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  • 1.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Department of Humanities, Mid Sweden University.
    Lundmark, Carita
    Kristianstad University, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    "Let's keep it informal, guys": a study of the effects of teacher communicative strategies on student activity and collaborative learning in internet-based English courses2008In: Tidskrift för lärarutbildning och forskning, ISSN 1404-7659, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 39-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores the quantity and quality of communication produced by teachers in Internet courses of academic English, particularly during the initial stages of course activity. The courses are entirely conducted in virtual learning environments without physical meetings, and are part of the Bachelor programme (A–C level) of English at Mid Sweden University. The pedagogic design of the courses is based on collaborative learning, which presupposes a communicative environment with positive interdependence and interaction, where knowledge is shared by students questioning and challenging each other. Consequently, the teacher’s role in setting communicative norms which encourage an environment of high acceptance, where students feel that they can express their opinions freely, is of utmost importance. The results suggest that there are two important factors that affect student activity in the initial stages of an online course: how much the teacher communicates with the class and the manner in which he or she does so.

  • 2.
    Johansson Falck, Marlene
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Lundmark, Carita
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Tunnelling, towering, and bridging: the figurative and non-figurative use of converted verbs2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a corpus linguistic investigation of the converted verbs tunnel, tower and bridge. It is based on 500 random instances of each verb from the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA). We analyze the usage patterns of these verbs and the ways in which they are constrained by people’s embodied experiences of real-world tunnels, towers and bridges. Our aim is to better understand the ways in which people’s embodied experiences of artefacts influence the usage patterns of converted verbs.

    Noun-verb conversion has previously been explained in terms of metonymy (e.g. Dirven 1999), or in terms of combinations between metonymy and metaphor (e.g. Kuczok 2011). Dirven (1999: 280) suggests five classes of converted verbs – object, instrument, manner, locative, and essive verbs – based on three types of event schemata, where the converted verb metonymically represents a salient participant in the schema.

    Our analysis shows that tunnel, tower and bridge are indeed all metonymic, but do not clearly fit into any of Dirven’s classes. They share some similarities with the converted verbs in his ‘manner’ category, but the artefacts that are represented by the nouns tunnel, tower, and bridge are not always clear participants in an event schema, and there are significant differences between them. Moreover, the verbs differ in regard to their tendencies to be used metaphorically.

    As is coherent with the connecting function of real-world bridges, bridge is primarily used metaphorically to bridge gaps, differences, domains, divides, boundaries, and chasms. Tunnel is used both metaphorically and non-metaphorically, with a focus on the manner and path involved in the action schema of digging a tunnel. As opposed to bridges, the salient feature of tunnels thus seems to be related to how tunnels are constructed, rather than to what function they currently serve. Tower is used metaphorically in reference to trees, mountains, or people that tower over something. Uses such as these appear related to the fact that the salient feature of a tower is that it is tall, and thus has the function of placing people in a high-up position.

    Taken together, the usage patterns of these verbs suggest that their meanings are based on our embodied experience of the artefact, the artefact’s affordances, and general image schemas. To fully understand the metonymic bases and the figurative uses of these verbs, we therefore need to also consider salient features of those particular artefacts, especially their functions (Gibson 1979).

  • 3.
    Lundmark, Carita
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    ’Pun’ as a metalinguistic comment2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is particularly inspired by the study of mixed metaphor carried out by Semino (2014, forthcoming), both in terms of methodology and of research questions. In a pun, two meanings are incongruously combined in the same utterance (Ross 1998: 8, Chiaro 1992: 34), making it similar to mixed metaphor, which also involves incongruity. Like mixed metaphors, puns have also been criticised, more specifically for constituting a simple and less sophisticated form of humour, although they have also been defended (cf. e.g. Nash 1985: 137). The present study is based on corpus material from The Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) and the British National Corpus (BNC), totalling some 550M words. The data is collected by searching for occurrences of the word pun in order to identify instances where the presence of a pun is either generally signalled or more specifically evaluated in terms of positive and negative qualities. The main focus is on spoken language, since metacomments there can be assumed to be more spontaneously produced. The material is analysed with respect to 1) the characteristics of the puns that are signalled, i.e. how the ambiguity is created (metaphor, metonymy, other type of polysemy, homonymy etc.) and what type of scenarios are involved (e.g. specific or schematic), and 2) what pragmatic motivation lies behind the metacomment. The reason for looking at the characteristics of the pun is that the quality is usually understood to depend on the relation between the two senses involved and the scenarios they invoke. By comparing the characteristics of the pun to the metacomments that are used, different patterns can be identified. In relation to the characteristics of the puns, there is a similarity to the mixed metaphors in Semino’s study, in that puns seem to display a sensitivity to “specific scenarios rather than broad source domains” (2014: 28). In terms of pragmatic motivation, preliminary results indicate that a negative evaluation is more common than a positive one and that metacomments are often made in connection with excuses. This is similar to the results obtained by Semino (2014), but apologies in connection with the use of puns seem to refer to the quality of the pun in terms of its effect, rather than to objectionableor incorrect language use.

  • 4.
    Lundmark, Carita
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Texter skrivna på engelska2012In: Skrivhandboken: en pragmatisk handbok för lärare på högskolor och universitet, Kristianstad: Kristianstad University Press , 2012, , p. 137p. 117-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Lundmark, Carita
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    What makes a good pun: a corpus analysis based on metacomments2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper was inspired by a study of mixed metaphor as a meta-linguistic comment (Semino 2015) and builds on a previous conference presentation based on the 176 instances of the word pun preceded by an adjective in the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA), totalling 450M words. The data for the present study includes all 784 instances of pun in the corpus, and the material is analysed with respect to the characteristics of the pun, i.e. how the ambiguity is created (metaphor, metonymy, homonymy etc.) and what type of scenarios are invoked by the two senses. This is then compared to the quality of the pun as expressed in the metacomment. In a pun, two meanings are incongruously combined in the same utterance (e.g. Ross 1998: 8), in cognitive linguistic terms invoking two scenarios or mental spaces that can either be very detailed or fairly schematic. Theoretically, the study shows how a more specific level of abstraction often is involved in conceptualisation processes, as suggested by Johansson Falck (2013), “making the schema more concrete and easier to refer to” (2013: 216), and enabling the construction of a blended space by providing two input spaces that are rich enough to share a generic space and allow cross-space mappings (Fauconnier & Turner 2002). The present study builds on the idea that puns, like mixed metaphors, display a sensitivity to “specific scenarios rather than broad source domains” (Semino 2015: 28), and further explores the earlier tentative conclusion that quality does not seem to be related to how the ambiguity is created, but to whether there is a meaningful connection between the two scenarios. A good-quality pun seems easier to achieve if certain types of scenarios are involved by virtue of the context.

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