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  • 1. Albinsson, Berit
    et al.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Åström, Annika
    Handbok i sensorisk analys2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den första utgåvan av Birgit Lundgrens Handbok i Sensorisk Analys utkom 1981. Den har sedan dess blivit en klassiker inom sensoriska kretsar och i ordets verkliga bemärkelse blivit använd som just en handbok – en bok att hålla fast vid i alla typer av sensoriska sammanhang. Vi vill med denna uppdaterade nyutgåva beskriva de traditionella metoderna med dagens termer samt komplettera med några nya metoder.

  • 2.
    Albinsson, Berit
    et al.
    RISE.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Åström, Annika
    SP.
    Handbook on Sensory Analysis2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The original of this handbook is the Swedish Handbok i Sensorisk Analys, which was

    an updated edition of an older sensory analysis handbook written by Birgit Lundgren

    back in 1981. The handbook was revised in 2013 by Berit Albinsson, Karin Wendin

    and Annika Åström. Both these handbooks were written at SIK – The Swedish Institute

    of Food and Bioscience, which is now part of RISE – Research Institutes of Sweden.

    The revised edition of the handbook has proved popular in both industry and in the

    teaching world. At university level, it has been used by students as a complement to

    the academic literature in sensory science programmes. There has been a growing demand

    among international students at Swedish universities for the handbook to be

    translated. In 2016, Kristianstad University entered into an agreement with the research

    body RISE to translate the handbook into English. The translation was made

    by Patrick O’Malley.

    The handbook was translated and printed with permission from the co-authors.

  • 3.
    Berg, Johan
    et al.
    RISE.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Langton, Maud
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Josell, Åsa
    Atria Scandinavia AB.
    Davidsson, Fredrik
    Geoloc AB.
    State Of The Art report -: insects as food and feed2017In: Annals of Experimental Biology, ISSN 2348-1935, Vol. 5, no 2, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FAO has considered insects as food since 2003 [1] and is promoting consumption of insects (entomophagy) in the Western world because of the possibilities for sustainable production it offers. Insects as food are considered to leave smaller ecological footprints than conventional livestock (beef, pigs, and poultry) regarding feed, land and water needs, as well as greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions [2-7]. As an example regarding water, taken from a recent TV documentary, if a family of four people got their protein need from insects one day a week instead of from conventional livestock, over a year they would save the planet about a million Liters of water [8]. This is in agreement with figures above.

  • 4.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Nordén, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Amiryaramhadi, Nata
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Hiller, Carolina
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Emardson, Ragne
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    New light on indoorenvironments: development of sensory methods for lightning2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nordén, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    Innemiljö i nytt ljus: metoder för objektiv bedömning av belysning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current standards for lit environments are solely based on technical requirements, e.g. brightness, uniformity and luminance. Including experience-related requirements would most likely promote better lighting comfort as well as more energy efficient lit environments and lighting products. However, lack of knowledge on how to describe perceived lighting parameters hampers users and building owners in specifying desired lit environments and for lighting manufacturers to develop products for new markets. The aim of this research project was to apply and develop sensory methods for lightning. In contrast to previous methods for subjective lighting assessment sensory methods enable objective assessment of perceived lighting parameters.An analytical panel comprising eight persons fulfilling specific selection criteria were recruited and trained to assess lighting products in a multi-sensory laboratory at SP Technical Research Institute in Borås. During the development special emphasis has been given to improvements of the training procedure, handling the adaptation of the eye, and assessment of colour and shading. Besides laboratory assessments, the feasibility of analytical assessment in a real context was examined. The same experimental set up and panel was used.The results show that it is possible to apply sensory methods to lighting to objectively assess luminaires; the panellists were able to distinguishing between attributes and samples. Significant differences were identified between the different luminaires, both in terms of sensory and physical properties, e.g. readability and glare. However, physical and sensory parameters do not always co-vary, which shows that physical and sensory measuring methods provide complementary information about the lighting quality. Furthermore, assessment in a real context provided the same, but less significant, results as in the laboratory.In the future, the knowledge may be applied in tools supporting the communication between different professions in lighting design and procurement to promote more desirable and energy efficient lit environments.

  • 6.
    Bredie, Wender L. P.
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen.
    Tan, Hui Shan Grace
    University of Copenhagen.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    A comparative study on facially expressed emotions in response to basic tastes2014In: Chemosensory Perception, ISSN 1936-5802, Vol. 7, no 1, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Facially expressed emotions play a role in communication between individuals. They form another means of expressing oneself besides verbal expressions or self-reporting of feelings and perceptions on psychometric scales and are implicit in nature. This study aimed to evaluate the extent and specificity of evoking facial expressed emotions by basic tastes and to evaluate if facially expressed emotions provide additional information to explicit measures. The emotions were characterised upon tasting the five basic tastes in aqueous solutions at three different concentrations levels. The sensory and emotional responses reported were obtained from a 21-membered taste panel. Facial reactions and facially expressed emotions depended on the taste quality and taste intensity. However, the facially expressed emotions were generally weak even for the relatively strong taste intensities. Bitter (caffeine), sour (citric acid) and salty (sodium chloride) lead to clear disgust and surprise responses, whereas, sweet (sucrose) and umami (glutamic acid monosodium salt) taste gave weakly noticeable facially expressed emotions. Although correlations between the expressed emotions and hedonic responses were observed, the affective experience had a limited predictive ability for the facially expressed emotion at the individual level. In conclusion, psychometric rating of the hedonic response is easier to assess than facially expressed emotions although it may not completely represent the dimensions of the emotional experience.

  • 7.
    Brunosson, Albina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för forskning om verksamhetsförlagd utbildning och professionslärande.
    Bryntorp, Anna
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen.
    Sepp, Hanna
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen.
    Aspects of cooking in food and meal science2013In: 8th International Conference on Culinary Arts and Sciences: global, national and local perspectives / [ed] Rodrigues, S., Marques, H.A., Franchini, D. & Dias, D., 2013, 206-210 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education and research within the interdisciplinary subject food and meal science can be mediated through science, craft and creativity and cooking is a central activity. This paper aims at elucidating some aspects of cooking through the perspectives “Culture and Communication” “Food Science” and “Nutrition and Health”. This was done through a survey among students and teachers. The results stress the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to understand the different aspects of cooking and the prominent view on cooking as a cultural and communicative activity.

  • 8.
    Eckardt, Johanna
    et al.
    SIK – The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, Göteborg.
    Wendin, Karin
    SIK – The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, Göteborg.
    Holmer, Anna
    SIK – The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, Göteborg.
    Åström, Annika
    SIK – The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, Göteborg.
    Comparison of the consumers’ expected and actual perception of food investigated by Napping: a case study with Béarnaise sauce2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work we investigate the consumers’ expected perception of food, using packages of béarnaise sauce, with the preference of the actual product. Further we compare the results of the consumer panel with the outcome of an analytical sensory panel. The ambition was also to use innovative techniques to get additional insights of the consumers’ perception of food. Global Napping was performed with a consumer panel on the expected preference and partial Napping was conducted for evaluating the perception of the actual products. Results were complemented with preference tests and rankings, as well as the connection of the product to a package. An analytical sensory panel performed partial Napping of the products. In addition new and simple method of Napping data evaluation is presented. The results showed a mismatch between the perception of the package and the actual product. Different groups, here named as "emotional" and "rational", perceived products in diverse ways. The consumer panel was a highly inhomogeneous group of individuals, whereby the sensory analytical panel had high agreement. Consumers, who used to buy a certain product could not necessarily distinguish this product, neither did they rate this product as their first choice.

  • 9.
    Einarson, Daniel
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut SP.
    Saplacan, Diana
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Learning structures of CDIO based projects in contexts of Demola2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Academia plays a main role in knowledge discovery and dissemination of knowledge. Amongst the fundamental reasons behind university education lies preparing students to use and contribute with that knowledge within contexts of industry, as well as society in large. We here see three types of actors, i.e., universities, students, and industry, which by several reasons all are gained by close cooperation already in university education. Quite often though we see a gap between education and possible student recruitment. Here, the value of being employable increases through work based projects supported by education. Even though we can see willingness according such kind of cooperation from both academia and industry, experiences show that there are barriers towards actually implementing this. That may in turn depend on common lack of knowledge on how to establish university-industry connections, and how to negotiate on student involvement, ownership of work, etc. Conclusions therefore show a need for an established organization that mediates between academia and industry, and that have well developed structures for project workflow, project result ownership, etc. Demola may here have that role as an award winning platform for industry driven projects with focus on students. Demola provides a win-win-win relationship between university, students, and industry, and has clear structures for cooperation between those. Experiences have shown that Demola is promising as a mediator, as well as a provider of multi-disciplinary industry close projects, where those may be plugged into educational programs in suitable ways. This contribution will provide an overview of Demola as a platform for industry close student projects. Demola may furthermore be used as a platform for research projects. Experiences will here be covered as a concrete example on a Demola student project. Moreover, learning outcomes in contexts of CDIO Syllabus, evaluations, and corresponding CDIO-standards, will be presented.

  • 10. Ekberg, O.
    et al.
    Bulow, M.
    Ekman, S.
    Hall, G.
    Stading, M.
    Wendin, Karin
    SIK Swedish Inst. Food & Biotechnol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effect of Barium Sulfate Contrast Medium on Rheology and Sensory Texture Attributes in a Model Food2009In: Acta Radiologica, ISSN 0284-1851, E-ISSN 1600-0455, Vol. 50, no 2, 131-138 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The swallowing process can be visualized using videoradiography, by mixing food with contrast medium, e.g., barium sulfate (BaSO4), making it radiopaque. The sensory properties of foods may be affected by adding this medium. Purpose: To evaluate if and to what extent sensory and rheological characteristics of mango puree were altered by adding barium sulfate to the food. Material and Methods: This study evaluated four food samples based on mango puree, with no or added barium sulfate contrast medium (0%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 37.5%), by a radiographic method, and measured sensory texture properties and rheological characteristics. The sensory evaluation was performed by an external trained panel using quantitative descriptive analysis. The ease of swallowing the foods was also evaluated. Results: The sensory texture properties of mango puree were significantly affected by the added barium in all evaluated attributes, as was the perception of particles. Moreover, ease of swallowing was significantly higher in the sample without added contrast medium. All samples decreased in extensional viscosity with increasing extension rate, i.e., all samples were tension thinning. Shear viscosity was not as dependent on the concentration of BaSO4 as extensional viscosity. Conclusion: Addition of barium sulfate to a model food of mango puree has a major impact on perceived sensory texture attributes as well as on rheological parameters.

  • 11. Ekberg, Olle
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    Johansson, Daniel
    Bulow, Margareta
    Ekman, Susanne
    Wendin, Karin
    SIK Swedish Inst. Food & Biotechnol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Flow properties of oral contrast medium formulations depend on the temperature2010In: Acta Radiologica, ISSN 0284-1851, E-ISSN 1600-0455, Vol. 51, no 4, 363-367 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To study the rheological exploration (variation of viscosity with temperature) of thickened food used for radiologic swallowing examinations in patients with oral and pharyngeal dysfunction, in particular in mixtures of barium sulfate suspensions and in iodine solutions. Material and Methods: Deep-frozen mango puree was thawed at room temperature. It was then mixed with barium sulfate contrast medium to a density of 25% w/w. Resorce (R) Thicken Up was mixed at room temperature at two concentrations: 4.3% w/w (4.5 g thickener + 100 g distilled water) and 6.0% w/w (4.5 g thickener + 70 g distilled water). The thickener consisted of modified corn starch. Resorce (R) Thicken Up was also mixed at room temperature with two concentrations of an iodine contrast material, iohexol (Omnipaque (R), 350 mg I/ml). The two concentrations were: 4.3% w/w (4.5 g thickener + 100 g iohexol) and 6% w/w (6 g thickener + 100 g iohexol). Measurements were carried out from 20 degrees C to 37 degrees C using a Stresstech HR rheometer. The rheometer was equipped with a concentric cylinder measuring system (inner cylinder 15 mm). Results: The samples containing thickener in water as well as in iohexol showed a dependence on thickener concentration and temperature. The mango puree with barium sulfate displayed very small temperature dependence. The thickener solutions in iohexol had significantly higher viscosity compared with the other thickener solutions and the mango puree. The relative decrease shows that mango puree, the 6% thickener solution in water, and solutions with iohexol exhibited similar relative viscosity change at different temperatures. Conclusion: Our conclusion is therefore that it is important always to make the solution with high precision. It is also of importance to observe how long the patient keeps the bolus in the mouth. This might vary and actually it may not be possible to influence this factor. When different types of thickeners are compared, it is important to take into account the temperature at which the thickener is observed.

  • 12.
    Gerberich, Johanna
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humaniora.
    Müller- Hansen, Bitte
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Höijer, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Promoting creativity in Food and Meal Science educations at Kristianstad University2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Giacalone, Davide
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Bom Fröst, Michael
    University of Copenhagen.
    Bredie, Wender
    University of Copenhagen.
    Kremer, Stephanie
    WUR.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Otto, Marie
    University of Copenhagen.
    Skjoldborg, Signe
    University of Copenhagen.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    SP.
    Risvik, Einar
    Nofima.
    Health and quality of life in an aging population: food and beyond2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, as in much of the Western world, the number of citizens aged 65 and over has grown at an unprecedented rate and is expected to account for over 30% of the total population by 2060. Coupled with a steady increase in life expectancy, this massive demographic change calls for a major effort to ensure quality of life in our older population. A thorough understanding of the elderly as food consumers, their nutritional needs, and their food perception and preferences is increasingly recognized as key areas for future research.

    Food perception change at a later age as a result of the psychophysiological changes that occur with aging, such as decreased appetite and chemosensory acuity. The latter generally decrease food intake and the pleasure that the elderly derive from their meals, making the identification of possible compensation strategies (e.g., flavor enhancement, textural changes, etc.) essential to food producers interested in developing products for this increasingly important segment. Promoting food satisfaction among the elderly is also paramount to ensuring adequate nutritional intake. This aspect has major public health implications, such as preventing malnutrition and sarcopenia, which are leading causes of decreased independence and lower quality of life. Additionally, the importance of social and psychological factors is increasingly recognized. Many conditions related to aging (e.g., tiredness, loneliness) may prevent elderly people from preparing and enjoying meals, calling for alternative vehicles – such as tailor-made distribution channels, social food preparation and eating situations – for promoting healthy eating.

    In this workshop, a range of international speakers with relevant professional experience will present their latest work. More generally, it is our intention with this workshop to raise awareness of how sensory and consumer research can contribute to promote well-being among the elderly, and ultimately to expand the number of healthy life years as we age.

     

  • 14.
    Giacalone, Davide
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Kremer, Stefanie
    Nederländerna.
    Bom Frøst, Michael
    Danmark.
    Bredie, Wender L. P.
    Danmark.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Otto, Marie H.
    Danmark.
    Skjoldborg, Signe
    Danmark.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Risvik, Einar
    Norge.
    Health and quality of life in an aging population – food and beyond2016In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 47, no Part B, 166-170 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe the percentage of citizens aged 65 and over is increasing at an unprecedented rate, and is expected to account for over 30% of the population by 2050. Coupled with an increase in life expectancy, this massive demographic change calls for a major effort to ensure quality of life in our older population. A thorough understanding of the elderly as food consumers, their nutritional needs, their food perception and preferences are increasingly needed. The role of food in healthy aging was a prominent theme at the 6th European Conference on Sensory and Consumer Research, which had quality of life across the life span as a focal point. This short paper is based on a workshop held at the EuroSense meeting, focusing on research from sensory and consumer scientists. The workshop featured contributions focusing on food-related perception, needs and behavior of the elderly, and aimed at demonstrating the relevance of sensory and consumer scientists in promoting food-related well-being in an aging population. The workshop contributions are here reviewed and summarized three main themes: nutritional needs, food perception and aging, and behavioral drivers of food consumption.

  • 15. Hall, Gunnar
    et al.
    Wendin, Karin
    SIK, The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology AB.
    Sensory design of foods for the elderly2008In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 52, 25-28 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims: Elderly persons with dysphagia need food that requires little or no chewing, that is easy to swallow and has attractive sensory characteristics. The aim was to investigate how ingredients varied according to experimental designs influence the perceived sensory, chewing and swallowing characteristics of two types of texture-modified model foods. Methods: Meat- and carrot-based, texture-modified model foods were produced. The following parameters were varied: particle size, fat content, starch and egg composition. The samples were studied using sensory analyses, focus group discussions and consumer studies. Results: The design parameters mainly had an impact on sensory texture attributes. The experts in the focus groups selected three products of each type which were regarded as being optimal for older persons. All the products contained a high proportion of egg yolk and a low amount of starch. Older consumers considered all the selected products to be easy to chew and swallow. The differences between older persons in nursing homes compared to those living in their own homes could be linked to health. Conclusions: Optimization of factors influencing food quality through the use of experimental designs in combination with sensory and consumer studies is required in order to meet the needs and demands of older people.

  • 16.
    Hartvig, Ditte
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen.
    Hausner, Helene
    University of Copenhagen.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Bredie, Wender L. P.
    University of Copenhagen.
    Quinine sensitivity influences the acceptance of sea-buckthorn and grapefruit juices in 9- to 11-year-old children2014In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 74, no 1, 70-78 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acceptance of novel foods by children is related to a number of factors, and differences in taste sensitivity may form some specific challenges. High sensitivity might be a barrier to the acceptance of sour/bitter products by children. This study investigated the effect of sensitivity to bitter, sour, sweet, and salty tastes on the acceptance of Nordic juices in 9- to 11-year-old children. A total of 328 children were subjected to two taste sensitivity tests for quinine, citric acid, sucrose, and NaCl. Their acceptance of six juices (carrot, rosehip, sea-buckthorn, lingonberry, grapefruit, and aronia) was measured. Bitter sensitivity was found to be significantly correlated to the intake of the sweet sea-buckthorn and lingonberry juices; the most bitter-sensitive children exhibited the highest intake of these juices. The opposite relationship was found for bitter sensitivity and the intake of the bitter grapefruit juice. Sour, sweet, and salt sensitivities did not affect the intake of any of the juices. Liking scores were not affected by sensitivity. In conclusion, bitter sensitivity appears to influence food intake in children to a greater extent than sour, sweet, or salt sensitivity. Bitter-sensitive children exhibited a reduced intake of grapefruit juice and a higher intake of sucrose-sweetened juices. Thus, bitter sensitivity might be a challenge in the acceptance of certain bitter foods.

  • 17.
    Hartvig, Ditte L.
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Hausner, Helene
    Danmark.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Ritz, Christian
    Danmark.
    Bredie, Wender L. P.
    Danmark.
    Initial liking influences the development of acceptance learning across repeated exposure to fruit juices in 9–11 year-old children2015In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 39, 228-235 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In several studies, it has been found that repeated exposure to a novel food increases children’s acceptance of the exposure food. The present study, investigated how repeated exposure influences the acceptance of two Nordic berry juices, and whether the development depends on initial liking of the product, in 9–11 year-old children. The study had 317 participants. Two groups of children were exposed to either sea-buckthorn (n = 92) or aronia (n = 105) juice eight times, and performed two follow-up sessions 3 and 6 months after the 8th exposure. A third group (n = 120) served as controls. During pre and post-test sessions all participating children evaluated acceptance of both juices.

    Intake of sea-buckthorn juice increased significantly over the eight exposures (55.1 ± 7.3 till 108.8 ± 12.3) and remained high after 6 months (131.1 ± 13.2). Intake of aronia juice was only increased at follow-up sessions. Liking did not develop significantly for any of the juices across exposures. When children were grouped by their initial liking increased intake across exposures was observed regardless of initial liking of sea-buckthorn. Liking developed similarly for both juices. A significant increase was found for the ‘initial dislikers’ only. This study demonstrates how exposure effects are influenced by initial liking; it appears that changes in familiarity explain the changes seen for sea-buckthorn among ‘dislikers’. ‘Initial dislikers’ had the most benefit from repeated exposures, but did not reach ‘initial likers’ across eight exposures; more exposures in the group of ‘initial dislikers’ had possibly led to even higher liking and intake. The increased intake observed for ‘neutral likers’ and ‘initial likers’ of sea-buckthorn was not explained by increased familiarity or increased liking.

  • 18. Hausner, Helene
    et al.
    Hartvig, Ditte L.
    Reinbach, Helene C.
    Wendin, Karin
    Department of Food Science, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen.
    Bredie, Wender L. P.
    Effects of repeated exposure on acceptance of initially disliked and liked Nordic snack bars in 9-11 year-old children2012In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 31, no 1, 137-143 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & aims: Children's food choices are guided by their preferences. It is established, however, that repeated exposure to a novel food increases children's acceptance. This study investigated how acceptance of an initially liked and disliked snack bar develops in 9-11 year-old children. Methods: 315 children were randomised into three groups: A control group (n = 111) and two groups exposed to an initially liked kamut bar (n = 94) and an initially disliked sea buckthorn bar (n = 110). Acceptance of both bars was tested before and after the exposure period, and on the 9th exposure. Results: Intake of both bars increased significantly in the exposure groups. There was no difference in the control groups' intake or liking of the bars between pre and post-testing. Liking rose significantly for children exposed to the disliked sea buckthorn bar, while this was not observed in children exposed to the liked kamut bar. In a post-test children exposed to kamut bars had higher intake of that bar than non-exposed children. This was also observed for the sea buckthorn bar that was also given significantly higher liking scores by the exposure group. Conclusions: The majority of children exposed to an initially disliked bar increase acceptance after nine exposures to the same level as an initially liked bar. Children repeatedly exposed to a liked bar show stable acceptance.

  • 19. Hiller, Carolina
    et al.
    Wendin, Karin
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    Utveckling och tillämpning av sensoriska metoder för objektiva belysningsbedömningar, del I2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dag finns tekniska belysningsstandarder som inkluderar parameterar så som ljusstyrka, jämnhet och luminans. Det som saknas är krav som grundar sig på människors upplevelser av belysning och ljusmiljöer. Att få med den upplevelsebaserade dimensionen skulle betyda ett helhetstänk som förmodligen skulle gynna både ljuskomforten och än mer energieffektiva ljusmiljöer och produkter. Att beskriva upplevda belysningsparametrar har hittills visat sig inte vara helt enkelt, och här saknas både kunskap och en gemensam begreppsvärld inom branschen; något som hämmar fastighetsägare att ställa lämpliga krav vid en upphandling liksom belysningstillverkare att utveckla produkter för nya marknader och tillämpningar. Det övergripande syftet med detta forskningsprojekt är att utveckla och tillämpa sensoriska metoder på belysning. Till skillnad från tidigare metoder möjliggör sensoriska metoder objektiva bedömningar av upplevda belysningsparametrar. Syftet med försöken som redovisas i denna delrapport är att vidareutveckla och testa metoden ytterligare. Detta görs genom att nya armaturer testas liksom att försök utförs i en ny verklig kontext (kontorsmiljö). Försöken bygger vidare på resultat från tidigare försök som har rapporterats om i (Boork et al, 2017).En analytisk panel bestående av åtta personer, som uppfyllde särskilda urvalskriterier, har tidigare rekryterats och dessa personer tränades nu för detta specifika delprojekt för att bedöma belysningsprodukter i ett multisensoriskt laboratorium på RISE Research Institutes of Sweden i Borås. Metodutvecklingen fokuserade särskilt på en effektiv träningsprocedur, hantering av ögats adaption, samt bedömning av färg och skuggningar. Förutom laboratorieförsök undersöktes möjligheten att genomföra analytiska bedömningar i en verklig kontext med samma försöksuppställning och panel.Resultaten visade att det är möjligt att använda sensorisk metodik för att genomföra objektiva belysningsbedömningar även för de testade belysningsprodukterna, dvs mindre LED-spotlights. Signifikanta skillnader identifierades mellan de olika armaturerna och som i tidigare försök spelade färgtemperaturen en stor roll för flera av de bedömda egenskaperna; inte minst förstås för ljuskällans gulhet och för läsbarhet (textkontrasten). Liksom i tidigare försök fanns det samband mellan de fysikaliska mätningarna och sensoriska bedömningarna, men inte för alla egenskaper, vilket visar att fysikaliska och sensoriska mätningar ger kompletterande information om belysning. Vidare visade bedömningsförsök i en verklig kontext att likvärdiga resultat uppnåddes som i laboratoriet, om ändock något spretigare och inte heller lika entydiga i jämförelse med verklig kontext i tidigare försök.Den genererade kunskapen väntas på sikt bidra till utveckling av verktyg som stödjer kommunikationen mellan olika professioner inom ljusdesign och planering och på så vis främja mer önskvärda och energieffektiva ljusmiljöer.

  • 20. Holm, Karin
    et al.
    Wendin, Karin
    SIK, The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology AB.
    Hermansson, Anne-Marie
    Sweetness and texture perception in mixed pectin gels with 30% sugar and a designed rheology2009In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 42, no 3, 788-795 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pure low-methoxyl (LM) pectin and mixtures of LM and high-methoxyl (HM) pectin in different ratios were used to produce gels with control over the theological parameter storage modulus (G'). The gels either had similar pectin concentrations and different G' values, or different pectin concentrations and similar G' values. All gels were prepared with 30 g/100 g sugar, in the presence of 0.1 g/100 g CaCl(2), at pH 3.5; these are conditions that favour gel formation of both LM and HM pectin. The gels were compared for their sensory characteristics; specifically sweetness, sourness, thickness, and glueyness. Sweetness was found to increase with increasing storage modulus (G') in pectin gets of similar pectin concentration, but different G' values. Gels with higher proportions of LM pectin were perceived as sweeter than those with low LM pectin ratios. These gels also had increasing loss modulus (G ''), and increasing differences between G' and G '', which indicates that diffusion has a bearing on the perception of sweetness in pectin gels. Thickness and glueyness were mostly determined by total pectin concentration. Thickness also increased with increasing LM pectin concentration while glueyness increased with increasing HM pectin concentration.

  • 21. Holm, Karin
    et al.
    Wendin, Karin
    SIK, The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology AB.
    Hermansson, Anne-Marie
    Sweetness and texture perceptions in structured gelatin gels with embedded sugar rich domains2009In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 23, no 8, 2388-2393 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Layered and homogeneous gelatin gels with controlled theological properties were compared for their sensory characteristics, specifically sweetness, hardness, breakdown behaviour and frothing. All gels and layers had a gelatin/water concentration of 5%. The total sugar concentration was 9% in the layered samples and 0, 9,15 or 22.5% in the homogeneous samples. These concentrations corresponded to the concentrations in the single layers. A seven-layered sample with different sugar concentrations in the layers gave a higher early sweetness intensity than a homogeneous gel with the same mean total sugar concentration. All layered gels were similar in hardness, breakdown behaviour and frothing; for the homogenous samples, sensory hardness was decreased in samples with much sugar. These gels also fell into smaller pieces than the sugarless sample. This study shows that it is possible by controlling the sugar distribution within a sample to produce sweeter gels while the sugar content is maintained.

  • 22. Holmer, A
    et al.
    Hausner, H
    Reinbach, H.C.
    Bredie, W.L.P.
    Wendin, Karin
    SP - The Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Acceptance of Nordic snack bars in children aged 8-11 years2012In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 56, no 10484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A health promoting diet is suggested to be tailored to regional circumstances to preserve the cultural diversity in eating habits, as well as contribute to more environmentally friendly eating. It may influence consumer acceptance, however, if the components of the diet differs considerably from their habitual food. Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether snack bars composed of Nordic ingredients were accepted by 8-11 year-old Danish (n=134) and Swedish (n=109) children. Design: A seven-point hedonic scale was used to measure the children’s acceptance of five snack bars that varied in their composition of whole grains, berries and nuts. A preference rank ordering of the five bars was also performed. Results: The results showed that samples that were rated highest in liking and were most preferred in both countries were a kamut/pumpkin bar and an oat/cranberry bar. The sample with the lowest rating that was also least preferred was a pumpernickel/sea buckthorn bar. Flavour was the most important determinant of overall liking followed by texture, odour and appearance. Conclusions: Children’s acceptances and preferences were highly influenced by the sensory characteristics of the bars, mainly flavour. In agreement with earlier studies, the novel food ingredients seemed to influence children’s preferences. The Nordic snack bars may have a potential to be a snack option for Danish and Swedish school children, but repeated exposures to the products are recommended to increase children’s acceptance.

  • 23.
    Höglund, Evelina
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Albinsson, Berit
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Appetizing muffins designed for nutritional needs of older adults2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Due to good living conditions, the population of older adults is growing. Increased age increases prevalence of diseases and thereby also the risk of disease related malnutrition (DRM) increases. Appetizing and nutritious food products are needed to counteract DRM. One possible way to enable increased nutritional intake for older people with poor appetite is to offer energy/protein rich snacks between meals. In Sweden, afternoon coffee is an appreciated part of the day. It has also been shown that different varieties of muffins are a popular choice to eat with the coffee among older adults. Developing muffins to suit older adults’ nutritional needs along with their sensory cravings may contribute to decreased DRM. The aim of this study was to investigate added nutritional content along with the sensorial effects of increased fat/protein content in muffins.

    Methods: Design of four different muffins were developed and produced according to a processing scheme where fat and proteins were added. Sensory evaluation and nutritional calculations were performed. Further moisture content, water activity, weight loss and size of the muffins were measured.

    Results: The fat and protein additions affected the sensory properties and nutritional value of the muffins:

    Muffin type

    Content (g/100g   muffin)

    Sensory properties

    fat

    protein

    Reference

    27

    4,9

    soft, smooth

    With added fat

    42

    3,8

    flat, moist, fatty mouth

    With added protein (whey)

    23

    12,4

    feel hard, compact, pointy, low

    flavors

    With added fat and protein

    37

    10,2

    a bit hard, compact, fatty mouth feel   effects of protein are dominant

    Discussion: It can be concluded that muffins with added nutrients and sensorialy designed for older adults’ is promising.  However, further recipe/process development in order to increase appetizing sensory properties may be achieved.

  • 24.
    Höglund, Evevlina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Albinsson, Berit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Stuhr-Olsson, Gunnel
    Findus Special Foods.
    Signäs, Michael
    Medirest Compass AB.
    Karlsson, Christina
    ICA Sverige.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Protein and energy enriched muffins designed for nutritional needs of older adults2017In: Nutrition & Food Sceince, ISSN 2474-767X, Vol. 2, no 4, 555592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disease related malnutrition is a common problem among older adults which results in human suffering and high health care costs. One way to counteract this condition is to offer appetizing and nutritious food products adapted to the needs of older adults. However, macronutrient enrichment of food products is not straight forward as it affects flavour and texture properties. In this study, muffins were fortified with rape seed oil and whey powder to reach increased fat and/or protein content and the nutritional value, sensory properties and physical parameters were investigated. The results showed that ingredients could be added to significantly increase the energy and protein density, but enrichment affected on appearance and other sensory properties. Extra fat made the muffins flat and moist with a smooth and fatty mouth feel, while whey powder addition resulted in high/pointy muffins with shiny appearance, hard texture and altered flavours. For co-addition of fat and protein the effects of added protein dominated. The specific role of muffin/cake batter compounds, and their transformation during the baking process, needs to be further investigated. Hence, more research is needed in order to offer older adult appealing foods with high energy and nutrient density.

  • 25. Jacobsson, A
    et al.
    Nielsen, T
    Sjoholm, I
    Wendin, Karin
    SIK, The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, Gothenburg.
    Influence of packaging material and storage condition on the sensory quality of broccoli2004In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 15, no 4, 301-310 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sensory quality of broccoli stored in modified atmosphere packages was studied. Oriented polypropylene (OPP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were used as packaging materials. The LDPE contained an ethylene-absorbing sachet. The samples were stored for I week, either at a constant temperature of 10 degreesC or for 3 days at 4 degreesC, followed by 4 days at 10 degreesC. The atmospheres that were developed inside the different packaging materials during storage differed significantly. After storage, the broccoli was evaluated both raw and cooked using a triangle test and a quantitative descriptive analysis. The triangle test showed significant differences in the smell of broccoli stored in different packaging materials after cooking. No differences were detected in the raw broccoli. The quantitative descriptive analysis showed significant differences in the fresh smell and flavour, the chewing resistance, and the crispness, between samples after cooking. Overall, including all the sensory properties studied, broccoli packaged in LDPE (5% O-2 7% CO2) that contained an ethylene absorber was perceived to be the sample most similar to fresh broccoli. There were no differences in weight loss between broccoli stored in the different packaging materials.

  • 26. Jacobsson, A
    et al.
    Nielsen, T
    Wendin, Karin
    SIK Swedish Inst. Food & Biotechnol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjoholm, I
    The effect of packaging material on the sensory properties of broccoli2003In: Proceedings of the international conference Postharvest Unlimited, 2003, no 599, 91-95 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three different commercially available polymeric films were studied to determine their effect on the sensory properties of fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica cv. 'Marathon'). The polymer materials investigated were oriented polypropylene (OPP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and one low density polyethylene (LDPE) which contained an ethylene absorber. The fresh broccoli was packaged and stored for one week at 10degreesC or 3 days at 4degreesC followed by 4 days at 10degreesC. The oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations inside the packages were monitored during storage. After storage the broccoli was evaluated according to sensory analyses, i.e. triangle test and quantitative descriptive analysis, by an analytical panel. The panel judged the broccoli according to smell, taste, texture and appearance. The triangle test showed significant differences between the smell of the broccoli samples, stored in the different packaging materials, when cooked. However, no differences between the raw broccoli, stored in the different packaging materials could be detected. The quantitative descriptive analysis showed that the following attributes; fresh smell and taste, chewing resistance, and crispness, differed significantly between the packaged broccoli when cooked. The appearance was shown to be the sensory property of broccoli most affected by the storage conditions, i.e. packaging material used and storage temperature. The results indicated the importance of the packaging material for maintaining the broccoli quality. However, one packaging material that was able to maintain all the studied sensory properties could not be identified.

  • 27. Janestad, H
    et al.
    Wendin, Karin
    SIK, The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology AB.
    Ruhe, A
    Hall, G
    Modelling of dynamic flavour properties with ordinary differential equations2000In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 11, no 4, 323-329 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most common way to analyse sensory dynamic measurements (time-intensity, TI) is to extract some characteristic parameters from the resulting curve such as 'intensity maximum' and 'area under the curve'. In order to get more information from TI data, a general mathematical model was developed. The model was based on the theory for ordinary differential equations. The solutions were characterised by their eigenvalues, which might be correlated to recipe and process. As an example, the temporal perception of chocolate flavour has been measured and modelled. In addition the classical characteristic TI parameters could easily be calculated by the model.

  • 28.
    Lindberg, Siv
    et al.
    RISE.
    Edström, Karin
    RISE.
    Tholander, Hanna
    NINE.
    Grari, irjam
    RISE.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    THEME ELDERLY- Attractive food for elderly: the role of inspiring and informative packaging2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Malnutrition is common among elderly due to low appetite. Appetite is highly connected to age, health and social activities. For home-living elderly, readymade meals are often served for both lunch and dinner. When appetite is reduced, apart from the food itself, the packaging should stimulate appetite by enhancing the attractiveness of the packaged food. The food itself has to fulfil the sensory expectations.

    Aim: To identify important packaging attributes that will increase attractiveness of readymade meals for elderly.

    Method: Iterative design in which consumer tests, focus group discussions and deep interviews for evaluation of prototypes were held with elderly (65-88 years) focussing on food and food packaging. Sensory factors were of specific interest.

    Results: The packaging and the meal inside must attract all senses in order to stimulate appetite, mainly visual and tactile senses were of importance. Although many claim they would like to be able to see the food, photographs of the packed meal are preferred over transparency. The photographs have to be truthful. Easy to read is the most important factor, information should be clearly visible (contrast and size) and not be too verbose. Furthermore, easy to open and handle and consequently, size and weight of the packaging, are also important factors.

    Discussion: The stepwise iterative design of the study included several user tests with different generations of developed prototypes as well as benchmarking against commercial products were useful in identifications of important packaging attributes. A high level of consumer interaction was reached and it became clear that the packaging had a profound impact on the appetite of readymade meals.

    Conclusion: Visual factors are of highest importance as well as tactile properties. Pictures clearly showing the meal in a true and attractive way as well as clearly visible and informative information, size and weight were deemed important.

  • 29.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    Högskolan Borås.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    Högskolan Borås.
    Sundström, Malin
    Högskolan Borås.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Consumer perception and behaviour in the retail foodscape: a study of chilled groceries2018In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, Vol. 40, 1-7 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to provide a functional foodscape in the grocery store, chilled products need to be stored in cabinets according to the regulations. Doors on display cabinets are energy-efficient but can also be perceived as a barrier by consumers.

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to an understanding of how consumers behave and what they perceive when shopping chilled groceries from cabinets with doors and without doors in the supermarket.

    Based on a qualitative research approach, combining in-store observations and focus group interviews, and focusing on three environmental variables in the servicescape: ambient conditions, space and functions, and signs, symbols and artifacts, the results indicate that consumers’ behavior and perceptions differ when there are doors or no doors on cabinets. The results further show how doors lead to different forms of approach or avoidance behavior in terms of accessibility and that consumers’ vision, olfaction and tactility all influence consumers’ perceptions of freshness and cleanliness in relation to doors or no doors. Our results also have practical implications for retailers who are designing new stores or considering changes in existing store layouts.

  • 30.
    Lindblad, Amanda
    et al.
    Gothenburg Univeristy.
    Johannesson, Julie
    Gothenburg Univeristy.
    Dahlin-Ivanhoff, Synnove
    Gothenburg Univeristy.
    Höglund, Evelina
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Ekman, Susanne
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Stuhr Olsson, Gunnel
    Findus.
    Karlsson, Christina
    ICA.
    Signäs, Michael
    Medirest, Compass Group.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Preferences and attitudes regarding food choices and meal patterns among older adults: a cross-sectional study2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Magnusson, Emma
    et al.
    HKR.
    Prim, Mia
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Identification of basic tastes in foods beforeand after training among 4-6 year old children: a pilot study2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The individual perception of taste differs to a great extent and is due to both ability to detect basic tastes and to taste concentrations. Taste preferences and identification, including verbalisation of the taste experience may be improved by learning, either via the socialisation process or strategical learning procedures.

    The aim of this study was to examine 4-6-year old children’s abilities to identify basic tastes in foods before and after training with basic taste solutions. Further, to study the children’s abilities to verbalise their taste experiences before and after the training.

    Methods: Eleven children aged 4-6 years participated in the study conducted at a Swedish preschool. The study consisted of four parts:

    1: Discussion about basic tastes.

    2: Taste session of ten different foods while discussing the tastes.

    3: Training session in which the children learned to recognise the basic tastes sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami by tasting basic taste solutions.

    4: Identification test: The children were asked to answer which of basic tastes they could identify in different foods. It was further studied how the children verbalised the tastes of the foods.

    Results: The children had a significantly higher ability to identify salty taste compared to other basic tastes, both before and after training. Training did improve the children’s abilities to detect and verbalise all basic tastes after basic taste training. Due to verbalisation the children went from naming the tastes as “tasty” or “disgusting” to being able to put words on, and to identify many of the basic tastes in each food.

    Discussion: A strategy to make children more curious and interested of foods and tastes is to conduct training sessions with basic taste solutions. This may benefit young children gaining a positive approach towards new tastes and flavours and also to foods in general.

  • 32.
    Magnusson, Emma
    et al.
    HKR.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Identification of basic tastes in foods before and after training among 4-6 year old children – a pilot study2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human beings have an innate preference for sweet taste and aversion towards bitter. However, the individual perception of taste differs to a great extent and is due to both the ability to detect basic tastes and to the taste concentrations. Taste preferences and identification as well as verbalisation of the taste experience may be improved by learning. Either more or less conscious via the socialisation process or via strategically learning procedures.

    The aim of this pilot study was to examine 4-6-year old children’s abilities to identify basic tastes in foods before and after training with basic taste solutions. Further, to note the children’s abilities to verbalise their taste experiences before and after the training.

    This study was conducted at a Swedish preschool, where eleven children aged 4-6 years participated in the four different parts of the study. The first part was a discussion about basic tastes and the second was to test ten different foods while further discussing the tastes. The third was a training part where the children learned to recognise the basic tastes sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami by tasting basic taste solutions. The last part were a basic taste test in which the children were asked to answer which basic tastes they could identify in each food. Further, it was noted how the children verbalised the tastes of the foods.

    From the results it could be concluded that the children had a significantly higher ability to identify salty taste compared to other basic tastes, both before and after training. Improved abilities both to detect and to verbalise all basic tastes after basic taste training was shown. Due to verbalisation the children went from naming the tastes as "tasty" or "disgusting" to being able to put words on, and to identify many of the basic tastes in each food.

    A simple strategy to make children more curious of foods and tastes is to perform training sessions with basic taste solutions. This may benefit young children by contribution of a more positive approach towards new flavours and foods in general.

  • 33.
    Mikkelsen, B.E.
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Justesen, L.
    Danmark.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Yngve, A.
    Örebro University.
    Scander, H.
    Örebro University.
    Tellström, R.
    Örebro University.
    Junttila, M.
    Finland.
    Mertanen, E.
    Finland.
    Research based educations for future foodscapes: the new NordicFood4Many experience2015In: Opportunities and challenges for food and eating in society: proceedings of the International Conference on Culinary Arts and Sciences, 2015, Vol. 9, 56-68 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Nilsson, Ulla
    et al.
    Virgo konsult.
    Hagström, Gun
    Lyssna AB.
    Uggla, Madeleine
    SLU.
    Olsson, Marie
    SLU.
    Biörklund, Maria
    Livsmedelsakademin.
    Arinder, Pernilla
    SP.
    Knutsson, Hans
    Lunds universitet.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Styrketår för seniorer: ett pilotprojekt2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Nilsson, Ulla
    et al.
    Virgo Consulting.
    Hagström, Gun
    Lyssna AB.
    Uggla, Madeleine
    SLU.
    Olsson, Marie
    SLU.
    Biörklund, Maria
    Livsmedelsakademin.
    Arinder, Pernilla
    SP.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Designed Energy Smoothie for Elderly2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Nilsson, Ulla
    et al.
    Virgo Grön Konsult.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Styrketår för seniorer - ett pilotprojekt: regionalproducerad frukt- och bärdryck till offentlig sektor2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med projektet har varit att utveckla frukt- och bärdrycker till äldre på boenden i Skåne, drycker som kan bidra till att ge extra energi och näring. Syftet har även varit att skapa en nätverksplattform samt undersöka möjligheterna till ett innovativt arbetssätt för upphandling av de utvecklade produkterna. Projektet har utgått från det behov av goda näringsrika och energirika livsmedel som definierats när det gäller äldre, oavsett svårigheter att inta mat. Detta behov har kopplats till en strävan att öka den regionala produktionen av frukt- och bärråvaror och undersöka möjligheterna att sälja högkvalitativa produkter på den offentliga marknaden. Det långsiktiga målet är att genom att öppna för försäljning av frukt- och bärprodukter också öka sysselsättningen inom primärproduktionen i regionen. Dryckesprodukter har utvecklats bestående av frukt- och bärråvara från äpple, jordgubbe och svartvinbär vilka kombinerats med näringstillskott i form av vegetabiliskt protein och fett i form av rapsolja. Drycken har utvecklats med målet att ge äldre på boenden ett gott alternativ till de mellanmål som idag serveras på äldreboenden i kommuner.

  • 37.
    Nyberg, Maria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Bryntorp, Anna
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Höjier, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Mat, måltid, hälsa i 24-timmarsperspektivet. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Sepp, Hanna
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Exploring the meal concept: an interdisciplinary literature overview2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The meal concept is used in varying contexts, and within several scientific fields, however often without a clear definition of what it includes. The meal has been identified as a subject in multiple research areas such as nutrition, medicine, sensory science, history, design product development, food service, biology, physiology, anthropology, sociology, psychology, marketing and so forth 1. A meal may be defined and identified by the time of the day, by its energy content and how the food is combined as well as by its social interactions, implying that it may be understood in relation to the food itself as well as to the social and cultural context 2. The meal has also been discussed in relation to the concept of “snacks”, where a meal has been defined as a “structured food event”, while “snacks” represent “unstructured food events”3 . Some attempts have been made in order to define the meal and also to present a more holistic model of what it includes. One way of defining the meal is by using certain cues related to food as well as the environment 4. Another example is the Five Aspects Meal Model (FAMM) which was developed as a model in the early 2000s 5, with the ambition to capture an entirety of the meal by including the room, the meeting, the product, the logistics and the atmosphere in defining and understanding a meal. Although there have been many attempts trying to find a general and precise definition, the complexity makes it difficult, and maybe impossible, to capture the meal concept in a single definition 6. Different disciplines focus on various aspects, which may complicate a common understanding 7,8,9.

    It has been stated that meals are only one form of eating 10, and that the meal alone does not capture the diversity of todays’ eating. Still, it is recurrently used as a point of reference and as a norm for discussions concerning food and eating. The meal concept is however in constant change and must be understood in relation to societal patterns and norms, how we organize our eating and what role food plays as a social and cultural glue 2, but also in relation to our perception of health, sustainability, convenience and so forth. Other concepts, such as “eating episodes” 11,12, “eating occasions” see f ex. 13 and “eating events” 14 have also been used as attempts to illuminate the complexity of food habits. Nonetheless, the meal is still universally used and recurrent in various research works, and therefore it is of importance to investigate how the concept is actually used and understood in the different areas related to food- and meal science, an interdisciplinary field studying food and meals within Food scienceNutrition and health, and Food culture and communication.

  • 38.
    Nyberg, Maria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Pajalic, Zada
    Linnaeus University.
    Örtman, Gerd
    Linnaeus University.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    Linnaeus University.
    Blücher, Anna
    Linnaeus University.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Eating difficulties, nutrition, meal preferences and experiences among elderly: a literature overview from a Scandinavian context2015In: Journal of Food Research, ISSN 1927-0887, E-ISSN 1927-0895, Vol. 4, no 1, 22-37 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of malnutrition increases with ageing, resulting in poorer health and higher risk of disease. Eating difficulties are important risk factors for malnutrition. Moreover, independence in relation to food and meals is highly rated by the elderly and has been associated with health and well-being. The purpose of this literature overview was to provide insights into nutritional status, food choice and preferences as well as the meal situations of home-living elderly (65+) people with motoric eating difficulties focusing on Scandinavia. The overall aim is to support independence and to prevent malnutrition. Nutritional status in the elderly was found to be negatively influenced by motoric eating difficulties including problems with manipulating food on the plate and transporting food to the mouth. Motoric eating difficulties may result in practical simplifications such as use of pre-prepared meals, less advanced cooking, and omission of certain meal constituents in order to avoid e.g. mismanagement and spillage. Eating difficulties are often accompanied by feelings of guilt and shame. Choosing smaller portions, reducing the number of eating episodes and not cooking independently have been associated with a higher risk of malnutrition. The nutritional effects of eating difficulties may be exacerbated by diminished chemosensory functions. Furthermore, both past and present food preferences should be considered in order to meet nutritional needs and meal satisfaction. Development of refined and socially accepted eating aids, in combination with tasty and nutritious products, is important in order to promote healthy and independent living among home-living elderly with motoric eating difficulties.

  • 39.
    Nyberg, Maria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humaniora.
    Örtman, Gerd
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Pajalic, Zada
    Norge.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Blücher, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Lindborg, Ann-Louise
    Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    The meal as a performance: food and meal practices beyond health and nutrition2016In: Ageing & Society, ISSN 0144-686X, E-ISSN 1469-1779, Vol. 30 August, 1-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proportion of elderly people in the population is increasing, presenting a number of new challenges in society. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate how elderly persons with motoric eating difficulties perceive and perform their food and meal practices in everyday life. By using Goffman's concept of performance as a theoretical framework together with Bourdieu's thinking on habitus, a deeper understanding of food and meal practices is obtained. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 elderly people (aged between 67 and 87 years) and meal observations were carried out with 11 of these people. Participants were found to manage food and meal practices by continuously adjusting and adapting to the new conditions arising as a result of eating difficulties. This was displayed by conscious planning of what to eat and when, avoiding certain foods and beverages, using simple eating aids, but also withdrawing socially during the meals. All these adjustments were important in order to be able to demonstrate proper food and meal behaviour, to maintain the façade and to act according to the perceived norms. As well as being a pleasurable event, food and meals were also perceived in terms of being important for maintaining health and as ‘fuel’ where the main purpose is to sustain life. This was strongly connected to the social context and the ability to enjoy food and meals with family members and friends, which appeared to be particularly crucial due to the impending risk of failing the meal performance.

  • 40.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Agerhem, Halina
    Ipsos, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Örtman, Gerd
    Linnaeus University.
    Pajalic, Zada
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Svensson, Therése
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Blücher, Anna
    Linnaeus University.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    Linnaeus University.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Improved everyday food for home living elderly – perception of protein and energy enrichment2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Protein-energy malnutrition can be a problem among elderly. A way to increase protein intake may be to enrich home-cooked foods. In this, special attention should be given to that the food is conveniently prepared and well accepted by the target group.

  • 41.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Forsberg, Sarah
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Purhagen, Jeanette
    Perten Instruments, Lund.
    Svensson, Therése
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Mayonnaise processed for appealing sensory properties2017In: PROCEEDINGS 10th International Conference on Culinary Arts and Sciences: exploring future foodscapes / [ed] Bent Egberg Mikkelsen, Kwabena Titi Ofei,Tenna Doktor Olsen Tvedebrink, Annette Quinto Romani, Frantisek Sudzina, Köpenhamn, 2017, 392- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Mayonnaise is an oil in water emulsion, generally produced in high intensity rotor-stator mixers. The taste and texture is appreciated by consumers but local markets value different sensory properties. The effects of processing conditions on appearance, texture and taste are not fully understood. However, it can be hypothesized to primarily depend on mixing intensity (i.e. the rotor tip-speed) and processing time (i.e. the average number of rotor-stator passages)

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mixing intensity on the characteristics of mayonnaise.

    Methods

    A standard recipe for mayonnaise was processed in a rotor-stator mixer using two different mixing intensities (rotor tip-speeds of 4.7 m/s and 7.1 m/s). The processing time was chosen to give the same number of average rotor-stator passages for each rotor speed. Sensory properties were profiled using a trained analytical panel

    2 in a sensory laboratory (ISO 8589). Texture was measured instrumentally as curdled consistency by back extrusion (TVT Texture Analyzer, Perten Instruments)3.

    Results

    The higher mixing intensity (7.1 m/s) led to a more yellow appearance compared to the lower intensity (4.7 m/s). It also resulted in higher resistance to stirring when assessed by the panel and a higher Peak Force A (N) and Adhesiveness (J) measured instrumentally. No effect on taste-related sensory properties was found.

    Conclusion

    By varying the mixing speed the appearance and texture of mayonnaise was affected, a higher mixing intensity led to a more yellow and firm product. The alterations in processing conditions had no effect on the taste of the mayonnaise.

    References

    1. Håkansson, A., Chaudhry, Z., Innings, F. Model emulsions to study the mechanism of industrial mayonnaise emulsification. Food and Bioproducts Processing 2016;98: 189-195.

    2. Institute SS. Sensory analysis – Methodology – General guidance for establishing a sensory profile (ISO 13299:2016). Stockholm, Sweden: SIS, Swedish Standards Institute; 2016.

    3. Perten Instrument Method Description. TVT Method 24-01.01.

  • 42.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Forsberg, Sarah
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Purhagen, Jeanette
    Perten Instruments, Sweden.
    Svensson, Therése
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    The effect of processing on sensory properties of mayonnaise2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Mayonnaise is an oil in water emulsion, generally produced in high intensity rotor-stator mixers. The taste, flavour and texture is appreciated by consumers but local markets value different sensory properties. The effects of processing conditions on these properties are not fully understood. However, it can be hypothesized to primarily depend on mixing intensity (i.e. the rotor tip-speed) and processing time (i.e. the average number of  rotor-stator  passages).

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mixing intensity on sensory and instrumental characteristics of mayonnaise.

    Methods

    A standard recipe for mayonnaise was processed in a rotor-stator mixer using two different mixing intensities (rotor tip-speeds of 4.7 m/s and 7.1 m/s respectively). The processing time was chosen to give the same number of average rotor-stator passages for each rotor speed. Sensory properties were evaluated using an analytical panel and Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). In addition, texture was measured instrumentally as curdled consistency by back extrusion (TVT Texture Analyzer, Perten Instruments). Results The higher mixing intensity (7.1 m/s) led to a more yellow appearance compared to the lower intensity (4.7 m/s). It also resulted in an altered texture, both when assessed as by hand manipulation and in-mouth. Processed at higher speed, the mayonnaise was e.g. more  resistant to stirring corresponding to a higher Peak Force A (N) and Adhesiveness (J) when measured instrumentally. No effect on taste and flavour related sensory properties was found.

    Discussion and conclusion

    The result indicate that there is a potential to tailor the texture characteristics of mayonnaise through processing. By varying the mixing speed the appearance and texture of mayonnaise was affected, a higher mixing intensity led to a more yellow and firm product. The alterations  in processing conditions had however no effect on taste and flavour of the mayonnaise.

  • 43.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Nyberg, Maria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Pajalic, Zada
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Örtman, Gerd
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Blucher, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Designing meals for elderly with eating difficulties: a cooperative approach2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately 15 % of the Scandinavian population aged 60 and above suffer from eating difficulties with malnutrition as a risk factor. In an effort to improve their possibilities of a healthy and independent living, we have chosen the strategy to develop nutritious and tasty food in combination with functional eating aids to be integrated in the everyday lives of elderly.

    This new, multi-disciplinary project concerns the design of meals for those who experience difficulties in transporting food from the plate to the mouth. The present paper, as part of the project, aims at presenting today’s knowledge of what home-living Scandinavian elderly with pre-oral eating difficulties experience as important factors concerning the meal. The review of peer-reviewed research publications will be complemented with in-depth interviews, surveys and observation studies. Data will be used in a co-designing process, where elderly are involved in developing meals and eating aids that support independence and integrity.

    For elderly in general it is well known that food and drink preferences are affected by past experiences. However, impaired appetite, taste and smell as well as eating difficulties require special adaptations of food and beverages. Serving popular dishes and using distinct flavours and presentations improves meal satisfaction. Elderly suffering from e.g. hand tremor or difficulties in gripping often develop strategies to remain independent, of which one may be to omit meal constituents affecting the sensory and nutritional quality of the meal. Furthermore, the eating situation among people with eating difficulties is often associated with guilt and shame, and social withdrawal is therefore a common scenario.

    Remaining independent in respect to eating is highly valued among elderly. By integrating various dimensions of the meal, including nutritional and sensory aspects, in the development of functional eating aids, the possibility of a healthy and independent living among elderly increases.

  • 44.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Nyberg, Maria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Pajalic, Zada
    Linnaeus University.
    Örtman, Gerd
    Linnaeus University.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Blücher, Anna
    Linnaeus University.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Linnaeus University.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Designing meals for elderly with eating difficulties: a cooperative approach2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Remaining independent in respect to eating is highly valued among elderly. By integrating various dimensions of the meal, including nutritional and sensory aspects, in the development of functional eating aids, the possibility of a healthy and independent living among elderly increases.

  • 45.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen.
    Pajalic, Zada
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Örtman, Gerd
    Linneaus University.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Research Environment PRO-CARE.
    Blücher, Anna
    Linneaus University.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Linneaus University.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen.
    Designing meals for elderly with eating difficulties: a cooperative approach2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    En fungerande måltid – innovation mot undernäring: inventering av kvalitetsindex gällande äldres mat- och måltidssituation2017Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Prim, Mia
    et al.
    RISE.
    Magnusson, Emma
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Identification of basic tastes in foods before and after training among 4-6 year old children: a pilot study2017In: Exploring Future Foodscapes: PROCEEDINGS ICCAS 2017 Copenhagen / [ed] Mikkelsen B, Ofei KT, Olsen Tvedebrink TD, Quinto Romano A and Sudzina F, 2017, 135-143 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The individual perception of taste differs to a great extent and is due to both ability to detect basic tastes and to taste concentrations. Taste preferences and identification, including verbalisation of the taste experience may be improved by learning, either via the socialisation process or strategical learning procedures.

    The aim of this study was to examine 4-6-year old children’s abilities to identify basic tastes in foods before and after training with basic taste solutions. Further, to study the children’s abilities to verbalise their taste experiences before and after the training.

    Methods: Eleven children aged 4-6 years participated in the study conducted at a Swedish preschool. The study consisted of four parts:

    1: Discussion about basic tastes.

    2: Taste session of ten different foods while discussing the tastes.

    3: Training session in which the children learned to recognise the basic tastes sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami by tasting basic taste solutions.

    4: Identification test: The children were asked to answer which of basic tastes they could identify in different foods. It was further studied how the children verbalised the tastes of the foods.

    Results: The children had a significantly higher ability to identify salty taste compared to other basic tastes, both before and after training. Training did improve the children’s abilities to detect and verbalise all basic tastes after basic taste training. Due to verbalisation the children went from naming the tastes as “tasty” or “disgusting” to being able to put words on, and to identify many of the basic tastes in each food.

    Discussion: A strategy to make children more curious and interested of foods and tastes is to conduct training sessions with basic taste solutions. This may benefit young children gaining a positive approach towards new tastes and flavours and also to foods in general.

  • 48.
    Rosander, Ulla
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Rumpunen, Kimmo
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Sepp, Hanna
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Rosander, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Could a smoothie, rich in nutrients and bioactive substances, improve school performance?2015In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 67, no Suppl. 1, 212- p., 149/1319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Fruits and vegetables contain vitamins, minerals and other bioactive substances, which are important for intellectual performance. In a previous study it was shown that approximately two third of the pupils were hungry the last lesson before lunch. The average fruit and vegetable intake at lunch was much lower than the recommendations.

    Objectives: The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate effect on attention and school performance of a vegetable smoothie, rich in berries, fruits and vegetables, served at the mid-morning brake.

    Method / Design: In total 250 Swedish children aged 10-12 years participated. The study was designed as a cross-over trial with two study periods of ten schooldays. The children were randomly divided into two groups and were administered either an active smoothie (smoothie 1; group A) or a fruit-based placebo with the same energy content (smoothie 2; group B). Both smoothies were designed to provide 5% of the daily energy. After a three week wash-out period, group A was administered smoothie 2 and group B, smoothie 1. Statistical tests were performed using SPSS package, version 22.0, using Independent-Samples T test. Analysis included processing speed (PTO), concentration performance (CP) and percentages of error (Ep) as assessed by the D2-test

    Results: Preliminary analyses indicate that PTO and CP increased during the intervention period, whilst Ep decreased, for both groups. The effect was stronger in the group drinking the active smoothie, than in the group drinking the placebo. The effect might partly be caused by the addition of water and energy

    Conclusions: Attention, and thereby also school performance, may be improved by mid-morning consumption of a smoothie containing water, energy and preferably nutrients and other bioactive substances.

  • 49.
    Rosander, Ulla
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Rumpunen, Kimmo
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Sepp, Hanna
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Rosander, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Food'n fruit - promoting healthier eating at school: could a smoothie, rich in nutrients and bioactive substances, improve school performance?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effect on attention of a vegetable smoothie, rich in berries, fruits

    and vegetables, served at the school mid-morning brake. Viktoria

    Ohlsson. Kristianstad University

    Purpose:

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate effect on

    attention of a vegetable smoothie, rich in berries, fruits and

    vegetables, served at the mid-morning brake. The smoothie was

    designed to provide only 5% of the daily energy. The effect was

    assessed by the D2-test of attention.

    Participants and setting:

    Pupils, aged 10 to 12 years, from twelve school classes in southern

    Sweden, were invited to participate in the study. In total 250

    children participated. Children suffering from serious food allergies

    or food intolerance were excluded from the study.

    Data collection:

    The study was designed as a cross-over trial with two study

    periods of ten schooldays. The children were randomly divided

    into two groups and were administered either an active smoothie

    (smoothie 1; group A) or a fruit-based placebo with the same

    energy content (smoothie 2; group B). After a three week washout

    period, group A was administered smoothie 2 and group B,

    smoothie 1.

    Prior to the study, all children answered a questionnaire about their

    consumption of fruit, berries and vegetables, physical activity habit

    and and their perceived hunger during the school day. Age, height

    and weight was also recorded.

    Data analysis:

    Analysis of the data focused on concentration performance as

    assessed by the D2-test.

  • 50.
    Rosander, Ulla
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Rumpunen, Kimmo
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Åström, Mikael
    StatCons.
    Rosander, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Methodological considerations in a pilot study on the effects of a berry enriched smoothie on children's performance in school2016In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 60, no 1, Poster presentation no. P307Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: In many countries, the consumption of fruit, berries, and vegetables is about half the recommended. Berries contain bioactive compounds that may affect cognitive functions. School children are often hungry and thirsty during the lectures before lunch and this affects performance. Could a berry-smoothie decrease thirst and hunger, and thereby affect school performance? The aim was to investigate if a cross-over design can be used to study the effects of a smoothie on performance in a school setting.

    Methods: Methodological challenges included developing an appetizing berry-smoothie and choosing a suitable experimental design that could be adapted to school conditions.

    In the pilot study, 236 Swedish children aged 10–12 years participated in a cross-over design and were administered either a berry-smoothie or a fruit-based placebo after the midmorning break. Both beverages provided 5% of the daily energy intake. Performance was assessed using the d2 Test of Attention measuring attention span and concentration. Statistical analyses were performed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test in StatXact v 10.3.

    Results: The consumption of both the smoothie and the placebo increased the attention span and concentration significantly.

    Conclusion: The children's performance in the d2 Test of Attention was positively affected by beverage consumption. The effect was attributed to the supplementation of water and energy. In this design, the study did not permit any conclusive results regarding the effect of bioactive compounds on performance. In a coming study, a third group, receiving no beverage, should be included aiming to identify the cause of the effect.

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