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  • 1.
    Rosander, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Personlighet, IQ och inlärningsstilar som förklaring till betygsskillnader: resultatet av tre empiriska studier2014In: Vetenskapliga perspektiv på lärande, undervisning och utbildning i olika institutionella sammanhang: utbildningsvetenskaplig forskning vid Lunds universitet / [ed] Anders Persson & Roger Johansson, Lund: Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap, Lunds universitet , 2014, p. 215-228Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Rosander, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    The importance of personality, IQ and learning approaches: predicting academic performance2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present doctoral thesis was to examine to what extent personality traits and approaches to learning contribute to academic performance in upper secondary school (high school), after controlling for the well-known fact that general intelligence accounts for a large part of the variance. The general proposition of the thesis is that personality traits are stable dispositions and therefore predispose an individual to behave or act in a specific manner (Costa & McCrae, 1976). Additionally, another important determinant of academic performance is students’ approaches to learning, the way someone studies and makes sense of a particular school subject (Biggs, 1999). Study I examined how personality traits, divided into facets, predict academic performance in different school subjects. The results from several SEM analyses showed that personality, specifically Conscientiousness, has a positive influence on academic performance. In addition, there was a negative relation between Extraversion and academic performance and a positive relation between Neuroticism and academic performance. There were also interesting findings on the facet levels for all traits. The major conclusion of this study is that personality traits, both on the factor level and on the facet level, are important to academic performance in general, but sometimes more specifically to different school subjects. In Study II, the aim was to investigate the unique contribution of learning approaches to academic performance. A second aim was to explore possible gender differences in learning approaches. It was found that learning approaches contributed uniquely to academic performance, over and above personality and general intelligence. Differences between girls and boys were found, both with respect to the use of learning approaches and the consequences of these learning approaches for performance results. Based on a longitudinal design, the aim of Study III was to explore to what extent personality traits predict academic performance. Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Neuroticism were found to predict overall academic performance. Results suggest that personality traits, as measured at the age of 16, can predict academic performance at the age of 19, and more specifically: the grades of conscientious students improved from age 16 to age 19. This study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period.

  • 3.
    Rosander, Pia
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Bäckstrom, Martin
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Stenberg, Georg
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Personality traits and general intelligence as predictors of academic performance: a structural equation modelling approach2011In: Learning and individual differences, ISSN 1041-6080, E-ISSN 1873-3425, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 590-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, after controlling for general intelligence, predict academic performance in different school subjects. Upper secondary school students in Sweden (N=315) completed the Wonderlic IQ test (Wonderlic, 1992) and the IPIP-NEO-PI test (Goldberg, 1999). A series of hierarchical structural equation models showed that general intelligence, Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Neuroticism were significantly linked to overall academic performance. There were also different findings for a lower level of personality traits, e.g. different personality traits were associated with different subjects. The findings are discussed with regard to previous results on personality traits as determinants of academic performance in different school subjects and the fact that lower level traits may facilitate achievement in particular subjects.

  • 4.
    Rosander, Pia
    et al.
    Institutionen för Psykologi, Lunds universitet.
    Bäckström, M.
    A longitudinal study of personality traits and intelligence as predictors of academic performance: the importance of conscientiousnessArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Rosander, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    Personality traits measured at baseline can predict academic performance in upper secondary school three years late2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 611-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to explore the ability of personality to predict academic performance in a longitudinal study of a Swedish upper secondary school sample. Academic performance was assessed throughout a three-year period via final grades from the compulsory school and upper secondary school. The Big Five personality factors (Costa & McCrae, 1992) - particularly Conscientiousness and Neuroticism - were found to predict overall academic performance, after controlling for general intelligence. Results suggest that Conscientiousness, as measured at the age of 16, can explain change in academic performance at the age of 19. The effect of Neuroticism on Conscientiousness indicates that, as regarding getting good grades, it is better to be a bit neurotic than to be stable. The study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period. The results offer educators avenues for improving educational achievement.

  • 6.
    Rosander, Pia
    et al.
    Institutionen för Psykologi, Lunds universitet.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Institutionen för Psykologi, Lunds Universitet.
    The unique contribution of learning approaches to academic performance, after controlling for IQ and personality: are there gender differences?2012In: Learning and individual differences, ISSN 1041-6080, E-ISSN 1873-3425, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 820-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the unique contribution of learning approaches to academic performance, also taking gender differences into account. The participant sample consisted of 476 school pupils (53% girls and 47% boys) from two upper secondary schools in Sweden who completed two self-reported measures related to personality and learning approaches and one cognitive ability test. A series of hierarchical regressions were performed with participants' school subject-specific grades as the criterion variable and learning approaches as the predictor variable, after controlling for all variance related to IQ and personality. The results showed that learning approaches accounted for 6% and 16% of the variance in academic performance for girls and boys, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of possible explanations for and implications of the gender differences found.

  • 7.
    Rosander, Ulla
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Rumpunen, Kimmo
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Sepp, Hanna
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Rosander, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Could a smoothie, rich in nutrients and bioactive substances, improve school performance?2015In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 67, no Suppl. 1, p. 212-, article id 149/1319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Fruits and vegetables contain vitamins, minerals and other bioactive substances, which are important for intellectual performance. In a previous study it was shown that approximately two third of the pupils were hungry the last lesson before lunch. The average fruit and vegetable intake at lunch was much lower than the recommendations.

    Objectives: The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate effect on attention and school performance of a vegetable smoothie, rich in berries, fruits and vegetables, served at the mid-morning brake.

    Method / Design: In total 250 Swedish children aged 10-12 years participated. The study was designed as a cross-over trial with two study periods of ten schooldays. The children were randomly divided into two groups and were administered either an active smoothie (smoothie 1; group A) or a fruit-based placebo with the same energy content (smoothie 2; group B). Both smoothies were designed to provide 5% of the daily energy. After a three week wash-out period, group A was administered smoothie 2 and group B, smoothie 1. Statistical tests were performed using SPSS package, version 22.0, using Independent-Samples T test. Analysis included processing speed (PTO), concentration performance (CP) and percentages of error (Ep) as assessed by the D2-test

    Results: Preliminary analyses indicate that PTO and CP increased during the intervention period, whilst Ep decreased, for both groups. The effect was stronger in the group drinking the active smoothie, than in the group drinking the placebo. The effect might partly be caused by the addition of water and energy

    Conclusions: Attention, and thereby also school performance, may be improved by mid-morning consumption of a smoothie containing water, energy and preferably nutrients and other bioactive substances.

  • 8.
    Rosander, Ulla
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Rumpunen, Kimmo
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Sepp, Hanna
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Rosander, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Food'n fruit - promoting healthier eating at school: could a smoothie, rich in nutrients and bioactive substances, improve school performance?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effect on attention of a vegetable smoothie, rich in berries, fruits

    and vegetables, served at the school mid-morning brake. Viktoria

    Ohlsson. Kristianstad University

    Purpose:

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate effect on

    attention of a vegetable smoothie, rich in berries, fruits and

    vegetables, served at the mid-morning brake. The smoothie was

    designed to provide only 5% of the daily energy. The effect was

    assessed by the D2-test of attention.

    Participants and setting:

    Pupils, aged 10 to 12 years, from twelve school classes in southern

    Sweden, were invited to participate in the study. In total 250

    children participated. Children suffering from serious food allergies

    or food intolerance were excluded from the study.

    Data collection:

    The study was designed as a cross-over trial with two study

    periods of ten schooldays. The children were randomly divided

    into two groups and were administered either an active smoothie

    (smoothie 1; group A) or a fruit-based placebo with the same

    energy content (smoothie 2; group B). After a three week washout

    period, group A was administered smoothie 2 and group B,

    smoothie 1.

    Prior to the study, all children answered a questionnaire about their

    consumption of fruit, berries and vegetables, physical activity habit

    and and their perceived hunger during the school day. Age, height

    and weight was also recorded.

    Data analysis:

    Analysis of the data focused on concentration performance as

    assessed by the D2-test.

  • 9. Rosander, Ulla
    et al.
    Rumpunen, Kimmo
    SLU.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Åström, Mikael
    Department of biostatistics, StatCons.
    Rosander, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Methodological considerations in a pilot study on the effects of a berry enriched smoothie on children’s performance in school2017In: Food & Nutrition Research, Vol. 61, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Berries contain bioactive compounds that may affect children’s cognitive function positively, while hunger and thirst during lessons before lunch affect academic performance negatively. This pilot study addresses methodological challenges in studying if a berry smoothie, offered to schoolchildren as a mid-morning beverage, affects academic performance.

    The objective was to investigate if a cross-over design can be used to study these effects in a school setting.

    Therefore, in order to investigate assay sensitivity, 236 Swedish children aged 10–12 years were administered either a berry smoothie (active) or a fruit-based control beverage after their mid-morning break. Both beverages provided 5% of child daily energy intake. In total, 91% of participants completed the study. Academic performance was assessed using the d2 test of attention. Statistical analyses were performed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test in StatXact v 10.3.

    The results showed that the children consumed less of the active berry smoothie than the control (154 g vs. 246 g). Both beverages increased attention span and concentration significantly (p = 0.000). However, as there was no significant difference (p = 0.938) in the magnitude of this effect between the active and control beverages, the assay sensitivity of the study design was not proven. The effect of the beverages on academic performance was attributed the supplementation of water and energy.

    Despite careful design, the active smoothie was less accepted than the control. This could be explained by un-familiar sensory characteristics and peer influence, stressing the importance of sensory similarity and challenges to perform a study in school settings. The employed cross-over design did not reveal any effects of bioactive compound consumption on academic performance. In future studies, the experimental set up should be modified or replaced by e.g. the parallel study design, in order to provide conclusive results.

  • 10.
    Rosander, Ulla
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Rumpunen, Kimmo
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Åström, Mikael
    StatCons.
    Rosander, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön ForFame.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Methodological considerations in a pilot study on the effects of a berry enriched smoothie on children's performance in school2016In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 60, no 1, article id Poster presentation no. P307Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: In many countries, the consumption of fruit, berries, and vegetables is about half the recommended. Berries contain bioactive compounds that may affect cognitive functions. School children are often hungry and thirsty during the lectures before lunch and this affects performance. Could a berry-smoothie decrease thirst and hunger, and thereby affect school performance? The aim was to investigate if a cross-over design can be used to study the effects of a smoothie on performance in a school setting.

    Methods: Methodological challenges included developing an appetizing berry-smoothie and choosing a suitable experimental design that could be adapted to school conditions.

    In the pilot study, 236 Swedish children aged 10–12 years participated in a cross-over design and were administered either a berry-smoothie or a fruit-based placebo after the midmorning break. Both beverages provided 5% of the daily energy intake. Performance was assessed using the d2 Test of Attention measuring attention span and concentration. Statistical analyses were performed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test in StatXact v 10.3.

    Results: The consumption of both the smoothie and the placebo increased the attention span and concentration significantly.

    Conclusion: The children's performance in the d2 Test of Attention was positively affected by beverage consumption. The effect was attributed to the supplementation of water and energy. In this design, the study did not permit any conclusive results regarding the effect of bioactive compounds on performance. In a coming study, a third group, receiving no beverage, should be included aiming to identify the cause of the effect.

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