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  • 1.
    Halling, Anders
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute for Research and Development, Karlshamn.
    Halling, Arne
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Unell, Lennart
    Department of Dentistry, Örebro County Council.
    General health and tobacco habits among middle-aged Swedes2007In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 151-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Convincing scientific evidence exists that smoking has devastating effects on health. The use of smokeless tobacco (snuff) as a tobacco habit has been reported to be considerably less harmful, and has been suggested as an aid to smoking cessation, among other things. Methods: Cross-sectional data on general health and tobacco habits were obtained through a self-administered mail questionnaire in 2002 representing 50-year-old (n = 6236) and 60-year-old (n = 6232) Swedes in two counties. Participation rates were 70.2 and 75.7% in the both age cohorts, respectively. Of all participants 46.2% were male and 53.8% female. A general health index encompassing five items (score 0-5) was designed, with the best general health attributed to those scoring 5. Results: Male daily smokers accounted for 15.6% of the 50-year-olds and 18.7% of the 60-years-olds compared with 21.1 and 16.6%, respectively, for females. Corresponding figures for daily snuffing were 21.1 and 11.9% for men and 1.7 and 0.4% for women. When adjusting for age, sex, place of living, social network, education, and marital status, and related to subjects who never used tobacco, 'best general health' score 5, significant differences were found for ex-smokers (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.74-0.90; P < 0.001) and ex-snuffers (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.61-0.90; P < 0.01). Conclusion: Those who have stopped smoking or snuffing seem to be in a vulnerable condition with respect to general health and in need of extra support and health-promoting activities.

  • 2.
    Halling, Arne
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Konferensrapport DIVERSTAS OSC2: Kapstaden, Sydafrika, 13-16 oktober 20092009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Johansson, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Oral Sciences - Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Bergen.
    Unell, Lennart
    Department of Oral Public Health, Malm University, Malmö.
    Carlsson, Gunnar E.
    Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Göteborg University.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Department of Oral Public Health, Malmö University.
    Halling, Arne
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Differences in four reported symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders in a cohort of 50-year-old subjects followed up after 10 years2008In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 50-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess possible changes in the prevalence of four temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms reported by subjects at age 50 and again 10 years later. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Identical questionnaires were sent out in 1992 and in 2002 to all subjects born in 1942 and living in two Swedish counties. Of those who answered the four questions on TMD symptoms in 1992, 74% responded in 2002 (n=4639). The response alternatives were dichotomized into two groups: 1) No problems and 2) some, rather severe and severe problems. RESULTS: The mean prevalence of TMD-related symptoms reflected small and mainly non-significant changes, whereas the prevalence of reported bruxism was significantly greater at age 60 than at age 50. Among those with no TMD symptoms at age 50, 5-7% of the men and 8-9% of the women reported symptoms at age 60. Of those reporting one or more TMD symptoms at age 50, 47-65% of the men and 40-48% of the women had no symptoms 10 years later. There was a significant and markedly increased risk of reporting TMD symptoms and bruxism (OR>10) at age 60 among those who had symptoms at age 50. CONCLUSIONS: The mean prevalence of reported TMD symptoms was relatively consistent from age 50 to age 60. The group reporting symptoms at the first examination were highly likely still to have the symptoms 10 years later. However, approximately half of the subjects with TMD symptoms at age 50 reported no symptoms at age 60.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Gunvi
    et al.
    Kalmar County Council and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg.
    Gerdin, Elisabeth Wärnberg
    School of Human Sciences, Kalmar University.
    Halling, Arne
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Axtelius, Björn
    School of Human Sciences, Kalmar University.
    Ostberg, Anna-Lena
    University of Karlstad.
    Measuring oral health from a public health perspective2008In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 125-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims to analyse measures of oral health-related quality of life (OHQOL) from a Public Health perspective. Twenty-two measures were analysed conceptually as to their mirroring of the Public Health principles: empowerment, participation, holism and equity. Elements of empowerment were found in connection with application of the measures. Participation was found in using lay opinions during development in 12 measures. All measures analysed had elements of a holistic approach so far that they were not wholly biological. Two measures captured positive health effects. Measures were available for all ages, various languages and populations, an element of equity. No measure was wholly compatible with Public Health. They were based on a utilitarian theory not in full accordance with modern health promotion. There is a need to develop measures that more obviously capture the positive aspects of health and health as a process, as well as the personal perspective of oral health.

  • 5.
    Korostenski, Jaromir
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Persson, Christel
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Höglund, Hans-Olof
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Halling, Arne
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Environmental management system at higher education accentuates education for sustainable development2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Under Swedish law, the universities are required to implement environmental management systems (EMS) in their operations. The introductory EMS review emphasizes education for sustainable development (ESD) as the most significant environmental aspect. Contemporary education spends time on training in sustainability with established knowledge, hazards, risks and approaches for improvement of known issues through 'declarative knowledge', which is always a step behind developments, because it works with historical facts.

    Objectives:Consequently, a target has been set of equipping students with the knowledge, values, attitudes and competences that will help them deal with problems that arise in society in the future through the introduction of ESD into all of the university’s programs. The aspect of how we can assess whether graduate students possess these skills remains to be resolved before the annual EMS audit.

    Methods:The available methods for evaluation are surveys addressed to students, alumni and teachers in a prolonged time study. ESD extends and adapts contemporary 'declarative knowledge' to a teachers' toolkit of 'functioning knowledge' as an intrinsic part regardless of the field or the teaching topic.

    Results:We will develop ESD in the form of tools which can be easily recognized at higher education. The challenge is to broaden students' knowledge and comprehension of a core academic discipline to a level that has not been considered or introduced into education at our university or used in practice.

    Conclusion:Toolkits which can conveniently be used in ESD are discussed in the conclusions of this paper. The result in annual surveys reports the level of continuous improvement concerning EMS objectives and for teachers it confirms the achievement in planned progression and development of ESD in courses.

  • 6.
    Lundström, Jan O.
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.
    Schäfer, Martina L.
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.
    Hesson, Jenny C.
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.
    Blomgren, Eric
    Section of Environment and Biosecurity, Department of Chemistry, Environment and Feed Hygiene, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala.
    Lindström, Anders
    Section of Environment and Biosecurity, Department of Chemistry, Environment and Feed Hygiene, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala.
    Wahlqvist, Pernilla
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.
    Halling, Arne
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Hagelin, Anna
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.
    Ahlm, Claes
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases, Umeå University.
    Evander, Magnus
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology, Umeå University.
    Broman, Tina
    CBNR Defense and Security, Swedish Defense Research Agency, Umeå.
    Forsman, Mats
    CBNR Defense and Security, Swedish Defense Research Agency, Umeå.
    Persson Vinnersten, Thomas Z.
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.
    The geographic distribution of mosquito species in Sweden2013In: Journal of the European Mosquito Control Association, ISSN 1460-6127, Vol. 31, p. 21-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveillance of the actual distribution of mosquito species in Northern Europe is fundamental for evaluating risk for emerging pathogens, and for research on potential vectors. The Swedish mosquito fauna composition and geographic distribution, originally described by Professor Christine Dahl in the 1970´s, included 43 species. We have compiled the information published from 1978 to 2012, and our own surveillance data from 2001 to 2013, and compared this with the species list and geographic distribution provided in “Taxonomy and geographic distribution of Swedish Culicidae” by Dahl (1977). New species detected during these 36 years were Culiseta (Culicella) ochroptera (Peus, 1935) published 1984, Aedes (Aedes) rossicus Dolbeskin, Goritzkaja & Mitrofanova, 1930 published 1986, Anopheles (Anopheles) beklemishevi published 1986, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) euedes (Howard, Dyar & Knab, 1912) published 2001, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) nigrinus (Eckstein, 1918) first recorded in 2012, and Anopheles (Anopheles) algeriensis Theobald, 1903, first recorded in 2013. We provide maps with the distribution by province for each species, including historic information up until 1977, and new records from 1978 to 2013, showing the similarities and differences between the old and the new records. Important findings in recent years include the wide distribution of the Sindbis virus enzootic vector Culex (Culex) torrentium Martinii, 1925, and the more limited distribution of the potential West Nile virus vector Culex (Culex) pipiens Linnaeus, 1758. The updated list of mosquito species in Sweden now includes 49 species.

  • 7.
    Mårtensson, Carina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Department of Oral Public Health, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University.
    Andersson, Pia
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Halling, Arne
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Factors behind change in knowledge after a mass media campaign targeting periodontitis2006In: International Journal of Dental Hygiene, ISSN 1601-5029, E-ISSN 1601-5037, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 8-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in knowledge before and after a mass media campaign, in relation to social attributes, care system attributes and oral health aspects. The study was based on a questionnaire in a cohort design, sent out to 900 randomly sampled people aged 50–75 in Sweden. The response rate to the questionnaire before and after the campaign was 70% and 65% respectively. Sixty-four percent answered both questionnaires. Two questions addressed knowledge, while 10 questions aimed to measure social attributes, care system attributes and oral health aspects. Data were analysed for bivariate relations as to change in knowledge and social attributes, care system attributes and oral health aspects. Data were also analysed in multiple regression analysis with knowledge before, knowledge after and knowledge differences as dependent variables. The results showed that there were a number of independent variables with influence on the dependent variables. Of the social attributes, secondary education gave almost 10% (P < 0.001) better knowledge both before and after the campaign. Among care system attributes, high care utilization was related to knowledge both before and after the campaign. The most important factors for knowledge about periodontitis were education, care utilization and perceived importance of oral health. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that mass media might increase knowledge about periodontitis as a health promotion strategy.

  • 8.
    Mårtensson, Carina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö University.
    Halling, Arne
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Knowledge on periodontal disease before and after a mass media campaign2004In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 165-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if a mass media campaign regarding periodontal disease could increase the knowledge in the general population of diagnoses, symptoms and treatment options of periodontal disease. More specifically, the aim was to investigate the number of correct answers to knowledge questions before and after the campaign. The Swedish Association of Periodontology conducted the campaign through brochures, newspapers, radio and TV. The effect of the campaign was evaluated by a pre- and post campaign questionnaire with a cohort design. From a national population register of 50-75 year olds in Sweden, 900 persons were randomly sampled for the study. A total of 64% of the sample answered both questionnaires. The result of the study showed an improvement among the respondents. There was a significant increase in the number of correct answers regarding diagnoses, symptoms and treatments of periodontitis. In the questionnaire, correct answers regarding "Mobile teeth" increased from 57% to 65% (p=0.003) and "careful dental hygiene" from 65% to 73% (p=0.001). Kappa value's were calculated for consistency in the reply and all kappa values were low especially for the questions "X-ray" (0.36) and "Cleaning between the teeth" (0.38). It was concluded that the campaign probably was successful from a public health knowledge standpoint.

  • 9.
    Mårtensson, Carina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Halling, Arne
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kunskap om parodontal sjukdom före och efter en massmediakampanj2005In: Tandhygienisttidningen. 25(3), 2005, Vol. 25, p. 63-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Persson, Christel
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Korostenski, Jaromir
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Halling, Arne
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Högskoleutbildning i hållbar utveckling - en kartläggning vid Högskolan Kristianstad2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11. Sjögren, P.
    et al.
    Halling, Arne
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Medline search validity for randomised controlled trials in different areas of dental research2002In: British Dental Journal, ISSN 0007-0610, E-ISSN 1476-5373, Vol. 192, no 2, p. 97-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity of Medline searches for randomised controlled trials in dental research (RCT-Ds), using the medical subject headings (MeSH-terms). DESIGN: The Medline database was searched for randomised controlled trials in dental research (RCT-Ds) published in 1999 and with MeSH-terms corresponding to different areas of dental research. All RCT-Ds were manually examined for relevance to the different areas of dental research and cross-tabulated against the Medline search results. The sensitivity, specificity, positive (precision) and negative predictive values, as well as the accuracy of the search results were calculated. RESULTS: The highest validity in the Medline searches for RCT-Ds was seen for endodontics, followed by orthodontics, whereas the lowest validity was seen for pediatric dentistry and public health dentistry. For pediatric dentistry the MeSH-term searches had too low a sensitivity for adequate location of RCT-Ds. CONCLUSIONS: MeSH-term searches on Medline are a useful tool for rapid location of RCT-Ds in most areas of dental research. However, there is a vast variation in the search validity. More refined search strategies are required to locate RCT-Ds in areas of dental research with low search validity.

  • 12. Sjögren, P.
    et al.
    Halling, Arne
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Quality of reporting randomised clinical trials in dental and medical research2002In: British Dental Journal, ISSN 0007-0610, E-ISSN 1476-5373, Vol. 192, no 2, p. 100-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess 1) the quality of reporting randomised clinical trials in dental (RCT-Ds) and medical research (RCT-Ms), 2) the quality of RCT reports in relation to the journal impact factor, 3) the source of funding, and 4) the quality of RCT-Ds in different areas of dental research. DESIGN RANDOM: samples of 100 RCT-Ds and 100 RCT-Ms published in 1999 were evaluated for quality of reporting under blinded conditions with the Jadad quality assessment scale. In addition, correlation between the quality scores and journal impact factor or source of funding, as well as area of dental research were analysed. RESULTS: The quality of RCT-Ds and RCT-Ms published in 1999 was generally inadequate. The quality was largely equivalent in RCT-Ds and RCT-Ms. There was no correlation between the quality scores and the journal impact factor or the source of funding. Some differences were found in the quality scores between different areas of dental research. CONCLUSIONS: The results from these RCT-Ds and RCT-Ms show that most of them were imperfect in the reporting of methodology and trial conduct. There is a clear need to improve the quality of trial reporting in dental and medical research.

  • 13.
    Sjögren, Petteri
    et al.
    Public Dental Services Varberg.
    Halling, Arne
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Reliability methodology in caries epidemiological studies conducted in the Nordic countries between 1990 and 20012007In: Community Dental Health, ISSN 0265-539X, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 97-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To describe and analyse the reporting of methodology relating to reliability in caries epidemiological studies conducted in the Nordic countries between 1990 and 2001. Basic research design. Basic research design Literature searches were conducted in the Medline database, and reference lists of all obtained publications were scrutinised for additional studies. Publications fulfilling the inclusion criteria were assessed for study design, and methodological aspects relating to reliability were assessed according to recommendations for evidence-based medicine (EBM). The frequency of endorsement of the assessed items was analysed. Moreover, the type and strength of evidence was evaluated. Main outcome measures Reporting of predetermined methodological items relating to reliability and the frequency of endorsement of the assessed items were of primary interest. Results Initially, 724 publications were located in the literature searches. Of 133 eligible publications obtained, 32 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and remained throughout the analyses. The majority of the studies reported the reliability methodology, which was generally inadequate. The frequencies of endorsement ranged from 0% to 69 %. All publications contributed to a low strength of evidence. In this context, it was proposed that prospective longitudinal studies with a random sample selection be classified as type-2 (2b) level of evidence. Conclusion There seems to be a need to improve the reporting and the methodology relating to reliability in caries epidemiological publications. Reporting of random sample selection and at least two of the items assessed seems to discriminate between high and low quality with respect to the reported methodology relating to reliability.

  • 14. Ståhlnacke, Katri
    et al.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Halling, Arne
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Unell, Lennart
    Axtelius, Björn
    Tillfedsställelse angående tandvård och tandvårdsbesök i en svensk ålderskohort född 19422005In: Tandhygienisttidningen. 25(3), 2005, Vol. 25, p. 61-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Ståhlnacke, Katri
    et al.
    Örebro County Council.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Department of Oral Public Healt, Malmö University.
    Unell, Lennart
    Örebro County Council.
    Halling, Arne
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Axtelius, Björn
    Department of Oral Public Healt, Malmö University.
    Patient satisfaction with dental care in one Swedish age cohort: part 1 - descriptions and dimensions2007In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study were to investigate the dimensionality of satisfaction with dental care, to control the reproducibility of the analysis over time, to investigate changes between the two studied years and to relate satisfaction with elapsed time since the most recent visit to dental care. All persons born in 1942 in two counties in Sweden, Orebro and Ostergotland, were surveyed by post in 1992 at the age of 50 and resurveyed at the age of 55. There were 5363 persons responding at both times, constituting the study group. In this study, opinions are analysed about general satisfaction with dental care and about the most recent dental visit. Factor analysis, one-way ANOVA and contingency tables were used. Overall satisfaction was high both as to general satisfaction and as to the most recent dental care visit. Those with their most recent dental visit more than a year ago felt more pain, anxiety and unpleasantness and were also more generally dissatisfied. Of those having experiences of pain, anxiety and unpleasantness at most recent visit, there was an overrepresentation of non regular attenders. Factor analysis showed that the questions used revealed a stable pattern. In conclusion, the overall satisfaction with dental care was high. Differences between the two studied years were small. Persons not visiting dental care within the last year were more dissatisfied both generally and with the most recent visit. A greater number of regular attenders had no feelings of anxiety, pain or unpleasantness at all.

  • 16.
    Ståhlnacke, Katri
    et al.
    Örebro County Council.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Department of oral public health, Malmö University.
    Unell, Lennart
    Örebro County Council.
    Halling, Arne
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Axtelius, Björn
    Department of oral public health, Malmö University.
    Patient satisfaction with dental care in one Swedish age cohort: part II - what affects satisfaction2007In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 137-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate satisfaction with dental care in relation to dental care factors, recent dental care experiences, past dental care experiences, general health factors, oral health factors and socio-economic factors and all over time. All persons born in 1942 in two counties in Sweden, Orebro and Ostergötland, were surveyed by post in 1992 at the age of 50, and resurveyed at the age 55. There were 5363 persons responding at both times, constituting the study group. A conceptual theoretical model was constructed to be used as a framework in the analysis. Multiple regression analysis and contingency tables were used. Factors related to satisfaction with dental care were: care organisation, cost for care, visit to dental specialist, time spent in waiting room, regular attendance, reception at dental clinic, feelings of anxiety, taking part of school dentistry, smoking, oral health factors, dental appearance and being dissatisfied 5 years previously. Change between the two study years was affected by perceived oral health, experiences from the most recent dental visit and care organisation. Oral health related factors and dental care factors like cost for care and care organisation were related to satisfaction with dental care. Likewise were experiences from the most recent dental visit and to some extent past care experiences like school dentistry. Almost no correlation was seen between socio-economic factors and satisfaction.

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