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  • 1.
    Faraon, Montathar
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Co-creating democracy: conceptualizing co-creative media to facilitate democratic engagement in society2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based information and communication technology (ICT) have increasingly been used to facilitate and support democratic engagement in society. A growing body of research has demonstrated that the Internet and, in particular, social media have given citizens the opportunity to participate, interact, network, collaborate, and mobilize themselves within communities. While these media have broadened the means of exercising citizenship in many forms of participatory democracy, the technological prerequisites exist to go beyond the standard uses of social media (e.g., social networking, entertainment) and towards proactive and co-creative democratic engagement. Such engagement includes, but is not limited to, participatory activities for democratic purposes. Further, some researchers have argued that representative democracy is in decline and has several limitations related to citizens’ trust in politicians and engagement with representative institutions. There is a recognition among scholars to infuse representative democracy with participatory bottom-up processes by employing ICT in an attempt to bridge these limitations. In order to further facilitate and support participatory as well as co-creative processes, this thesis elaborates a concept of co-creative media. The process of this work was guided by the following question: How can co-creative media be theoretically anchored and conceptualized in order to facilitate and support citizen engagement within democratic processes? A concept-driven design research approach was adopted to address this research question, and this resulted in five interconnected articles. Firstly, based on the results from each article, four design guidelines were formulated to further guide the design of co-creative media for democratic engagement. These design guidelines may support future participatory design processes in which stakeholders collectively contribute to the development and evaluation of co-creative media. The guidelines constitute a resource that stakeholders may use to develop adaptations of co-creative media for the purposes of facilitating democratic engagement. Secondly, the results from each article were fed forward into the concept-driven research process as theoretical and empirical insights, which were used to inform and elaborate the main contribution of this thesis, namely the concept of co-creative media. The concept of co-creative media in its form outlined by this thesis seeks to broaden citizens’ democratic engagement by means of creating virtual spaces in which new ideas, initiatives, knowledge, solutions, and digital tools could emerge. The implications of co-creative media could be to create, develop, and strengthen partnerships between communities and local services, extend digital skills in society through community-engaged practitioners, and propagate as well as coordinate large-scale co-creative practices.

  • 2.
    Faraon, Montathar
    Stockholms universitet.
    Concept-driven design for democracy: advancing co-creative media to support citizen participation and democratic engagement2018In: eJournal of eDemocracy & Open Government, ISSN 2075-9517, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 23-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article elaborates a concept of co-creative media that aims to support citizens’ democratic engagement by facilitating participatory and co-creative processes. The research adopts a concept-driven design approach to theoretically underpin and empirically inform the concept. This was accomplished by adopting theoretical resources from the framework of actor-network theory (ANT), identifying criteria in an analysis of existing socio-technical systems for democratic engagement, and building on the results from four research studies. The main contribution of the article, namely the concept of co-creative media, could serve as a basis for further theoretical reflections and a point of departure to support future participatory design processes where relevant stakeholders collectively contribute to the implementation and evaluation of co-creative media. Co-creative media have the potentials to provide citizens with a new approach to democracy and could broaden citizens’ democratic engagement by means of creating virtual spaces in which new ideas, initiatives, knowledge, and solutions could emerge.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Faraon, Montathar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Avdelningen för design. Stockholms Universitet.
    Inspelat kursmaterial gör distansutbildning mer tillgänglig2019In: En högskola för alla: goda exempel som ökar tillgängligheten och motverkar diskriminering av studenter med funktionsnedsättning / [ed] Karin Holmvall, Stockholm: Universitets- och högskolerådet (UHR) , 2019, , p. 1p. 21-21Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4. Faraon, Montathar
    Mobile tracking and privacy in the coronavirus pandemic2020In: Interactions, ISSN 1072-5520, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 50-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease (Covid-19) is testing societies, companies, and citizens. Life, health, and jobs are at stake. In this critical moment, the HCI community is working together to design, test, and execute ideas, prototypes, and solutions. HCI is working to strengthen our resistance with abilities, expertise, and methods to design intuitive solutions that are accessible, understandable, and usable. The coronavirus disease has had far-reaching consequences for public health, financial markets, and everyday life. With currently over 6 million infected and 370,000 deaths, the disease has left few people unaffected by its impact. Technological developments in transportation over the years have contributed to the rapid movement of people and, in turn, to the worldwide spread of the disease. Likewise, researchers, designers, and developers around the world are racing to understand, design, and develop digital technology to trace and mitigate the spread.

  • 5.
    Faraon, Montathar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Webbutveckling med PHP och MySQL2016 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    PHP är ett av de ledande programmeringsspråken för webbutveckling. Det är ett flexibelt och enkelt språk som används för att skapa dynamiska webbplatser. Denna bok ger en tillgänglig introduktion till PHP och databashantering. Läsaren får den kunskap som krävs för att snabbt utveckla egna webbapplikationer.

    Boken förutsätter inga tidigare erfarenheter av webbprogrammering. Läsaren leds framåt genom ett rikt utbud av övningar som ger möjlighet att tillämpa innehållet.

    Denna andra utgåva av boken har reviderats och uppdaterats grundligt. Bland nyheterna finns PHP 7, databashantering med PHP Data Objects (PDO), fler helhetsexempel samt kodexempel i färg.

    Webbutveckling med PHP och MySQL är avsedd för universitets- och gymnasiestudier i webbprogrammering, men är även en handbok för yrkesverksamma webbutvecklare och programmerare.

  • 6.
    Faraon, Montathar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Webbutveckling med PHP och MySQL2012Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    PHP är ett av de ledande programmeringsspråken för webbutveckling. Det är ett flexibelt och enkelt språk som används för att skapa dynamiska webbplatser. Denna bok ger en lättillgänglig och komplett introduktion till PHP. Läsaren får den kunskap som behövs för att snabbt komma igång och skapa egna webbapplikationer.

    Boken erbjuder stöd i det egna arbetet, möjligheter till fördjupning och ger en beskrivning av allt från installation av PHP till felsökning av programmeringskod. Bokens pedagogiska framställning kräver ingen teknisk kunskap, läsaren leds framåt genom ett rikt utbud av övningar som ger möjlighet att tillämpa innehållet.

    Webbutveckling med PHP och MySQL är i första hand en lärobok för universitetsstudier i webbprogrammering men även en handbok för webbdesigners och programmerare i näringslivet.

  • 7.
    Faraon, Montathar
    et al.
    Södertörn högskola.
    Atashi, Samira
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Gustafsson, Nils
    Using circumventing media to counteract authoritarian regimes2011In: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference ICT, Society and Human Beings 2011, 2011, p. 251-254Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on how potential circumventing media and communication technologies could potentially assist the information flow when authoritarian regimes decide to block the main channels, such as the Internet and the mobile phone networks. The point of departure is the recent Internet blackouts in countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), such as Egypt, Bahrain and Libya. We discuss several applications that were developed as a response to state repression in these countries, and their future potential that would allow people to communicate more freely despite Internet and mobile network blackouts.

  • 8.
    Faraon, Montathar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Department of Design. Södertörns högskola.
    Cronquist, Björn
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Södertörns högskola.
    Social media affordances in net-based higher education2011In: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference on International Higher Education (IHE 2011), 2011, p. 11-37Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the attitudes, conceptions and use of social media in net-based higher education. By using statistical and content analysis of data generated by two surveys directed to students (n = 109) and teachers (n = 77) involved in net-based higher education, we explore how social media influence the design of learning context in net-based higher education courses. By applying the affordance theory, we describe actual as well as preferred use of social media from an educational, social, and technical perspectives. The results showed that the potential use of social media have not yet been fully found in the context of net-based higher education. However, the perceived benefit of using social media differs in relation to educational topics. The potential use of social media in net-based higher education courses is discussed.

  • 9.
    Faraon, Montathar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Department of Design.
    Jaff, Agnieszka
    Kristianstad University.
    Paschoalini Nepomuceno, Liegi
    Kristianstad University.
    Villavicencio, Victor
    Art-O-Matic AB.
    Fake news and aggregated credibility: conceptualizing a co-creative medium for evaluation of sources online2020In: International Journal of Ambient Computing and Intelligence (IJACI), ISSN 1941-6237, E-ISSN 1941-6245, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accelerated spread of fake news via the Internet and social media such as Facebook and Twitter have created a debate concerning the credibility of sources online. Assessing the credibility of these sources is generally a complex task and cannot solely rely on computer-based algorithms as evaluation still requires human intelligence. The research question guiding this article deals with the conceptualization of a theoretically anchored concept of a participatory and co-creative medium for evaluation of sources online. The concept-driven design research methodology was applied to address the research question, which consisted of seven activities that unify design and theory. The result of this article is a proposed concept that aims to support the assessment of the credibility of sources online using crowdsourcing as an approach for evaluation. The practical implications of the proposed concept could be to constrain the spread of fake news, strengthen online democratic discourse, and potentially improve the quality of online information.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fakenews.pdf
  • 10.
    Faraon, Montathar
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola.
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Södertörns högskola.
    Much more to it: the relation between Facebook usage and self-esteem2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE 15th International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration, IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society (SMC) , 2014, p. 87-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine closer the conflicting results from previous studies concerning the relation- ship between Facebook use and self-esteem using the Facebook Intensity Scale and Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (N = 107). In line with some previous studies, our data confirmed that there is a relationship between Facebook usage and self-esteem, but the applied scales allowed a more refined assessment of it. The results showed, after controlling for demographic variables, that participants with low Facebook intensity reported on average higher self-esteem than those who did not use Facebook or those with high Facebook intensity, while those with medium Facebook intensity had significantly higher self-esteem compared to the participants with high Facebook intensity. Future studies should address the underlying causal relations using a time-bound observation method.

  • 11.
    Faraon, Montathar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Avdelningen för design.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Avdelningen för design.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå universitet.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholms universitet.
    Learning by coding: a sociocultural approach to teaching web development in higher education2020In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 1759-1783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As information technology continues to evolve rapidly in society, coding skills become increasingly essential to develop. The purpose of this article is to examine differences between the learner-centered and sociocultural approaches when teaching and learning coding in higher education. A quasi-experiment was applied over six academic semesters evaluating the mentioned approaches in terms of students’ explicit attitudes, grades, and course evaluations. The findings indicated that the sociocultural approach may be a viable alternative to the learner-centered approach. More specifically, students indicated a preference for the sociocultural approach over the learner-centered approach, a greater number of students who passed the courses were educated via the sociocultural approach, and overall satisfaction was significantly higher for this approach as well. While the sociocultural approach has demonstrated to be advantageous, its integration in courses must concurrently be carefully balanced against constraints that teachers continuously experience in higher education, such as time and resources, which presents a challenge to the design of courses and to academia at large.

  • 12.
    Faraon, Montathar
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Budurushi, Jurlind
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Södertörns högskola.
    Positive but skeptical: a study of attitudes towards Internet voting in Sweden2015In: CeDEM Asia 2014: Proceedings of the International Conference for E-Democracy and Open Government, 2015, p. 191-205Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored the attitudes of a broad sample of politically interested Swedish voters towards Internet voting. A total of 5683 participants completed a web-based survey concerning participation and security aspects of Internet voting. Attitudes towards Internet voting were positive on the whole and the acceptance of participation in democratic elections using Internet voting was spearheaded by: women, groups with relatively short education, the unemployed and the self-employed. Unlike previous studies, it was found that age was not a significant factor in determining the attitudes towards participation in elections by means of Internet voting. Concerning the security challenges of Internet voting, men were more optimistic than women and participants’ confidence in security increased with age and education length.

  • 13.
    Faraon, Montathar
    et al.
    Södertörn University.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Södertörn University.
    Political campaigning 2.0: the influence of online news and social networking sites on attitudes and behavior2014In: eJournal of eDemocracy & Open Government, ISSN 2075-9517, E-ISSN 2075-9517, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 231-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to examine differences in influence between online news (e.g., New York Times) and social networking sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) on attitudes in political campaigns. In a web-based experiment, campaign, polls and election between two fictitious candidates were simulated. Participants’ explicit and implicit attitudes as well as voting behavior were assessed using self-report items and the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The results reveal that information emanating from online news had a significant influence on explicit and implicit attitudes while that of social networking sites did not. Overall, negative items had a stronger impact than positive ones, more so in online news compared to social networking sites. Negative information from either type of media was more likely to change participants’ explicit attitudes in a negative direction and as a consequence also change their vote. Practical implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Faraon, Montathar
    et al.
    Södertörn University.
    Villavicencio, Victor
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University.
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Södertörns högskola.
    From mobilization to consensus: innovating cross-media services to organize crowds into collaborative communities2013In: CeDEM13: Conference for E-Democracy and Open Government, Edition Donau-Universität Krems , 2013, p. 13-227Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the current paper is to contribute to the field of e-participation by presenting a design concept for mediating technology that incorporates current information technology such as social and collaborative media designed for the purposes of civic engagement in society. Such technology could empower people to mobilize and engage themselves in proactive consensus-seeking and co-creation. Social media are broadly adopted in the reactive mobilization of citizen-initiated participatory activity in society such as protests like the London riots and the Occupy movements. In our view, there is a demand to organize mobilized crowds to collaborate in a consensus-seeking manner. For instance, there does not yet exist online applications that specifically serve the purposes of massive simultaneous co-editing of documents by citizens seeking consensus in societal issues. However, as we argue, there is no reason for such not to be integrated from existing technological components that are commonly accessible.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15. Ruse, Vidal
    et al.
    Faraon, Montathar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Department of Design.
    Wetterstrand, Martin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Department of Business.
    Hue combinations for the web: towards a repertoire of design guidelines for combining color hues based on cultural background2019In: ICCTA 2019 Proceedings of the 2019 5th International Conference on Computer and Technology Applications, New York, 2019, p. 63-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing research shows that users tend to assess the visual appeal of a web page within 50 ms and color is the first thing that is noticed on a screen. This directly influences the user's perception of a website, and a choice of appealing color combinations may, therefore, be crucial in successful web design. This article aims to identify, formulate, and evaluate design guidelines to support designers in the process of combining color hues for websites in the context of the Swedish and Thai cultures. A quantitative approach was used to evaluate the proposed design guidelines. The results show that culture plays a role in the evaluation of color hue combinations; Thai participants rated Thai designs significantly more highly than the Swedish participants, but the reverse was not true, and Thai designs were rated more highly than Swedish designs by all participants. The results may have implications for practitioners working in the field of web design and for the broader debate of cultural influence on color preference.

  • 16. Svenningsson, Nina
    et al.
    Faraon, Montathar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Department of Design.
    Artificial intelligence in conversational agents: a study of factors related to perceived humanness in chatbots2019In: Proceedings of 2019 2nd Artificial Intelligence and Cloud Computing Conference (AICCC 2019) and 2019 Asia Digital Image Processing Conference (ADIP 2019), New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019, p. 151-161Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Artiicial intelligence (AI) is gaining traction in service-oriented businesses in the form of chatbots. A chatbot is a popular type of social AI that uses natural language processing to communicate with users. Past studies have shown discrepancies in terms of whether or not a chatbot should communicate and behave like a human. This article aims to explore these discrepancies in order to provide a theoretical contribution of a list of factors related to perceived humanness in chatbots and how these may consequently lead to a positive user experience. The results suggest that a chatbot should have the following characteristics: avoiding small talk and maintaining a formal tone; identifying itself as a bot and asking how it can help; providing speciic information and articulating itself with sophisticated choices of words and well-constructed sentences; asking follow-up questions during decision-making processes and; providing an apology when the context is not comprehensible, followed by a question or a statement to dynamically move a conversation forward. These results may have implications for designers working in the eeld of AI as well as for the wider debates and the broader discourse around the adoption of AI in society.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Åberg, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Avdelningen för design.
    Johansson, Michael
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Avdelningen för design. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, DARC research environment.
    Wetterstrand, Martin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Avdelningen för design.
    Ådahl, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Avdelningen för design.
    Faraon, Montathar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Avdelningen för design.
    Mello, Alexander
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Avdelningen för design.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Avdelningen för design.
    Experiences from formative learning assessment supported by digital tools2020In: EDULEARN20 Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, 2020, p. 3161-3171Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning assessment constitutes an essential pedagogical ability in a teacher’s toolbox in order to further student learning and development and to adapt teaching to the needs of the students. To enable this, learning outcomes and grading criteria are used in the formative assessment of students’ performance to support the learning process, as well as in the summative assessment of the actual outcome for grading. Learning outcomes may be represented in various forms, typically scoring rubrics. Current research literature discusses the positive and negative merits of criterion-based scoring rubrics versus holistic assessment. There is also the matter of grading reliability among teachers and a shared understanding of student performance among teachers and students. Digitalization has become an essential part of higher education and distance learning, especially so in our field of digital design. A relevant issue in this context is how digital solutions may enhance formative learning assessment in particular. As is common practice within our field, within the study we designed, developed, and experimented with a digital tool in the form of a visual radar chart representation. The radar chart was based both on work done by teachers and a student thesis work and was used in several courses for teacher assessment as well as self- and peer assessment by students. This work provided the opportunity for reflection as well as analytical assessment, which in turn had the potential in guiding teachers to critically question and discuss the intended learning outcomes and grading criteria. The study has resulted in a variety of identified problems, reflections, and insights that teachers are continuously confronted with, but not necessarily always conscious about when using intended learning outcomes as a basis for communicating formative assessments to students. By visually and holistically communicating students’ strengths and areas for development over time, we found the potential to increase students’ shared awareness of their learning progress and also further the development of curricula. The study has implications for teacher and student awareness of student performance and learning, curriculum development, and digital assessment tools.

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