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  • 1.
    Asplund, Maria E.
    et al.
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Atnur, Vijay
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar, Karnataka, India.
    Raghunath, Pendru
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar, Karnataka, India.
    Saravanan, Vasudevan
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar, Karnataka, India.
    Härnstrom, Karolina
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg.
    Collin, Betty
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Karunasagar, Indrani
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, College of Fisheries, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar, Karnataka, India.
    Godhe, Anna
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg.
    Water column dynamics of Vibrio in relation to phytoplankton community composition and environmental conditions in a tropical coastal area2011In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 2738-2751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrio abundance generally displays seasonal patterns. In temperate coastal areas, temperature and salinity influence Vibrio growth, whereas in tropical areas this pattern is not obvious. The present study assessed the dynamics of Vibrio in the Arabian Sea, 1-2 km off Mangalore on the south-west coast of India, during temporally separated periods. The two sampling periods were signified by oligotrophic conditions, and stable temperatures and salinity. Vibrio abundance was estimated by culture-independent techniques in relation to phytoplankton community composition and environmental variables. The results showed that the Vibrio density during December 2007 was 10- to 100-fold higher compared with the February-March 2008 period. High Vibrio abundance in December coincided with a diatom-dominated phytoplankton assemblage. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model indicated that diatom biomass was the primary predictor variable. Low nutrient levels suggested high water column turnover rate, which bacteria compensated for by using organic molecules leaking from phytoplankton. The abundance of potential Vibrio predators was low during both sampling periods; therefore it is suggested that resource supply from primary producers is more important than top-down control by predators.

  • 2.
    Collin, Betty
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Characterization and persistence of potential human pathogenic vibrios in aquatic environments2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrio spp., natural inhabitants of aquatic environments, are one of the most common causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world, being spread to humans via the ingestion of seafood, contaminated drinking water or exposure to seawater. The majority of Vibrio spp. are avirulent, but certain strains may sporadically be human pathogenic. Vibrio cholerae may cause cholera and fatal wound infections, Vibrio parahaemolyticus may cause gastroenteritis and Vibrio vulnificus may cause wound infections and sepsis. To expand current knowledge of the occurrence, ecological niche and persistence of potential human pathogenic Vibrio spp. in aquatic environments, occurrence and laboratory studies were performed. The seasonal variation of Vibrio spp. in clams and mussels from Mozambique and Sweden were studied, with isolated strains characterized and compared with those isolated from water samples collected in India. Results showed that the numbers of Vibrio spp. in Mozambican clams peaked during the warmer rainy season and that the dominating species was V. parahaemolyticus. Biochemical fingerprinting and virulence screened by PCR revealed a high similarity among strains from the different aquatic environments. However, isolate functional hemolytic analyses and antibiotic resistance patterns differed between strains; Swedish and Indian strains were less sensitive to the tested antibiotics and had a lower hemolytic capacity than those from Mozambique. Molecular analysis of bacterial DNA from Swedish mussels showed the presence of the three Vibrio spp. most commonly linked with human illness, as well as their associated virulence genes. The strains isolated from marine and clinical environments were equally and highly harmful to the tested eukaryotic cells. The persistence of clinical V. cholerae in aquatic environments was investigated in vivo. Strains were exposed to mussels, with bacterial uptake and elimination then examined. The mussels were able to avoid the most potent strain by complete closure of shells. The less potent strain was accumulated in mussel tissue in low levels and one marine control strain to a higher degree. Mussels eliminated the pathogenic strain less efficiently than they did the marine strain. One clinical and one marine strain were then exposed to 4°C for 21 days, with the temperature then increased to 20°C. The clinical strain was more prone to lose culturability than the marine strain at 4°C, the former performed significantly better in regaining culturability after the temperature up-shift. Subsequently, the persistence of the clinical strain in natural bottom sediment, incubating as above, was studied and results showed a similar decrease in culturable numbers in the sediment as in the water. As the clinical V. cholerae strains did not carry any of the standard set of virulence genes, the ability to change from non-culturable to culturable may be of great importance to strain pathogenicity. The results also show that natural bottom sediment may be a potential reservoir of human pathogenic Vibrio spp.

  • 3.
    Collin, Betty
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    The importance of marine sediments as a reservoir for human pathogenic Vibrio cholerae in cold water conditionsArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Collin, Betty
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Occurrence and potential pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus on the South Coast of Sweden2011In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 306-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the summer of 2006, several wound infections - of which three were fatal caused by Vibrio cholerae were reported from patients who had been exposed to water from the Baltic Sea. Before these reports, we initiated a sampling project investigating the occurrence of potential human pathogenic V. cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in The Sound between Sweden and Denmark. The Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was used as an indicator to follow the occurrence of vibrios over time. Molecular analyses showed high frequencies of the most potent human pathogenic Vibrio spp.; 53% of mussel samples were positive for V. cholerae (although none were positive for the cholera toxin gene), 63% for V. vulnificus and 79% for V. parahaemolyticus (of which 47% were tdh(+) and/or trh(+)). Viable vibrios were also isolated from the mussel meat and screened for virulence by PCR. The mortality of eukaryotic cells when exposed to bacteria was tested in vivo, with results showing that the Vibrio strains, independent of species and origin, were harmful to the cells. Despite severe infections and several deaths, no report on potential human pathogenic vibrios in this area had been published before this study.

  • 5.
    Collin, Betty
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Ehn Börjesson, Stina-Mina
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Mussagy, Aidate
    Department of Biological Sciences, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Characteristics of potentially pathogenic vibrios from subtropical Mozambique compared with isolates from tropical India and boreal Sweden2013In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 255-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reported outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus have increased worldwide, particularly in regions of high seafood consumption. In Mozambique, seafood constitutes an important food resource and diarrheal diseases are common among its inhabitants. Edible clams were collected in Maputo Bay during both the dry and rainy seasons, with the results showing the number of viable counts of vibrios in clams to peak during the latter. Vibrio parahaemolyticus was the predominant species identified among the isolated strains. Although only one of 109 total strains carried the tdh virulence gene, 69% of isolates showed evidence of hemolytic capacity when subjected to a functional test. Similar virulence patterns and biochemical properties were found in strains isolated from Indian and Swedish marine waters. Antibiotic resistance was, however, more pronounced in strains isolated from these latter two environments.

  • 6.
    Collin, Betty
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    he Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Kristineberg, Fiskebäckskil.
    Faecal contaminants in edible bivalves from Maputo Bay, Mozambique: seasonal distribution, pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance2008In: Open Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1874-2882, Vol. 2, p. 86-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Maputo, Mozambique marine bivalves considerably contribute to the diet of the population. This study aimed to investigate seasonal distribution of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in clams from Maputo Bay, and examine their pathogenesis and antibiotic-resistant patterns. Standard multiple tube method revealed that the concentration of coliforms in all samples exceeded the limit for direct consumption, according to EU standards. Thirty-eight percent of the samples contained >60,000 MPN per 100 gram flesh. The occurrence of E. coli did not differ significantly due to season, while Salmonella was present in 100% of the samples during the rainy period and only in 30% during the dry. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction showed that 45% of E. coli isolates were positive for the virulent indicator gene fimA. The Salmonella isolates were identified as S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Among other isolated coliformic Enterobacteriaceae, Shigella sp. (specie), which in low doses can cause severe gastrointestinal infections, was identified. Antimicrobial susceptibility, recorded by the disk diffusion method, showed resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics. This high levels of faecal contaminants in the clams points out the need for risk assessment and sanitary improvements.

  • 7.
    Collin, Betty
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Lindmark, Barbro
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University.
    Pal, Amit
    National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India.
    Wai, Sun N.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    The origin of Vibrio cholerae influences uptake and persistence in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis2012In: Journal of Shellfish Research, ISSN 0730-8000, E-ISSN 1943-6319, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 87-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrio cholerae may cause diarrheal diseases and wound infections, both of which have the potential to be fatal. Transmission to humans is often linked to consumption of contaminated shellfish/drinking water or dermal exposure to water (e.g. when swimming). In this study, we investigated whether different isolates of Vibrio cholerae differ in terms of accumulation, persistence, and viability when encountering blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Mussel uptake and elimination of three different V. cholerae strains were compared: one fatal clinical non-O1/O139 isolate, one highly potent El Tor biotype, and one marine strain isolated from blue mussels. The results showed that the uptake of the marine strain was significantly higher than the clinical strain, but the elimination process of the marine strain was also more efficient. The El Tor strain was not at all ingested by the mussels. In addition, the survival of bacteria when incubated together with M. edulis hemocytes was tested in vitro. The viability of clinical strains was unaffected by the presence of hemocytes, and the marine strains were even more resistant and able to multiply. We conclude that the highly virulent El Tor biotype was not taken up by the mussels and could thereby escape the mussels' elimination process. The potentially fatal non-O1/O139 V. cholerae strain may accumulate in low numbers, but could be very persistent in mussels.

  • 8.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Collin, Betty
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Kan klimatförändringen öka smitta av infektionssjukdomar via havsvatten?2018In: Man and Biosphere Health: en komplett akademisk miljö / [ed] Ann-Sofi Rehnstam Holm, Kristianstad: Högskolan Kristianstad , 2018, p. 22-33Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De pågående klimatförändringarna gör haven allt varmare ochsurare. Dessutom förväntas perioder av intensiva regn att öka, v et bidrar till högre koncentrationer av näringsämnen i havsvattnet. Även sjukdomsframkallande bakterier och virus följer med vattnet från land ut i havet. Näringsämnena kommer att göda algblomningarna, vilket resulterar i fler syrefria bottnar. I bottensedimenten finns det naturligt rikligt med metallen mangan. Den frisätts till vattnet vid syrebrist och kan då tas upp av bottenlevande djur. I spåren av detta har vi genom experimentella långtidsstudier sett negativa effekter på immunförsvaret hos både kräfta, mussla och sjöstjärna. Förmågan att eliminera inkräktande bakterier och virus försämrades och djuren blev mer infektionsbenägna. Den tydligaste effekten såg vi då vi tillsatte mangan. Vi undersöker även hur viabilitet och virulens hos sjukdomsalstrande bakterier i havet påverkas och har bl.a. sett att havslevande bakterier av släktet Vibrio inte far illa av de förändrade faktorerna i havet, vilket indikerar att de kan få ett övertag på demarina organismerna, vars immunförsvar försvagats.

  • 9.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Collin, Betty
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Vibrio-arter i sydsvenska vatten orsakade badsårsfeber: ökande frekvens av bakterierna, visar studier på musslor2009In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 106, no 7, p. 435-438Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrios are autochthonous in estuarine and seawater environments, and have an important role in the decomposition of both particulate and dissolved organic matter. A considerable number of pathogenic strains have been described, including important human pathogens. Analyses of V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus genes in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from southern Sweden were conducted during summer-autumn 2006. 61% of the samples were positive for non-O1/O139 V. cholera (toxR positives), but all were negative for the choleratoxin gene ctx. 89% of the mussel samples contained V. parahaemolyticus and 61% of these were positive for the virulence genes tdh and trh. V. vulnificus were detected in 72% of the samples. Ongoing studies include analyses of Vibrio-phytoplankton interrelationships and survival of clinical Vibrio strains in the marine environment.

  • 10.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Collin, Betty
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Vibriobakterier i skånska vatten2011In: Smittskydd Skåne, no 2, p. 3-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Godhe, Anna
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg.
    Härnström, Karolina
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg.
    Raghunath, Pendru
    Saravanan, V.
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, College of Fisheries, Mangalore.
    Collin, Betty
    Kristianstad University, School of Teacher Education.
    Karunasagar, Indrani
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, College of Fisheries, Mangalore.
    Karunasagar, Iddya
    Department of Fishery Microbiology, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, College of Fisheries, Mangalore.
    Association between phytoplankton and Vibrio spp. along the southwest coast of India: a mesocosm experiment2010In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 127-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the results from a mesocosm study investigating the interrelationship between microalgae and vibrios. The mesocosms were inoculated with plankton, plankton + sediment, or sediment. We followed the diatom bloom and increases in the abundance of Vibrio spp. and V parahaemolyticus in conjunction with several environmental variables in all mesocosms and at a reference site. The dominating diatom genera were also identified. Temperature, salinity, and pH were nearly invariant in the mesocosms and did not contribute to the results. The principal environmental variables that correlated to vibrio abundance were total bacterial plate counts, phosphorus and ammonia (positive relationship), and oxygen and silica (negative). Nitrate, total bacterial counts and chlorophyll a (chl a) did not correlate with vibrio growth. The highest diatom abundances were followed by increases in vibrios in all mesocosms. This was also observed in field sampling. Together, these results suggest that diatom blooms could support Vibrio spp. growth. V parahaemolyticus was initially favoured by sediment. The contribution of V parahaemolyticus to the total bacterial population was low, on average 0.5 %, but constituted a rather high proportion of the vibrio population in the mesocosm systems, i.e. on average 18 %. Some of the identified diatom genera, e.g. Chaetoceros and Skeletonema, were negatively correlated to vibrios, while Coscinodiscus was positively correlated. The results indicate that phytoplankton blooms, when recorded as high levels of chl a, should be used with caution as predictors for future vibrio epidemics, since the origin of the chl a might have a significant effect on vibrio abundance.

  • 12.
    Thorell, Kaisa
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Collin, Betty
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Sjöling, Åsa
    Karolinska institutet.
    Complete genome sequences of two marine Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from the south coast of Sweden2016In: Genome Announcements, ISSN 2169-8287, E-ISSN 2169-8287, Vol. 4, no 5, article id e01118-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 are commonly associated with diarrhea, while non-O1-O139 strains may cause wound infections. Here, we present the genome sequences of two V. cholerae strains isolated from blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) collected in coastal waters of southern Sweden.

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