential difference. Instead of writing one linear work, he creates infinite numbers of potential musics that reveal themselves as answers to user interactions in many situations. Therefore, we have to broaden our perspectives. We have to put forward factors that earlier was implicit in the musical and music making situations, no matter if it was the concert hall, the church, or the club. When composing interactive music we have to consider the genre, the potential roles the listener might take, and the user experience in different situations.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Jens A.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Arvidsson, Ake
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap. Ericsson AB.
    Du, Manxing
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Zhang, Huimin
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Kihl, Maria
    Lund University.
    Host, Stefan
    Lund University.
    Lagerstedt, Christina
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista, Sweden.
    User profiling for pre-fetching or caching in a catch-Up TV network2016Inngår i: 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Broadband Multimedia Systems and Broadcasting (BMSB), 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the potential of different pre-fetching and/or caching strategies for different user behaviour with respect to surfing or browsing in a catch-up-TV network. To this end we identify accounts and channels associated with strong or weak surfing or browsing respectively and study the distributions of hold times for the different types of behaviour. Finally we present results from a request prediction model and a caching simulation for the different types of behaviour and find that the results are relatively similar.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Josefina
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Axelsson, Lina
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Cata - a former homeland village affected by Betterment, Eastern Cape, South Africa2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study focus on the house ruins and land use in Nyokana, a former village section in Cata, by looking at their location, number and the people who lived there and their living before the Betterment plan was carried through. This is done by studying an old map and documents of Cata, field studies with GPS-using and by interviewing mostly old inhabitants. The result is a basis for the development of the planned tourism track within the heritage project, wich runs by BRC and University of Fort Hare.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Kristofer
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Svedjebrukets slutskede: En studie av svedjebruket och landskapet i Algustorp, Röke socken, norra Skåne, ca 1800-19002017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Relativt lite forskning har de senaste årtiondena bedrivits gällande svedjebruket, i synnerhet förekomsten och utbredningen av svedjeland inom enskilda byar. Arealen svedjad mark i förhållande till arealen åkermark i byn Algustorp, Röke socken, norra Skåne utgör grunden för denna studie. Gunhild Weimarck publicerade 1953 en avhandling där arealen svedjad mark jämförs med arealen åkermark i Lönsboda, Örkened socken, nordöstra Skåne. För denna uppsats är jämförelser mellan de två byarna fundamental, det vill säga en komparativ studie där likheter och skillnader diskuteras utifrån olika parametrar. Uppsatsen ska dessutom ge ökad kännedom om svedjebrukets förekomst i fem närbelägna byar i anslutning till Algustorp, belysa svedjandets betydelse för agrarsamhället och framför allt redogöra för svedjelandens omfattning inom byn Algustorp. För att möjliggöra detta har källmaterial i form av frågelistsvar, jordeböcker och historiskt kartmaterial varit grundläggande för studien. Analyser av geografisk information i applikationen ArcMap har underlättat beräkningen av arealen svedjemark respektive åkermark i Algustorp. Resultatet visar att arealen svedjeland i Algustorp var mindre än byns åkerareal, till skillnad från Lönsboda, där svedjemarkens areal istället var större i förhållande till byns åkermark. Detta fenomen tycks bero på regionala skillnader, det vill säga olikartade markförhållanden i de olika byarna. Tillgången på odlingsbar mark framstår som mycket liten i Lönsboda. Därmed förekom större arealer svedjemark i Lönsboda till skillnad från Algustorp, där förutsättningarna för spannmålsodling till synes är mera gynnsamma. Det är med stor sannolikhet naturgivna förhållanden, främst jordartssammansättningen, som pådrivit ett större behov av att nyttja svedjebruk i Lönsboda.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Robert
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Fenologisk studie av björk (Betula alba) och ek (Quercus robur): En regional jämförelse av historiska och nutida fenologi- och temperaturdata2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Med ett allt varmare klimat har observationer av främst växter visat sig vara värdefulla för vilka effekter en klimatförändring kan få på ekosystemen. Observationer av tidpunkten för dessa företeelser är det som benämns fenologi och utgör enligt flera studier indikationer på att jordens klimat förändras. Målet med min undersökning är att se om klimatförändringar har påverkat lövsprickningen i södra Sverige. För att mer specifikt undersöka tidpunkten för lövsprickning har jag avgränsat mig till björk (Betula alba) och ek (Quercus robur) i fyra län i södra Sverige. För att undersöka eventuella fenologiska förändringar har jag använt/jämfört historiska data från 1873–1923 med nutida 2008–2016 och beräknat hur lövsprickningsdatumen och temperatur har förändrats. För att kunna undersöka sambandet mellan lövsprickning och temperatur har månadsmedeltemperaturen använts för jämförelse tre månader bakåt räknat från lövsprickningsdatum. Resultatet visade att både temperaturen och lövsprickningen har förändrats. I undersökningsområdet har medeltemperaturen i genomsnitt ökat med 2°C, medan lövsprickningen har tidigarelagts för björk och ek med 16,5 respektive 11,5 dagar i genomsnitt. Resultatet visar också att de fenologiska förändringarna är statistiskt signifikanta. Däremot är det mer osäkert att förändringarna beror på temperaturen, trots starka kopplingar mellan temperaturförändringarna och fenologiska förändringar. Det skulle kunna vara variationen i temperaturen, snarare än medeltemperaturen som är viktigast för lövsprickningen.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Mhamutovic, Naida
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Skyddszoner som fosforfällor: En studie om skyddszonernas förmåga att förhindra fosforläckage2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Fosforläckage från våra gödslade åkermarker bidrar till övergödning i sjöar och hav. Fosforn transporteras ofta via ytavrining till uträtade vattendrag och vattnet färdas snabbt till sjöar och hav. För att undvika fosforläckage anläggs stödberättigade vallbeklädda skyddszoner mellan åker och vattendrag med syftet att ta upp fosfor. Tidigare studier har visat att det kan finnas en risk för fosformättnad i markerna längs vattendragen (Borggaard, Moberg & Sibbesen 1991; Vought, Dahl, Pedersen & Lacousière 1994; Svanbäck, Ulén, Etana, Bergström, Kleinman & Mattsson 2013).   

    Detta examensarbete syftar till att se om dagens skyddszoner är mättade eller kan ta upp mer fosfor och om jordarten spelar någon roll för fosforupptaget. Påverkan av pH och mullhalt på fosforupptaget är något som också undersökts. Jordarterna lera, morän och sand undersöktes i denna studie. Arbetet syftar även till att visa på landskapsförändringar och historik kring skyddszoner. Jordprov samlades in från 15 skyddszoner i Kristianstad. Proven torkades, siktades och skakades sedan med vatten som innehöll en känd mängd fosfor och upptaget av fosforn mättes. Historiska och nutida kartmaterial studerades för att se landskapets förändringar.  

      

    Analyser visade att nio av 15 skyddszoner var mättade med fosfor, d v s uppmätta halter efter skakningen var högre än den tillsatta mängden. De tre jordarterna hade vardera tre mättade skyddszoner och två omättade. Där var ingen statistiskt signifikant skillnad mellan de tre jordarterna med avseende på mättnad. För jordarten lera visade resultatet att pH-värde och mullhalt påverkade innehållet av fosfor där ett högre pH-värde visade en högre fosforhalt och ju högre mullhalten var desto mindre var fosforhalten. För morän visade resultatet samma som för lera men resultatet för hur mullhalten påverkade fosforhalten var inte signifikant. Resultatet för sand var att ju högre pH-värde desto högre var fosforhalten och ju högre mullhalt desto högre fosforhalt.  

    Skyddszonerna finns till största delen på mark som varit åkermark i minst 100 år medan andra tidigare nyttjats som översilningsängar eller som andra ängs- eller betesmarker. De områden som varit åker en längre tid har förmodligen gödslats kraftigt under efterkrigstiden. Anläggningen av skyddszoner kan därför ha bidragit till att återskapa landskapet som det såg ut innan rationaliseringen av jordbruket i slutet av 1950-talet.   

    Skyddszonerna är en viktig del i landskapet de då skyddar vattendragen från ytavvrining, förhindrar erosion och bidrar till att bevara biologisk mångfald i vattendraget och genom att fungera som spridningskorridorer. Våra studier visar att skyddszonerna behöver skötas om de ska fungera som näringfälla. Dagens stödberättigade skyddszoner får endast vara gräsbevuxna men man skulle kunna tänka sig framtida skyddszoner med energiskog eller träd där fosforn förs bort via ved.

  • 21.
    Andiappan, Anand Kumar
    et al.
    Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Halldén, Christer
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Yun, Wang De
    Department of Otolaryngology, National University of Singapore.
    Säll, Torbjörn
    Department of Cell and Organism Biology, Lund University.
    Cardell, Lars Olaf
    Division of ENT Diseases, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet.
    Tim, Chew Fook
    Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore.
    Investigating highly replicated asthma genes as candidate genes for allergic rhinitis2013Inngår i: BMC Medical Genetics, ISSN 1471-2350, E-ISSN 1471-2350, Vol. 14, 51- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Asthma genetics has been extensively studied and many genes have been associated with the development or severity of this disease. In contrast, the genetic basis of allergic rhinitis (AR) has not been evaluated as extensively. It is well known that asthma is closely related with AR since a large proportion of individuals with asthma also present symptoms of AR, and patients with AR have a 5-6 fold increased risk of developing asthma. Thus, the relevance of asthma candidate genes as predisposing factors for AR is worth investigating. The present study was designed to investigate if SNPs in highly replicated asthma genes are associated with the occurrence of AR.

    METHODS: A total of 192 SNPs from 21 asthma candidate genes reported to be associated with asthma in 6 or more unrelated studies were genotyped in a Swedish population with 246 AR patients and 431 controls. Genotypes for 429 SNPs from the same set of genes were also extracted from a Singapore Chinese genome-wide dataset which consisted of 456 AR cases and 486 controls. All SNPs were subsequently analyzed for association with AR and their influence on allergic sensitization to common allergens.

    RESULTS: A limited number of potential associations were observed and the overall pattern of P-values corresponds well to the expectations in the absence of an effect. However, in the tests of allele effects in the Chinese population the number of significant P-values exceeds the expectations. The strongest signals were found for SNPs in NPSR1 and CTLA4. In these genes, a total of nine SNPs showed P-values <0.001 with corresponding Q-values <0.05. In the NPSR1 gene some P-values were lower than the Bonferroni correction level. Reanalysis after elimination of all patients with asthmatic symptoms excluded asthma as a confounding factor in our results. Weaker indications were found for IL13 and GSTP1 with respect to sensitization to birch pollen in the Swedish population.

    CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in the majority of the highly replicated asthma genes were not associated to AR in our populations which suggest that asthma and AR could have less in common than previously anticipated. However, NPSR1 and CTLA4 can be genetic links between AR and asthma and associations of polymorphisms in NPSR1 with AR have not been reported previously.

  • 22.
    Areskoug, Mats
    et al.
    Malmö högskola.
    Ekborg, Margareta
    Malmö högskola.
    Lindahl, Britt
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Rosberg, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Naturvetenskapens bärande idéer: för lärare F-62013Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att undervisa i de naturorienterande ämnena (NO) i de tidiga skolåren är ett utmanande, spännande och roligt uppdrag. Dessa ämnen spänner dock över stora innehållsområden och därför kan det vara svårt att få en överblick och välja ett innehåll som är lämpligt för åldersgruppen.

    Den här boken hjälper lärare att få grepp om det viktigaste innehållet i de naturvetenskapliga ämnena. Författarna beskriver naturvetenskaperna ur ett helhetsperspektiv och ger en övergripande struktur, som kompletteras med relevanta begrepp. Naturvetenskapens bärande idéer förklaras mer i detalj och utifrån en rad konkreta vardagliga exempel. Innehållet diskuteras i förhållande till Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet (Lgr 11).

    Boken kan användas både som kurslitteratur för blivande lärare och som ämnesfördjupning för verksamma lärare.

  • 23.
    Areskoug, Mats
    et al.
    Malmö Högskola.
    Ekborg, Margareta
    Malmö Högskola.
    Rosberg, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Thulin, Susanne
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Naturvetenskapens bärande idéer för förskollärare2016 (oppl. 1)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att arbeta med naturvetenskap i förskolan är ett utmanande, spännande och roligt uppdrag. Alla har vi väl förundrats över barns nyfikenhet och goda observationsförmåga när de möter naturvetenskapliga fenomen. Många förskollärare berättar också att det är tacksamt att arbeta med naturvetenskap.

    Ämnesområdet är stort och det kan vara svårt att som förskollärare få en överblick och veta vad man ska läsa in sig på för att få idéer till relevanta uppgifter att göra tillsammans med barnen.

    Den här boken handlar om de bärande idéerna i naturvetenskap och är tänkt att stödja förskolläraren i strävan att få grepp om det viktigaste innehållet. Ambitionen är att dra upp de stora linjerna snarare än att ge en heltäckande beskrivning. Exempel från vardagliga sammanhang används för att visa på bärkraften i dessa idéer.

    Boken är tänkt som kurslitteratur för blivande förskollärare och ämnesfördjupning för verksamma lärare i förskolan. Innehållet diskuteras i förhållande till förskolans läroplan.

  • 24.
    Arnesten, Emilie
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Hydroarkeologi på Västgötaslätten: en kartstudie av sambandet mellan fornlämningar och förhistorisk hydrologi.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet behandlar hydroarkeologi genom flera kartstudier av fornlämningar och deras förhållande till det förhistoriska landskapets hydrologi i ett utvalt undersökningsområde där en förhistorisk hydrologisk situation har återskapats. Arbetet fokuserar på fornlämningar som idag ligger över en kilometer från en vattenförekomst, men som har vatten inom en kilometer på historiska kartor.

     

    Fornlämningar ligger i allmänhet relativt nära dagens vattenförekomster och bland de undersökta fornlämningarna dominerar typerna gravar och verktygslämningar. Majoriteten av fornlämningarna brukades under förhistorien och markanvändningen vid lämningarna har successivt övergått till en allt större andel öppen mark från 1700-talet till idag. Vattenförekomsterna har förändrats av såväl naturliga som antropogena orsaker och de mer omfattande antropogena förändringarna började omkring år 1800. Troligtvis har området ett helt annat hydrologiskt utseende idag jämfört med under förhistorien.

  • 25.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Hälsa och Samhälle.
    Bergqvist, Joakim
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Hälsa och Samhälle.
    Bünger, Robin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för Hälsa och Samhälle.
    IP-telefoni: en teknisk undersökning2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet har till syfte att undersöka den revolutionerande tekniken bakom IP-telefoni. Eftersom tekniken är relativt ung så finns det fortfarande mycket att lära om hur det fungerar och hur den används. Projektet behandlar fördelar och nackdelar samt vilka hot som finns och hur man kan känna sig säker när man använder IP-telefoni till vardags. Det primära objektivet med projektet är att få en helhetsbild och förstå hur tekniken verkligen fungerar.

    Vidare behandlas telefonens historia då det är viktigt att se var tekniken har sina rötter och hur den utvecklats sedan dess. Som en röd tråd från telefonens teknologi och det publika telefonnätets rötter görs en jämförelse mellan de två teknologierna för att se skillanderna och förmodade fördelar och nackdelar med de båda systemen. Olika sorters protokoll som har ett nära förhållande till IP-telefoni så som SIP, RTP, UDP och IP behandlas. För att få en sanningsenlig bild över hur vardagliga användare upplever IP-telefoni så har en enkätundersökning angående vanor och möjliga problem gjorts hos de anställda på Region Skåne.

  • 26.
    Arvidsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Jonsson, Lars J.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Birkhofer, Klaus
    Lund University.
    Geographic location, not forest type, affects the diversity of spider communities sampled with malaise traps in Sweden2016Inngår i: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 53, nr 3-4, 215-227 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The latitudinal diversity gradient predicts higher species richness at lower latitudes. Here, we utilize the data from a long-term monitoring with malaise traps to analyse if spider communities in Sweden are affected by geographic gradients and if these effects hold independent of forest type. The species richness and the effective number of species in spider communities were not significantly related to the latitudinal gradient. The effective number of species and the taxonomic distinctness of spider communities were related to longitude, with a higher number, but fewer related species in western parts of Sweden. The species and family composition were significantly related to latitude independent of forest type, with a dominance of Linyphiidae individuals and species in the north. Our study demonstrates the suitability of malaise trap sampling to contribute to a better understanding of local spider communities, as several rare and locally new species were recorded in this study.

  • 27.
    Arzel, C.
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Guillemain, M.
    Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, CNERA Avifaune Migratrice, La Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, Arles.
    A flyway perspective of foraging activity in Eurasian Green-winged Teal, Anas crecca crecca2007Inngår i: Canadian Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0008-4301, E-ISSN 1480-3283, Vol. 85, nr 1, 81-91 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-activity budgets in the family Anatidae are available for the wintering and breeding periods. We present the first flyway-level study of foraging time in a long-distance migrant, the Eurasian Green-winged Teal, Anas crecca crecca L., 1758 ("Teal"). Behavioral data from early and late spring staging, breeding, and molting sites were collected with standardized protocols to explore differences between the,sexes, seasons, and diel patterns. Teal foraging activity was compared with that of the Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos L., 1758 and Northern Shoveler, Anas clypeata L., 1758, and the potential effects of duck density and predator-caused disturbance were explored. In early spring, foraging time was moderate (50.5%) and mostly nocturnal (45%). It increased dramatically in all three species at migration stopovers and during molt, mostly because of increased diurnal foraging, while nocturnal foraging remained fairly constant along the flyway. These patterns adhere to the "income breeding" strategy expected for this species. No differences between the sexes were recorded in either species studied. Teal foraging time was positively correlated with density of Teal and all ducks present, but negatively correlated with predator disturbance. Our study suggests that Teal, in addition to being income breeders, may also be considered as income migrants; they find the energy necessary to migrate at staging sites along the flyway.

  • 28.
    Arzel, C.
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Guillemain, M.
    Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, CNERA Avifaune Migratrice, La Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, Arles.
    Gurd, D.B.
    Centre for Wildlife Ecology, Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Fritz, H.
    Centre d’Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, CNRS UPR 1934, Beauvoir-sur-Niort.
    Arnaud, A.
    Station Biologique La Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, Arles.
    Pin, C.
    Station Biologique La Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, Arles.
    Bosca, F.
    Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, CNERA Avifaune Migratrice, La Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, Arles.
    Experimental functional response and inter-individual variation in foraging rate of teal (Anas crecca)2007Inngår i: Behavioural Processes, ISSN 0376-6357, E-ISSN 1872-8308, Vol. 75, nr 1, 66-71 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The functional response, i.e. the change in per capita food intake rate per time unit with changed food availability, is a widely used too] for understanding the ecology and behaviour of animals. However, waterfowl remain poorly explored in this context. In an aviary experiment we derived a functional response curve for teal (Anas crecca) foraging on rice (Oryza sativa) seeds. We found a linear relationship between intake rate and seed density, as expected for a filter-feeder. At high seed densities we found a threshold, above which intake rate still increased linearly but with a lower slope, possibly reflecting a switch from filter-feeding to a scooping foraging mode. The present study shows that food intake rate in teal is linearly related to food availability within the range of naturally occurring seed densities, a finding with major implications for management and conservation of wetland habitats.

  • 29.
    Arzel, Céline
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of Turku.
    Dessborn, Lisa
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Nummi, Petri
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Elmberg, Johan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    Does changing spring phenology affect short and long distance migratory waterfowl similarly?2010Inngår i: The abstract book: Symposium : The global environmental change: messages from birds. Espoo, 17-19 November, 2010, 43- s.Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Among waterfowl, most ducks may be considered income breeders due to their small body size and their limited capacity to store energy. Therefore limited access to resources on their breeding grounds is likely to affect their breeding schedule and potentially output. At northern latitudes, ice break up dictates the access to the breeding lakes. An early ice break up allows for early access to the breeding site and its feeding resources, and potentially leading to higher breeding output than after a late ice break up. Short distance migrants are thus more likely to adapt to ice break up conditions than long distance migrants which have to cope with weather conditions en route and local resource accessibility along the migratory path. Using 20 years of data on breeding phenology and success of 3 species of ducks differing in their migratory strategy - Teal Anas crecca, Mallard Anas platyrhynchos and Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula - in a watershed in Finland, we test the idea that variation in spring phenology affects the reproductive performance of duck species differently depending on their migration pattern.

  • 30.
    Arzel, Céline
    et al.
    Finland.
    Dessborn, Lisa
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Nummi, Petri
    Finland.
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Finland.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    SLU, Umeå.
    Effect of the timing of spring thaw on the breeding performance in two sympatric bird species: does migration distance matter?2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 31.
    Arzel, Céline
    et al.
    University of Turku.
    Dessborn, Lisa
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Joensuu Game and Fisheries Research.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Nummi, Petri
    University of Helsinki.
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Early springs and breeding performance in two sympatric duck species with different migration strategies2014Inngår i: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 156, nr 2, 288-298 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity of migratory species to adapt to climate change may depend on their migratory and reproductive strategies. For example, reproductive output is likely to be influenced by how well migration and nesting are timed to temporal patterns of food abundance, or by temperature variations during the brood rearing phase. Based on two decades (1988–2009) of waterfowl counts from a boreal catchment in southern Finland we assessed how variation in ice break-up date affected nesting phenology and breeding success in two sympatric duck species, Mallard Anas platyrhynchos and Eurasian Teal Anas crecca. In Fennoscandia these species have similar breeding habitat requirements but differ in migration distance; Teal migrate roughly seven times as far as do Mallard. Annual ice break-up date was used as a proxy of spring ‘earliness’ to test the potential effect of climate change on hatching timing and breeding performance. Both species were capable of adapting their nesting phenology, and bred earlier in years when spring was early. However, the interval from ice break-up to hatching tended to be longer in early springs in both species, so that broods hatched relatively later than in late springs. Ice break-up date did not appear to influence annual number of broods per pair or annual mean brood size in either species. Our study therefore does not suggest that breeding performance in Teal and Mallard is negatively affected by advancement of ice break-up at the population level. However, both species showed a within-season decline in brood size with increasing interval between ice break-up and hatching. Our study therefore highlights a disparity between individuals in their capacity to adjust to ice break-up date, late breeders having a lower breeding success than early breeders. We speculate that breeding success of both species may therefore decline should a consistent trend towards earlier springs occur.

  • 32.
    Arzel, Céline
    et al.
    Frankrike.
    Dessborn, Lisa
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Finland.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Nummi, Petri
    Finland.
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    SLU, Umeå.
    Effect of the timing of spring thaw on the breeding performance in two sympatric waterbirds species2012Inngår i: Third Pan-European Duck Symposium: abstract book and programme, 2012, 51- s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 33.
    Arzel, Céline
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Time and microhabitat use in pre-breeding dabbling ducks Anas spp. in sub-arctic Norway: does the long trip make a difference?2009Inngår i: Abstracts, 2nd Pan-European Duck Symposium, 2009, 44- s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 34.
    Arzel, Céline
    et al.
    Turku University.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Time use and foraging behaviour in pre-breeding dabbling ducks Anas spp. in sub-arctic Norway2015Inngår i: Journal of Ornithology, ISSN 2193-7192, E-ISSN 2193-7206, Vol. 156, nr 2, 499-513 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied time budgets and foraging methods in pre-breeding Mallard Anas platyrhynchos, (Eurasian) Teal Anas crecca, Wigeon Anas penelope, Pintail Anas acuta, Shoveler Anas clypeata and Gadwall Anas strepera in subarctic Norway in May. Among all six species studied, foraging accounted for the most common use of time, ranging from 19 % in male Pintail to 40–60 % in female Mallard, Teal, Pintail and Gadwall. Comfort behaviours amounted to 20–34 % of the time budget, and interaction and disturbance were marginal. Vigilance time ranged from 8 % in female Mallard to 20 % in male Pintail. Movement amounted to some 20 % of the time in most species and sexes. In Wigeon, sexes did not differ in time use, whereas in Mallard, Pintail and, in particular, Teal, females foraged more and engaged less in vigilance and interactions than did males. In addition, Teal and Mallard males engaged in the riskier foraging methods less than females, but more in those permitting vigilance. Although overlap in feeding methods was large among these species, Mallard and Teal were generalists, feeding at all depths, Wigeon foraged mainly in shallow water and Pintail foraged essentially in deep water. Our results support the income/capital breeder hypothesis with respect to males only; compared to lighter species, heavier species allocated less time to foraging but more to vigilance. We found no support for the hypothesis that long-distance migrants forage more to compensate for energy loss due to migratory flight. Foraging time in females was related to breeding phenology; early nesters spent more time feeding than later nesters.

  • 35.
    Arzel, Céline
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Guillemain, M.
    CNERA Avifaune Migratrice, Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, La Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, Arles.
    Ecology of spring-migrating Anatidae: a review2006Inngår i: Journal of Ornithology = Journal fur Ornithologie, ISSN 0021-8375, E-ISSN 1439-0361, Vol. 147, nr 2, 167-184 s.Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Spring migration is generally considered as a crucial period of the year for many birds, not the least due to its supposed importance for subsequent breeding success. By reviewing the existing literature for Anatidae (ducks, geese, and swans), we show that little is known about their ecology in spring, although some goose species are exceptions. Another general pattern is that the ecology of Anatidae at staging sites is particularly neglected. Existing studies tend to focus on questions dealing with acquisition of nutrient reserves, whereas almost nothing has been published about stopover habitats, time use, microhabitat use, foraging behaviour, food availability, food limitation, diet selection, and interspecific relationships. Besides summarising present knowledge, we identify taxonomic groups and topics for which gaps of knowledge appear the most evident, thereby also highlighting research needs for the future.

  • 36.
    Arzel, Céline
    et al.
    Finland.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Frankrike.
    A flyway approach to dabbling ducks foraging ecology: food availability vs foraging behaviour2007Inngår i: Book of abstracts: International Union of Game Biologists XXVIII Congress, 13-18 August, 2007, Uppsala Sweden / [ed] K. Sjöberg & T. Rooke, 2007, 283- s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 37.
    Arzel, Céline
    et al.
    Frankrike.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Frankrike.
    Does foraging in Teal Anas crecca depend on season and disturbance by predators?2006Inngår i: Integrating science and duck management: the 4th North American Duck Symposium and Workshop, 2006, 131- s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure wise management of migratory species it is crucial to know their energy requirements throughout their biological cycle, especially during periods like spring migration, that might affect future breeding success. Surprisingly, this period has seldom been studied. To start filling this gap for dabbling ducks and especially Eurasian Teal Anas crecca, we studied their foraging time and foraging methods along their Western European flyway from wintering to breeding grounds. Differences in foraging activity between sexes, species, years, seasons, sites and diel patterns were checked, as well as potential effects of disturbances by potential predators. Ducks of both sexes presented a fairly constant nocturnal foraging along the flyway, whereas diurnal foraging increased at periods of high requirements (spring, breeding, moulting). Ducks might thus not only be income breeders, but also income migrators (relying on the food they encounter along their flyway to fuel their travel). Moreover, Teal foraging depth increased along the flyway when disturbance due to potential predators decreased. This probably reflects their diet switch (from granivorous to carnivorous). The decrease in predator pressure probably makes it possible for teals to use riskiest behaviors (greater depths associated to eyes underwater and less prevention of predators).We thus highlight the need for adequate management of staging wetlands all along the flyway, since ducks have to fulfill high energy requirements there. Water level control may be useful to provide more shallow foraging habitats in which they can use less risky foraging techniques at times when nutrient needs increases and predation risk is relatively high.

  • 38.
    Arzel, Céline
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Waterfowl migration and wetland management at the European scale2009Inngår i: Abstracts, 2nd Pan-European Duck Symposium, 2009, 33- s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 39.
    Arzel, Céline
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Frankrike.
    Legagneux, Pierre
    Frankrike.
    Bosca, Fabrice
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Chambouleyron, Mathieu
    Frankrike.
    Lepley, Michel
    Frankrike.
    Pin, Christophe
    Frankrike.
    Arnaud, Antoine
    Frankrike.
    Schricke, Vincent
    Frankrike.
    Average mass of seeds encountered by foraging dabbling ducks in western Europe2007Inngår i: Wildlife Biology, ISSN 0909-6396, E-ISSN 1903-220X, Vol. 13, nr 3, 328-336 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many dabbling ducks Anas spp. are largely granivorous, consuming a variety of seeds chiefly from aquatic plants. To assess the relative value and carrying capacity of wetlands for dabbling ducks, species-specific information about seed mass is needed, but it is still largely missing or scattered in the literature. By combining weights of seeds collected in the field with a literature review, we provide a reference table for seed mass of 200 western European plant taxa frequently encountered by foraging dabbling ducks. Seeds collected in the field were sampled in microhabitats and at depths at which ducks were observed to forage, and study sites represent wintering, staging as well as breeding areas within a flyway in western Europe. When combined with calorimetric data, the present reference table will aid managers and scientists in assessing the importance of seed food resources at different sites and during different parts of the annual cycle.

  • 40.
    Arzel, Céline
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, CNERA Avifaune Migratrice, La Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, Arles.
    Lepley, Michel
    Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, CNERA Avifaune Migratrice, La Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, Arles.
    Bosca, Fabrice
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Legagneux, Pierre
    CEBC, CNRS UPR 1934 Villiers-en-Bois, Beauvoir sur Niort.
    Nogues, Jean-Baptiste
    Les Amis des Marais du Vigueirat, Mas Thibert, Arles.
    A flyway perspective on food resource abundance in a long-distance migrant, the Eurasian teal (Anas crecca)2009Inngår i: Journal of Ornithology = Journal fur Ornithologie, ISSN 0021-8375, E-ISSN 1439-0361, Vol. 150, nr 1, 61-73 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two frequent assumptions about the evolution of long-distance migration in birds are that they travel long distances annually to reach food-rich areas for breeding, and that they time their migratory journey to be at staging sites when the latter provide the best feeding conditions. These assumptions have rarely been properly tested, and there is no study in which a species’ major food types have been measured by standardized methods throughout a flyway and over a large part of the year. We here present such data for Eurasian teal (Anas crecca), converted to a common energetic currency, and collected at wintering, spring staging and breeding sites. Teal did not time migration to maximize local food abundance; most birds left wintering and spring staging sites before a sharp increase in invertebrate food abundance occurred. On the other hand, hatching of ducklings coincided with a peak in invertebrate food abundance on boreal breeding lakes. Mean overall food abundance (invertebrates and seeds combined) did not differ between wintering sites in southern France and breeding sites in northern Sweden at the time of breeding. Our results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that long-distance migration in dabbling ducks has evolved because adult birds gain an immediate pay-off in increased food abundance by flying north in spring. However, our data confirm a selective advantage for breeding at higher latitudes, because hatching of ducklings may coincide with a peak in invertebrate emergence and because longer days may increase the duration of efficient foraging.

  • 41.
    Arzel, Céline
    et al.
    Frankrike.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Frankrike.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Individual strategies of dabbling ducks: a circum-annual perspectice2003Inngår i: Third North American duck symposium: waterfowl management and biology in the 21st century: looking back and to the future, 2003, 73- s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Very little is still known about the ecology of dabbling ducks on staging areas in spring, despite the fact that this is a crucial period of the year when birds refuel during migration and prepare for subsequent reproduction. This lack of knowledge translates into the current inability to predict the consequences of changes in the environment and harvesting for the population dynamics of ducks. We have launched a joint project to study dabbling ducks in the flyway connecting wintering grounds in France with breeding areas in Sweden. The aim is to study individual dabbling ducks in a circumannual perspective. We are assessing food resource limitation, density-dependent effects and the role of competition by estimating available food, by using a reference functional response curve and by recording the foraging behaviour of wild individual dabbling ducks. We also study survival probability and breeding success, and we will assess inter-individual variation. Birds are captured, weighed, marked and subsequently observed in order to study foraging behaviour and potentially measure the changes in body mass across time through recaptures. Ducks are fitted with nasal marks for individual recognition. Eventually, we will provide a model to predict the number of young that a female duck will produce after simple measurements such as its date of arrival on the breeding grounds and its body-mass at this date. Duckling foraging efficiency and survival will be measured and the relationship with corresponding estimates for their mother will be explored.

  • 42.
    Arzel, Céline
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of Turku.
    Rönkä, Mia
    Davranche, Aurélie
    Erlangen-Nürnberg University Institute of Geography.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Saari, Lennart
    Rainio, Kalle
    Lehikionen, Esa
    Are ducks able to adapt their migratory habits to environmental change?2010Inngår i: The abstract book: Symposium : The global environmental change: messages from birds. Espoo, 17-19 November, 2010, 25- s.Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to predict waterfowl population changes due to variation in climate conditions, and habitat availability it is necessary to precisely understand the mechanisms driving their annual cycle. This is particularly challenging in migratory birds as they encounter a huge variety of habitats along their migratory routes, and different factors might affect their demographic parameters at different stages of their life-cycle. In this perspective spring migration stands out as a crucial period. During spring migration birds need both to complete their migration and to prepare for subsequent reproduction. An understanding of long-term factors influencing the timing of breeding in migratory birds is particularly important in order to predict how they might respond to future environmental changes. Anatidae are particularly interesting to study as they offer a wide variety of migratory strategies. We discuss some of the factors that are likely to affect individual choices and thus play a role in the evolution of migration. Based on long-term data sets, collected over 30 years, in the Archipelago Sea, SW Finland, we also offer a first insight into the changes in their spring arrival and breeding success of ducks in relation to environmental conditions.

  • 43.
    Arzel, Céline
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Stervander, Martin
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Simändernas ekologi studeras närmare2003Inngår i: Vår fågelvärld, ISSN 0042-2649, Vol. 62, nr 4, 25- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 44. Arzél, Céline
    et al.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Guillemain, Matthieu
    Comportement et alimentation de la Sarcelle d'hiver Anas crecca lors de la migration prénuptial2010Inngår i: Ornithos: revue d'ornithologie de terrain, ISSN 1254-2962, Vol. 17, nr 5, 307-315 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 45.
    Asplund, Maria E.
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
    Baden, Susanne P.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
    Russ, Sarah
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
    Ellis, Robert P.
    College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter.
    Gong, Ningping
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
    Hernroth, Bodil E.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Ocean acidification and host–pathogen interactions: blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, encountering Vibrio tubiashii2014Inngår i: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 16, nr 4, 1029-1039 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ocean acidification (OA) can shift the ecological balance between interacting organisms. In this study, we have used a model system to illustrate the interaction between a calcifying host organism, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and a common bivalve bacterial pathogen, Vibrio tubiashii, with organisms being exposed to a level of acidification projected to occur by the end of the 21st century. OA exposures of the mussels were carried out in relative long-term (4 months) and short-term (4 days) experiments. We found no effect of OA on the culturability of V. tubiashii, in broth or in seawater. OA inhibited mussel shell growth and impaired crystalline shell structures but did not appear to affect mussel immune parameters (i.e haemocyte counts and phagocytotic capacity). Despite no evident impact on host immunity or growth and virulence of the pathogen, V. tubiashii was clearly more successful in infecting mussels exposed to long-term OA compared to those maintained under ambient conditions. Moreover, OA exposed V. tubiashii increased their viability when exposed to haemocytes of OA-treated mussel. Our findings suggest that even though host organisms may have the capacity to cope with periods of OA, these conditions may alter the outcome of host–pathogen interactions, favouring the success of the latter.

  • 46.
    Asplund, Maria E.
    et al.
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Atnur, Vijay
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar, Karnataka, India.
    Raghunath, Pendru
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar, Karnataka, India.
    Saravanan, Vasudevan
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar, Karnataka, India.
    Härnstrom, Karolina
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg.
    Collin, Betty
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Karunasagar, Indrani
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar, Karnataka, India.
    Godhe, Anna
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg.
    Water column dynamics of Vibrio in relation to phytoplankton community composition and environmental conditions in a tropical coastal area2011Inngår i: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 13, nr 10, 2738-2751 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrio abundance generally displays seasonal patterns. In temperate coastal areas, temperature and salinity influence Vibrio growth, whereas in tropical areas this pattern is not obvious. The present study assessed the dynamics of Vibrio in the Arabian Sea, 1-2 km off Mangalore on the south-west coast of India, during temporally separated periods. The two sampling periods were signified by oligotrophic conditions, and stable temperatures and salinity. Vibrio abundance was estimated by culture-independent techniques in relation to phytoplankton community composition and environmental variables. The results showed that the Vibrio density during December 2007 was 10- to 100-fold higher compared with the February-March 2008 period. High Vibrio abundance in December coincided with a diatom-dominated phytoplankton assemblage. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model indicated that diatom biomass was the primary predictor variable. Low nutrient levels suggested high water column turnover rate, which bacteria compensated for by using organic molecules leaking from phytoplankton. The abundance of potential Vibrio predators was low during both sampling periods; therefore it is suggested that resource supply from primary producers is more important than top-down control by predators.

  • 47.
    Atxutegi, Eneko
    et al.
    Spanien.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstads universitet.
    Izurza, Andoni
    Spanien.
    Arvidsson, Åke
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    On the move with TCP in current and future mobile networks2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on the Network of the Future, London, United Kingdom, November 2017, 2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile wireless networks constitute an indispensable part of the global Internet, and with TCP the dominating transport protocol on the Internet, it is vital that TCP works equally well over these networks as over wired ones. This paper identifies the performance dependencies by analyzing the responsiveness of TCP NewReno and TCP CUBIC when subject to bandwidth variations related to movements in different directions. The presented evaluation complements previous studies on 4G mobile networks in two important ways: It primarily focuses on the behavior of the TCP congestion control in medium- to high-velocity mobility scenarios, and it not only considers the current 4G mobile networks, but also low latency configurations that move towards the overall potential delays in 5G networks. The paper suggests that while both CUBIC and NewReno give similar goodput in scenarios where the radio channel continuously degrades, CUBIC gives a significantly better goodput in scenarios where the radio channel quality continuously increases. This is due to CUBIC probing more aggressively for additional bandwidth. Important for the design of 5G networks, the obtained results also demonstrate that very low latencies are capable of equalizing the goodput performance of different congestion control algorithms. Only in low latency scenarios that combine both large fluctuations of available bandwidths and a mobility pattern in which the radio channel quality continuously increases can some performance differences be noticed.

  • 48.
    Axelsson, Carolina
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Nilsson, B
    Lund University.
    Optimization of several parameters in order to reduce time in antibiotic susceptibility testing in a clinical laboratory2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background - When sepsis or bacteraemia is suspected, patient blood samples are cultivated in blood culture bottles and then further incubated for identification of the organism and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. These methods are slow, identifying causative pathogens in a couple of hours, and antibiotic susceptibility results within 18-36 hours.

    Here we present optimization of several parameters in order to evaluate if the MBT ASTRA™ method can be a rapid tool, used for routine antibiotics susceptibility testing, in a clinical laboratory.

    Methods – MALDI-TOF MS measurements were performed with a Microflex LT/SH bench-top mass spectrometer (Bruker) with standard settings. The resulting spectra were uploaded in the MBT-ASTRA™ software, which normalizes the peaks and determines the AUC and RG values for each setup.

    Results - The bacterial preparation steps generated a new protocol, which reduced time with 30-60 minutes.

    The antibiotics susceptibility test was optimized for 90 minutes incubation time. 200 µl McFarland 0.5 bacterial suspension in broth were incubated in broth at 37°C, with and without 32 µg/ml Cefotaxime, 16 µg/ml Meropenem and 4 µg/ml Ciprofloxacin.

    The suspensions were transferred to 0.45 µm pore size filter membraned 96 well plate. They were centrifuged; washed; fixated and eluted; put on a MALDI-target, and covered by matrix solution. All could be automated with robot, which reduced time with 60 minutes.

    Conclusion – Rapid susceptibility testing becomes more requested with the increase of resistance bacteria causing infections. Our study can be a valuable tool for clinical laboratories striving for reduction in time handling of antibiotic susceptibility testing.

  • 49.
    Bak, Søren Alex
    et al.
    Analytical Bioscience, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen.
    Björklund, Erland
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Occurrence of ionophores in the Danish environment2014Inngår i: Antibiotics, ISSN 2079-6382, Vol. 3, nr 4, 564-571 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotics in the environment are a potential threat to environmental ecosystems as well as human health and safety. Antibiotics are designed to have a biological effect at low doses, and the low levels detected in the environment have turned focus on the need for more research on environmental occurrence and fate, to assess the risk and requirement for future regulation. This article describes the first occurrence study of the antibiotic polyether ionophores (lasalocid, monensin, narasin, and salinomycin) in the Danish environment. Various environmental matrices (river water, sediment, and soil) have been evaluated during two different sampling campaigns carried out in July 2011 and October 2012 in an agricultural area of Zealand, Denmark. Lasalocid was not detected in any of the samples. Monensin was measured at a concentration up to 20 ng·L−1 in river water and 13 µg·kg−1 dry weight in the sediment as well as being the most frequently detected ionophore in the soil samples with concentrations up to 8 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Narasin was measured in sediment samples at 2 µg·kg−1 dry weight and in soil between 1 and 18 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Salinomycin was detected in a single soil sample at a concentration of 30 µg·kg−1 dry weight.

  • 50.
    Bao, Leiming
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Sun, Chunyan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Human-Computer Interaction in a Smart House2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The quality attribute concerning usability is generally of significant importance to systems. The area of Human Computer Interaction, HCI, especially handles several usability aspects. This degree project emphasizes HCI in a context of, so called, Smart House. The report is divided into three main sections: theory, application, and measurement results. In the theory section we will present about the context of HCI and the content of HCI, such as HCI model and goals of HCI design. In the application section we discuss the use of mobile phones as a device to remotely control devices of smart houses, and present a system developed to support such services. In order to make the system more attractive, we decided to design it for two categories of operations, menu operation and direct-touch operation mode. Finally, we have used questionnaires for reasons of measuring user satisfaction. Through investigation and analysis of the result of this, we come to the conclusion that system usability is good.

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