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  • 1.
    Figuero, Elena
    et al.
    University Complutense, Madrid.
    Lindahl, Christel
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Marín, María José
    University Complutense, Madrid.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Herrera, David
    University Complutense, Madrid.
    Ohlsson, Ola
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap I. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Wetterling, Thomas
    Central Hospital Kristianstad.
    Sanz, Mariano
    University Complutense, Madrid.
    Quantification of periodontal pathogens in vascular, blood and subgingival samples from patients with peripheral arterial disease or abdominal aortic aneurysms2014In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 85, no 9, p. 1182-1193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this investigation was to quantify periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Campylobacter rectus and Tannerella forsythia) in vascular, blood and subgingival samples. As secondary objective, two molecular bacterial identification methods [nested-polimerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR)] were compared.

    Methods: Seventy consecutive patients provided a vascular lesion, a blood sample, and 36 subgingival samples. Bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted and qPCR was used to determine the prevalence and amounts of the target pathogens in each sample. Nested-PCR was only performed in the samples from vascular lesions. Periodontal examination was performed in 42 patients. U-Mann-Whitney or Chi-squared tests were used to compare microbiological results according to periodontal diagnosis.

    Results: All targeted periodontal pathogens (A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia or C. rectus) were detected in subgingival samples with a prevalence rate of 72.2%, 47.2%, 74.3% and 82.9%, respectively. In 7.1% and 11.4% of vascular and blood samples, bacterial DNA was detected. One patient was positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans in the three types of samples. No differences were found in the levels of targeted bacteria when comparing periodontitis and non-periodontitis patients. Prevalence rates obtained with nested PCR were significantly higher than those obtained by qPCR.

    Conclusions: The presence of of A. actinomycetemcomitans was demonstrated in vascular, blood and subgingival samples in one out of 36 patients. These results, although with a very low frequency, may support the hypothesis of a translocation of periodontal pathogens from subgingival microbiota to the blood stream and then to atheromatous plaques in carotid or other peripheral arteries. Nested-PCR is not an adequate method for identifying DNA of periodontal pathogens in low quantities, due to the high number of false negative results.

  • 2.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    et al.
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Ohlsson, Ola
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Department of Medicine, Kristianstad Central Hospital, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Chronic periodontitis, a significant relationship with acute myocardial infarction.2003In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 24, no 23, p. 2108-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chronic periodontitis (CP) has been associated with cardiovascular diseases. The study purposes were to identify the odds of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and CP defined at different thresholds.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 80 subjects with clinically confirmed AMI and 80 matched control subjects with no evidence of cardiovascular disease all receiving a comprehensive periodontal examination. Statistical analysis demonstrated a difference in the proportion of sites with a periodontal probing depth >/=6.0mm (2.7% for non-AMI and 12.1% for AMI group, 95% CI: -2.8 to 0.01, P<0.05) but no difference in the extent of gingival bleeding was found between groups. The odds ratio of having AMI and periodontitis varied between 9.2:1 to 14.1:1 with the greatest odds ratio if bone loss exceeded 4mm at >/=50% of the teeth (OR: 14.1:1, 95% CI: 5.5 to 28.2, P<0.0001). The odds ratio remained significant also when only non-smokers were considered (51 subjects) (OR: 7.0:1, 95% CI: 2.0 to 24.3, P<0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that patients who at routine dental visits demonstrate evidence of bone loss around several teeth can predictably be identified as being at risk for future AMI. Such subjects should be referred for medical and periodontal examinations and treatments.

  • 3.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    et al.
    University of Bern.
    Pettersson, T.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ohlsson, Ola
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Periodontitis a future risk for acute coronary syndrome?: a follow up study over 3 years2009In: Europerio 6: Stockholm, Sweden, 4-6 June 2009 / [ed] Tonetti, Maurizio, Renvert, Stefan, 2009, p. 33-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To assess whether recurrence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can be linked to periodontitis in subjects followed over a 3 year period. Methods and results: Consecutive 163 hospital admitted subjects with ACS, and 158 medically healthy matched control subjects were followed through medical records review over 3 years. At baseline, subjects received medical and dental examinations. Periodontitis was defined as alveolar bone loss (ABL) > 2 S.D. above normal mean values. Subgingival bacterial samples were collected and processed by checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization. ACS recurrence was found in 66/163 (40.5%) subjects, and a first ACS event in 7/158 (4.4%) control subjects. ABL was a risk marker of future ACS with OR: 3.6 (95%CI: 2.0-6.5, P < 0.001). Subject age was also an explanatory factor for a new ACS event (P < 0.001). Significantly higher subgingival bacterial counts for 20/37 species (i.e., Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus mitis, Tannerella forsythia) in ACS cases than in healthy controls. None of traditional serum markers (CRP, high and low density lipoprotein, cholesterol, triglycerides) were explanatory. Conclusions: Age, and periodontitis (ABL) are robust markers of risk for future ACS. Subgingival bacterial counts are elevated in subjects with ACS.

  • 4.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    et al.
    Departments of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA & Department of Periodontology and Fixed Prosthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Department of Medicine, Kristianstad Central Hospital, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Ola
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Department of Medicine, Kristianstad Central Hospital, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    High-sensitivity serum C-reactive protein levels in subjects with or without myocardial infarction or periodontitis.2005In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 219-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsC-rp) is a non-specific marker of inflammation. Elevated hsC-rp levels are found in subjects with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Periodontitis may influence hsC-rp levels.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess periodontal status and hsC-rp serum levels in consecutive subjects hospitalized and diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (n=85) and in a group of carefully matched subjects (gender, age social, ethnic, and smoking habits) without clinical evidence of CVD (n=63).

    METHODS: hsC-rp levels, other routine serum values, and clinical periodontal conditions were studied.

    RESULTS: Subjects with AMI had higher hsC-rp levels than control subjects (p<0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test). The odds that subjects in the control group with periodontitis (30% or more sites with>4.0 mm loss of alveolar bone) had serum hsC-rp>1.8 mg/l was 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-7.3, p<0.05). Stepwise linear regression analysis failed to include periodontal parameters in an explanatory model to hsC-rp values. Only the serum leucocyte (white blood cell (WBC)) counts were explanatory to hsC-rp values (beta standard coefficient=0.45, t=3.2, p<0.001). Serum WBC counts were significantly higher in control subjects with periodontitis (p<0.03) but not in subjects in the AMI group (p<0.57).

    CONCLUSIONS: (1) As expected, elevated serum hsC-rp concentration and serum WBC counts are associated with acute coronary heart disease. (2) Elevated serum hsC-rp values are associated with radiographically defined periodontitis in subjects with no evidence of CVD. (3) Periodontal parameters are not explanatory to elevated serum hsC-rp values if serum WBC and low-density lipoprotein counts are included in the regression model.

  • 5.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ohlsson, Ola
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Persson, Rutger
    Hjärt-kärlsjukdom och parodontit studeras2009In: Tandläkartidningen, ISSN 0039-6982, Vol. 101, no 7, p. 56-57Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    tudier visar att patienter med omfattande kardiovaskulär sjukdom ofta också har parodontit. För att reducera risken för hjärt-kärlkomplikationer krävs troligen en väsentlig reduktion av den orala bakteriebelastningen. Patienter med omfattande parodontit bör remitteras till medicinsk undersökning av hjärta och kärl.

  • 6.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Ohlsson, Ola
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Persson, Susanna
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    School of Dental Medicine, University of Berne, Switzerland.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    School of Dental Medicine, University of Berne, Switzerland.
    Analysis of periodontal risk profiles in adults with or without a history of myocardial infarction2004In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 19-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: An association between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases has been suggested.

    AIMS: To study whether a combination of clinical variables in a functional risk diagram enhanced the ability to differentiate between subjects with or without an immediate history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A functional periodontal pentagon risk diagram (PPRD) with five periodontal risk vectors was created. The surface of individual PPRDs was calculated using data from 88 subjects with recent AMI and 80 matched control subjects with no history of AMI.

    RESULTS: Age, gender, number of remaining teeth (mean value: 21.1 versus 21.6 teeth), smoking status, and pocket probing depth (PPD) distribution did not differ by group. Gingival recession was greater in control subjects (mean difference: 5.7, SD: +/- 1.9, p<0.01, 95% CI: 1.8-9.6). Bone loss > or = 4.0 mm was at all levels studied was significantly greater in subjects with AMI and bone loss > or = 50% (> or = 4 mm) was the best individual predictor of AMI (beta = 2.99, p < 0.000, 95% CI: 7.5-53.4). Only PPRD scores were associated with AMI status when factors not included in the PPRD were studied (beta = 22.1, SE: 5.9, p < 0.0001, 95% CI: 10.3-33.7). The best association between AMI status and study variables was the combination of > or = 4 mm of bone loss > or = 50%, proportion of bleeding on probing (%BOP), %PPDs > or = 6 mm, and tooth loss (Nagelkirke r2 = 0.46).

    CONCLUSIONS: The combination of five periodontal parameters in a PPRD added predictive value, suggesting that comprehensive data should be used in studies of associations between periodontitis and heart diseases. Radiographic evidence of bone loss was the best individual parameter.

  • 7.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ohlsson, Ola
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Department of Medicine, Kristianstad Central Hospital.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Department of Periodontology, University of Bern.
    Periodontitis: a future risk of acute coronary syndrome?: A follow-up study over 3 years2010In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 81, no 7, p. 992-1000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Periodontitis has been associated with cardiovascular disease. We assess if the recurrence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) could be predicted by preceding medical and periodontal conditions. Methods: A total of 165 consecutive subjects with ACS and 159 medically healthy, matched control subjects were examined and followed for 3 years. Periodontitis was defined by alveolar bone loss. Subgingival microbial samples were studied by the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method. Results: The recurrence of ACS was found in 66 of 165 (40.0%) subjects, and a first ACS event was found in seven of 159 (4.4%) subjects among baseline control subjects. Subjects who later had a second ACS event were older (P<0.001). Significantly higher serum levels of high-density lipoprotein (P <0.05), creatinine (P <0.01), and white blood cell (WBC) counts (P <0.001) were found in subjects with future ACS. Periodontitis was associated with a first event of ACS (crude odds ratio [OR]: 10.3:1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.1 to 17.4; P <0.001) and the recurrence of ACS (crude OR: 3.6:1; 95% CI: 2.0 to 6.6; P <0.001). General linear modeling multivariate analysis, controlling for age and the prediction of a future ACS event, identified that WBC counts (F = 20.6; P <0.001), periodontitis (F = 17.6; P <0.001), and serum creatinine counts (F = 4.5; P<0.05) were explanatory of a future ACS event. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that recurrent ACS events are predicted by serum WBC counts, serum creatinine levels, and a diagnosis of periodontitis. Significantly higher counts of putative pathogens are found in subjects with ACS, but these counts do not predict future ACS events.

  • 8.
    Renvert, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Department of Medicine, Central Hospital, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Ola
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Bacterial profile and burden of periodontal infection in subjects with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome.2006In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 77, no 7, p. 1110-1119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Periodontitis has been identified as a potential risk factor in cardiovascular diseases. It is possible that the stimulation of host responses to oral infections may result in vascular damage and the inducement of blood clotting. The aim of this study was to assess the role of periodontal infection and bacterial burden as an explanatory variable to the activation of the inflammatory process leading to acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

    METHODS: A total of 161 consecutive surviving cases admitted with a diagnosis of ACS and 161 control subjects, matched with cases according to their gender, socioeconomic level, and smoking status, were studied. Serum white blood cell (WBC) counts, high- and low-density lipoprotein (HDL/LDL) levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsC-rp) levels, and clinical periodontal routine parameters were studied. The subgingival pathogens were assayed by the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method.

    RESULTS: Total oral bacterial load was higher in the subjects with ACS (mean difference: 17.4x10(5); SD: 10.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.2 to 17.4; P<0.001), and significant for 26 of 40 species including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, and Treponema denticola. Serum WBC counts, hsC-rp levels, Streptococcus intermedius, and Streptococcus sanguis, were explanatory factors to acute coronary syndrome status (Nagelkerke r2=0.49).

    CONCLUSION: The oral bacterial load of S. intermedius, S. sanguis, Streptococcus anginosus, T. forsythensis, T. denticola, and P. gingivalis may be concomitant risk factors in the development of ACS.

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