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  • 1.
    De Kaminsky, Marcin
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Svensson, Måns
    Lund University.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Lund University.
    Olsson, Johanna Alkan
    Lund University.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Lund University.
    Studying norms and social change in a digital age: identifying and understanding a multidimensional gap problem2013In: Social and legal norms: towards a socio-legal understanding of normativity / [ed] Matthias Baier, Ashgate, 2013, p. 309-330Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The fact that the debate concerning copyright in a digital society has been both intense and filled with polemic conflicts ever since the late 1990s makes it clear that it is a most complicated issue to solve, or even grasp. Basically, both the legal and societal discussion and development are explicitly dependent on a greater understanding of the on-going processes surrounding copyright. This presents a well-suited point of departure for research such as the one conducted within the Cybernorms research group – both in terms of providing valuable insights into the field of sociology of law when it comes to understanding how to relate to the framework provided by digitalization in general and the Internet in particular, and in terms of providing more accurate knowledge and toolsets to legislators in related fields

  • 2.
    Dittrich, Yvonne
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Jeanette
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Christina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Lindeberg, Olle
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Cooperative method development: combining qualitative empirical research with method, technique and process improvement2008In: EMPIRICAL SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, ISSN 1382-3256, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 231-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call 'cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement. The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development of this approach based on several research projects in cooperation with industrial partners.

  • 3.
    Dyba, Tore
    et al.
    Norge.
    Prikladnicki, Rafael
    Brasilien.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Seaman, Carolyn
    USA.
    Sillito, Jonathan
    Canada.
    Qualitative research in software engineering2011In: EMPIRICAL SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, ISSN 1382-3256, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 425-429Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Johansson, C
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Commitment as an underlying principle for learning2004In: KNOWLEDGE-BASED SOFTWARE ENGINEERING / [ed] Stefanuk, V & Kaijiri, K, 2004, p. 129-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevailing model of software development on which most educational programs are based is in conflict with general practice in industry. As following paper demonstrates Software Engineering education lacks an approach to teach the skills needed to master coalitions of existing recourses that are hard to control. In order to prepare students to handle unpredictable, non-technical and moving targets, an adequate curriculum is needed. Since 1990 software engineering education at Blekinge Institute of Technology has used commitment as the underlying principle for learning. This principle has made it possible to address the discrepancies between education and industry. This paper describes and evaluates our experience of using six elements of commitment in the education of software engineers.

  • 5.
    Larsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University .
    Svensson, Måns
    Lund University .
    De Kaminski, Marcin
    Lund University .
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Alkan Olsson, Johanna
    Lund University .
    Law, norms, piracy and online anonymity: practices of de‐identification in the global file sharing community2012In: Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing: Special Issue on Digital Piracy, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 260-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to understand more of online anonymity in the global filesharing community in the context of social norms and copyright law. The study describes the respondents in terms of use of VPN or similar service related to age, gender, geographical location, as well as analysing the correlation with file sharing frequencies.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study is to a large extent descriptively collecting data through a web-based survey. This was carried out in collaboration with the BitTorrent tracker The Pirate Bay (TPB), allowing the authors to link the survey from the main logo of their site. In 72 hours the authors received over 75,000 responses, which gives the opportunity to compare use of anonymity services with factors of age, geographical region, file sharing frequency, etc.

    Findings – Overall, 17.8 per cent of the respondents use a VPN or similar service (free or paid). A core of high frequency uploaders is more inclined to use VPN or similar services than the average file sharer. Online anonymity practices in the file sharing community are depending on how legal and social norms correlate (more enforcement means more anonymity).

    Research limitations/implications – The web-based survey was in English and mainly attracted visitors on The Pirate Bays’ web page. This means that it is likely that those who do not have the language  skills  necessary  were  excluded  from  the survey.

    Practical implications – This study adds to the knowledge of anonymity practices online in terms of traceability and identification. This means that it shows some of the conditions for legal enforcement in a digital environment.

    Social implications – This study adds to the knowledge of how the Internet is changing in terms of a polarization between stronger means of legally enforced identification and a growing awareness of how to be more untraceable.

    Originality/value – The scale of the survey, with over 75,000 respondents from most parts of the world, has likely not been seen before on this topic. The descriptive study of anonymity practices inthe global file sharing community is therefore likely  unique.

  • 6.
    Petersen, Kai
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    The impact of time controlled reading on software inspection effectiveness and efficiency a controlled experiment2008In: ESEM'08: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2008 ACM-IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EMPIRICAL SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND MEASUREMENT, ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY , 2008, p. 139-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reading techniques help to guide reviewers during individual software inspections. In this experiment, we completely transfer the principle of statistical usage testing to inspection reading techniques for the first time. Statistical usage testing relies on a usage profile to determine how intensively certain parts of the system shall be tested from the users' perspective. Usage-based reading applies statistical usage testing principles by utilizing prioritized use cases as a driver for inspecting software artifacts (e.g., design). In order to reflect how intensively certain use cases should be inspected, time budgets are introduced to usage-based reading where a maximum inspection time is assigned to each use case. High priority use cases receive more time than low priority use cases. A controlled experiment is conducted with 23 Software Engineering M.Sc. students inspecting a design document. In this experiment, usage-based reading without time budgets is compared with time controlled usage-based reading. The result of the experiment is that time budgets do not significantly improve inspection performance. In conclusion, it is sufficient to only use prioritized use cases to successfully transfer statistical usage testing to inspections.

  • 7.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Making methods work in software engineering: method deployment - as a social achievement2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The software engineering community is concerned with improvements in existing methods and development of new and better methods. The research approaches applied to take on this challenge have hitherto focused heavily on the formal and specifying aspect of the method. This has been done for good reasons, because formalizations are the means in software projects to predict, plan, and regulate the development efforts. As formalizations have been successfully developed new challenges have been recognized. The human and social role in software development has been identified as the next area that needs to be addressed. Organizational problems need to be solved if continued progress is to be made in the field. The social element is today a little explored area in software engineering. Following with the increased interest in the social element it has been identified a need of new research approaches suitable for the study of human behaviour. The one sided focus on formalizations has had the consequence that concepts and explanation models available in the community are one sided related in method discourses. Definition of method is little explored in the software engineering community. In relation to identified definitions of method the social appears to blurring. Today the software engineering community lacks powerful concepts and explanation models explaining the social element. This thesis approaches the understanding of the social element in software engineering by applying ethnomethodologically informed ethnography and ethnography. It is demonstrated how the ethnographic inquiry contributes to software engineering. Ethnography is also combined with an industrial cooperative method development approach. The results presented demonstrate how industrial external and internal socio political contingencies both hindered a method implementation, as well as solved what the method was targeted to do. It is also presented how project members’ method deployment - as a social achievement is played out in practice. In relation to this latter contribution it is provided a conceptual apparatus and explanation model borrowed from social science, The Documentary method of interpretation. This model addresses core features in the social element from a natural language point of view that is of importance in method engineering. This model provides a coherent complement to an existing method definition emphasizing formalizations. This explanation model has also constituted the underpinning in research methodology that made possible the concrete study results.

  • 8.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Software practice from the inside: ethnography applied to software engineering2002Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical methodologies have recently attracted increasing attention from the broader software engineering community. In particular, organisational issues and the human role in software development have been addressed. Qualitative research approaches have been identified as necessary for understanding human nature. One qualitative methodology which has become increasingly recognised in the software engineering community is ethnography. It is also the qualitative approach that is addressed in this thesis, i.e. ethnography in relation to software engineering. Ethnography emphasises the members point of view in an effort to understand the organisation of a social, cultural and technical setting. Until now, only a handful of ethnographic studies focusing on software engineering have been carried out in accordance with the original conception of ethnography; these studies have traditionally been performed by sociologists. The understanding and application of ethnography by software engineers differ from that of sociologists as it gives up the studied people's point of view in the analysis of data. The thesis is based on two independent ethnographic studies where the ‘inside’ perspective which complies with the original understanding of the methodology is applied. Using these examples as a basis, the relation between ethnography and software engineering research is explored. The objective of this thesis is to promote ‘ethnographic knowledge’ by giving an overview of ethnographic work within software engineering, presenting an original understanding of ethnography, comparing software engineers' understanding of ethnography with the original understanding of ethnography, demonstrating how the different implicit research attitudes of ethnographers and software engineers produce different research discourses, and finally pointing to an opportunity to combine ethnography, which contributes an ‘inside perspective’, with software engineering's need for constant improvement.

  • 9.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Bergman, Anna-Karin
    FoU Helsingborg.
    Svensson, Måns
    Lund University Internet Institute.
    Danielsson, Pernilla
    PArT Helsingborg.
    Rosengren, Calle
    Lund University Internet Institute.
    Åström, Fredrik
    Lund University Internet Institute.
    Lundin, Therese
    PArT Helsingborg.
    Digital teknik och socialt arbete: att motivera socialt utsatta ungdomar med stöd avmotivationsappar och hälsoarmband2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Digital teknik och socialt arbete är en pilotstudie som syftat till att undersöka effekter av att använda aktivitetsarmband med tillhörande motivationsapp för att stärka ungdomars motivation till fysisk aktivitet och goda sömnvanor. Projektet har präglats av ett explorativt angreppsätt i det att vi undersökt hur introduktion av ny digital teknik mottas av olika målgrupper inom socialtjänsten.

    Forskning har visat sig att det finns en tydlig koppling mellan ökad fysisk aktivitet och minskad psykisk ohälsa. Sömnen är ytterligare faktor som spelar en betydande roll för barn och ungas hälsa. Vi har denna kunskap om fysiska aktivitet och sömn i samhället idag samtidigt som barn och ungas psykiska och fysiska hälsosituation utgör ett uppmärksammat folkhälsoproblem. Att barn rör på sig för lite syns hos alla grupper av barn och unga oavhängigt faktorer som familjeförhållanden, arbetsmarknadsstatus och föräldrars samhällsekonomiska status. Enligt Socialstyrelsen (2013) är det av extra vikt att barn och unga uppnår bästa möjliga hälsa eftersom det visat sig att nedsatt hälsotillstånd i unga år kan få betydelse för resten av individens liv. Insatser för att preventivt främja våra barns och ungas hälsa är därför en önskvärd och god samhällsinvestering både för den enskilda individen och för allas vår gemensamma hållbara framtid. Denna rapport beskriver resultatet av ett forsknings-och utvecklingsprojekt där vi undersökt hur appar och aktivitetsarmband skulle kunna användas för att motivera barn och unga till ökad fysisk aktivitet samt bättre sömnvanor. 

    Våra undersökningar av tidigare forskning inom problemområdet har visat på att det finns en tydlig koppling mellan ökad fysisk aktivitet och minskad psykisk ohälsa, såsom t.ex. att fysisk aktivitet kan minska depression och ångest. Fysisk aktivitet har samma effekt som psykologisk behandling och medicinering, men ger betydligt färre biverkningar än medicinering. Det finns också framgångsrika försök med viktminskningsgrupper som arbetat med stöd av digitala lösningar. Tekniken i sig kan bidra med att sätta mål, motivera, och följa upp resultat. Sociala funktioner för att kunna följa andras framsteg har visat sig öka motivation gällande att vara mer fysiskt aktiv. Angreppsätt där man låter användare mäta och följa sitt eget beteende ger den största positiva effekten för att åstadkomma hälsofrämjande beteendeförändringar. 

    Om fysisk aktivitet är bra för hälsa är sömn om möjligt ännu viktigare. Forskning inom sömn visar att det en tydlig koppling mellan sömn och vardagligt välbefinnande. Det har konstaterats att olika typer av sömn har olika funktioner. REM-sömnen har t.ex. påvisat koppling till bättre mönsterigenkänning medan djupsömnen har en påverkan på minnet. Forskning visar också att sömnlöshet påverkar immunförsvaret negativt vilket i sin tur kan bidra till sömnstörningar och övervikt hos ungdomar.

    Vad gäller teknik så visar forskning att professionell kompetens inom hälsa och medicin inte alltid används vid framtagning av teknik, vilket utgör ett återkommande problem. Det är inte enbart är tekniken som måste fungera för att insatsen ska kunna lyckas, attityden till e-hälsa bland befolkningen generellt sett kan också ha en avgörande betydelse. Om den generella bilden av tekniken bland befolkningen är negativ så är det svårt att införa och lyckas med teknikstöd. Teknikutvecklingen är snabb, och vi står inför en dramatisk ökning av olika informations- och telekommunikationsteknologier vars syfte är att förbättra och utveckla egenvård och omsorg. Frågor om integritet hamnar ofta i skymundan. Flertalet av de identifierade relevanta publikationerna fokuserade mer på tekniken än det hälsobefrämjande stödet.

    Vår bibliografiska undersökning visar att det finns förhållandevis lite av samband mellan begrepp som är relaterade till hälsoappar och egenvård kontra motivationsarbete och socialt arbete. De starkaste sambanden av intresse för oss hittade vi i ett gränsland mellan medicin och datavetenskap. Sammanfattningsvis kan vi säga att flertalet av de här identifierade akademiska publikationerna diskuterar de tekniska lösningarna i sig, eller presenterar användarvalidering av olika lösningar; snarare än socialt arbete, eget motivations- och förändringsarbete av dåliga vanor och livsmönster - som är vårt intresseområde i denna studie.

    För att bättre förstå och bidra till utmaningarna så har ett samarbete initierats mellan Helsingborgs stads Forsknings- och utvecklingsenhet för social hållbarhet (FoU Helsingborg), Preventivt arbete tillsammans (PART) från Helsingborgs stad och forskare från både Lunds Internet institut (LUii), Lunds Universitet samt Digital design, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle på Kristianstad Högskola (HKR). Ett internt utvecklingsprojekt har genomförts av PART med stöd av FoU i Helsingborgs stad. I samband med utvecklingsprojektet har ett gränsöverskridande samarbete initierats där aktionsforskning ramat in utvecklingsprojektets empiriska studie och möjliggjort en gemensam yta för ett bredare kunskapsskapande. Vårt fokus har varit ett kunskapsbildande vad gäller aktivitetsarmband och motivationsappar för barn och unga som löper risk för ohälsa. Denna rapport presenterar en akademisk kunskapsöversikt, samt resultatet från ett utvecklingsprojekt där vi tillsammans undersökt effekterna av att använda aktivitetsarmband och tillhörande social app. Vi har beforskat vilken påverkan dessa kan ha på ungdomars egen motivation till fysisk aktivitet och goda sömnvanor.

    Syftet med pilotprojektet har varit att kartlägga forskningen på området, undersöka de upplevda effekter av att använda aktivitetsarmband med tillhörande motivationsapp för att stärka deltagares motivation till fysisk aktivitet och förbättrade sömnvanor, samt undersöka hur vi kan förstå de faktorer som verkar vara mest betydande för att uppnå effekter. Det senare har vi gjort genom att fokusera på fyra övergripande områden: Användandet av motivationsapp - Hur länge och med vilken frekvens använder deltagarna armband och motivationsapp? Värdeskapande för ungdomar - Till vilka positiva resultat bidrar armband och motivationsapp? Negativa bieffekter - Kan armband och motivationsapp orsaka negativa bieffekter hos deltagarna? Om så, till vilka områden hänför sig dessa bieffekter? Värdeskapande för personal – Vilken nytta ser personalen av armband och motivationsapp i sitt arbete?

    Ur ett forskningsperspektiv så är studien att betrakta som mindre, varvid dess värde skall beaktas utifrån detta. Mer forskning behövs i området motivationsappar och socialt arbete. Studieresultatet visar på faktorer som har betydelse för frågeställningarna, som också kan identifieras i tidigare forskning. Positiva upplevelser har varit att ungdomarna fått en märkbart ökad medvetenhet om sina egna levnadsmönster vad gäller motion och sömn. Tydligast märktes den nya medvetenhet som växte fram runt egna sömnvanor, även att dessa inte alltid gick att åtgärda på egen hand. Det var också uppenbart att den nya medvetenheten ledde ökad motivation och fysisk aktivitet. Identifierade negativa bieffekter var att stress kunde uppstå när ungdomarna var förhindrade att själva öka sitt stegantal samtidigt som de såg andra ungdomars resultat öka. Det rapporterades problem med att sköta den dagliga laddningen av aktivitetsarmbandet, samt att aktivera sömnmätningen när de skulle lägga sig. Ett stort värde för personalen var att de fick ett instrument som berikade kommunikationen utifrån “objektiv” data genererad av ungdomarnas egna mätningar av motion och sömn. Ett verktyg som utgjorde god hjälp för samtal, som i sig kunde bidra till bättre struktur i ungdomars liv.

  • 10.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Dittrich, Yvonne
    Danmark.
    Randall, Dave
    England.
    When plans do not work out: how plans are used in software development projects2005In: Computer Supported Cooperative Work, ISSN 0925-9724, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 433-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on empirical material from the area of software engineering, this articlediscusses the issue of plans and planning as an integral part of and prerequisite for software development work. It relates observed practices to literature produced by the Computer Supported Cooperative Work community. Empirical studies of software development practice seldom address re-planning. By analyzing the empirical material from one project we are able to show how certain kinds of co-ordination problems arise and how they may be dealt with. The empirical research does not focus primarily on the character of plans; instead, it raises the question ‘what means are necessary and should be provided in order to cope with situations when plans do not work out? In relation to plans, especial emphasis is on ‘‘due process’’, i.e. how the project plan and the company wide project model are maintained to enable the identification and articulation of deviations from it. On the basis of our empirical analysis we propose to support the articulation and coordination work necessary in situations where plans do not adequately work out.

  • 11.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Lindeburg, O
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Dittrich, Y
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    'Bad practice' or 'bad methods': are software engineering and ethnographic discourses incompatible?2002In: 2002 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EMPIRICAL SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, PROCEEDINGS, 2002, p. 204-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational problems in industry have evoked increased interest in empirical methodologies in the broader software engineering community. In this article ethnography and its relation to software engineering is addressed. Until now sociologists have performed the majority of ethnographic studies on software development. But how useful are these studies for software engineering? Ethnography emphasizes the members' point of view in order to understand the social. Studies from the members' perspective can be interpreted, as revealing 'bad methods' that do not work in complex work situations. From a sofiware engineering point of view, they just as easy point to the opposite as 'bad practice', bad application of existing methods. The objective of this paper is to promote ethnography and its contribution to sofiware engineering by revealing the different research attitudes of ethnographers and software engineers. Possibilities how to combine ethnographic studies with software method improvement are indicated.

  • 12.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    et al.
    Lund University Internet Institute.
    Svensson, MånsLund University Internet Institute.Palmqvist, LindaLund University Commissioned Education.
    Social innovation in a digital context: change projects within the academic scholarship programme -  final reports, 2012-20132014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Svensson, Måns
    Lund University.
    Svensson, Lupita
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Hanna
    Lund University.
    Empirisk studie av sociala medier i professionella organisationer 2013-2016: skola, social omsorg, och bibliotkek2017Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Urinboyev, Rustam
    Lund University.
    Svensson, Måns
    Lund University.
    Svensson, Lupita
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Hanna
    Lund University.
    Literature review of social media in professional organisations 2000-2015: work, stress, power relations, leadership, librarians, teachers, and social workers2017Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Winter, Jeff
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Hellman, Mats
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Inside information 2 - usability and user research: eight years of research and method development cooperation2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a follow up to the Inside Information – Usability and User Research at UIQ Technology report that was made available in October 2006. The initial report was written from an industrial point of view aimed to market UIQ Technology through the demonstration of the UIQ usability and user research philosophy. UIQ Technology Usability Metrics (UTUM) was important result here. UTUM was considered an extremely cost-effective method for keeping in focus what is important for users and handset makers. It was a tool for guiding development decisions as well as for validating the worthiness of design concepts. The two parts in UTUM was perceived by the company as an innovation in their software development practice. The first part was the relationship to users and attitude to their participation in the design process. The second part was how the company immediately and directly incorporated this usability understanding into the software development process. UTUM, together with other usability methods and results presented in this report, have been produced in an action research manner. Due to the closure of the company, the main author of the 2006 report, and the same researchers who also supported the writing of the initial report, decided to produce a follow-up and closure version of the initial report; as a way to summarize the results from the academic and industrial cooperation. In this updated version, eight years of joint action research and cooperative method development surrounding usability and user research is concluded.

  • 16.
    Tan, Jia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Gencel, Cigdem
    Italien.
    A framework for software usability & user experience measurement in mobile industry2013In: 2013 JOINT CONFERENCE OF THE 23RD INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON SOFTWARE MEASUREMENT AND THE 2013 EIGHTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE PROCESS AND PRODUCT MEASUREMENT (IWSM-MENSURA), 2013, p. 156-164Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mobile industry faces challenges in designing software usability and user experience (UX) measurement instruments. The major difficulties arise due to: 1) diversity of definitions and terminology used for usability and UX aspects and attributes, which lead to inconsistencies, and 2) lack of a taxonomy for these attributes with links to well-defined measures in the literature. In this paper, we present a framework to support mobile industry to overcome these challenges. We first unified the terminology and definitions for usability and UX attributes in the literature. Then, we created taxonomy of attributes and sub-attributes. By using the well-known Goal Question Metric (GQM) approach, we identified a comprehensive set of questions and measures for each attribute that could be used as a basis for developing measurement instruments. The framework was evaluated through a case study conducted in a usability research, development and consultancy company for mobile industry in Sweden.

  • 17.
    Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    SPI success factors within product usability evaluation2010In: JOURNAL OF SYSTEMS AND SOFTWARE, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 83, no 11, p. 2059-2072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an experience report where we compare 8 years of experience of product related usability testing and evaluation with principles for software process improvement (SPI). In theory the product and the process views are often seen to be complementary, but studies of industry have demonstrated the opposite. Therefore, more empirical studies are needed to understand and improve the present situation. We find areas of close agreement as well as areas where our work illuminates new characteristics. It has been identified that successful SPI is dependent upon being successfully combined with a business orientation. Usability and business orientation also have strong connections although this has not been extensively addressed in SPI publications. Reasons for this could be that usability focuses on product metrics whilst today's SPI mainly focuses on process metrics. Also because today's SPI is dominated by striving towards a standardized, controllable, and predictable software engineering process: whilst successful usability efforts in organisations are more about creating a creative organisational culture advocating a useful product throughout the development and product life cycle. We provide a study and discussion that supports future development when combining usability and product focus with SPI, in particular if these efforts are related to usability process improvement efforts. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Hellman, Mats
    UIQ Technology AB.
    Reporting Usability Metrics Experiences2009In: 2009 ICSE WORKSHOP ON COOPERATIVE AND HUMAN ASPECTS OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, IEEE , 2009, p. 108-115Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often claimed that software development is negatively affected by infrequent, incomplete and inconsistent measurements; improving with the help of metrics is an obvious solution. Software testing provides opportunities for measurement that give organizations insight in to processes. Usability testing is part of the testing area, although it is not a commonly addressed area within software engineering, perhaps because of a split between qualitative and quantitative paradigms. We compare a usability testing framework called UTUM with principles for Software Process Improvement, and find areas of close agreement as well as areas where our work illuminates new characteristics. UTUM is found to be a useful vehicle for improvement in software engineering, dealing as it does with both product and process. Our work emphasises the importance of the neglected area of usability testing. Our experience also illustrates how the metrics have been tailored to act as a boundary object between different disciplines.

  • 19.
    Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rissanen, Mikko
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Identifying organizational barriers: a case study of usability work when developing software in the automation industry2014In: JOURNAL OF SYSTEMS AND SOFTWARE, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 88, p. 54-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates connections between usability efforts and organizational factors. This is an important field of research which so far appears to be insufficiently studied and discussed. It illustrates problems when working with software engineering tasks and usability requirements. It deals with a large company that manufactures industrial robots with an advanced user interface, which wanted to introduce usability KPIs, to improve product quality. The situation in the company makes this difficult, due to a combination of organizational and behavioural factors that led to a "wicked problem" that caused conflicts, breakdowns and barriers. Addressing these problems requires a holistic view that places context in the foreground and technological solutions in the background. Developing the right product requires communication and collaboration between multiple stakeholders. The inclusion of end users, who fully understand their own work context, is vital. Achieving this is dependent on organizational change, and management commitment. One step to beginning this change process may be through studying ways to introduce user-centred design processes. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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